National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for 1995-2013 congo kinshasa

  1. AFRICA ASIA SOUTH AMERICA Algeria Afghanistan Argentina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    Peru Comoros China, Hong Kong SAR Suriname Congo, Dem. Rep. (Kinshasa) China, Macau SAR Uruguay Congo

  2. Logging roads rapidly expanding in Congo rainforest Logging roads rapidly expanding in Congo rainforest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    buy from http://news.mongabay.com/2007/0607-congo.html (1 of 4) 9/7/2007 11:42:18 AM Search #12/0607-congo.html (2 of

  3. Tropical timber import export Africa Asia volume Congo India Nigeria Papua New Guinea & the Solomon Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tropical timber import export Africa Asia volume Congo India Nigeria Papua New Guinea & the Solomon/14/2008 12:55:54 PM] #12;Tropical timber import export Africa Asia volume Congo India Nigeria Volume ('000 m3 import export Africa Asia volume Congo India Nigeria Papua New Guinea Reports (commissioned

  4. Republic of the Congo: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk, New York: Energy ResourcesProductsRensselaerNorthCounty,Congo:

  5. The Congo Basin possesses some of the most valuable and threatened rainforest outside the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Rebecca D.

    between environmental governance and logging in forest concessions in the western Congo Basin on Governance and Logging, two syntheses volumes on "Logging in the Congo Basin," and "Environmental Governance a unique research opportunity for three reasons: 1) its importance to global forest cover and terrestrial

  6. Background Report on Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Tracy A

    2011-05-01

    Each month, approximately 45,000 people die from violence, hunger, disease, and other effects of displacement as a result of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The country is often said to be plagued by a 'resource curse.' During each period in history since its discovery by the West, the DRC has possessed the resources the world craves and the world has sought these without regard for the consequences to the Congolese people. The catastrophic consequences of Congo's history of natural resource exploitation are the direct and indirect death of millions of Congolese people. The current war in Congo is multi-causal in nature but explanations are often reduced to describing it as an ethic conflict based on objective grievance. Objective grievance such as inequality, ethnic tensions, land disputes, and lack of democracy do exist, but they are neither necessary nor sufficient to explain the cause of the violent conflict, and more importantly, they fall short in explaining why this conflict has continued for years. The reality is the conflict is an economic war in which the trade of conflict minerals, gold and the 3Ts (tin, tantalum, tungsten), is directly linked to the financial sustainability of the groups fighting each other in eastern DRC. Objective grievance is a by-product of the conflict, used to create a false but plausible moral justification to continue violence. This paper examines the history of conflict in the DRC and the socio-economic variables contributing to the current war fought over conflict minerals.

  7. Mapping Monkeypox Transmission Risk through Time and Space in the Congo Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Lash, R. Ryan; Carroll, Darin S.; Damon, Inger K.; Karem, Kevin; Reynolds, Mary G.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Malekani, Jean M.; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Formenty, Pierre; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2013-09-05

    Monkeypox is a major public health concern in the Congo Basin area, with changing patterns of human case occurrences reported in recent years. Whether this trend results from better surveillance and detection methods, reduced proportions...

  8. Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurence, William F.

    2012-08-01

    Thonburi, Bangkok 10150, Thailand. 22Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, Scotland EH3 5LR, UK. 23Tshuapa-Lomami-Lualaba Project, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. 24Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA. 25National Museum of Natural...

  9. U.S. Crude Oil Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Brazzaville) 24 8 13 20 12 15 1993-2015 Congo (Kinshasa) 1993-2013 Denmark 1997-2004 Egypt 17 1993-2015 Equatorial Guinea 1996-2014 Estonia 1999-1999 Gabon 4 18 1993-2015...

  10. Carbon finance, tropical forests and the state : governing international climate risk in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Ian P

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines how evolving norms of international climate change mitigation are translated into national forest governance policies and land management techniques in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The ...

  11. Era Bell Thompson: Observations of an American Daughter on the American South and the African Congo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zacharias, Karenbeth Garvin

    2012-12-31

    ERA BELL THOMPSON: REFLECTIONS IN THE MIRROR OBSERVATIONS OF AN AMERICAN DAUGHTER ON THE AMERICAN SOUTH AND THE AFRICAN CONGO BY KARENBETH G. ZACHARIAS Submitted to the graduate degree program in History and the Graduate Faculty of the University... not have been possible but for the enormous support provided by the Department of History at the University of Kansas. In addition, I would like to thank the Departments of African and African American Studies and Humanities and Western Civilization...

  12. 388 S. Afr. J. Bot. 1999,65(5 & 6); 388-391 Leptographium eucalyptophilum, a new species from Eucalyptus in the Congo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eucalyptus in the Congo K. Jacobs', M.J. Wingfeld and J. Raux Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology diseases on Eucalyptus in the Republic of Congo, West Africa, an unidentified Leptographium sp. was isolated from stems of Eucalyptus hybrids. Comparison with known Leptographium spp. led us to conclude

  13. Innovation in the management of upstream state oil contracts in the Republic of Congo : from transaction to Cooperation for Economic Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moussa, Yaya

    2010-01-01

    This thesis examines the often competitive interests involved in oil contracts and the ensuing strategic dilemmas faced by both the Republic of Congo and international oil companies that operate in that country. Throughout ...

  14. The Congo deep-sea fan: how far and for how long? A basin-wide view of the interaction between a giant submarine fan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    basement at about 8 s (TWT). The seismic interpretation was carried out using Sismage Research TM software of thousands of km of 2D seismic-reflection profiles from the ZaiAngo project across the Congo-Angola passive to a re-interpretation of the post-rift history of sediment supply in the basin and a reconsideration

  15. Structural Analysis of a Viral Ovarian Tumor Domain Protease from the Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Complex with Covalently Bonded Ubiquitin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capodagli, Glenn C.; McKercher, Marissa A.; Baker, Erica A.; Masters, Emily M.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Pegan, Scott D.

    2014-10-02

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is a tick-borne, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA [ssRNA(-)] nairovirus that produces fever, prostration, and severe hemorrhages in humans. With fatality rates for CCHF ranging up to 70% based on several factors, CCHF is considered a dangerous emerging disease. Originally identified in the former Soviet Union and the Congo, CCHF has rapidly spread across large sections of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Recent reports have identified a viral homologue of the ovarian tumor protease superfamily (vOTU) within its L protein. This protease has subsequently been implicated in downregulation of the type I interferon immune response through cleavage of posttranslational modifying proteins ubiquitin (Ub) and the Ub-like interferon-simulated gene 15 (ISG15). Additionally, homologues of vOTU have been suggested to perform similar roles in the positive-sense, single-stranded RNA [ssRNA(+)] arteriviruses. By utilizing X-ray crystallographic techniques, the structure of vOTU covalently bound to ubiquitin propylamine, a suicide substrate of the enzyme, was elucidated to 1.7 {angstrom}, revealing unique structural elements that define this new subclass of the OTU superfamily. In addition, kinetic studies were carried out with aminomethylcoumarin (AMC) conjugates of monomeric Ub, ISG15, and NEDD8 (neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 8) substrates in order to provide quantitative insights into vOTU's preference for Ub and Ub-like substrates.

