National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for 1999-2001 costa rica

  1. Costa Rica: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Costa Rica Population 4,586,353 GDP 52,968,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.20 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code CR 3-letter ISO code CRI Numeric ISO...

  2. Costa Rica-UNEP Risoe Technology Needs Assessment Program | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    UNEP Risoe Technology Needs Assessment Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Costa Rica-UNEP Risoe-Technology Needs Assessment Program AgencyCompany Organization UNEP-Risoe...

  3. Costa Rica-EU-UNDP Climate Change Capacity Building Program ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EU-UNDP Climate Change Capacity Building Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Costa Rica-EU-UNDP Climate Change Capacity Building Program AgencyCompany Organization The...

  4. Costa Rica-Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Avoided...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Value Areas AgencyCompany Organization Government of Costa Rica, Peace with Nature Sector Land Focus Area Forestry Topics Co-benefits assessment, Implementation,...

  5. Holographic Embedding de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.; Dosch...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Baryon Spectrum from Superconformal Quantum Mechanics and its Light-Front Holographic Embedding de Teramond, Guy F.; Costa Rica U.; Dosch, Hans Gunter; U. Heidelberg, ITP;...

  6. Costa Rica-NREL Energy Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Costa-Rica NREL Cooperation AgencyCompany Organization National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sector Energy Focus Area Energy Efficiency Topics Background analysis Website http:...

  7. Hydro and geothermal electricity as an alternative for industrial petroleum consumption in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendis, M.; Park, W.; Sabadell, A.; Talib, A.

    1982-04-01

    This report assesses the potential for substitution of electricity for petroleum in the industrial/agro-industrial sector of Costa Rica. The study includes a preliminary estimate of the process energy needs in this sector, a survey of the principal petroleum consuming industries in Costa Rica, an assessment of the electrical technologies appropriate for substitution, and an analysis of the cost trade offs of alternative fuels and technologies. The report summarizes the total substitution potential both by technical feasibility and by cost effectiveness under varying fuel price scenarios and identifies major institutional constraints to the introduction of electric based technologies. Recommendations to the Government of Costa Rica are presented. The key to the success of a Costa Rican program for substitution of electricity for petroleum in industry rests in energy pricing policy. The report shows that if Costa Rica Bunker C prices are increased to compare equitably with Caribbean Bunker C prices, and increase at 3 percent per annum relative to a special industrial electricity rate structure, the entire substitution program, including both industrial and national electric investment, would be cost effective. The definition of these pricing structures and their potential impacts need to be assessed in depth.

  8. Economic characteristics of the peat deposits of Costa Rica: preliminary study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, A.D. Malavassi, L.; Raymond, R. Jr.; Mora, S.; Alverado, A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent field and laboratory studies have established the presence of numerous extensive peat deposits in Costa Rica. Three of these were selected for initial investigation: (1) the cloud-forest histosols of the Talamanca Mountain Range; (2) the Rio Medio Queso flood plain deposits near the northern Costa Rican border; and (3) a tropical jungle swamp deposit on the northeastern coastal plain. In the Talamanca area, 29 samples were collected from eight sites. Due to the high moisture and cool temperatures of the cloud forest, the peats in this area form blanket-like deposits (generally <1 meter thick) over a wide area (>150 km/sup 2/). These peats are all highly decomposed (avg. 28% fiber), high in ash (avg. 21%), and extensively bioturbated. Relative to all other sites visited, these peats are lowest in moisture (avg. 84%), pH (avg. 4.4), fixed carbon (avg. 23%), and sulfur (avg. 0.2%). However, they have the highest bulk densities (avg. 0.22 g/cc), volatile matter contents (avg. 55%), and nitrogen. Their heating value averaged 7700 BTUs/lb., dry. In the Rio Medio Queso area, 28 samples were collected, representing one transect of the 70 km/sup 2/ flood plain. The peats here occurred in several layers (each <1-1/2 meters thick), interfingering with river flood plain sediments. These peats have the highest calorific values (avg. 8000 BTUs/lb., dry), fixed carbon (avg. 30%), and ash (avg. 22%) and have an average pH of 5.4 and a bulk density of 0.20 g/cc. These results represent only the first part of a long-term, extensive survey of Costa Rica's peat resources. However, they suggest that large, economically-significant peat deposits may be present in this country. 5 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Preliminary reservoir engineering studies of the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haukwa, C.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Mainieri, A.

    1992-01-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in cooperation with the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad is conducting a reservoir engineering study of the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica. Using data from eight exploration wells, a two-dimensional areal, natural-state model of Miravalles has been developed. The model was calibrated by fitting the observed temperature and pressure distributions and requires a geothermal upflow zone in the northern part of the field, associated with the Miravalles volcano and an outflow towards the south. The total hot (about 260 C) water recharge is 130 kg/s, corresponding to a thermal input of about 150 MWt. On the basis of the natural-state model a two-dimensional exploitation model was developed. The field has a production area of about 10 km{sup 2}, with temperatures exceeding 220 C. The model indicated that power generation of 55 MWe can be maintained for 30 years, with or without injection of the separated geothermal brine. Generation of 110 MWe could be problematic. Until more information becomes available on the areal extent of the field and the properties of the reservoir rocks, especially their relative permeability characteristics, it is difficult to ascertain if 110 MWe can be sustained during a 30-year period.

  10. International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, 14th, San Jose, Costa Rica, April 23-30, 1980, Proceedings. Volumes 1, 2 and 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Papers are presented on remote sensing applications in resource monitoring and management, data classification and modeling procedures, and the use of remote sensing techniques in developing nations. The subjects of land use/land cover, soil mapping, crop identification, mapping of geological resources, renewable resource analysis, and oceanographic applications are discussed. Papers from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, the Syrian Arab Republic, the People's Republic of China, the Phillipines, Italy, Upper Volta and the United States are included.

  11. Environmental and economic development consequences of forest and agricultural sector policies in Latin America (a synthesis of case studies of Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Bolivia)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, R.; Gibson, D.

    1994-04-15

    This paper draws heavily on the results of case studies in Bolivia, Costa Rica, and Ecuador to explain how sectoral policies have tilted land use decisions against forestry and in favor of agriculture, and to present estimates of the economic development effects of those decisions. The paper summarizes information on forests and forest industries of the three countries, and it describes the framework within which policies are designed. It presents the effects of sectoral policies on land use and forest management, and then quantifies and discusses economic costs of relevant sectoral policies. Conclusions and recommendations for policy reform are offered.

  12. Fuel Tax Incidence in Developing Countries: The Case of Costa...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Conventional Energy Topics Finance, Market analysis, Background analysis Resource Type Lessons learnedbest practices Website http:www.rff.orgRFFDocumen Country Costa Rica...

  13. Costa Rica-Supporting the Zero Emissions Strategy of Costa Rica...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (GIZ) Partner Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) Sector Energy Focus Area Energy Efficiency Topics Low emission...

  14. Costa Rica-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    illustrates the U.S. perspective on LEDS: Integrated development goals and objectives, national greenhouse gas inventory, and economic and resource data Long-term projections of...

  15. Costa Rica-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    six to eight developing countries to strengthen their national low carbon development strategies and get a "quick start" on NAMAs. The focus will be on reducing emissions of...

  16. Costa Rica-LEDS Tier I Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for GHG inventories and decision making and a general need for raising awareness of climate change activities. References "Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development...

  17. Costa Rica-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Energy Thailand, Ministry of Industry Thailand, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Thailand, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and...

  18. Costa Rica-Regional Programme for LAC: Preparation of Sectoral...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of regional and global partners." Program Focus The program will focus on reducing poverty and inequality, strengthening democratic governance, increasing disaster preparedness...

  19. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report This report describes operations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit district ...

  20. Estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects: A Costa Rican Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, Christopher; Sathaye, Jayant; Sanchez Azofeifa, G. Arturo

    2000-09-01

    If the Clean Development Mechanism proposed under the Kyoto Protocol is to serve as an effective means for combating global climate change, it will depend upon reliable estimates of greenhouse gas benefits. This paper sketches the theoretical basis for estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects and suggests lessons learned based on a case study of Costa Rica's Protected Areas Project, which is a 500,000 hectare effort to reduce deforestation and enhance reforestation. The Protected Areas Project in many senses advances the state of the art for Clean Development Mechanism-type forestry projects, as does the third-party verification work of SGS International Certification Services on the project. Nonetheless, sensitivity analysis shows that carbon benefit estimates for the project vary widely based on the imputed deforestation rate in the baseline scenario, e.g. the deforestation rate expected if the project were not implemented. This, along with a newly available national dataset that confirms other research showing a slower rate of deforestation in Costa Rica, suggests that the use of the 1979--1992 forest cover data originally as the basis for estimating carbon savings should be reconsidered. When the newly available data is substituted, carbon savings amount to 8.9 Mt (million tones) of carbon, down from the original estimate of 15.7 Mt. The primary general conclusion is that project developers should give more attention to the forecasting land use and land cover change scenarios underlying estimates of greenhouse gas benefits.

  1. Port Costa, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Port Costa is a census-designated place in Contra Costa County, California.1 References...

  2. Stanley J.; /SLAC; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.; Dosch...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    lightcone - local versus global features ILight Cone 2013), 20-24 May 2013. Skiathos, Greece Medium: ED; Size: 15 pages OSTI ID: 1098095, Legacy ID: OSTI ID: 1098095...

  3. Costa Rica-Low-Carbon Energy for Central America: Building a...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AgencyCompany Organization World Watch Institute Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy Topics Background analysis, Implementation, Low emission development planning,...

  4. Costa Rica-The World Bank Partnership for Market Readiness (PMR...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Morocco Implement climate change mitigation policy as part of National Plan against Global Warming. PMR Support: Establish MRV framework. Identify and develop crediting NAMAs...

  5. NREL-Costa Rica-Energy Efficiency Workshop | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Occidental, Inuktitut, Inupiaq, Iranian languages, Irish, Iroquoian languages, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian, Kabardian, Kabyle, Kachin; Jingpho,...

  6. Costa Rica-EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Economic Development, Greenhouse Gas, Land Use Topics Adaptation, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS,...

  7. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District Fuel Cell Transit Buses...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon 42249.pdf More Documents & Publications Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results SunLine Transit Agency ...

  8. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report - Appendices Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report - Appendices This report describes operations at ...

  9. Costa Mesa, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    district.12 Registered Energy Companies in Costa Mesa, California Ceradyne Inc EPS Corp Energy and Power Solutions MGE UPS SYSTEMS Inc Registered Financial Organizations...

  10. Contra Costa County, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Companies in Contra Costa County, California BEW Engineering Banyan Energy Bay Biodiesel LLC Bio Friendly Fuel Partners LLC Cogent Energy EcoNexus Synergy Conscious...

  11. A new species of antipatharian coral (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia: Schizopathidae) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Opresko, Dennis M; Breedy, Odalisca

    2010-09-01

    A new species of black coral, Aphanipathes colombiana (Cnidaria:Antipatharia) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is described. The species forms small flabellate colonies with anisomorphic polypar spines. It is morphologically similar to the western Atlantic species A. thyoides (Pourtales) but its hypostomal polypar spines are not reduced in size. The new species also resembles the Indo-Pacific species A. reticulata van Pesch but it has smooth-surfaced polypar spines, whereas in A. reticulata these spines have small tubercles on their surface

  12. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Evalluation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Results Update | Department of Energy Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Evalluation Results Update Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Evalluation Results Update This report is an update to the 2007 preliminary results report on hydrogen fuel cell and diesel buses operating at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District. PDF icon 42249.pdf More Documents & Publications Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

  13. 4 Questions for a Better Buildings Case Competition Judge: Marc Costa of the Energy Coalition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Meet Marc Costa of The Energy Coalition and find out how the Better Buildings Case Competition can serve as a recruiting tool for energy organizations.

  14. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Third Evaluation Report - Appendices | Department of Energy Report - Appendices Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report - Appendices This report describes operations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit district for three protoype fuel cell buses and six diesel buses operating from the same location. PDF icon 43545-2.pdf More Documents & Publications Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and

  15. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Third Evaluation Report | Department of Energy Report Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report This report describes operations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit district for three protoype fuel cell buses and six diesel buses operating from the same location. PDF icon 43545-1.pdf More Documents & Publications SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fifth Evaluation Report SunLine Transit Agency Hydrogen-Powered Transit

  16. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-07-01

    This report describes operations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit district for three protoype fuel cell buses and six diesel buses operating from the same location.

  17. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Preliminary Evaluation Results | Department of Energy Preliminary Evaluation Results Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses. PDF icon 41041.pdf More Documents & Publications Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell

  18. EPA-GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    inventorycapacitybuildingswtoo Country: Nicaragua, Panama, Guatemala, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Belize Cost: Free Central America, Central America, Central America,...

  19. Molecular Structure of the Brucella abortus Metalloprotein RicA, a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rab2-Binding Virulence Effector (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Molecular Structure of the Brucella abortus Metalloprotein RicA, a Rab2-Binding Virulence Effector Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Structure of the Brucella abortus Metalloprotein RicA, a Rab2-Binding Virulence Effector Authors: Herrou, Julien ; Crosson, Sean [1] + Show Author Affiliations UC Publication Date: 2014-10-02 OSTI Identifier: 1111169 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource

  20. LEDSGP/about/Latin America and Caribbean Regional Platform/LAC...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Caribbean Regional Platform Workshop 12-14 November 2012 Alajuela, Costa Rica, INCAE Business School The workshop is an initiative of the LEDS Global Partnership (http:...

  1. Power to the people: rural electrification sector. Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasserman, G.; Davenport, A.

    1983-12-01

    Results of studies of the impact of rural electrification (RE) programs in Bolivia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, and the Philippines are summarized.

  2. Observatory of Renewable Energy for Latin America and the Caribbean...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chile, Costa Rica, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay UN Region Caribbean, Central America, South America References...

  3. Andean Development Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bolivia Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominican Republic Ecuador Jamaica Mexico Panama Paraguay Peru Spain Trinidad & Tobago Uruguay Venezuela and 14 private banks in the region....

  4. Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas Western Hemisphere Clean Energy Initiative

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Ministers of Mexico, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Peru, Panama and the United States announced the creation of a new Western Hemisphere Clean Energy Initiative.

  5. DOE Announces Clean Energy Projects for Low-Carbon Communities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean Energy Projects for Low-Carbon Communities of the Americas Initiative DOE Announces ... The project will bring together DOE, Costa Rica's electricity and telecommunications group ...

  6. Electromechanical Engineering Consulting Group ECG | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electromechanical Engineering Consulting Group ECG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Electromechanical Engineering Consulting Group (ECG) Place: San Jose, Costa Rica Zip: 1521-1000...

  7. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Costa Rica Croatia Curacao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Estonia Finland France French Guiana Gabon Georgia, Republic ...

  8. U.S. Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Costa Rica Croatia Curacao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Estonia Finland France French Guiana Gabon Georgia, Republic ...

  9. Climate-Smart Agriculture Country Profiles | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    featuredproductscsa-country-profiles Country: Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Grenada, Mexico, Peru Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): Agriculture, country profiles,...

  10. USAID Central America and Mexico Regional Climate Program (E...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    analysis Website http:www.usaid.govourwork Country Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Belize, Costa Rica, Panama, Honduras Central America, Central America,...

  11. 52

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    country (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); (3) A...

  12. FROZEN HEAT A GLOBAL OUTLOOK ON METHANE GAS HYDRATES EXECUTIVE...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Gumusut- Kakap Taiwan Messoyahka New Zealand Cascadia Margin Japan Sea Mexico Costa Rica Peru Selected gas-hydrates study areas The types of gas hydrate deposits considered most ...

  13. Christopher Smith Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary Office...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jordan, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Panama, Peru, Republic of Korea, and Singapore. There also are two countries - Israel and Costa Rica...

  14. Energy News | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean Energy Initiative Energy Ministers of Mexico, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Peru, Panama and the United States announced the creation of a new Western Hemisphere Clean...

  15. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Baryon Spectrum from Superconformal Quantum Mechanics and its Light Front Holographic Embedding de Teramond Guy F Costa Rica U Dosch Hans Gunter U Heidelberg ITP Brodsky Stanley J...

  16. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Baryon Spectrum from Superconformal Quantum Mechanics and its Light-Front Holographic Embedding","de Teramond, Guy F.; Costa Rica U.; Dosch, Hans Gunter; U. Heidelberg, ITP;...

  17. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote...

  18. Normal Modes of Black Hole Accretion Disks (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Ortega-Rodriguez, Manuel ; Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. Costa Rica U. ; Silbergleit, Alexander S. ; Stanford U., HEPL ; Wagoner, Robert V. ; Stanford U., Phys. Dept. ...

  19. Fast Start Financing | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the government of the Netherlands, with support from the governments of Costa Rica, Colombia, Denmark, Germany, Indonesia, the Marshall Islands, Mexico, Norway, the United...

  20. Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    www.ecpamericas.org Program Start 2010 Country Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, United States South...

  1. Fermilab Today

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mr. Castillo-Veremis; Javier Rojas Viquez (Costa Rica); Marcelo Suarez Salvia (Argentina); Lilian Colsant (Brazil). Back row, from left: Juan Estrada (Fermilab); Jose...

  2. Central American resource studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Laughlin, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with five Central American countries to assist in the development of their energy and mineral resources. Since 1985, mineral resources in Costa Rica, peat resources in Costa Rica and Panama, geothermal energy resources in Honduras and Guatemala, and geothermal field development in El Salvador and Costa Rica have been topics of study. This paper presents an overview of this work -- within these proceedings are papers that deal with specific aspects of each topic, and these will be duly noted. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Microsoft PowerPoint - McFarquhar_2007.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    , is a good test of whether shattering amplified CAS concentrations * During Costa-Rica Aura Validation Experiment (CR-AVE), coincident data with CAS, CIP and CDP also obtained in...

  4. 105(scaled land 215%)7-22-05

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cntrl African Rep. Chad Chile China Colombia Dem. Rep. Congo Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark ...

  5. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modified Anti de Sitter Metric Light Front Quantized QCD and Conformal Quantum Mechanics Dosch Hans Gunter U Heidelberg ITP Brodsky Stanley J SLAC de Teramond Guy F Costa Rica U...

  6. Property:Language | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) System M Miljoforden Website N NREL-Costa Rica-Energy Efficiency Workshop O OLADE-Solar Thermal World Portal OSIRIS-Country-by-Country...

  7. Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas Western Hemisphere...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    At the Second Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas (ECPA) Ministerial, hosted May 25-26, 2015 in Merida, Mexico, Energy Ministers of Mexico, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, ...

  8. Using laboratory flow experiments and reactive chemical transport modeling for designing waterflooding of the Agua Fria Reservoir, Poza Rica-Altamira Field, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkle, P.; Pruess, K.; Xu, T.; Figueroa, R.A. Hernandez; Lopez, M. Diaz; Lopez, E. Contreras

    2008-10-01

    Waterflooding for enhanced oil recovery requires that injected waters must be chemically compatible with connate reservoir waters, in order to avoid mineral dissolution-and-precipitation cycles that could seriously degrade formation permeability and injectivity. Formation plugging is a concern especially in reservoirs with a large content of carbonates, such as calcite and dolomite, as such minerals typically react rapidly with an aqueous phase, and have strongly temperature-dependent solubility. Clay swelling can also pose problems. During a preliminary waterflooding pilot project, the Poza Rica-Altamira oil field, bordering the Gulf coast in the eastern part of Mexico, experienced injectivity loss after five months of reinjection of formation waters into well AF-847 in 1999. Acidizing with HCl restored injectivity. We report on laboratory experiments and reactive chemistry modeling studies that were undertaken in preparation for long-term waterflooding at Agua Frma. Using analogous core plugs obtained from the same reservoir interval, laboratory coreflood experiments were conducted to examine sensitivity of mineral dissolution and precipitation effects to water composition. Native reservoir water, chemically altered waters, and distilled water were used, and temporal changes in core permeability, mineral abundances and aqueous concentrations of solutes were monitored. The experiments were simulated with the multi-phase, nonisothermal reactive transport code TOUGHREACT, and reasonable to good agreement was obtained for changes in solute concentrations. Clay swelling caused an additional impact on permeability behavior during coreflood experiments, whereas the modeled permeability depends exclusively on chemical processes. TOUGHREACT was then used for reservoir-scale simulation of injecting ambient-temperature water (30 C, 86 F) into a reservoir with initial temperature of 80 C (176 F). Untreated native reservoir water was found to cause serious porosity and permeability reduction due to calcite precipitation, which is promoted by the retrograde solubility of this mineral. Using treated water that performed well in the laboratory flow experiments was found to avoid excessive precipitation, and allowed injection to proceed.

  9. Costa - Introduction to 2015 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costa, James E.

    2015-09-01

    In parallel with Sandia National Laboratories having two major locations (NM and CA), along with a number of smaller facilities across the nation, so too is the distribution of scientific, engineering and computing resources. As a part of Sandia’s Institutional Computing Program, CA site-based Sandia computer scientists and engineers have been providing mission and research staff with local CA resident expertise on computing options while also focusing on two growing high performance computing research problems. The first is how to increase system resilience to failure, as machines grow larger, more complex and heterogeneous. The second is how to ensure that computer hardware and configurations are optimized for specialized data analytical mission needs within the overall Sandia computing environment, including the HPC subenvironment. All of these activities support the larger Sandia effort in accelerating development and integration of high performance computing into national security missions. Sandia continues to both promote national R&D objectives, including the recent Presidential Executive Order establishing the National Strategic Computing Initiative and work to ensure that the full range of computing services and capabilities are available for all mission responsibilities, from national security to energy to homeland defense.

  10. Jayme da Costa | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    energy Product: Electrical goods manufacturer that is developing and building wind, solar and hydro projects in Portugal and wind projects in Spain. Coordinates: 40.875332,...

  11. U.S. Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Imports

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Argentina 2006-2006 Belgium 2012-2012 Brazil 498 209 492 223 2004-2015 Canada 7 4 6 5 3 3 2004-2016 China 2006-2006 Congo (Brazzaville) 2006-2006 Costa Rica 2004-2013 El Salvador ...

  12. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - San Andres and Providencia (Fact Sheet); NREL(National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Archipelago of San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina (unpopulated), also known as San Andres and Providencia, which is equidistant between Costa Rica and Jamaica and 775 kilometers northwest of Colombia. The archipelago is part of Colombia, though Nicaragua has also laid claim to it.

  13. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries. Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Introduction, Argentina, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Bourkina (Upper Volta), Brazil, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields, Appendix II, Phytomass Files, and References.

  14. NREL: International Activities - Bilateral Partnerships

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Printable Version Bilateral Partnerships NREL partners with more than 50 countries around the world to advance development and use of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies: Angola Argentina Australia Bangladesh Brazil Canada Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Gabon Haiti India Indonesia Japan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea Mexico North America Philippines Saudi Arabia U.S. Pacific Territories United Arab Emirates Vietnam Asia Bangladesh Under sponsorship from the U.S. Agency for International

  15. South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deal, C.

    1981-10-01

    Summaries of oil and gas drillings, well completions, production, exploratory wells, exploration activity and wildcat drilling were given for South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico. The countries, islands, etc. included Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward and Windward Islands, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador, Surinam, Trinidad and Venezuela. 16 figures, 120 tables. (DP)

  16. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC ...

  17. Soukoulis, Costas M.; Economou, Eleftherios N. Not Available...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Eleftherios N. Not Available American Physical Society None USDOE United States 2015-08-19 English Journal Article Journal Name: Physical Review B; Journal Volume: 92;...

  18. Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Radiative Properties and Dynamical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Radiation Budget Differences in convective activity at Manus and Nauru can also be ... During La Nina periods (i.e., 1995-96; 1999-2001), OLR is significantly higher at Nauru ...

  19. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Note: See Appendix C for map of Census regions. Source: Table 2.9. 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 0 1 2 3 4 Quadrillion Btu Electricity 1 Natural ...

  20. Molecular Structure of the Brucella abortus Metalloprotein RicA...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI Identifier: 1111169 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Biochemistry; Journal Volume: 52; Journal Issue: 50 Publisher: American Chemical Society ...

  1. In-Situ Data for Microphysical Retrievals: TC4, 2007 (Dataset) | Data

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Explorer Data Explorer Search Results In-Situ Data for Microphysical Retrievals: TC4, 2007 Title: In-Situ Data for Microphysical Retrievals: TC4, 2007 This data set is derived from measurements collected in situ by the NASA DC8 during the Tropical Cloud Climate Composition Coupling Experiment (TC4) that was conducted during July and August, 2007 (Toon et al., 2010). During this experiment the DC8 was based in San Jose, Costa Rica and sampled clouds in the maritime region of the Eastern

  2. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  3. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    7 1999 AC Adjustable-Speed Drive Population Horsepower Range 1 - 5 70% 5.1 - 20 23% 21 - 50 4% 51 - 100 1% 101 - 200 1% 200 + 1% Total 100% Source(s): Electrical Apparatus Service Association, Past Trends and Probable Future Changes in the Electric Motor Industry 1990-1999, 2001, p. 30.

  4. In-Situ Data for Microphysical Retrievals: TC4, 2007

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    2016-04-01

    This data set is derived from measurements collected in situ by the NASA DC8 during the Tropical Cloud Climate Composition Coupling Experiment (TC4) that was conducted during July and August, 2007 (Toon et al., 2010). During this experiment the DC8 was based in San Jose, Costa Rica and sampled clouds in the maritime region of the Eastern Pacific and adjoining continental areas. The primary objective of the DC8 during this deployment was to sample ice clouds associated with convective activity. While the vast majority of the data are from ice-phase clouds that have recent association with convection, other types of clouds such as boundary layer clouds and active convection were also sampled and are represented in this data set. The derived data set, as compiled in this delivery, includes approximately 15,000 5-second averaged measurements collected by the NASA DC8.