  16. Rumba From Congo To Cape Town 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salter, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The spread of Congolese music and musicians across the African continent since the 1960s is a phenomenon without parallel. How this was achieved has not been given the academic attention it is due. The welcome Congolese ...

  17. Congo guerillas agree to protect rare gorillas Congo guerillas agree to protect rare gorillas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and wildlife, while examining the impact of emerging trends in climate, technology, economics, and finance phones in Africa Seniors helping Africa Oil palm in rainforests Extinction debate Extinction crisis that has been heavily impacted by civil strife in the region, starting with the exodus of refugees from

  18. Britain invests $100M to protect Congo rainforest Britain invests $100M to protect Congo rainforest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and wildlife, while examining the impact of emerging trends in climate, technology, economics, and finance Africa Oil palm in rainforests Extinction debate Extinction crisis Extinction debate Palm Oil Borneo deforestation while improving the livelihood for about 50 million people in Central Africa. "The links between

  19. Congo guerillas threaten to kill rare gorillas Congo guerillas threaten to kill rare gorillas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    lands and wildlife, while examining the impact of emerging trends in climate, technology, economics alleviation Cell phones in Africa Seniors helping Africa Oil palm in rainforests Extinction debate Extinction already have in our hands the potential to abate accelerating energy demand in a practical, economically

  20. Illegal logging threatens Congo's forests, global climate Illegal logging threatens Congo's forests, global climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .4 billion tonnes of CO2, roughly equivalent to the UK's CO2 emissions over the last sixty years. The DRC, global climate Rhett A. Butler, mongabay.com April 11, 2007 Despite government and World Bank assurances. ©Greenpeace/Reynaers Greenpeace says the World Bank, which is the largest donor to DRC, has failed to control

  1. Democratic Republic of Congo-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (IISD) Sector Climate, Energy, Land, Water Focus Area Renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, - Waste to Energy, Economic Development, Forestry, Greenhouse Gas, Land Use,...

  2. Democratic Republic of Congo-Low Emission Capacity Building Programme...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for 2050. The country exported 500,000 tons of copper in 2010, as well as oil, still poverty reduction is one of the main efforts of the government.vii In its Poverty Reduction...

  3. Democratic Republic of Congo-Low Emission Capacity Building Programme...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    departments in charge of production and the environment (environment, agriculture, energy, oil, mining, transport, urban planning and housing, land-affairs), the director of...

  4. Democratic Republic of Congo-National Adaptation Plan Global...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Programme (UNDP), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Partner World Health Organization (WHO), UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Fund for...

  5. Democratic Republic of Congo-Low Emission Capacity Building Programme

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (UtilityInstruments IncMississippi:Delta Electric PowerSupport | Open(LECBP) |

  6. Democratic Republic of Congo-National Adaptation Plan Global Support

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (UtilityInstruments IncMississippi:Delta Electric PowerSupport | Open(LECBP)

  7. Democratic Republic of Congo-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (UtilityInstruments IncMississippi:Delta Electric PowerSupport |

  8. Democratic Republic of Congo: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (UtilityInstruments IncMississippi:Delta Electric PowerSupport |Democratic

  9. Democratic Republic of Congo-REDD Programme | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to: navigation, searchDaimlerDaytonInformation ForestREDD

  10. Burundi-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLC JumpBiossenceBrunswick, Maine:IAEA Cooperation JumpBasin | Open

  11. Cameroon-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLC JumpBiossenceBrunswick,Calendar HomeGmbHFunds Investment

  12. Democratic Republic of Congo-Low Emission Capacity Building Programme

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePower VenturesInformation9) WindGridDeepi hassource

  13. Democratic Republic of Congo: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePower VenturesInformation9) WindGridDeepi hassourceDemocratic Republic of

  14. Society to 2050 AD: Anthropological Forecasts Extrapolating Correlates of Modernization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denton, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Demrepub Congo Repub CongoChad Chile China Colombia Comoros Demrepub Congo Repub CongoChad Chile China Colombia Comoros Demrepub Congo Repub Congo

  15. Congo cancels logging contracts, calls for sustainable forest management Congo cancels logging contracts, calls for sustainable forest management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the impact of emerging trends in climate, technology, economics, and finance on conservation and development phones in Africa Seniors helping Africa Oil palm in rainforests Extinction debate Extinction crisis Extinction debate Palm Oil Borneo Orangutans in Borneo Interviews T-SHIRTS http://news.mongabay.com/2007

  16. Part I: International and Regional Management Arrangements Global Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Republic, Chad, Chile, China, People's Republic of, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Congo, Democratic Republic of

  17. Decker Student Health Services Center PO Box 6000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    China China, Hong Kong SAR China, Macao SAR Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, Democratic Republic of Costa

  18. Last Name First Date of Birth Immunization Record

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennett, Daniel

    African Rep. Chad China Colombia Comoros Congo Congo DR Cote d'Ivoire Croatia Djibouti Dominican Republic

  19. TUBERCULOSIS (TB) SCREENING QUESTIONNAIRE (REQUIRED) PLEASE PRINT -This section to be completed by student

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almor, Amit

    African Republic Chad China Colombia Comoros Congo Cook Islands DR - Congo Cote d'Ivoire Croatia Djibouti

  20. NMR STUDIES OF THE GLYCOPROTEIN CYTOPLASMIC TAILS OF HANTAVIRUS AND CRIMEAN CONGO HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estrada, David Fernando

    2011-04-25

    Davido Date approved: 26 April, 2011 iii I dedicate this work to my loving and patient wife Amanda and our three children: Katrina, Isabella, and Xavier iv Abstract The Bunyaviridae family...

  1. Early to middle Miocene foraminifera from the deep-sea Congo Fan, offshore Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaminski, Michael A.

    of planktonic foraminifera. Faunas show close affinities to those of the eastern Venezuela Basin, Gulf of Mexico energy levels and environmental disturbance. The majority of the section consists of shales with very low

  2. Democratic Republic of Congo-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Project Catalyst and McKinsey & Company supported twelve countries with low carbon growth planning activities prior to COP 15. This assistance focused on sustainable development,...