  5. An energy atlas of five Central American countries. Un atlas energetico de cinco paises Centroamericanos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trocki, L.; Newman, C.K.; Gurule, F.; Aragon, P.C.; Peck, C.

    1988-08-01

    In a series of maps and figures, this atlas summarizes what is known about the energy resources and how these resources and oil imports supply the energy needs of five Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Panama. The main exploited energy resources are firewood, hydroelectric energy, bagasse from sugar cane residues, and geothermal energy. Limited oil exploration in the region has uncovered modest oil resources only in Guatemala. Peat and small coal deposits are also known to exist but are not presently being exploited. After the description of energy resources, this atlas describes energy supply and demand patterns in each country. It concludes with a description of socioeconomic data that strongly affect energy demand. 4 refs.

  6. The energy situation in five Central American countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trocki, L.; Booth, S.R.; Umana Q, A.

    1987-06-01

    This study describes the energy resources and the changes that have taken place in energy supply and demand in five Central American countries between 1970 and 1984. Economic changes are also reviewed because they influence and are affected by changes in the energy sector. The work was performed under the auspices of the US Agency for International Development. The Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama are highly dependent on fuel wood as a source of energy, particularly in the residential sector. They also rely upon imported oil products to supply a growing modern sector. Most countries have significant hydroelectric and geothermal resources, and most countries produce a large portion of their electricity from hydroelectric projects. Demand for electricity has grown rapidly. Relative shares of primary versus secondary energy in the five countries vary significantly and strongly correlate with average per capita income. Consumption of secondary energy has declined during the recent economic recession suffered by the region.

  7. Bioenergy systems report: The AID (Agency for International Development) approach. Using agricultural and forestry wastes for the production of energy in support of rural development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The Biomass Energy Systems and Technology project (BEST) seeks to integrate natural resources, private sector expertise, and financial support in order to convert biomass into marketable energy products at existing agro-processing facilities. This report documents BEST's approach to biomass promotion and includes sections on: the rationale for the project's commodity focus (sugar cane, rice, and wood); the relevant U.S. biomass experience with rice, cane, and wood residues, etc., which BEST draws upon; A.I.D.'s experience in the field application of rice, wood, and cane residue bioenergy systems; economic analyses of biomass systems (using examples from Indonesia and Costa Rica); research initiatives to develop off-season fuels for sugar mills, advanced biomass conversion systems, and energy efficiency in sugar factories; and the environmental aspects of biomass (including its ability to be used without increasing global warming).

  8. Land use change and carbon exchange in the tropics. I. Detailed estimates for Costa Rice, Panama, Peru, and Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, C.A.S.; Detwiler, R.P.; Bogdonoff, P.; Underhill, S.

    1985-01-01

    This group, composed of modelers working in conjunction with tropical ecologists, has produced a simulation model that quantifies the net carbon exchange between tropical vegetation and the atmosphere due to land use change. The model calculates this net exchange by combining estimates of land use change with several estimates of the carbon stored in tropical vegetation and general assumptions about the fate of cleared vegetation. In this report, the authors use estimates of land use and carbon of land use and carbon storage organized into six life zone (sensu Holdridge) categories to calculate the exchange between the atmosphere and the vegetation of four tropical countries. Their analyses of these countries indicate that this life zone approach has several advantages because (a) the carbon content of vegetation varies significantly among life zones, (b) much of the land use change occurs in life zones of only moderate carbon storage, and (c) the fate of cleared vegetation varies among life zones. Their analyses also emphasize the importance of distinguishing between temporary and permanent land use change, as the recovery of vegetation on abandoned areas decreases the net release of carbon due to clearing. They include sensitivity analysis of those factors that they found to be important but are difficult to quantify at present.

  9. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report #2, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) and Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2010-06-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006, comparing similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. It covers November 2007 through February 2010. Results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and road calls), and a summary of achievements and challenges encountered during the demonstration.

  10. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report and Appendices, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-01-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006 compared to similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. This evaluation report includes results from November 2007 through October 2008. Evaluation results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, fuel cell bus operations at Golden Gate Transit, and evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and roadcalls).

  11. Mineral formation and redox-sensitive trace elements in a near-surface hydrothermal alteration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gehring, A.U.; Schosseler, P.M.; Weidler, P.G.

    1999-07-01

    A recent hydrothermal mudpool at the southwestern slope of the Rincon de la Vieja volcano in Northwest Costa Rica exhibits an argillic alteration system formed by intense interaction of sulfuric acidic fluids with wall rock materials. Detailed mineralogical analysis revealed an assemblage with kaolinite, alunite, and opal-C as the major mineral phases. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) showed 3 different redox-sensitive cations associated with the mineral phases, Cu{sup +} is structure-bound in opal-C, whereas VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} are located in the kaolinite structure. The location of the redox-sensitive cations in different minerals of the assemblage is indicative of different chemical conditions. The formation of the alteration products can be described schematically as a 2-step process. In a first step alunite and opal-C were precipitated in a fluid with slightly reducing conditions and a low chloride availability. The second step is characterized by a decrease in K{sup +} activity and subsequent formation of kaolinite under weakly oxidizing to oxidizing redox conditions as indicated by structure-bound VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The detection of paramagnetic trace elements structure-bound in mineral phases by EPR provide direct information about the prevailing redox conditions during alteration and can, therefore, be used as additional insight into the genesis of the hydrothermal, near-surface system.

  12. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiman, W.D.

    1988-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987 showed significant increases in seismic acquisition in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru, and a decrease in Chile and Venezuela. Exploratory drilling increased in most major producing countries but was accompanied by a decline in development drilling. Most of the increase could be attributed to private companies fulfilling obligations under risk contracts; however, state oil companies in Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia showed significant increased activity, with only Mexico showing a decrease. Colombia again had a dramatic increase in production (29% from 1986). Noteworthy discoveries were made in Bolivia (Villamontes-1); Brazil, in the Solimoes basin (1-RUC-1-AM); Chile (Rio Honda-1); Colombia, in the Llanos basin (Austral-1, La Reforma-1, Libertad Norte-1, Cravo Este-1, and Cano Yarumal-1), in the Upper Magdalena basin (Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1); Ecuador (Frontera-1, a joint-exploration venture with Colombia); Mexico, in the Chiapas-Tabasco region (Guacho-1 and Iridi-1), in the Frontera Norte area (Huatempo-1); Peru, in the Madre de Dios basin (Armihuari-4X); Trinidad (West East Queen's Beach-1); and Venezuela (Musipan-1X). Brazil's upper Amazon (Solimoes basin) discovery, Colombia's Upper Magdalena basin discoveries Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1, Mexico's Chiapas-Tabasco discoveries, Peru's confirmation of the giant Cashiriari discovery of 1986, and Venezuela's success in Monagas state were the highlights of 1987. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Electric motor systems in developing countries: Opportunities for efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, S.; Monahan, P.; Lewis, P.; Greenberg, S.; Nadel, S.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents an overview of the current status and efficiency improvement potential of industrial motor systems in developing countries. Better management of electric motor systems is of particular relevance in developing countries, where improved efficiency can lead to increased productivity and slower growth in electricity demand. Motor systems currently consume some 65--80% of the industrial electricity in developing countries. Drawing on studies from Thailand, India, Brazil, China, Pakistan, and Costa Rica, we describe potential efficiency gains in various parts of the motor system, from the electricity delivery system through the motor to the point where useful work is performed. We report evidence of a significant electricity conservation potential. Most of the efficiency improvement methods we examine are very cost-effective from a societal viewpoint, but are generally not implemented due to various barriers that deter their adoption. Drawing on experiences in North America, we discuss a range of policies to overcome these barriers, including education, training, minimum efficiency standards, motor efficiency testing protocols, technical assistance programs, and financial incentives.

  14. Fiscal Year 1998 Annual Report, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, World Data Center -- A for Atmospheric Trace Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Hook, L.A.; Jones, S.B.; Kaiser, D.P.; Nelson, T.R.

    1999-03-01

    Once again, the most recent fiscal year was a productive one for the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), as well as a year for change. The FY 1998 in Review section in this report summarizes quite a few new and updated data and information products, and the ''What's Coming in FY 1999'' section describes our plans for this new fiscal year. During FY 1998, CDIAC began a data-management system for AmeriFlux, a long-term study of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere of the Western Hemisphere and the atmosphere. The specific objectives of AmeriFlux are to establish an infrastructure for guiding, collecting, synthesizing, and disseminating long-term measurements of CO{sub 2}, water, and energy exchange from a variety of ecosystems; collect critical new information to help define the current global CO{sub 2} budget; enable improved predictions of future concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2}; and enhance understanding of carbon fluxes. Net Ecosystem Production (NEP), and carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere. The data-management system, available from CDIAC'S AmeriFlux home page (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/programs/ameriflux/ ) is intended to provide consistent, quality-assured, and documented data across all AmeriFlux sites in the US, Canada, Costa Rica, and Brazil. It is being developed by Antoinette Brenkert and Tom Boden, with assistance from Susan Holladay (who joined CDIAC specifically to support the AmeriFlux data-management effort).

  15. CX-006565: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    California-City-Costa MesaCX(s) Applied: B2.5, B5.1Date: 08/18/2011Location(s): Costa Mesa, CaliforniaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  16. CX-000165: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    California County Contra CostaCX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B5.1Date: 10/27/2009Location(s): Contra Costa County, CaliforniaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  17. Generating Unit Retirements in the United States by State, 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Costa",56552,"The Dow Chemical Company",54001,"Pittsburg Power Plant",325188,"GEN1",20.8,16.5,18,,"GT","NG",,3,2010 "CA","Contra Costa",56552,"The Dow Chemical ...

  18. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.1 Building Materials/Insulation

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2 Industry Use Shares of Mineral Fiber (Glass/Wool) Insulation (1) 1997 1999 2001 2003 2004 2005 Insulating Buildings (2) Industrial, Equipment, and Appliance Insulation Unknown Total Note(s): 1) Based on value of shipments. 2) Including industrial. Source(s): DOC, Annual Survey of Manufacturers: Value of Product Shipments 2005, Nov. 2006, Table 1, p. 54 for 2003-2005; and DOC, 2001 Annual Survey of Manufacturers: Value of Product Shipments, Dec. 2002, p. 65 for 1997-2001. 100% 100% 100% 100%

  19. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    6 1999 Energy Efficient Motors, Replacements and Sales, by Horsepower Class | Units in Use Horsepower | Energy Efficient Horsepower Range (10^6) | % Retired 1 - 5 | 17% 5.1 - 20 | 29% 21 - 50 | 45% 51 - 100 | 52% 101 - 200 | 65% Source(s): Electrical Apparatus Service Association, Past Trends and Probable Future Changes in the Electric Motor Industry 1990-1999, 2001, p. 18 for existing stock and retirements and p. 28 for energy efficient motor sales. 738 59.6 1.0% 412 56.5 0.8% 6,927 81.8 2.0%

  20. Emerging Latin American air quality regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosmer, A.W.; Vitale, E.M.; Guerrero, C.R.; Solorzano-Vincent, L.

    1998-12-31

    Latin America is the most urbanized region in the developing world. In recent years, significant economic growth has resulted in population migration from rural areas to urban centers, as well as in a substantial rise in the standard of living within the Region. These changes have impacted the air quality of Latin American countries as increased numbers of industrial facilities and motor vehicles release pollutants into the air. With the advent of new free trade agreements such as MERCOSUR and NAFTA, economic activity and associated pollutant levels can only be expected to continue to expand in the future. In order to address growing air pollution problems, many Latin America countries including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, and Mexico have passed, or will soon pass, new legislation to develop and strengthen their environmental frameworks with respect to air quality. As a first step toward understanding the impacts that this increased environmental regulation will have, this paper will examine the regulatory systems in six Latin American countries with respect to ambient air quality and for each of these countries: review a short history of the air quality problems within the country; outline the legal and institutional framework including key laws and implementing institutions; summarize in brief the current status of the country in terms of program development and implementation; and identify projected future trends. In addition, the paper will briefly review the international treaties that have bearing on Latin American air quality. Finally, the paper will conclude by identifying and exploring emerging trends in individual countries and the region as a whole.

  1. Twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-26

    PREFACE The Twenty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at the Holiday Inn, Palo Alto on January 22-24, 1996. There were one-hundred fifty-five registered participants. Participants came from twenty foreign countries: Argentina, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions concerning: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling hot dry rock, geoscience, low enthalpy, injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption and stimulation. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bobbie Bishop-Gollan, Tom Box, Jim Combs, John Counsil, Sabodh Garg, Malcolm Grant, Marcel0 Lippmann, Jim Lovekin, John Pritchett, Marshall Reed, Joel Renner, Subir Sanyal, Mike Shook, Alfred Truesdell and Ken Williamson. Jim Lovekin gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet and highlighted the exciting developments in the geothermal field which are taking place worldwide. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager.