  3. Mapping through Memory: The 2010 Rencontres Picha biennial in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Elaine Ericksen

    2015-01-01

    visiting. director of SUD, the Douala triennial in Cameroon,centers: Doul’art in Douala, Cameroon, Picha in Lubumbashi,

  4. LETTER doi:10.1038/nature13265 Widespread decline of Congo rainforest greenness in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Liming

    be critical thresholds of water availability below which higher- biomass in upper forest layers. It is also consistent with increases in photo- synthetically active radiation,24 , aerosol optical thickness (AOT), cloud optical thickness (COT), photo- synthetically active radiation (PAR

  5. Democratic Republic of Congo-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Partner...

  6. Democratic Republic of Congo-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (UtilityInstruments IncMississippi:Delta Electric PowerSupport | Open Energy

  7. Democratic Republic of Congo-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (UtilityInstruments IncMississippi:Delta Electric PowerSupport | Open

  8. Democratic Republic of Congo-Forest Investment Program (FIP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to: navigation, searchDaimlerDaytonInformation Forest

  9. Rwanda-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo Basin

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg,EnergyEast JumpInformationstandardsInformationEnergy|

  10. Republic of Congo-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS Report UrlNM-bRenewable Energy RFPsLtdEnergy Plc JumpReplex

  11. Angola-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo Basin

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin: EnergyYork Jump| Open Energy Information Angola-Nationally

  12. WHO REPORT ON THE GLOBAL TOBACCO EPIDEMIC, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WHO World Health Organization

    2013-01-01

    African Republic Chad Comoros Congo Côte d’Ivoire DemocraticAfrican Republic Chad Comoros Congo Côte d'Ivoire DemocraticAfrican Republic Chad Comoros Congo Côte d'Ivoire Democratic

  13. International reserves management and the current account

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aizenman, Joshua

    2007-01-01

    Central African Rep. Chad Comoros Congo, Republic of CôteCentral African Rep. Chad Comoros Congo, Republic of CôteHong Kong Macao Colombia Comoros Congo, Republic of Costa

  14. Four new species of deep water agglutinated foraminifera from the OligoceneMiocene of the Congo Fan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaminski, Michael A.

    an exploration well drilled at water depth of 2,027m in Block 31, offshore Angola. The well penetrated clastic). The species described in this study derive from the Oligocene section of an exploration hole drilled of these forms are also present in the Miocene section. The purpose of this paper is to provide formal

  15. The Right to Life with Dignity: Economic and Social Rights Respect in the World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolp, Felicity Ann

    2010-01-01

    Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo,Bissau Chad Sierra Leone Comoros Vanuatu Afghanistan NigerBissau Freq. Swaziland Comoros Papua New Guinea Yemen, Rep.

  16. Is there an association between PEPFAR funding and improvement in national health indicators in Africa? A retrospective study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duber, Herbert C; Coates, Thomas J; Szekeras, Greg; Kaji, Amy H; Lewis, Roger J

    2010-01-01

    Angola, Cameroon, Comoros, Gambia, Malawi, Mali, Sao TomeAfrican Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Democratic RepublicAfrican Republic Chad Comoros Congo Democratic Republic of

  17. INTERNATIONAL CONNECTIVITY Version 16 June 15, 1997

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liblit, Ben

    ) Islands Iu­ CO Colombia (Republic of) ­­­ KM Comoros (Islamic Federal Republic of the) ­­­ CG Congo

  18. Application Form for Screening Fee Waiver, 2015 Waseda University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaji, Hajime

    , Comoros, D.P.R.Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia

  19. INTERNATIONAL CONNECTIVITY Version 8 April 15, 1993

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liblit, Ben

    (Republic of) ­­­­­ KM Comoros (Islamic Federal Republic of the) ­­u­­ CG Congo (Republic of the) ­­­­­ CK

  20. INTERNATIONAL CONNECTIVITY Version 13 February 15, 1995

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liblit, Ben

    Colombia (Republic of) ­­­­ KM Comoros (Islamic Federal Republic of the) ­­U­ CG Congo (Republic of the

  1. International Projects: Education Grant value over $250,000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central Afrian Republic, Comoros, Congo

  2. Application Form for Screening Fee Waiver, 2014 Waseda University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaji, Hajime

    , Comoros, D.P.R.Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia

  3. Student Name: ______________________________ Birthdate (MM/DD/YY): ____________ PART I SCREENING: Please answer the following questions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad China Colombia Comoros Congo

  4. An Overview of World Tropical Hardwood Resources, Forest Products Trade and Environmental Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea

  5. Living With Fear: A Population-Based Survey on Attitudes about Peace, Justice, and Social Reconstruction in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vinck, Patrick; Pham, Phuong; Baldo, Suliman; Shigekane, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    programs were the primary source of information about whatunsurprisingly, the primary source of information for theit was the primary source of information, followed by family

  6. Q&A on "Widespread Decline of Congo Rainforest Greenness in the Past Decade" Published Online by Nature on April 23, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Liming

    sensors (optical, thermal, microwave and gravity). What is the implication of the finding? The severe period may alter forest species composition and structure and thus affect biodiversity and carbon storage;2 level in a region. They allow us to study the seasonality of vegetation growth, measure vegetation

  7. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2015: Raising taxes on tobacco

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    World Health Organization

    2015-01-01

    Estimates not available Comoros adveRtIsIng bans: bans onRepublic XOF Chad ** XAF Comoros KMF Congo ** XAF CôteAfrican Republic Chad Comoros Congo Côte d'Ivoire Democratic

  8. WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic 2011: Warning about the dangers of tobacco

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WHO

    2011-01-01

    Barbuda, the Bahamas, the Comoros, Cook Islands, Ecuador,African Republic Chad Comoros Congo Côte d’Ivoire DemocraticAfrican Republic Chad Comoros Congo Côte d'Ivoire Democratic

  9. Berkeley International Office Survey 1. What is your gender?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Lucia

    Comoros 0.0% 0 Congo 0.0% 0 Congo, Democratic Republic of The 0.0% 0 Costa Rica 0.0% 0 Cote D Ivoire 0

  10. Berkeley International Office Survey 1. What is your gender?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Lucia

    Comoros 0.0% 0 Congo 0.0% 0 Congo, Democratic Republic of The 0.0% 0 Costa Rica 0.4% 2 Cote D Ivoire 0

  11. WHO Technical Manual on Tobacco Tax Administration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    Central African Republic Chad Comoros Côte d’Ivoire Eritreaof Brazzaville (Congo), health (Comoros) Broad: health (El

  12. Essays on International Trade Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfayesus, Asrat

    2013-01-01

    African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of theAfrican Republic; Chad; Comoros; Republic of the Congo; Cote

  13. CEFADES: An impact evaluation of a vocational and rehabilitation program for at-­?risk youth in Eastern DRC 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zike; Finnegan, Gavin; Hobson, David; Pinzon, Diego; Vander Hey, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    , Wageningen: Wageningen University. World Bank. 2009. DDR in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Program Update, World Bank. ...

  14. L'Institut Jane Goodall organitza "MOBILitza't per la selva" Campanya de reciclatge de mbils per a protegir els ecosistemes africans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escolano, Francisco

    produeixen milers de víctimes i refugiats a la República Democràtica del Congo. La mineria il·legal destrueix

  15. Energy and the Evolution of World-Systems: Fueling Power and Environmental Degradation, 1800-2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Kirk Steven

    2011-01-01

    with Power Country Zambia Cameroon Morocco Norway PeruPower Country Zambia Honduras Democratic Rep. of Congo Zambia Germany Peru

  16. Hard Work, Hard Times: Global Volatility and African Subjectivities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makhulu, Anne-Maria; Buggenhagen, Beth A.; Jackson, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    zone project driven by Dubai World that would extend acrossDemocratic Republic of Congo Dubai World, 17 “Ebi Te Yie” (

  17. Ministers Meet in Addis Ababa for U.S.-Africa Energy Ministerial...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of Djibouti, the Arab Republic of Egypt, the Republic of Equatorial Guinea, the Gabonese Republic, the Republic of the Gambia,...

  18. The Political Economy of Ways and Means: Procurement Contracts, Entrepreneurship, and Development in Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ngo Nyeck, Sybille

    2013-01-01

    the independent republic of Liberia used historical treatiesdelineate the contours of the Liberia-Sierra Leone border infollowed by the Free Congo, Liberia, Nigeria, and Cameroon.

  19. A Review of the World Bank Forest Carbon Partnership Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This working paper includes new analyses of the six R-PPs recently submitted by Argentina, Costa Rica, Kenya, Nepal, Republic of Congo and Tanzania for formal consideration...

  20. Capital flows: Catalyst or Hindrance to economic takeoffs?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aizenman, Joshua; Sushko, Vladyslav

    2011-01-01

    in Australia and in 1983 in Comoros. As results reported inCongo, Republic of Colombia Comoros Cape Verde Costa Rica

  1. Cingular World Basics Pricing Country Name

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    .49 COMOROS (MAYOTTE IS.) 269 $2.69 KENYA 254 $0.79 REUNION ISLND-FRENCH 262 $1.19 ZIMBABWE 263 $0.59 CONGO

  2. WORK PROGRAMME 2010 COOPERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milano-Bicocca, Università

    Armenia3 LM Chad L Suriname LM Azerbaijan3 LM Comoros L Trinidad and UM Belarus3 LM Congo (Republic) LM

  3. Explaining the causes and consequences of internationally monitored elections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyde, Susan Dayton

    2006-01-01

    Yemen, Senegal, Lebanon* Comoros, Fiji, South Korea, TheArgentina, Belize, Chile, Comoros, Congo Brazzaville*,occurred in Jamaica (1983), Comoros (1996), Kuwait (1990),

  4. Has Democracy Reduced Inequalities in Child Mortality? An analysis of 5 million births from 50 developing countries since 1970.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramos, Antonio Pedro

    2013-01-01

    tran- sitions countries, Pakistan. The Dark grey representintroduction of democracy in Pakistan is always associatedIndia, Nigeria, China, Pakistan, Congo and Ethiopia). Common

  5. Cameroon-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Congo Basin AgencyCompany Organization Environment Canada, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector Climate, Energy, Land, Water Focus Area...

  6. Rwanda-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Congo Basin AgencyCompany Organization Environment Canada, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector Climate, Energy, Land, Water Focus Area...

  7. Burundi-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Congo Basin AgencyCompany Organization Environment Canada, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector Climate, Energy, Land, Water Focus Area...

  8. U.S.-Africa Energy Ministerial Co-Chairs' Summary from Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of Djibouti, the Arab Republic of Egypt, the Republic of Equatorial Guinea, the Gabonese Republic, the Republic of the Gambia,...

  9. Montpellier 8 March 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pettenella, Davide

    sample 835 Public works/construction 46% Arms and defence 38% Oil and gas 21% Banking and finance 15 Deforested areas (90-00, FAO) Nigeria Indonesia Camerun Madagascar Rep. Dem. Congo Niger Costa d 200 Sommatoria indici Nigeria Indonesia Camerun Madagascar Rep.Dem.Congo Niger Costad'Avorio Zimbabwe

  10. 5 6 Institut de recherche pour le dveloppement < Health/Benin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and nutrition; agriculture and aquaculture; impact of climate change and adaptation of societies; energy, Congo, DR Congo, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Madagascar, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania, Chad. 5 8 for proposals now in course of preparation concern agroforestry, energy in the South, protected areas

  11. Fixing Failed States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, John

    2010-01-01

    Mauritania 30. Nigeria 31. Liberia 32. Myanmar 33. SomaliaThe World Bank considers Liberia, Myanmar, Somalia, and theRepublic of the Congo, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Sudan. He

  12. Essays on Trade, Infrastructure, and Human Capital Outcomes in Developing Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panda, Pallavi

    2015-01-01

    Even though, Mozambique, Liberia, Ethiopia and Cote D’IvoireRepublic of Congo, Liberia and Sierra Leone. Zimbabwe has2000 Lesotho Y October 2, 2000 Liberia Y December 29, 2006

  13. Country Zone 0.5 Kg 1 Kg Country Zone 0.5 Kg 1 Kg AFGHANISTAN 7 21.72 26.78 NEW WORK 9 7.20 11.70

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shihadeh, Alan

    .72 26.78 COMOROS 7 21.72 26.78 FIJI 6 21.72 26.78 CONGO 7 21.72 26.78 FINLAND 5 9.59 14.65 COOK IS 6

  14. Protesting the contest : election boycotts around the world, 1990-2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaulieu, Emily Ann

    2006-01-01

    Faso Cambodia Cameroon Chad Comoros Congo (dropped) Cote d’violence Azerbaijan Cameroon Comoros Cote d’Ivoire GhanaPeru, Niger, Mali, Yemen, Ghana, Comoros, and Cameroon while

  15. The Town lattice truss : an appropriate bridge technology for developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radford, Todd C. (Todd Craig), 1977-

    2010-01-01

    The Town lattice truss is proposed as an appropriate technology for the Tshumbe Diocese of the Democratic Republic of Congo. This proposal is made based on an understanding of rural transport and appropriate technology and ...

  16. Exhumation, rift-flank uplift, and the thermal evolution of the Rwenzori Mountains determined by combined (U-Th)/He and U-Pb thermochronometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacPhee, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Rising over 5 km along the border of Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Rwenzori Mountains represent an extreme example of basement rift-flank uplift in the western branch of the East African Rift, a ...

  17. An overview of recent trends and current status of Forest Stewardship Council ) certification | July 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by engaging the power of market dynamics. Activities FSC, a multi-stakeholder organization, was foundedPacific(HK) LatinAmerica(Peru) Russia+CIS(Russia) Colombia Uganda Argentina Congo India Indonesia Ireland Latvia

  18. Representations, Ritual, & Social Renewal: Essays In Africanist Medical Anthropology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janzen, John M.