  2. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2008-12-01

    This report provides results from fuel cell bus evaluations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District, SunLine Transit Agency, and Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority.

  3. Las Pailas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    General Information Name Las Pailas Facility Geothermal Power Plant Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Location Guanacaste, Costa Rice Coordinates 10.7869295,...

  4. Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Slininger, Patricia J. 1 ; Shea-Andersh, Maureen A. 1 ; Thompson, Stephanie R. 1 ; Dien, Bruce S. 1 ; Kurtzman, Cletus P. 2 ; Balan, Venkatesh 3 ; da Costa ...

  5. Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Authors: Slininger, Patricia J. 1 ; Shea-Andersh, Maureen A. 1 ; Thompson, Stephanie R. 1 ; Dien, Bruce S. 1 ; Kurtzman, Cletus P. 2 ; Balan, Venkatesh 3 ; da Costa ...

  6. EA-1697: Finding of No Significant Impact | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    area includes portions of San Joaquin, Contra Costa, Alameda, Calaveras, Tuolumne, Santa Clara, and Merced counties. Proposed O&M activities include, but are not limited to,...

  7. Ceradyne Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc Place: Costa Mesa, California Zip: 92626 Product: Developer of advanced technical ceramic products; produces ceramic crucibles used in pulling polysilicon ingots. References:...

  8. Lessons Learned from Bacterial Transport Experiments at the South Oyster Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheibe, Timothy D; Hubbard, Susan S; Onstott, Tullis C; Deflaun, Mary F

    2011-09-27

    This paper provides a high-level review of bacterial transport experiments conducted by a multi-investigator, multi-institution, multi-disciplinary team of researchers under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy. The experiments considered were conducted during the time period 1999-2001 at a field site near the town of Oyster, Virginia known as the South Oyster Site, and included four major experimental campaigns aimed at understanding and quantifying bacterial transport in the subsurface environment. Several key elements of the research are discussed here: 1) Quantification of bacterial transport in physically and biogeochemically heterogeneous aquifers, 2) evaluation of the efficacy of conventional colloid filtration theory, 3) scale effects in bacterial transport, 4) development of new methods for microbial enumeration and screening for low adhesion strains, 5) application of novel hydrogeophysical techniques for aquifer characterization, and 6) experiences regarding management of a large field research effort.

  9. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Sustainable ForestManagement: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye , Jayant; Makundi , Willy; Goldberg ,Beth; Andrasko , Ken; Sanchez , Arturo

    1997-07-01

    The International Workshop on Sustainable Forest Management: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases was held in San Jose, Costa Rica, July 29-31, 1996. The main objectives of the workshop were to: (1) assemble key practitioners of forestry greenhouse gas (GHG) or carbon offset projects, remote sensing of land cover change, guidelines development, and the forest products certification movement, to offer presentations and small group discussions on findings relevant to the crucial need for the development of guidelines for monitoring and verifying offset projects, and (2) disseminate the findings to interested carbon offset project developers and forestry and climate change policy makers, who need guidance and consistency of methods to reduce project transaction costs and increase probable reliability of carbon benefits, at appropriate venues. The workshop brought together about 45 participants from developed, developing, and transition countries. The participants included researchers, government officials, project developers, and staff from regional and international agencies. Each shared his or her perspectives based on experience in the development and use of methods for monitoring and verifying carbon flows from forest areas and projects. A shared sense among the participants was that methods for monitoring forestry projects are well established, and the techniques are known and used extensively, particularly in production forestry. Introducing climate change with its long-term perspective is often in conflict with the shorter-term perspective of most forestry projects and standard accounting principles. The resolution of these conflicts may require national and international agreements among the affected parties. The establishment of guidelines and protocols for better methods that are sensitive to regional issues will be an important first step to increase the credibility of forestry projects as viable mitigation options. The workshop deliberations led to three primary outputs: (1) a Workshop Statement in the JI Quarterly, September, 1996; (2) the publication of a series of selected peer-reviewed technical papers from the workshop in a report of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL. 40501); and (3) a special issue of the journal ''Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change'', Kluwer Academic Publishers. The outputs will be distributed to practitioners in this field and to negotiators attending the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) deliberations leading up to the Third conference of Parties in Kyoto, in December 1997.

  10. Thirteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Miller, F.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1988-01-21

    PREFACE The Thirteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 19-21, 1988. Although 1987 continued to be difficult for the domestic geothermal industry, world-wide activities continued to expand. Two invited presentations on mature geothermal systems were a keynote of the meeting. Malcolm Grant presented a detailed review of Wairakei, New Zealand and highlighted plans for new development. G. Neri summarized experience on flow rate decline and well test analysis in Larderello, Italy. Attendance continued to be high with 128 registered participants. Eight foreign countries were represented: England, France, Iceland, Italy, New Zealand, Japan, Mexico and The Philippines. A discussion of future workshops produced a strong recommendation that the Stanford Workshop program continue for the future. There were forty-one technical presentations at the Workshop. All of these are published as papers in this Proceedings volume. Four technical papers not presented at the Workshop are also published. In addition to these forty five technical presentations or papers, the introductory address was given by Henry J. Ramey, Jr. from the Stanford Geothermal Program. The Workshop Banquet speaker was Gustavo Calderon from the Inter-American Development Bank. We thank him for sharing with the Workshop participants a description of the Bank???s operations in Costa Rica developing alternative energy resources, specifically Geothermal, to improve the country???s economic basis. His talk appears as a paper in the back of this volume. The chairmen of the technical sessions made an important contribution to the workshop. Other than Stanford faculty members they included: J. Combs, G. T. Cole, J. Counsil, A. Drenick, H. Dykstra, K. Goyal, P. Muffler, K. Pruess, and S. K. Sanyal. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff and students. We would like to thank Marilyn King, Pat Oto, Terri Ramey, Bronwyn Jones, Yasmin Gulamani, and Rosalee Benelli for their valued help with the meeting arrangements and preparing the Proceedings. We also owe great thanks to our students who arranged and operated the audio-visual equipment, especially Jeralyn Luetkehans. The Thirteenth Workshop was supported by the Geothermal Technology Division of the U.S. Department of Energy through Contract No. DE-AS07-84ID12529. We deeply appreciate this continued support. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Paul Kruger Roland N. Horne William E. Brigham Frank G. Miller Jean W. Cook

  11. A Bayesian Modeling Approach for Estimation of a Shape-Free Groundwater Age Distribution using Multiple Tracers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massoudieh, Arash; Visser, Ate; Sharifi, Soroosh; Broers, Hans Peter

    2013-10-15

    The mixing of groundwaters with different ages in aquifers, groundwater age is more appropriately represented by a distribution rather than a scalar number. To infer a groundwater age distribution from environmental tracers, a mathematical form is often assumed for the shape of the distribution and the parameters of the mathematical distribution are estimated using deterministic or stochastic inverse methods. We found that the prescription of the mathematical form limits the exploration of the age distribution to the shapes that can be described by the selected distribution. In this paper, the use of freeform histograms as groundwater age distributions is evaluated. A Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach is used to estimate the fraction of groundwater in each histogram bin. This method was able to capture the shape of a hypothetical gamma distribution from the concentrations of four age tracers. The number of bins that can be considered in this approach is limited based on the number of tracers available. The histogram method was also tested on tracer data sets from Holten (The Netherlands; 3H, 3He, 85Kr, 39Ar) and the La Selva Biological Station (Costa-Rica; SF 6, CFCs, 3H, 4He and 14C), and compared to a number of mathematical forms. According to standard Bayesian measures of model goodness, the best mathematical distribution performs better than the histogram distributions in terms of the ability to capture the observed tracer data relative to their complexity. Among the histogram distributions, the four bin histogram performs better in most of the cases. The Monte Carlo simulations showed strong correlations in the posterior estimates of bin contributions, indicating that these bins cannot be well constrained using the available age tracers. The fact that mathematical forms overall perform better than the freeform histogram does not undermine the benefit of the freeform approach, especially for the cases where a larger amount of observed data is available and when the real groundwater distribution is more complex than can be represented by simple mathematical forms.

  12. A Bayesian Modeling Approach for Estimation of a Shape-Free Groundwater Age Distribution using Multiple Tracers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Massoudieh, Arash; Visser, Ate; Sharifi, Soroosh; Broers, Hans Peter

    2013-10-15

    The mixing of groundwaters with different ages in aquifers, groundwater age is more appropriately represented by a distribution rather than a scalar number. To infer a groundwater age distribution from environmental tracers, a mathematical form is often assumed for the shape of the distribution and the parameters of the mathematical distribution are estimated using deterministic or stochastic inverse methods. We found that the prescription of the mathematical form limits the exploration of the age distribution to the shapes that can be described by the selected distribution. In this paper, the use of freeform histograms as groundwater age distributions is evaluated.more » A Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach is used to estimate the fraction of groundwater in each histogram bin. This method was able to capture the shape of a hypothetical gamma distribution from the concentrations of four age tracers. The number of bins that can be considered in this approach is limited based on the number of tracers available. The histogram method was also tested on tracer data sets from Holten (The Netherlands; 3H, 3He, 85Kr, 39Ar) and the La Selva Biological Station (Costa-Rica; SF 6, CFCs, 3H, 4He and 14C), and compared to a number of mathematical forms. According to standard Bayesian measures of model goodness, the best mathematical distribution performs better than the histogram distributions in terms of the ability to capture the observed tracer data relative to their complexity. Among the histogram distributions, the four bin histogram performs better in most of the cases. The Monte Carlo simulations showed strong correlations in the posterior estimates of bin contributions, indicating that these bins cannot be well constrained using the available age tracers. The fact that mathematical forms overall perform better than the freeform histogram does not undermine the benefit of the freeform approach, especially for the cases where a larger amount of observed data is available and when the real groundwater distribution is more complex than can be represented by simple mathematical forms.« less

  13. Nineteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Horne, R.J.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1994-01-20

    PREFACE The Nineteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 18-20, 1994. This workshop opened on a sad note because of the death of Prof. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. on November 19, 1993. Hank had been fighting leukemia for a long time and finally lost the battle. Many of the workshop participants were present for the celebration of his life on January 21 at Stanford's Memorial Church. Hank was one of the founders of the Stanford Geothermal Program and the Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Workshop. His energy, kindness, quick wit, and knowledge will long be missed at future workshops. Following the Preface we have included a copy of the Memorial Resolution passed by the Stanford University Senate. There were one hundred and four registered participants. Participants were from ten foreign countries: Costa Rica, England, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines and Turkey. Workshop papers described the performance of fourteen geothermal fields outside the United States. Roland N. Home opened the meeting and welcomed the visitors to the campus. The key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who gave a presentation about the future of geothermal development. The banquet speaker was Jesus Rivera and he spoke about Energy Sources of Central American Countries. Forty two papers were presented at the Workshop. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: sciences, injection, production, modeling, and adsorption. Session chairmen are an important part of the workshop and our thanks go to: John Counsil, Mark Walters, Dave Duchane, David Faulder, Gudmundur Bodvarsson, Jim Lovekin, Joel Renner, and Iraj Ershaghi. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual equipment and to Xianfa Deng who coordinated the meeting arrangements for the Workshop. Roland N. Home Frank G. Miller Paul Kruger William E. Brigham Jean W. Cook

  14. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    city of Ensenada, allowing the company to start planning the construction of its Costa Azul LNG receiving terminal along the Pacific Coast of North Baja, Mexico. The 600 million...

  15. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Other Location | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Propulsion Program March 27, 2015 CX-013774: Categorical Exclusion Determination Contra Costa Soil Testing and Equipment Upgrades CX(s) Applied: B4.6, B4.11 Date: 03272015 ...

  16. CX-000384: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture Site Survey in CaliforniaCX(s) Applied: A1, A9, B3.1Date: 11/13/2009Location(s): Contra Costa County, CaliforniaOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  17. El Cerrito, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. El Cerrito is a city in Contra Costa County, California. It falls under California's 10th...

  18. El Sobrante, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. El Sobrante is a census-designated place in Contra Costa County, California.1 References...

  19. EIA-814, Monthly Imports Report Page 1 U. S. ENERGY INFORMATION...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AK 2829 OLEUM CA 3103 SKAG WAY AK 2506 OTAY MESA STATION CA 3181 ST PAUL AIRPORT AK 2828 PITTSBURG CA 3196 UPS, ANCHORAGE AK 2830 PORT COSTA CA 3107 VALDEZ AK 2713 PORT HUENEME CA...

  20. Pleasant Hill, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Pleasant Hill is a city in Contra Costa County, California. It falls under California's 10th...

  1. Search for: All records | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dien, Bruce S. (1) Kurtzman, Cletus P. (1) Shea-Andersh, Maureen A. (1) Slininger, Patricia J. (1) Thompson, Stephanie R. (1) Uppugundla, Nirmal (1) da Costa Sousa, Leonardo (1) ...