    2014-08-26

    choices in Nzita’s case? Therapy management: Simple combinations of persons, roles, and relationships Therapy management: Complex combinations of persons, roles, and relationships Infirmier graduates, Lower Congo Swedish Covenant Mission, with Dr...

  19. KYOTO UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS GUIDE for INTERNATIONAL APPLICANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takada, Shoji

    Integrated Human Studies/ Human and Environmental Studies 127 112 140 155 - - 70 46 Energy Science - - 128 Georgia 2 Egypt 13 Sudan 3 Libya 2 Tunisia 3 Kenya 6 Tanzania 1 Democratic Republic of the Congo 2 Nigeria

  20. 10 18 14 18 23,000 100 1,700

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takada, Shoji

    Studies 127 112 140 155 - - 70 46 Energy Science - - 128 128 - - 18 22 Asian and African Area Studies 1 Democratic Republic of the Congo 2 Nigeria 2 Ghana 1 Cameroon 1 Zambia 1 Morocco 1 Ethiopia 2

  1. The Transport of Heavy Metals by the Mississippi River and Their Fate in the Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trefry, John Harold

    1977-01-01

    , 1976) show that particulate Fe, Al, Mh, Ni, Co, Cr and V concentrations in several large rivers (Amazon, Congo, Ganges, Mekong and Orinoco) approxi­ mate crustal abundance values whereas Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were generally much higher...

  2. Fixing Failed States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, John

    2010-01-01

    Republic of the Congo 6. Iraq 7. Afghanistan 8. Centralwars in Afghanistan and Iraq has spent up to $500 billion aMilitary Adventure in Iraq 97 (2006). An army briefing noted

  3. African Herp News Newsletter of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Kate

    (1923) in describing snakes from forests of the Congo Basin noted that some individuals have a uniform. CHIPPAUX, J.-P. 1999. Les Serpents d'Afrique Occidentale et Centrale. Paris, France, IRD Éditions. DE WITTE

  4. Contributed Paper Effects of Landscape Features on the Distribution and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockwell, Robert F.

    sobre la Distribuci´on y Sustentabilidad de la Cacer´ia de Ungulados en el Norte de Congo Resumen: El para estimar la sustentabilidad de la cacer´ia en bosques tropicales. Investigamos como difiri´o la

  5. Georgia Water Resources Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (Burundi, Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda) and is used-Fired Power Plants in the Chattahoochee-Apalachicola (ACF) & Etowah-Coosa (ACT) Rivers Basic Information Title: Toxic Metalloid (As, Se, Sb) Enrichment from Coal-Fired Power Plants in the Chattahoochee

  6. World Bank to raise $250M for avoided deforestation in tropics World Bank to raise $250M for avoided deforestation in tropics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Street Journal. The $250 million fund will reward Indonesia, Brazil, Congo and other tropical forest argue that the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation (RED) initiative, launched in 2005 by the United their forests to offset greenhouse gas emissionsm. Meanwhile, last month Brazil -- which has the world's largest

  7. Agreements --Africa 27 28 Atlas of International Freshwater Agreements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, Aaron

    Agreements -- Africa 27 AFRICA #12;28 Atlas of International Freshwater Agreements Congo of the Niger; and 6) rules for future occupation of the coast of the African continent #12;Agreements -- Africa Great Britain and France #12;Agreements -- Africa 31 Gash Total area: 40,000 km2 Area of Basin

  8. IAGA WG 1.2 on Electromagnetic Induction in the Earth 20th Workshop Abstract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Alan G.

    IAGA WG 1.2 on Electromagnetic Induction in the Earth 20th Workshop Abstract Giza, Egypt , September 18-24, 2010 20th IAGA WG 1.2 Workshop on Electromagnetic Induction in the Earth 1 of 4 Giza, Egypt, September 18-24, 201 First deep electrical resistivity structure of the southern Congo craton David Khoza

  9. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Tullow Oil won a bid in the December 2005 licensing roundoil, Cabinda’s Central remained unclaimed in Angola’s 2007 –2008 licensinglicensing round for smaller onshore opportuni- ties in the Congo and Kwanza Basins, the elites had formed domestic firms for oil

  10. Culture or climate? The relative influences of past processes on the composition of the lowland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington, Richard

    and indirect human impacts, including commercial logging, mining and conversion to farmland. It is estimated that prehis- toric humans using pottery, iron, agriculture and animal husbandry have occupied wide areas of pottery and iron artefacts have been discovered along the Congo river and its tributaries dating from 2300

  11. 1998 Macmillan Magazines Ltd. Volume 392(6675), 2 April 1998, p 444 Obituary: Haroun Tazieff (1914-98)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beauducel, François

    of the revolution, to Belgium, where he grew up in very modest circumstances. After serving in the Belgian army to the Belgian Congo to work as a geologist and mining engineer. While there, he wrote several scientific papers to Belgium, Tazieff taught at the University of Brussels and later at the Universities of Paris and Orsay

  12. Complying With US Export Regulations Which Affect Foreign Students Most of our students' activities qualify for exclusion from US export regulations, i.e., a license is not required prior to allowing a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutcheon, James M.

    energy (DOE). If you have questions about any of these courses, contact RSCP. NOTE: If you are teaching or development, where research results are restricted for proprietary or specific national security reasons) Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Cuba Democratic Republic of the Congo Iran Iraq Liberia Lybia North

  13. Tropical hardwood markets Genve le 8 octobre 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberia Ghana RCA R-Congo RDC 1000m3 1998 (11 M m3) 1999 (12,2 M m3) 2000 (13,3 M m3) 2001 (12,9 M m3% 17% 17% 12% 8% 5% 6% Malaisie (4.3 M m3) Gabon (2 M m3) Indonésie (2 M m3) PNG (1.5 M m3) Liberia (0

  14. Ogmios 19

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ostler, Nicholas D M

    2002-01-01

    the Community, edited by Barbara Burnaby and Jon Reyhner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 Vanishing Footprints: Nomadic People Speak, Ann Perry, Anthony Swift ......... 2 1 Independent Cornish Language Study.. . . . 2... ) Marshall Lewis of the USA receives $800 to compile dictionary materials, a grammar outline, texts, videos O F performance foor the A n y i m e r e language of Niger-Congo, with some 60-70 speakers. (3) Suzanne Cook of Canada receives $800...

  15. Number of Internatitonal Students of Degree Recipients by Nation Degree Recipients by year

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    of Mathematics Egypt 1 Nepal 1 Sub total 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 Department of Physics China 1 1 1 1 Egypt 1 Korea 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 Department of Medical Science China 2 1 Congo 1 Egypt 2 1 Indonesia 7 5 Libyan 1 Sub Laos 1 Vietnam 1 Sub total 0 1 5 0 0 2 1 2 Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering China 2

  16. Role of aggregation conditions and presence of small heat shock proteins on abeta structure, stability and toxicity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Sung Mun

    2006-08-16

    syndrome, who inherit an extra copy of chromosome 21, develop AD at an early age. (Tanzi 1996; Petronis 1999; Lott and Head 2001; Head and Lott 2004) These facts suggest that mutations in APP or extra copies of chromosome 21 are strongly linked to AD... domain of APP695........................14 2. 4. Schematic drawing of three domains in small heat shock proteins.......................30 3. 1 A? aggregation scanning with time by using Congo red. .....................................43 3. 2. Size...