  2. Search for: All records | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dien, Bruce S. (1) Kurtzman, Cletus P. (1) Shea-Andersh, Maureen A. (1) Slininger, Patricia J. (1) Thompson, Stephanie R. (1) Xue, Saisi (1) da Costa Sousa, Leonardo (1) Save ...

  3. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    CA Contra Costa County, CA Marin County, CA San Francisco County, CA San Mateo County, CA Santa Clara County, CA Seattle Island County, WA King County, WA Snohomish County, WA...

  4. Pro Sol Energia SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sol Energia SA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Pro Sol Energia SA Place: Algarrobo-Costa (Malaga), Spain Zip: E-29750 Sector: Solar Product: Develops and builds solar power...

  5. Papers Published April 1, 1995 - March 31, 1996

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1995) Fragment Flow in Au + Au Collisions M.D. Partlan, S. Albergo, F. Bieser, F.P. Brady, Z. Caccia, D. Cebra, A.D. Chacon, J. Chance, Y. Choi, S. Costa, J.B. Elliott, M.L....

  6. CX-013774: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Contra Costa Soil Testing and Equipment Upgrades CX(s) Applied: B4.6, B4.11Date: 03/27/2015 Location(s): OtherOffices(s): Western Area Power Administration-Sierra Nevada Region

  7. The European Physical Journal C CrossMark

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil W. Carvalho, J. Chinellato6, A. Custodio, E. M. Da Costa, D. De Jesus Damiao, C. De Oliveira Martins, S. Fonseca De Souza, H. Malbouisson, D....

  8. CX-006759: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    International Colloquium on Environmentally-Preferred Advanced Power Generation - ICEPAG 2012CX(s) Applied: A9Date: 09/14/2011Location(s): Costa Mesa, CaliforniaOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  9. CX-000390: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transportation Route Survey in CaliforniaCX(s) Applied: A1, A9, B3.1Date: 11/13/2009Location(s): Contra Costa County, CA Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  10. EA-1602: Finding of No Significant Impact | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2: Finding of No Significant Impact EA-1602: Finding of No Significant Impact Alternative Intake Project Transmission Line and Interconnection, California This notice provides Western Area Power Administration's National Environmental Poilcy Act determination regarding Western's proposal to provide an electric transmission line and interconnection to Contra Costa Water District's Alternative Intake Project (AIP) located in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, within San Joaquin and Contra Costa

  11. AC Transit Demos Three Prototype Fuel Cell Buses | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AC Transit Demos Three Prototype Fuel Cell Buses AC Transit Demos Three Prototype Fuel Cell Buses Fact sheet describes the study being conducted on fuel cell buses at AC Transit. PDF icon 39441.pdf More Documents & Publications Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report - Appendices Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results SunLine Expands Horizons with Fuel Cell Bus

  12. AC Transit | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Validation » AC Transit AC Transit AC Transit logo AC Transit (or the Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District) is based in Oakland, California, and provides transportation services to the East Bay of San Francisco. The 360-square-mile service area includes 13 cities and adjacent unincorporated areas in Alameda and Contra Costa counties. AC Transit's approximately 638 vehicles serve more than 65 million annual passengers. Photo of zero emission hydrogen fuel cell bus at AC Transit.

  13. Total Net Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rica Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djbouti Dominica Dominican Republic Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Ethiopia Eritrea Estonia Falkland Islands Fiji Finland France ...

  14. Lessons learned from bacterial transport research at the South Oyster Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheibe, T.; Hubbard, S.S.; Onstott, T.C.; DeFlaun, M.F.

    2011-04-01

    This paper provides a review of bacterial transport experiments conducted by a multi-investigator, multi-institution, multi-disciplinary team of researchers under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The experiments were conducted during the time period 1999-2001 at a field site near the town of Oyster, Virginia known as the South Oyster Site, and included four major experimental campaigns aimed at understanding and quantifying bacterial transport in the subsurface environment. Several key elements of the research are discussed here: (1) quantification of bacterial transport in physically, chemically and biologically heterogeneous aquifers, (2) evaluation of the efficacy of conventional colloid filtration theory, (3) scale effects in bacterial transport, (4) development of new methods for microbial enumeration and screening for low adhesion strains, (5) application of novel hydrogeophysical techniques for aquifer characterization, and (6) experiences regarding management of a large field research effort. Lessons learned are summarized in each of these areas. The body of literature resulting from South Oyster Site research has been widely cited and continues to influence research into the controls exerted by aquifer heterogeneity on reactive transport (including microbial transport). It also served as a model (and provided valuable experience) for subsequent and ongoing highly-instrumented field research efforts conducted by DOE-sponsored investigators.

  15. EIS-0404: Los Vaqueros Reservoir Expansion Project, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS/Environmental Impact Report was prepared by the Department of the Interior (Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region) and the Contra Costa Water District to evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to enlarge the existing Los Vaqueros Reservoir in Contra Costa County, California. DOE’s Western Area Power Administration (Western) was a cooperating agency because it has jurisdiction over transmission facilities that were expected to be relocated under the proposed action. Based on project changes, however, Western has no action and therefore will not adopt the EIS or issue a ROD.

  16. Averaged Description of Flow (Steady and Transient) and Nonreactive Solute Transport in Random Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schvidler, M.; Karasaki, K.

    2011-06-15

    In previous papers (Shvidler and Karasaki, 1999, 2001, 2005, and 2008) we presented and analyzed an approach for finding the general forms of exactly averaged equations of flow and transport in porous media. We studied systems of basic equations for steady flow with sources in unbounded domains with stochastically homogeneous conductivity fields. A brief analysis of exactly averaged equations of nonsteady flow and nonreactive solute transport was also presented. At the core of this approach is the existence of appropriate random Green's functions. For example, we showed that in the case of a 3-dimensional unbounded domain the existence of appropriate random Green's functions is sufficient for finding the exact nonlocal averaged equations for flow velocity using the operator with a unique kernel-vector. Examination of random fields with global symmetry (isotropy, transversal isotropy and orthotropy) makes it possible to describe significantly different types of averaged equations with nonlocal unique operators. It is evident that the existence of random Green's functions for physical linear processes is equivalent to assuming the existence of some linear random operators for appropriate stochastic equations. If we restricted ourselves to this assumption only, as we have done in this paper, we can study the processes in any dimensional bounded or unbounded fields and in addition, cases in which the random fields of conductivity and porosity are stochastically nonhomogeneous, nonglobally symmetrical, etc.. It is clear that examining more general cases involves significant difficulty and constricts the analysis of structural types for the processes being studied. Nevertheless, we show that we obtain the essential information regarding averaged equations for steady and transient flow, as well as for solute transport.

  17. CX-002198: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rock Slough Pole ReplacementCX(s) Applied: B1.20, B4.6, B4.13Date: 03/25/2010Location(s): Contra Costa Canal, CaliforniaOffice(s): Western Area Power Administration-Sierra Nevada Region

  18. CX-004880: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Routine Maintenance Along TRY-CC 10/4-11/1CX(s) Applied: B1.3, B1.13Date: 06/01/2010Location(s): Contra Costa County, CaliforniaOffice(s): Western Area Power Administration-Sierra Nevada Region

  19. CMaranas.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis and Redesign of Proteins and Biological Networks Costas Maranas / The Pennsylvania State University * - Biological Networks * Development of computational workflows for reconstructing the complete metabolic repertoire of microbial and plant systems (i.e., Mycoplasma genitalium, Methanosarcina acetivorans, etc.) * Automated testing/curation of metabolic models for completeness and correctness by using multiple types of data (i.e., network connectivity, gene essentiality experiments,

  20. Papers Published - April 1, 1997 - March 31, 1998

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in 58Ni + Cu collisions at E 1.97A GeV E.L. Hjort, S. Albergo, F. Bieser, F.P. Brady, Z. Caccia, D.A. Cebra, A.D. Chacon, J.L. Chance, Y. Choi, S. Costa, J.B. Elliott,...

  1. Geralyn "Sam" Zeller

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Useful Links Useful Links: The NuValidator: neutrino interaction model validation tool by Costas Andreopoulos Durham Low Energy Neutrino Cross Section Database Durham Reaction Database NUANCE Neutrino Generator homepage NEUGEN Monte Carlo homepage List of Super-Kamiokande Theses MiniBooNE homepage

  2. Demonstration with Energy and Daylighting Assessment of Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic (SRT) Window Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broekhuis, Michael; Liposcak, Curtis; Witte, Michael; Henninger, Robert; Zhou, Xiaohui; Petzen, George; Buchanan, Michael; Kumar, Sneh

    2012-03-31

    Pleotint, LLC was able to successfully extrude thermochromic interlayer for use in the fenestration industry. Pleotint has developed a thermochromic sytem that requires two thermochromic colors to make a neutral color when in the tinted state. These two colors were assembled into a single interlayer called a tri-layer prelam by Crown Operations for use in the glass lamination industry. Various locations, orientations, and constructions of thermochromic windows were studied with funds from this contract. Locations included Australia, California, Costa Rica, Indiana, Iowa, Mexico. Installed orientations included vertical and skylight glazing applications. Various constructions included monolithic, double pane, triple pane constructions. A daylighting study was conducted at LinEl Signature. LinEl Signature has a conference room with a sylight roof system that has a west orientation. The existing LinEl Signature conference room had constant tint 40% VLT transparent skylights. Irradiance meters were installed on the interior and exterior sides of a constant tint skylight. After a month and a half of data collection, the irradiance meters were removed and the constant tint skylights were replaced with Pleotint thermochromic skylight windows. The irradiance meters were reinstalled in the same locations and irradiance data was collected. Both data sets were compared. The data showed that there was a linear relationship with exterior and interior irradiance for the existing constant tint skylights. The thermochromic skylights have a non-linear relationship. The thermochromic skylights were able to limit the amount of irradiance that passed through the thermochromic skylight. A second study of the LinEl Signature conference was performed using EnergyPlus to calculate the amount of Illuminance that passed through constant tint skylights as compared to thermochromic skylights. The constant tint skylights transmitted Illuminance is 2.8 times higher than the thermochromic skylights during the months of May, June, July, August and 1.9 times higher than the thermochromic skylight during the months of March, April, September, October. Calculated illuminance levels were much more consistent as compared to the existing constant tint skylights installed at LinEl Signature. This allows for a more comfortable interior space in regard to glare discomfort and interior lighting control. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was contracted to characterize the performance of the thermochromic interlayer and thermochromic window systems. Thermochromic interlayer was characterized with spectrometer equipment. The thermochromic window systems were characterized using LBNL’s Advanced Window Test Facility. A copy of the report can be found in the Appendix. Iowa State University was contracted to compare thermochromic window technology to constant tint technology. Iowa State University conducted the testing at the Energy Resource Station (ERS). The ERS has the ability to simultaneously test side-by-side competing building technologies. The building is equipped with two identical air handling units, each with its own dedicated and identical chiller. One air handling unit supplies the four test rooms designated as the A rooms and the other unit serves the four test rooms designated as the B rooms. There is one A test room and one B test rooms arranged as pairs in a side-by-side design with each pair having a different exposure. There is a pair of test rooms that face the south, an east and west facing pair. Each of the test rooms is a mirror image of its match with identical construction. The rooms are unoccupied; however, the capability to impose false loads on the rooms exists. The false loads and room lighting can be scheduled to simulate various usage patterns. A copy of the report can be found in the Appendix. GARD Analytics was contracted to compare EnergyPlus building simulations to the data recorded at the Iowa ERS. The goal of this research was to validate the building simulation software developed by the US Department of Energy. EnergyPlus is a whole building software package that includes thermochromic window system algorithms. The accuracy of these thermochromic window system algorithms were of special interest for this research.