  17. Africa: Prosperous times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    Political instability and corruption is the rule, rather than the exception, in Africa`s main producing regions, but exploration and production prospects there are bright and attractive to foreign operators. The paper discusses exploration, drilling, resource development, and production in Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Egypt, Angola, Congo, Gabon, and Tunisia. The other countries of Africa are briefly mentioned, i.e., Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, South Africa, Sudan, Namibia, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Zaire, Mozambique, Ghana, Niger, and Seychelles.

  18. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, J.B.; Walker, T.L.

    1988-10-01

    Significant rightholding changes took place in central and southern Africa during 1987. Angola, Benin, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Seychelles, Somali Republic, Tanzania, Zaire, and Zambia announced awards or acreage open for bidding. Decreases in exploratory rightholdings occurred in Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, and Tanzania. More wells and greater footage were drilled in 1987 than in 1986. Total wells increased by 18% as 254 wells were completed compared to 217 in 1986. Footage drilled during the year increased by 46% as about 1.9 million ft were drilled compared to about 1.3 million ft in 1986. The success rate for exploration wells in 1987 improved slightly to 36% compared to 34% in 1986. Significant discoveries were made in Nigeria, Angola, Congo, and Gabon. Seismic acquisition in 1987 was the major geophysical activity during the year. Total oil production in 1987 was 773 million bbl (about 2.1 million b/d), a decrease of 7%. The decrease is mostly due to a 14% drop in Nigerian production, which comprises 60% of total regional production. The production share of OPEC countries (Nigeria and Gabon) versus non-OPEC countries of 67% remained unchanged from 1986. 24 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. The Origin and Early Cultivation of Sorghums in Africa. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mann, J.A.; Kimber, C.T.; Miller, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    climatic change may have been desertification caused by over gra~ing. As the expansion and contraction of the savanna and semi-desert steppe regions north of the equator took place, the most advantageous habitats would have also moved north and south...-Bantu) from the area of eastern Nigeria and northern Cameroon through the forests to Katanga, and later on to East Africa. The proto-Bantu were a Negroid stock closely related to the Niger-Congo peopl (if not actually of that stock). While originally...

  20. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health

    2014-06-25

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  1. Africa: Unrest and restrictive terms limit abundant potential. [Oil and gas exploration and development in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes the drilling and exploration activity of the oil and gas industries of Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, the Congo, Angola, and South Africa. Information is provided on current and predicted trends in well drilling activities (both onshore and offshore), numbers of new wells, footage information, production statistics and what fields accounted for this production, and planned new exploration activities. The paper also describes the current status of government policies and political problems affecting the oil and gas industry.

  2. Turmoil doesn`t dampen enthusiasm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the African gas and oil industries. Though Africa remains politically and economically volatile, its vast energy potential is becoming increasingly attractive to foreign oil and gas companies. Separate evaluations are given for Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Angola, Libya, Congo, Gabon, Tunisia, Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, and briefly for South Africa, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Zaire, Benin, Mozambique, Chad, Namibia, Tanzania, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Morocco, Sao Tome and Principe, Ethiopia, Niger, Madagascar, Rwanda, Mauritania, Seychelles, Uganda, and Liberia.

  3. Lemba, 1650-1930: A Drum of Affliction in Africa and the New World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janzen, John M.

    1982-01-01

    , and Portuguese colonial rule, mission activity, European commercial hegemony, and mechanized transport, its three-century presence across the north-bank Lower Congo/Zaire region, and its move with slave-emigrants to the New World where it still survives, make... coast, Ikenga, the cult of the hand in Eastern Nigeria, Bwiti in Gabon, Nzila in Western Zambia, as well as Beni-Ngoma and the Kalela Dance in East Africa, and the Copper Belt, or the Isangoma diviners association in South Africa. Going beyond...

  4. Growth, Development and Natural Resources: New Evidence Using a Heterogeneous Panel Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cavalcanti, T. V. V.; Mohaddes, K.; Raissi, M.

    which are not endowed with oil, natural gas, minerals and other non-renewable resources. Therefore, resource abun- dance is believed to be an important determinant of economic failure, which implies that oil abundance is a curse and not a blessing... that the results are not driven by a few outliers in the sub-samples, we look at country-speci?c estimations for the OPEC and EX countries. Overall the coe¢ cients 15Bahrain, China, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Egypt, France, India, Iran, Italy, Japan...

  5. Oilfields of the World. Third edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiratsoo, E.N.

    1985-01-01

    This third edition (updated to 1984) covers all of the world's major producing areas (both onshore and offshore) on six continents. It offers essential geologic, reserves, and production data on 13 nations that have become commercial oil producers in the last five years: Benin, Cameroon, Congo Republic, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Sudan, Zaire, Greece, The Phillippines, Sharjah, Thailand, Guatemala, and Surinam. Numerous maps display the geologic details of each area. This book also contains full-color maps of the oil and gas fields of the North Sea, Persian Gulf, Mexico, Venezuela, and Brazil.

  6. The Development of a Self-Rating Instrument to Screen for Learning Disabilities Among Adolescents and Young Adults

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alley, Gordon R.; Deshler, Donald D.; Warner, Michael M.; White, Warren J.

    1982-06-01

    of similar complexity : Some people find sentences like this hard to read: "The palm nut, from which oil is made, is one of the Congo's leading products." a. always a problem for me b. often a problem for me c. not often a problem for me d. not a... problem for me If the student/young adult endorsed either response a or b, the SRSC was administered orally. The item was included to account for persons with extremely poor reading skills. 3. The consumer validity items were changed to reflect the Job...

  7. Supplement 17, Part 4, Parasite-Subject Catalogue, Parasites: Nematoda And Acanthocephala 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Segal, Dorothy B.; Humphrey, Judith M.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Kirby, Margie D.

    1969-01-01

    Abbreviata golvani n. sp. Le Van Hoa, 1962 a, 4, 38-4.0, Agama agama 51, 57, fig. 16 Upemba National Park, Congo Abbreviata nyassae n. sp. Fitzsimmons, W. M., I964 e, Agama -atricollis 21-24, figs. 1-6 (stomach) Blantyre, Nyasaland Acanthocheilonema...- Witenberg, G. G., 1964 a cerca review Acanthocheilus cuticle structure Inglis, W. G., 1965 a, 321-322 Acanthocheilus bicuspis Nikolaeva, V. M.; and Naiden- (Wedl, 1855) Yorke et Map- ova, N. N., I964 a, 128, 129, lestone, 1926 fig. 2 Syn.: A...