  3. Enzymatic Digestibility and Pretreatment Degradation Products of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFEX-Treated Hardwoods (Populus nigra) (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Enzymatic Digestibility and Pretreatment Degradation Products of AFEX-Treated Hardwoods (Populus nigra) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enzymatic Digestibility and Pretreatment Degradation Products of AFEX-Treated Hardwoods (Populus nigra) Authors: Balan, Venkatesh ; Sousa, Leonardo da Costa ; Chundawat, Shishir P. S. ; Marshall, Derek ; Sharma, Lekh N. ; Chambliss, C. Kevin ; Dale, Bruce E. Publication

  4. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    da Costa Sousa, Leonardo" Name Name ORCID Search Authors Type: All Book/Monograph Conference/Event Journal Article Miscellaneous Patent Program Document Software Manual Technical Report Thesis/Dissertation Subject: Identifier Numbers: Site: All Alaska Power Administration, Juneau, Alaska (United States) Albany Research Center (ARC), Albany, OR (United States) Albuquerque Complex - NNSA Albuquerque Operations Office, Albuquerque, NM (United States) Amarillo National Resource Center for

  5. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Schneider Electric | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Schneider Electric Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Schneider Electric Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Schneider Electric Joined the Challenge: March 2013 Headquarters: Palatine, IL Charging Locations: Cedar Rapids, IA; Palatine, IL; O'Fallon, MO; Des Plaines, IL; Knightdale, NC; West Kingston, RI; North Andover, MA; Billerica, MA; Nashville, TN; LaVergne, TN; Smryna, TN; Clovis, CA; Costa Mesa, CA; Carrollton, TX; Seneca, SC; Lexington, KY; Detroit, MI Domestic Employees:

  6. Slide 1

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    America LNG Import Terminals Status: Existing Source: Various Public Sources Everett Cove Point Lake Charles Elba Island Gulf Gateway (*Decommissioning) Altamira Existing Terminals - U.S. Existing Terminals - non U.S. Northeast Gateway Freeport LNG Sabine Pass Energia Costa Azul Cameron Canaport Neptune LNG Golden Pass Gulf LNG Energy Manzanillo North America LNG Import Terminals Status: Approved, Under Construction* Source: Various Public Sources Approved Terminals, Under Construction - non

  7. Designer synthetic media for studying microbial-catalyzed biofuel production

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Open Access Designer synthetic media for studying microbial- catalyzed biofuel production Xiaoyu Tang 1* , Leonardo da Costa Sousa 2 , Mingjie Jin 2 , Shishir PS Chundawat 2,3 , Charles Kevin Chambliss 4 , Ming W Lau 2 , Zeyi Xiao 5 , Bruce E Dale 2 and Venkatesh Balan 2* Abstract Background: The fermentation inhibition of yeast or bacteria by lignocellulose-derived degradation products, during hexose/pentose co-fermentation, is a major bottleneck for cost-effective lignocellulosic

  8. RSL-2007-12

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RSL-2007-12 December 27, 2007 MEMORANDUM TO ASSISTANT REGIONAL ADMINISTRATORS, PBS REGIONAL REALTY SERVICES OFFICERS THRU: ANTHONY E. COSTA (signed) DEPUTY COMMISSIONER - PD FROM: SAMUEL J. MORRIS, III (signed Wendy Liebl for) ACTING ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER FOR OFFICE OF REAL ESTATE ACQUISITION - PQC SAM HUNTER (signed) ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER FOR OFFICE OF APPLIED SCIENCE - PL SUBJECT: Green Lease Policies and Procedures for Lease Acquisition 1. Purpose. To issue energy and environmental business

  9. C O M P U T I N G SANDIA MISSION 2015 HPC ANNUAL REPORT TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    I N G SANDIA MISSION 2015 HPC ANNUAL REPORT TABLE OF CONTENTS MISSION EXCELLENCE David White, Director Computing and Network Services Bruce Hendrickson, Director Center for Computing Research James Costa, Senior Manager Computational Science and Analysis 2 3 4 DEFENSE SYSTEMS & ASSESSMENTS Simulation of Blast and Behind-Armor Blunt Trauma to Life-Critical Organs Optimal Imaging for Treaty Verification Characterizing Quantum Devices Using Model Selection 8 10 12 ENERGY & CLIMATE Modeling

  10. Search for: All records | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    da Costa Sousa, Leonardo" Name Name ORCID Search Authors Type: All Accepted Manuscript Published Article Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Subject: Identifier Numbers: Research Org: Sponsoring Org: Publication Date: to Update Date: to Sort: Relevance (highest to lowest) Publication Date (newest first) Publication Date (oldest first) Close Clear All Find Switch to Detail View for this search DOE PAGES Search Results Page 1 of 1 Search for: All records 4 results for: All records

  11. Rad Source Term Estimates for WIPP Release (SRNL).pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    RSL-2007-12 December 27, 2007 MEMORANDUM TO ASSISTANT REGIONAL ADMINISTRATORS, PBS REGIONAL REALTY SERVICES OFFICERS THRU: ANTHONY E. COSTA (signed) DEPUTY COMMISSIONER - PD FROM: SAMUEL J. MORRIS, III (signed Wendy Liebl for) ACTING ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER FOR OFFICE OF REAL ESTATE ACQUISITION - PQC SAM HUNTER (signed) ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER FOR OFFICE OF APPLIED SCIENCE - PL SUBJECT: Green Lease Policies and Procedures for Lease Acquisition 1. Purpose. To issue energy and environmental business

  12. Sandia-Developed LED Pulser Delivers Laser-Like Performance at Fraction of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Cost> LED Pulser Delivers Laser-Like Performance at Fraction of the Cost - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing

  13. Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    activity (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity Authors: Zhou, Jiangfeng ; Chowdhury, Dibakar Roy ; Zhao, Rongkuo ; Azad, Abul K. ; Chen, Hou-Tong ; Soukoulis, Costas M. ; Taylor, Antoinette J. ; O'Hara, John F. Publication Date: 2012-07-27 OSTI Identifier: 1103017 Type:

  14. Regional

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 AÇORIANO ORIENTAL SEGUNDA-FEIRA, 5 DE MARÇO DE 2012 PUB Da Graciosa para a Índia graças à estação atmosférica Carlos está atualmente a trabalhar na estação atmosférica móvel instalada na Índia, a dois mil metros de altitude Estar no lugar certo na hora cer- ta pode mudar radicalmente a vida de uma pessoa. Foi isso que aconteceu ao graciosense Carlos Sousa, de 41 anos, que começou por ser trabalhador daconstrução civil antes de emigrar para os Es- tados Unidos da América. No

  15. Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol productivity on acid- and base-pretreated biomass hydrolyzate at high solids loading

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Slininger et al. Biotechnology for Biofuels (2015) 8:60 DOI 10.1186/S13068-015-0239-6 Biotechnology for Biofuels RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol productivity on acid- and base-pretreated biomass hydrolyzate at high solids loading Patricia J Slininger1*, Maureen A Shea-Andersh1, Stephanie R Thompson1, Bruce S Dien1, Cletus P Kurtzman2, Venkatesh Balan3, Leonardo da Costa Sousa3, Nirmal Uppugundla3, Bruce E Dale3 and Michael A Cotta1

  16. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2008 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 8 Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2008 This report provides results from fuel cell bus evaluations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District, SunLine Transit Agency, and Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority. PDF icon tp44133.pdf More Documents & Publications Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Transit Bus Evaluations: Joint Evaluation Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Federal Transit Administration; Appendix Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets:

  17. Workshop Presentations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis and Redesign of Proteins and Biological Networks May 7, 2009 | Author(s): Costas Maranas | BER Overview May 7, 2009 | Author(s): David Thomassen | Boundary Layer Flow / Vegetation Air Exchanges May 7, 2009 | Author(s): Ned Patton | CCSM and Earth System Model May 7, 2009 | Author(s): Lawrence Buja, John Drake, Michael Wehner | Coupled High-Resolution Modeling of the Earth System May 7, 2009 | Author(s): Christopher Kerr | Global Cloud Resolving Model May 7, 2009 | Author(s): David

  18. Streaked x-ray spectrometer having a discrete selection of Bragg geometries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Omega (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Streaked x-ray spectrometer having a discrete selection of Bragg geometries for Omega Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Streaked x-ray spectrometer having a discrete selection of Bragg geometries for Omega The streaked x-ray spectrometer (SXS) is used with streak cameras [D. H. Kalantar, P. M. Bell, R. L. Costa, B. A. Hammel, O. L. Landen, T. J. Orzechowski, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, in 22nd International Congress on

  19. Scotts Valley Band of Pomo Indians 2012 Program Review

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Program Review Renaissance Hotel - Denver, Colorado November 13-16, 2012 Ye-Ma-Bax (Scotts Valley Tribe) ✤ Eastern Pomo Tribe with 239 tribal members ✤ Offices located in Lake & Contra Costa Counties ✤ No land in trust, 35 acres fee land. Ye Ma Bax Energy ✤Key objectives ✤Human Capacity Building ✤Continuing Operations ✤Primary goal of this project is to develop a Scotts Valley Energy Development Office (SVEDO) Tribal Energy Program ✤ Promote: energy, education, savings,

  20. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results. Fourth Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, Leslie; Post, Matthew

    2015-07-02

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 12 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The FCEBs in service at AC Transit are 40-foot, low-floor buses built by Van Hool with a hybrid electric propulsion system that includes a US Hybrid fuel cell power system and EnerDel lithium-based energy storage system. The buses began revenue service in May 2010.

  1. Nitrogen Removal from Natural Gas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nitrogen Removal from Natural Gas Phase II Draft Final Report Contract Number DE-AC21-95MC32199--02 Contract Period: July 29, 1996 - December 31, 1999 prepared by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. 1360 Willow Road Menlo Park, CA 94025 December 22, 1999 for the U.S. Department of Energy Morgantown Energy Technology Center Morgantown, WV Contributors to this Report: K.A. Lokhandwala M.B. Ringer T.T. Su Z. He I. Pinnau J.G. Wijmans A. Morisato K. Amo A. Da Costa R.W. Baker R. Olsen H. Hassani

  2. BEST

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    BEST 2685318 3315694 .---- _ .*._ .-_ - _ - -- ficQ=7 33 SFIXTAL THE HISTORY OF THE MIDDLESEX SAMPLING PLANT BY R.V. CAHALANE PRODUCTION DIVISION NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY OF OHIO CINCINNATI, OHIO CONTRACT NUMBEP, AT(jO-l&1156 FEBRUARY, 1958 COPY AVAllABL .E 331569 5 copy No. 1-2 3 4 5 6 7-9 10 - 20 , m NLCO-733 SPEmAL Page 2 DISlRTEJTION AEC, Fernald Area Office R. W. Cahalane J, J. Costa F. L. Cuthbert M. S. Neleon J. H. Noyes Library Date issued: by 1, 1958 3315696 __ -- ACKNCWLEDGPIENTS The

  3. Sugar loss and enzyme inhibition due to oligosaccharide accumulation during high solids-loading enzymatic hydrolysis

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Xue et al. Biotechnol Biofuels (2015) 8:195 DOI 10.1186/S13068-015-0378-9 Biotechnology for Biofuels RESEARCH Open Access Sugar loss and enzyme inhibition due to oligosaccharide accumulation during high solids-loading enzymatic hydrolysis CrossMark Saisi Xue* 1* , Nirmal Uppugundla1*, Michael J. Bowman2, David Cavalier1,3, Leonardo Da Costa Sousa1, Bruce. E Dale1 and Venkatesh Balan1* Abstract Background: Accumulation of recalcitrant oligosaccharides during high-solids loading enzymatic

  4. Wnt Antagonists Bind through a Short Peptide to the First beta-Propeller

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Domain of LRP5/6 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Wnt Antagonists Bind through a Short Peptide to the First beta-Propeller Domain of LRP5/6 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Wnt Antagonists Bind through a Short Peptide to the First beta-Propeller Domain of LRP5/6 Authors: Bourhis, E. ; Wang, W. ; Tam, C. ; Hwang, J. ; Zhang, Y. ; Spittler, D. ; Huang, O.W. ; Gong, Y. ; Estevez, A. ; Zilberley, I. ; Rouge, L. ; Chiu, C. ; Wu, Y. ; Costa, M. ; Hannoush, R.N. ; Franke, Y. ; Cochran,

  5. Reintroduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hillson, Todd D.

    2009-06-12

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March, 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to the reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than one-half million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present-day spawners. Harvest, habitat degradation, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for this decline. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam, where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Prior to 1997, only two chum salmon populations were recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning had been documented in many Lower Columbia River tributaries. The first population was in the Grays River (RKm 34), a tributary of the Columbia River, and the second was a group of spawners utilizing the mainstem Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks. Using additional DNA samples, Small et al. (2006) grouped chum salmon spawning in the mainstem Columbia River and the Washington State tributaries into three groups: the Coastal, the Cascade and the Gorge. The Coastal group comprises those spawning in the Grays River, Skamokawa Creek and the broodstock used at the Sea Resources facility on the Chinook River. The Cascade group comprises those spawning in the Cowlitz (both summer and fall stocks), Kalama, Lewis, and East Fork Lewis rivers, with most supporting unique populations. The Gorge group comprises those spawning in the mainstem Columbia River from the I-205 Bridge up to Bonneville Dam and those spawning in Hamilton and Hardy creeks. Response to the federal ESA listing has been primarily through direct-recovery actions: reducing harvest, hatchery supplementation using local broodstock for populations at catastrophic risk, habitat restoration (including construction of spawning channels) and flow agreements to protect spawning and rearing areas. Both state and federal agencies have built controlled spawning areas. In 1998, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) began a chum salmon supplementation program using native stock on the Grays River. This program was expanded during 1999 - 2001 to include reintroduction into the Chinook River using eggs from the Grays River Supplementation Program. These eggs are incubated at the Grays River Hatchery, reared to release size at the Sea Resources Hatchery on the Chinook River, and the fry are released at the mouth of the Chinook River. Native steelhead, chum, and coho salmon are present in Duncan Creek, and are recognized as subpopulations of the Lower Gorge population, and are focal species in the Lower Columbia Fish Recovery Board (LCFRB) plan. Steelhead, chum and coho salmon that spawn in Duncan Creek are listed as Threatened under the ESA. Duncan Creek is classified by the LCFRB plan as a watershed for intensive monitoring (LCFRB 2004). This project was identified in the 2004 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) revised Biological Opinion (revised BiOp) to increase survival of chum salmon, 'BPA will continue to fund the program to re-introduce Columbia River chum salmon into Duncan Creek as long as NOAA Fisheries determines it to be an essential and effective contribution to reducing the risk of extinction for this ESU'. (USACE et al. 2004, page 85-86). The Governors Forum on Monitoring and Salmon Recovery and Watershed Health recommends one major population from each ESU have adult and juvenile monitoring. Duncan Creek chum salmon are identified in this plan to be intensively monitored. Planners recommended that a combination of natural and hatchery production

  6. Final report : impacts analysis for cyber attack on electric power systems (National SCADA Test Bed FY08).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Stamp, Jason Edwin; LaViolette, Randall A.

    2009-02-01

    To analyze the risks due to cyber attack against control systems used in the United States electrical infrastructure, new algorithms are needed to determine the possible impacts. This research is studying the Reliability Impact of Cyber ttack (RICA) in a two-pronged approach. First, malevolent cyber actions are analyzed in terms of reduced grid reliability. Second, power system impacts are investigated using an abstraction of the grid's dynamic model. This second year of esearch extends the work done during the first year.

  7. Solar For Schools: A Case Study in Identifying and Implementing Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Projects in Three California School Districts: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandt, A.

    2011-04-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar America Showcase program seeks to accelerate demand for solar technologies among key end use market sectors. As part of this activity the DOE provides Technical Assistance through its national laboratories to large-scale, high-visibility solar installation projects. The Solar Schools Assessment and Implementation Project (SSAIP) in the San Francisco Bay area was selected for a 2009 DOE Solar American Showcase award. SSAIP was formed through the efforts of the nonprofit Sequoia Foundation and includes three school districts: Berkeley, West Contra Costa, and Oakland Unified School Districts. This paper summarizes the technical assistance efforts that resulted from this technical assistance support. It serves as a case study and reference document detailing the steps and processes that could be used to successfully identify, fund, and implement solar PV projects in school districts across the country.

  8. Combined-cycle cogeneration to power oil refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broeker, R.J.

    1986-11-01

    A cogeneration plant now under construction at an oil refinery in Martinez, California, is an example of how the energy industry has been responding to the fundamental economic and technological challenges it has been facing over the past ten years. The industry is re-examining cogeneration as one way of meeting the requirements of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act. The new plant is located at Tosco Corporation's Avon Oil Refinery, 45 miles northeast of San Francisco. It was designed by Foster Wheeler to supply process steam for the refinery as well as for a water-treatment installation that will benefit the Contra Costa Water District. Electric power produced will be used primarily by the refinery, with the balance purchased by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company.

  9. Los lideres de energia en EEUU toman medidas para desarrollar la Alianza de

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energia y Clima de las Americas | Department of Energy lideres de energia en EEUU toman medidas para desarrollar la Alianza de Energia y Clima de las Americas Los lideres de energia en EEUU toman medidas para desarrollar la Alianza de Energia y Clima de las Americas June 16, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis In English LIMA, PERÚ - Ministros de energía y otros líderes de energía de gobiernos de a través de las Américas se reunieron con corporaciones de energía y otros expertos en Lima, el 15 y

  10. The DOE water cycle pilot study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N. L.; King, A. W.; Miller, M. A.; Springer, E. P.; Wesely, M. L.; Bashford, K. E.; Conrad, M. E.; Costigan, K.; Foster, P. N.; Gibbs, H. K.; Jin, J.; Klazura, J.; Lesht, B. M.; Machavaram, M. V.; Pan, F.; Song, J.; Troyan, D.; Washngton-Allen, R. A.; Environmental Research; LBNL; ORNL; BNL; LANL

    2005-03-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) formed a Water Cycle Study Group (Hornberger et al. 2001) to organize research efforts in regional hydrologic variability, the extent to which this variability is caused by human activity, and the influence of ecosystems. The USGCRP Water Cycle Study Group was followed by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Water Cycle Research Plan (Department of Energy 2002) that outlined an approach toward improving seasonal-to-interannual hydroclimate predictability and closing a regional water budget. The DOE Water Cycle Research Plan identified key research areas, including a comprehensive long-term observational database to support model development, and to develop a better understanding of the relationship between the components of local water budgets and large scale processes. In response to this plan, a multilaboratory DOE Water Cycle Pilot Study (WCPS) demonstration project began with a focus on studying the water budget and its variability at multiple spatial scales. Previous studies have highlighted the need for continued efforts to observationally close a local water budget, develop a numerical model closure scheme, and further quantify the scales in which predictive accuracy are optimal. A concerted effort within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-funded Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-scale International Project (GCIP) put forth a strategy to understand various hydrometeorological processes and phenomena with an aim toward closing the water and energy budgets of regional watersheds (Lawford 1999, 2001). The GCIP focus on such regional budgets includes the measurement of all components and reduction of the error in the budgets to near zero. To approach this goal, quantification of the uncertainties in both measurements and modeling is required. Model uncertainties within regional climate models continue to be evaluated within the Program to Intercompare Regional Climate Simulations (Takle et al. 1999), and model uncertainties within land surface models are being evaluated within the Program to Intercompare Land Surface Schemes (e.g., Henderson-Sellers 1993; Wood et al. 1998; Lohmann et al. 1998). In the context of understanding the water budget at watershed scales, the following two research questions that highlight DOE's unique water isotope analysis and high-performance modeling capabilities were posed as the foci of this pilot study: (1) Can the predictability of the regional water budget be improved using high-resolution model simulations that are constrained and validated with new hydrospheric water measurements? (2) Can water isotopic tracers be used to segregate different pathways through the water cycle and predict a change in regional climate patterns? To address these questions, numerical studies using regional atmospheric-land surface models and multiscale land surface hydrologic models were generated and, to the extent possible, the results were evaluated with observations. While the number of potential processes that may be important in the local water budget is large, several key processes were examined in detail. Most importantly, a concerted effort was made to understand water cycle processes and feedbacks at the land surface-atmosphere interface at spatial scales ranging from 30 m to hundreds of kilometers. A simple expression for the land surface water budget at the watershed scale is expressed as {Delta}S = P + G{sub in} - ET - Q - G{sub out}, where {Delta}S is the change in water storage, P is precipitation, ET is evapotranspiration, Q is streamflow, G{sub in} is groundwater entering the watershed, and G{sub out} is groundwater leaving the watershed, per unit time. The WCPS project identified data gaps and necessary model improvements that will lead to a more accurate representation of the terms in Eq. (1). Table 1 summarizes the components of this water cycle pilot study and the respective participants. The following section provides a description of the surface observation and modeling sites. This is followed by a section on model analyses, and then the summary and concluding remarks.

  11. Hydrogen Technology and Energy Curriculum (HyTEC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagle, Barbara

    2013-02-28

    The Lawrence Hall of Science of the University of California, Berkeley has collaborated with scientists and engineers, a local transit agency, school districts, and a commercial curriculum publisher to develop, field-test nationally, and publish a two-week curriculum module on hydrogen and fuel cells for high school science. Key partners in this project are the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) of Humboldt State University, the Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit), FilmSight Productions, Lab-Aids, Inc., and 32 teachers and 2,370 students in field-test classrooms in California, Connecticut, Ohio, New York, South Carolina, and Washington. Field-test teachers received two to three days of professional development before teaching the curriculum and providing feedback used for revision of the curriculum. The curriculum, titled Investigating Alternative Energy: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells and published by Lab-Aids, Inc., includes a teachers guide (with lesson plans, resources, and student handout pages), two interactive computer animations, a video, a website, and a laboratory materials kit. The project has been disseminated to over 950 teachers through awareness workshops at state, regional, and national science teacher conferences.

  12. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, Leslie; Post, Matthew; Gikakis, Christina

    2015-12-11

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. Various stakeholders, including FCEB developers, transit agencies, and system integrators, have expressed the value of this annual status report, which provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The annual status report tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. The 2015 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2014 through July 2015. The results for these buses account for more than 1,045,000 miles traveled and 83,000 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from two demonstrations of fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: the Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California and the American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California.

  13. The red-cockaded woodpecker on the Savannah River Site: Aspects of reproductive success.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, Peter A.; Imm, Donald, W.; Jarvis, William L.

    2004-12-31

    Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 5. Status and Trends of Populations. Pp 224-229. Abstract: The red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population on the Savannah River Site has been closely monitored and studied over the last 17 years. In 1985, the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station was given responsibility to study and manage this population in an effort to prevent its extirpation. In December 1985, there were only 4 individuals on the site: 1 pair and 2 solitary males. The population had increased to a total of 175 individuals in 42 active clusters in 2002. Although this represents a very successful recovery effort, there has been substantial annual variation in nesting survival from banding to fledging. Data were analyzed to more completely understand the factors affecting reproduction. No significant effects of age of the breeding male and female, years paired, number of helpers, habitat quality, number of nestings, and time of nest initiation were found when comparing reproductive success in 117 nesting attempts from 1999 to 2002. However, the number of neighboring groups had a direct effect on mortality rates, possibly demonstrating the importance of cluster spacing.

  14. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tappmeyer, D.M.

    1984-10-01

    Petroleum exploration in the region was generally less in 1983 than in 1982. Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Barbados increased crude production, whereas Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, and Trinidad-Tobago reported increases in gas production. Although drilling activities remained low compared to past years, significant oil discoveries were reported in Colombia, Mexico, and Brazil. In Colombia, Cano Limon field is reported to be the largest field found in the Llanos region. In Brazil, important oil discoveries were made offshore in the Para, Potiquas, and Ampos basins. In Mexico, discoveries were reported in the Cerro Azul, Poza Rica (Chicontepec, Villahermosa, and Tabasco) areas onshore and in the Bay of Campeche offshore. In Argentina, discoveries were made in the San Jorge basin and the Noreste Tarija basin. 10 figures, 11 tables.

  15. Climatic change and the planktonic foraminiferal species - coincidences in some Late Neogene clades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malmgren, B.A.; Berggren, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Planktonic foraminifera adjust their position in the water column through modifications in size, shape, and external ornamention (keel, costae, etc.); this is useful in exploiting new ecologic niches. Evolutionary change may be triggered by paleoceanographic change, for example, low sea level, often associated with cool climate, may result in enhanced vertical mixing in the upper water column, decrease in density stratification and available niches. Phyletic evolution is well documented in several clades of Late Neogene planktonic foraminifera. Accelerated or decelerated evolutionary rates in these clades may be due to change in selection pressure in response to changing paleoceanographic conditions. The latest Miocene was marked by low sea level and cool climate; the earliest Pliocene by higher sea level and warmer, more stable climate. In response, size (cross-sectional area) in the Globorotalia tumida clade trebled, test acquired thicker encrustation, ventral/dorsal height proportions changed; the keel was lost in the Globorotalia inflata clade, and chambers became rounded rather than conical; and supplementary apertures appeared in the Sphaeroidinellopsis-Sphaeroidinella clade. The beginning of gradually increasing conicality in the G. inflata clade, which continued to the Miocene-Pliocene boundary, coincided with falling sea level and depletion of delta/sup 13/C in sea water at about 6 ma. Lowered sea level and cooler climate in the middle Pliocene (3.2 Ma) may be responsible for a relatively rapid increase in frequency of supplementary apertures (from 20 to 100 %) in the Sphaeroidinellopsis-Sphaeroidinella clade. This event also coincided with a stepwise increase in benthonic delta/sup 18/O and a brief interval of increased planktonic delta/sup 18/O.

  16. Streaked x-ray spectrometer having a discrete selection of Bragg geometries for Omega

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millecchia, M.; Regan, S. P.; Bahr, R. E.; Romanofsky, M.; Sorce, C.

    2012-10-15

    The streaked x-ray spectrometer (SXS) is used with streak cameras [D. H. Kalantar, P. M. Bell, R. L. Costa, B. A. Hammel, O. L. Landen, T. J. Orzechowski, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, in 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, edited by D. L. Paisley and A. M. Frank (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1997), Vol. 2869, p. 680] positioned with a ten-inch manipulator on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] and OMEGA EP [L. J. Waxer et al., Presented at CLEO/QELS 2008, San Jose, CA, 4-9 May 2008 (Paper JThB1)] for time-resolved, x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas in the 1.4- to 20-keV photon-energy range. These experiments require measuring a portion of this photon-energy range to monitor a particular emission or absorption feature of interest. The SXS relies on a pinned mechanical reference system to create a discrete set of Bragg reflection geometries for a variety of crystals. A wide selection of spectral windows is achieved accurately and efficiently using this technique. It replaces the previous spectrometer designs that had a continuous Bragg angle adjustment and required a tedious alignment calibration procedure. The number of spectral windows needed for the SXS was determined by studying the spectral ranges selected by OMEGA users over the last decade. These selections are easily configured in the SXS using one of the 25 discrete Bragg reflection geometries and one of the six types of Bragg crystals, including two curved crystals.