  8. World frontiers beckon oil finders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This paper discusses the international aspects of the petroleum industry. Most who work in the industry agree that the possibilities for huge are found largely in international regions. Something that is helping fuel that possibility is the way countries are increasingly opening their doors to US oil industry involvement. Listed in this paper is a partial list of the reported projects now underway around the world involving US companies. It is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather an indication of how work continues despite a general lull atmosphere for the oil industry. These include Albania, Bulgaria, Congo, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ireland, Malta, Madagascar, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Panama, Paraquay, and Senegal.

  9. Non-OPEC oil supply continues to grow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, D.H. [International Energy Agency, Paris (France)

    1995-12-25

    Global reserves of crude oil remain at 1 trillion bbl, according to OGJ`s annual survey of producing countries. Significant gains are in Brazil, Colombia, Congo, Egypt, Libya, Nigeria, Oman, and Papua New Guinea. Decreases were reported by Indonesia, Norway, the U.K., Iran, Canada, Mexico, and the US. Natural gas reserves slipped to 4.9 quadrillion cu ft. The major production trend is a lasting surge from outside of OPEC. This year`s Worldwide Production report begins with a detailed analysis of this crucial development by an international authority. This article discusses the OECD outlook by region and the turnaround in production in the former Soviet Union.

  10. Football - 1960-1969 - 50 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughead Photographers

    2007-08-24

    . Winter et al. , found that the one metacentric pair of Bos gaurus corresponds to the fusion of chromosome 2 and 27 in cattle. C-band analysis has been performed on Bos taurus, Bubalus bubalis, ~s* ff d B' b' . 'Ih 1t h th tr t. 't heterochromatin... corresponds to the fusion of chromosomes 1 and 11; and chromosome 3 of the Congo buffalo corresponds to the fusion of chromosomes 9 and 25 of Bos taurus (see Figure 13). C-banding analysis shows centromeric staining only on the autosomes with the X...

  11. Africa: the emphasis is exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    Individual country reports on drilling, oil and gas production, and petroleum exploration and reserves are given for Africa. Nigeria was the continent's largest oil producer in 1979, averaging 2.3 million bpd, followed closely by Libya with 2.07 million bpd. Algeria cut production of crude oil in 1979 to a level of 1,194,350 bpd, and increased gas production to 2031 mmcfd. In Egypt, the return of Israeli-occupied oil fields and a surge in productive capacity enabled production averaging 524,000 bpd. Brief country reports are included for Gabon, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Cameroun, Tunisia, Morocco, Zaire, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Niger, Chad, Republic of South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Equatorial Guinea, Seychelles Islands, Mauritania, Republic of Mali, Benin, Kenya, Madagascar, Botswana, Gambia, Mozambique, and Senegal.

  12. Emissions Scenarios, Costs, and Implementation Considerations of REDD Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Ken; Chan, Peter

    2011-04-11

    Greenhouse gas emissions from the forestry sector are estimated to be 8.4 GtCO2-eq./year or about 17percent of the global emissions. We estimate that the cost forreducing deforestation is low in Africa and several times higher in Latin America and Southeast Asia. These cost estimates are sensitive to the uncertainties of how muchunsustainable high-revenue logging occurs, little understood transaction and program implementation costs, and barriers to implementation including governance issues. Due to lack of capacity in the affected countries, achieving reduction or avoidance of carbon emissions will require extensive REDD-plus programs. Preliminary REDD-plus Readiness cost estimates and program descriptions for Indonesia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guyana and Mexico show that roughly one-third of potential REDD-plus mitigation benefits might come from avoided deforestation and the rest from avoided forest degradation and other REDD-plus activities.

  13. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrew, H.J.

    1984-10-01

    All exploratory activity in central and southern Africa decreased in 1983, reflecting world economic conditions and excess productive capacity. Seismic activity has declined sharply from its peak year of 1981. Land operations suffered the greatest drop in 1983, whereas party-months of marine work increased slightly. 3-D recording continued to be used but at a reduced rate compared with 1982. Large aeromagnetic surveys were made in several countries; however, the coverage was less than in 1982. Gravity continues to be used to supplement other geophysical work, but other exploratory techniques are being used infrequently. Total wells drilled dropped from 464 in 1982 to 387 in 1983. Most of the decline was in exploratory drilling, which dropped from 132 to 86 wells. This was reflected in the number of discoveries, which decreased from 48 to 27 while the success rate continued about the same. Development drilling continued at a high level in Cameroon and Congo, whereas in Nigeria the emphasis shifted to the drilling of appraisal wells. In all, 2,937,708 ft (895,643 m) of hole was drilled, a decrease of about 20% from 1982. Oil production of 673,075,667 bbl in 1983 was an increase of 1.7% over 1982's production, bringing cumulative production to over 12 billion bbl. Marked increases in production were recorded in Cabinda, Ivory Coast, and Congo. Production from Nigerian fields continued to dominate this part of the world as they contributed about 67% of the annual production and 75% of the cumulative production. 44 figures, 15 tables.

  14. Central and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrew, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

  15. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2002-04-16

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  16. Lithospheric Thickness Modeled from Long Period Surface Wave Dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasyanos, M E

    2008-05-15

    The behavior of surface waves at long periods is indicative of subcrustal velocity structure. Using recently published dispersion models, we invert surface wave group velocities for lithospheric structure, including lithospheric thickness, over much of the Eastern Hemisphere, encompassing Eurasia, Africa, and the Indian Ocean. Thicker lithosphere under Precambrian shields and platforms are clearly observed, not only under the large cratons (West Africa, Congo, Baltic, Russia, Siberia, India), but also under smaller blocks like the Tarim Basin and Yangtze craton. In contrast, it is found that remobilized Precambrian structures like the Saharan Shield and Sino-Korean Paraplatform do not have well-established lithospheric keels. The thinnest lithospheric thickness is found under oceanic and continental rifts, as well as along convergence zones. We compare our results to thermal models of continental lithosphere, lithospheric cooling models of oceanic lithosphere, lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) estimates from S-wave receiver functions, and velocity variations of global tomography models. In addition to comparing results for the broad region, we examine in detail the regions of Central Africa, Siberia, and Tibet. While there are clear differences in the various estimates, overall the results are generally consistent. Inconsistencies between the estimates may be due to a variety of reasons including lateral and depth resolution differences and the comparison of what may be different lithospheric features.