  17. Parameterizations of Cloud Microphysics and Indirect Aerosol Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2014-05-19

    1. OVERVIEW Aerosols and especially their effect on clouds are one of the key components of the climate system and the hydrological cycle [Ramanathan et al., 2001]. Yet, the aerosol effect on clouds remains largely unknown and the processes involved not well understood. A recent report published by the National Academy of Science states "The greatest uncertainty about the aerosol climate forcing - indeed, the largest of all the uncertainties about global climate forcing - is probably the indirect effect of aerosols on clouds [NRC, 2001]." The aerosol effect on clouds is often categorized into the traditional "first indirect (i.e., Twomey)" effect on the cloud droplet sizes for a constant liquid water path [Twomey, 1977] and the "semi-direct" effect on cloud coverage [e.g., Ackerman et al., 2000]. Enhanced aerosol concentrations can also suppress warm rain processes by producing a narrow droplet spectrum that inhibits collision and coalescence processes [e.g., Squires and Twomey, 1961; Warner and Twomey, 1967; Warner, 1968; Rosenfeld, 1999]. The aerosol effect on precipitation processes, also known as the second type of aerosol indirect effect [Albrecht, 1989], is even more complex, especially for mixed-phase convective clouds. Table 1 summarizes the key observational studies identifying the microphysical properties, cloud characteristics, thermodynamics and dynamics associated with cloud systems from high-aerosol continental environments. For example, atmospheric aerosol concentrations can influence cloud droplet size distributions, warm-rain process, cold-rain process, cloud-top height, the depth of the mixed phase region, and occurrence of lightning. In addition, high aerosol concentrations in urban environments could affect precipitation variability by providing an enhanced source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Hypotheses have been developed to explain the effect of urban regions on convection and precipitation [van den Heever and Cotton, 2007 and Shepherd, 2005]. Recently, a detailed spectral-bin microphysical scheme was implemented into the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. Atmospheric aerosols are also described using number density size-distribution functions. A spectral-bin microphysical model is very expensive from a computational point of view and has only been implemented into the 2D version of the GCE at the present time. The model is tested by studying the evolution of deep tropical clouds in the west Pacific warm pool region and summertime convection over a mid-latitude continent with different concentrations of CCN: a low "clean" concentration and a high "dirty" concentration. The impact of atmospheric aerosol concentration on cloud and precipitation will be investigated. 2. MODEL DESCRIPTION AND CASE STUDIES 2.1 GCE MODEL The model used in this study is the 2D version of the GCE model. Modeled flow is anelastic. Second- or higher-order advection schemes can produce negative values in the solution. Thus, a Multi-dimensional Positive Definite Advection Transport Algorithm (MPDATA) has been implemented into the model. All scalar variables (potential temperature, water vapor, turbulent coefficient and all five hydrometeor classes) use forward time differencing and the MPDATA for advection. Dynamic variables, u, v and w, use a second-order accurate advection scheme and a leapfrog time integration (kinetic energy semi-conserving method). Short-wave (solar) and long-wave radiation as well as a subgrid-scale TKE turbulence scheme are also included in the model. Details of the model can be found in Tao and Simpson (1993) and Tao et al. (2003). 2.2 Microphysics (Bin Model) The formulation of the explicit spectral-bin microphysical processes is based on solving stochastic kinetic equations for the size distribution functions of water droplets (cloud droplets and raindrops), and six types of ice particles: pristine ice crystals (columnar and plate-like), snow (dendrites and aggregates), graupel and frozen drops/hail. Each type is described by a special size distribution function containing 33 categories (bins). Atmospheric aerosols are also described using number density size-distribution functions (containing 33 bins). Droplet nucleation (activation) is derived from the analytical calculation of super-saturation, which is used to determine the sizes of aerosol particles to be activated and the corresponding sizes of nucleated droplets. Primary nucleation of each type of ice crystal takes place within certain temperature ranges. A detailed description of these explicitly parameterized processes can be found in Khain and Sednev (1996) and Khain et al. (1999, 2001). 2.3 Case Studies Three cases, a tropical oceanic squall system observed during TOGA COARE (Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment, which occurred over the Pacific Ocean warm pool from November 1992 to February 1993), a midlatitude continental squall system observed during PRESTORM (Preliminary Regional Experiment for STORM-Central, which occurred in Kansas and Oklahoma during May-June 1985), and mid-afternoon convection observed during CRYSTAL-FACE (Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers – Florida Area Cumulus Experiment, which occurred in Florida during July 2002), will be used to examine the impact of aerosols on deep, precipitating systems. 3. SUMMARY of RESULTS • For all three cases, higher CCN produces smaller cloud droplets and a narrower spectrum. Dirty conditions delay rain formation, increase latent heat release above the freezing level, and enhance vertical velocities at higher altitude for all cases. Stronger updrafts, deeper mixed-phase regions, and more ice particles are simulated with higher CCN in good agreement with observations. • In all cases, rain reaches the ground early with lower CCN. Rain suppression is also evident in all three cases with high CCN in good agreement with observations (Rosenfeld, 1999, 2000 and others). Rain suppression, however, only occurs during the first hour of simulation. This result suggests that microphysical processes dominate the impact of aerosols on precipitation in the early stage of precipitation development. • During the mature stage of the simulations, the effect of increasing aerosol concentration ranges from rain suppression in the PRESTORM case to little effect on surface rainfall in the CRYSTAL-FACE case to rain enhancement in the TOGA COARE case. • The model results suggest that evaporative cooling is a key process in determining whether higher CCN reduces or enhances precipitation. Cold pool strength can be enhanced by stronger evaporation. When cold pool interacts with the near surface wind shear, the low-level convergence can be stronger, facilitating secondary cloud formation and more vigorous precipitation processes. Evaporative cooling is more than two times stronger at low levels with higher CCN for the TOGA COARE case during the early stages of precipitation development. However, evaporative cooling is slightly stronger at lower levels with lower CCN for the PRESTORM case. The early formation of rain in the clean environment could allow for the formation of an earlier and stronger cold pool compared to a dirty environment. PRESTORM has a very dry environment and both large and small rain droplets can evaporate. Consequently, the cold pool is relatively weaker, and the system is relatively less intense with higher CCN. • Sensitivity tests are conducted to determine the impact of ice processes on aerosol-precipitation interaction. The results suggested that ice processes are crucial for suppressing precipitation due to high CCN for the PRESTORM case. More and smaller ice particles are generated in the dirty case and transported to the trailing stratiform region. This reduces the heavy convective rain and contributes to the weakening of the cold pool. Warm rain processes dominate the TOGA COARE case. Therefore, ice processes only play a secondary role in terms of aerosol-precipitation interaction. • Two of the three cloud systems presented in this paper formed a line structure (squall system). A 2D simulation, therefore, gives a good approximation to such a line of convective clouds. Since the real atmosphere is 3D, further 3D cloud-resolving simulations are needed to address aerosol-precipitation interactions. 4. REFERENCES Tao, W.-K., X. Li, A. Khain, T. Matsui, S. Lang, and J. Simpson, 2007: The role of atmospheric aerosol concentration on deep convective precipitation: Cloud-resolving model simulations. J. Geophy. Res., 112, D24S18, doi:10.1029/2007JD008728. All other references can be found in above paper. 5. Acknowledgements The GCE model is mainly supported by the NASA Headquarters Atmospheric Dynamics and Thermodynamics Program and the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The research was also supported by the Office of Science (BER), U. S. Department of Energy/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (DOE/ARM) Interagency. The authors acknowledge NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for computer time used in this research.

  18. Northern California CO2 Reduction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hymes, Edward

    2010-06-16

    C6 Resources LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Shell Oil Company, worked with the US Department of Energy (DOE) under a Cooperative Agreement to develop the Northern California CO2 Reduction Project. The objective of the Project is to demonstrate the viability of using Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) to reduce existing greenhouse gas emissions from industrial sources on a large-scale. The Project will capture more than 700,000 metric tonnes of CO2 per year, which is currently being vented to the atmosphere from the Shell Martinez Refinery in Contra Costa County. The CO2 will be compressed and dehydrated at the refinery and then transported via pipeline to a sequestration site in a rural area in neighboring Solano County. The CO2 will be sequestered into a deep saline formation (more than two miles underground) and will be monitored to assure secure, long-term containment. The pipeline will be designed to carry as much as 1,400,000 metric tonnes of CO2 per year, so additional capacity will be available to accommodate CO2 captured from other industrial sources. The Project is expected to begin operation in 2015. The Project has two distinct phases. The overall objective of Phase 1 was to develop a fully definitive design basis for the Project. The Cooperative Agreement with the DOE provided cost sharing for Phase 1 and the opportunity to apply for additional DOE cost sharing for Phase 2, comprising the design, construction and operation of the Project. Phase 1 has been completed. DOE co-funding is provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. As prescribed by ARRA, the Project will stimulate the local economy by creating manufacturing, transportation, construction, operations, and management jobs while addressing the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at an accelerated pace. The Project, which will also assist in meeting the CO2 reduction requirements set forth in California's Climate Change law, presents a major opportunity for both the environment as well as the region. C6 Resources is conducting the Project in collaboration with federally-funded research centers, such as Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and Lawrence Livermore National Lab. C6 Resources and Shell have identified CCS as one of the critical pathways toward a worldwide goal of providing cleaner energy. C6 Resources, in conjunction with the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), has conducted an extensive and ongoing public outreach and CCS education program for local, regional and state-wide stakeholders. As part of a long term relationship, C6 Resources will continue to engage directly with community leaders and residents to ensure public input and transparency. This topical report summarizes the technical work from Phase 1 of the Project in the following areas; Surface Facility Preliminary Engineering: summarizes the preliminary engineering work performed for CO2 capture, CO2 compression and dehydration at the refinery, and surface facilities at the sequestration site; Pipeline Preliminary Engineering: summarizes the pipeline routing study and preliminary engineering design; Geologic Sequestration: summarizes the work to characterize, model and evaluate the sequestration site; and Monitoring, Verification and Accounting (MVA): summarizes the MVA plan to assure long-term containment of the sequestered CO2.

  19. THE PROPER MOTION OF THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS. II. NEW RESULTS FOR FIVE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD FIELDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costa, Edgardo; Mendez, Rene A.; Moyano, Maximiliano; Pedreros, Mario H.; Gallart, Carme; Noel, Noelia E-mail: rmendez@das.uchile.cl E-mail: mmoyano@mpia-hd.mpg.de E-mail: carme@iac.es

    2011-04-15

    We present new results from a ground-based program to determine the proper motion of the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) relative to background quasars (QSOs), being carried out with the Irenee du Pont 2.5 m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. The data were secured over a time base of seven years and with eight epochs of observation 'As measured' (field) proper motions were obtained for five QSO fields in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC): QJ0033-7028, QJ0035-7201, QJ0047-7530, QJ0102-7546, and QJ0111-7249. Assuming that the SMC has a disklike central structure, but that it does not rotate, we determined a center-of-mass (CM) proper motion for the SMC from two of these fields, QJ0033-7028 and QJ0035-7201, located to the northwest and west of the main body of the SMC, respectively. Combining these latter proper motions with the CM proper motion presented by Costa et al. (hereafter CMP09) for the SMC (from the field QJ0036-7227, located to the west of the main body of the SMC), we obtain a weighted mean of {mu}{sub {alpha}} cos {delta} = +0.93 {+-} 0.14 mas yr{sup -1} and {mu}{sub {delta}} = -1.25 {+-} 0.11 mas yr{sup -1}. This CM proper motion is in good agreement with recent results by Piatek et al. and Vieira et al., and we are confident that it is a good representation of the 'bulk' transverse motion of the SMC. On the contrary, the results we obtain from the fields QJ0047-7530 and QJ0102-7546, located to the south of the main body of the SMC, and the field QJ0111-7249, located to the east of its main body, seem to be affected by streaming motions. For this reason, we have not used the latter to determine the SMC CM proper motion. These streaming motions could be evidence that the SMC was tidally disrupted in a close encounter with the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Complementing the SMC CM proper motions given here and in CMP09, with the currently accepted radial velocity of its center, we have derived its galactocentric (gc) velocity components, obtaining a weighted mean of V{sub gc,t} = +289 {+-} 25 km s{sup -1} and V{sub gc,r} = +14 {+-} 24 km s{sup -1}. These velocities, together with the galactocentric velocity components given for the LMC in CMP09, imply a relative velocity between the LMC and SMC of 67 {+-} 42 km s{sup -1} for V{sub rot,LMC} = 50 km s{sup -1} and of 98 {+-} 48 km s{sup -1} for V{sub rot,LMC} = 120 km s{sup -1}. Despite our large errors, these values are consistent with the standard assumption that the MCs are gravitationally bound to each other.