  17. Multiplex Degenerate Primer Design for Targeted Whole Genome Amplification of Many Viral Genomes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gardner, Shea N.; Jaing, Crystal J.; Elsheikh, Maher M.; Peña, José; Hysom, David A.; Borucki, Monica K.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Targeted enrichment improves coverage of highly mutable viruses at low concentration in complex samples. Degenerate primers that anneal to conserved regions can facilitate amplification of divergent, low concentration variants, even when the strain present is unknown.Results. A tool for designing multiplex sets of degenerate sequencing primers to tile overlapping amplicons across multiple whole genomes is described. The new script, run_tiled_primers, is part of the PriMux software. Primers were designed for each segment of South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis, Henipaviruses, Arenaviruses, Filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus. Each group is highlymore »diverse with as little as 5% genome consensus. Primer sets were computationally checked for nontarget cross reactions against the NCBI nucleotide sequence database. Primers for murine hepatitis virus were demonstrated in the lab to specifically amplify selected genes from a laboratory cultured strain that had undergone extensive passage in vitro and in vivo.Conclusions. This software should help researchers design multiplex sets of primers for targeted whole genome enrichment prior to sequencing to obtain better coverage of low titer, divergent viruses. Applications include viral discovery from a complex background and improved sensitivity and coverage of rapidly evolving strains or variants in a gene family.« less

  18. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrew, H.J.

    1982-11-01

    Exploratory activity in central and southern Africa continued to grow during 1981. Geophysical operations reached nearly record levels and the number of wells increased markedly. Oil production suffered from the adverse conditions that existed throughout the world and dropped by a significant amount. New Concession acquisitions occurred in several of the countries in northeast Africa. Elsewhere, the operating companies negotiated new concessions and renewed those that were expiring. In several countries where production has been proven, the operators were assigned exploitation concessions. Seismic crews and marine geophysical vessels were active throughout the countries in this area. A total of 365 party-months of work was done to yield 98,035 km of new lines. A moderate amount of 3-D recording was carried out in connection with field development. Some aeromagnetic work was done, principally in northeast Africa and in Mozambique. Forty-four new fields or pools were discovered by drilling 115 new-field wildcat and exploratory wells. These wells accounted for 1,060,254 ft (323,248 m) of hole. Appraisal and development drilling resulted in 321 wells with a total of 2,533,305 ft (772,349 m) of hole drilled. At year end, 25 exploratory wells were under way or resting, and 49 rigs were active in development drilling. Oil production for the year was 691,995,939 bbl, a decrease of nearly 25% from 1980. Nigeria suffered the greatest drop in production; however, increases were achieved in Cameroon, Congo, and Zaire. The cumulative production from this part of Africa passed the 10 billion bbl mark.

  19. Structure of the Crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokam, A K; Tabod, C T; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Wiens, D A; Pasyanos, M E

    2010-02-18

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a major geologic feature that cuts across Cameroon from the south west to the north east. It is a unique volcanic lineament which has both an oceanic and a continental sector and consists of a chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline volcanoes stretching from the Atlantic island of Pagalu to the interior of the African continent. The oceanic sector includes the islands of Bioko (formerly Fernando Po) and Sao Tome and Principe while the continental sector includes the Etinde, Cameroon, Manengouba, Bamboutos, Oku and Mandara mountains, as well as the Adamawa and Biu Plateaus. In addition to the CVL, three other major tectonic features characterize the region: the Benue Trough located northwest of the CVL, the Central African Shear Zone (CASZ), trending N70 degrees E, roughly parallel to the CVL, and the Congo Craton in southern Cameroon. The origin of the CVL is still the subject of considerable debate, with both plume and non-plume models invoked by many authors (e.g., Deruelle et al., 2007; Ngako et al, 2006; Ritsema and Allen, 2003; Burke, 2001; Ebinger and Sleep, 1998; Lee et al, 1994; Dorbath et al., 1986; Fairhead and Binks, 1991; King and Ritsema, 2000; Reusch et al., 2010). Crustal structure beneath Cameroon has been investigated previously using active (Stuart et al, 1985) and passive (Dorbath et al., 1986; Tabod, 1991; Tabod et al, 1992; Plomerova et al, 1993) source seismic data, revealing a crust about 33 km thick at the south-western end of the continental portion of the CVL (Tabod, 1991) and the Adamawa Plateau, and thinner crust (23 km thick) beneath the Garoua Rift in the north (Stuart et al, 1985) (Figure 1). Estimates of crustal thickness obtained using gravity data show similar variations between the Garoua rift, Adamawa Plateau, and southern part of the CVL (Poudjom et al., 1995; Nnange et al., 2000). In this study, we investigate further crustal structure beneath the CVL and the adjacent regions in Cameroon using 1-D shear wave velocity models obtained from the joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and P-receiver functions for 32 broadband seismic stations. From the 1-D shear wave velocity models, we obtain new insights into the composition and structure of the crust and upper mantle across Cameroon. After briefly reviewing the geological framework of Cameroon, we describe the data and the joint inversion method, and then interpret variations in crustal structure found beneath Cameroon in terms of the tectonic history of the region.

  20. Key residues for the oligomerization of A{beta}42 protein in Alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ngo, Sam [Department of Neurology, Brain Research Institute, Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)] [Department of Neurology, Brain Research Institute, Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Guo, Zhefeng, E-mail: zhefeng@ucla.edu [Department of Neurology, Brain Research Institute, Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)] [Department of Neurology, Brain Research Institute, Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta} oligomers are neurotoxins and likely the causing agents for Alzheimer's disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}42 fusion protein form globular oligomers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}42 fusion protein oligomers contain SDS-resistant tetramers and hexamers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cysteine substitutions at residues 31, 32, 34, 39-41 disrupt A{beta}42 oligomerization. -- Abstract: Deposition of amyloid fibrils consisting of amyloid {beta} (A{beta}) protein as senile plaques in the brain is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. However, a growing body of evidence shows that soluble A{beta} oligomers correlate better with dementia than fibrils, suggesting that A{beta} oligomers may be the primary toxic species. The structure and oligomerization mechanism of these A{beta} oligomers are crucial for developing effective therapeutics. Here we investigated the oligomerization of A{beta}42 in the context of a fusion protein containing GroES and ubiquitin fused to the N-terminus of A{beta} sequence. The presence of fusion protein partners, in combination with a denaturing buffer containing 8 M urea at pH 10, is unfavorable for A{beta}42 aggregation, thus allowing only the most stable structures to be observed. Transmission electron microscopy showed that A{beta}42 fusion protein formed globular oligomers, which bound weakly to thioflavin T and Congo red. SDS-PAGE shows that A{beta}42 fusion protein formed SDS-resistant hexamers and tetramers. In contrast, A{beta}40 fusion protein remained as monomers on SDS gel, suggesting that the oligomerization of A{beta}42 fusion protein is not due to the fusion protein partners. Cysteine scanning mutagenesis at 22 residue positions further revealed that single cysteine substitutions of the C-terminal hydrophobic residues (I31, I32, L34, V39, V40, and I41) led to disruption of hexamer and tetramer formation, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions between these residues are most critical for A{beta}42 oligomerization.