National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for 1993-2013 congo brazzaville

  1. U.S. Crude Oil Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Brazzaville) 24 8 13 20 12 15 1993-2015 Congo (Kinshasa) 1993-2013 Denmark 1997-2004 Egypt 17 1993-2015 Equatorial Guinea 1996-2014 Estonia 1999-1999 Gabon 4 18 1993-2015...

  2. Democratic Republic of Congo: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    D Reegle Clean Energy Datasets The Democratic Republic of the Congo is a country in Africa. External Links Democratic Republic of Congo Renewable Energy Data from IEA...

  3. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote...

  4. Democratic Republic of Congo-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo Basin AgencyCompany Organization Environment Canada, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector...

  5. Democratic Republic of Congo-REDD Programme | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DRC UN-REDD programme aims at putting in place the enabling conditions for a REDD strategy in the Democratic Republic of Congo. It was elaborated through a qualitative dialogue...

  6. Background Report on Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Tracy A


    Each month, approximately 45,000 people die from violence, hunger, disease, and other effects of displacement as a result of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The country is often said to be plagued by a 'resource curse.' During each period in history since its discovery by the West, the DRC has possessed the resources the world craves and the world has sought these without regard for the consequences to the Congolese people. The catastrophic consequences of Congo's history of natural resource exploitation are the direct and indirect death of millions of Congolese people. The current war in Congo is multi-causal in nature but explanations are often reduced to describing it as an ethic conflict based on objective grievance. Objective grievance such as inequality, ethnic tensions, land disputes, and lack of democracy do exist, but they are neither necessary nor sufficient to explain the cause of the violent conflict, and more importantly, they fall short in explaining why this conflict has continued for years. The reality is the conflict is an economic war in which the trade of conflict minerals, gold and the 3Ts (tin, tantalum, tungsten), is directly linked to the financial sustainability of the groups fighting each other in eastern DRC. Objective grievance is a by-product of the conflict, used to create a false but plausible moral justification to continue violence. This paper examines the history of conflict in the DRC and the socio-economic variables contributing to the current war fought over conflict minerals.

  7. Total All Countries Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Destination Destination: Total All Countries Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andora Angola Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Bahama Islands Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma Bermuda Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cayman Islands Chad Chile China Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Costa Rica Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic

  8. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burma Cameroon Canada Chad Chile China Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Cook Islands Costa Rica Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Egypt El Salvador

  9. Structural Analysis of a Viral Ovarian Tumor Domain Protease from the Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Complex with Covalently Bonded Ubiquitin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capodagli, Glenn C.; McKercher, Marissa A.; Baker, Erica A.; Masters, Emily M.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Pegan, Scott D.


    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is a tick-borne, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA [ssRNA(-)] nairovirus that produces fever, prostration, and severe hemorrhages in humans. With fatality rates for CCHF ranging up to 70% based on several factors, CCHF is considered a dangerous emerging disease. Originally identified in the former Soviet Union and the Congo, CCHF has rapidly spread across large sections of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Recent reports have identified a viral homologue of the ovarian tumor protease superfamily (vOTU) within its L protein. This protease has subsequently been implicated in downregulation of the type I interferon immune response through cleavage of posttranslational modifying proteins ubiquitin (Ub) and the Ub-like interferon-simulated gene 15 (ISG15). Additionally, homologues of vOTU have been suggested to perform similar roles in the positive-sense, single-stranded RNA [ssRNA(+)] arteriviruses. By utilizing X-ray crystallographic techniques, the structure of vOTU covalently bound to ubiquitin propylamine, a suicide substrate of the enzyme, was elucidated to 1.7 {angstrom}, revealing unique structural elements that define this new subclass of the OTU superfamily. In addition, kinetic studies were carried out with aminomethylcoumarin (AMC) conjugates of monomeric Ub, ISG15, and NEDD8 (neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 8) substrates in order to provide quantitative insights into vOTU's preference for Ub and Ub-like substrates.

  10. U.S. Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Imports

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History All Countries 41 367 505 213 498 228 1993-2015 Ecuador 2007-2007 Non OPEC* 41 367 505 213 498 228 2004-2015 Argentina 2006-2006 Belgium 2012-2012 Brazil 32 361 498 209 492 223 2004-2015 Canada 9 6 7 4 6 5 2004-2015 China 2006-2006 Congo (Brazzaville) 2006-2006 Costa Rica 2004-2013 El Salvador 2004-2013 Guatemala 2012-2014 Jamaica 2004-2013 Netherlands 2006-2014 Nicaragua 2012-2014 Pakistan 2006-2006 Singapore 2014-2014 Trinidad and Tobago

  11. Democratic Republic of Congo: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWhyear NA 2008 NREL Coal Reserves Unavailable Million Short Tons NA 2008 EIA Natural Gas Reserves Unavailable Cubic Meters (cu m) NA 2010 CIA World Factbook Oil Reserves...

  12. Republic of the Congo: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EIA Natural Gas Reserves Unavailable Cubic Meters (cu m) NA 2010 CIA World Factbook Oil Reserves Unavailable Barrels (bbl) NA 2010 CIA World Factbook Energy Maps featuring...

  13. Democratic Republic of Congo-Forest Investment Program (FIP)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    World Bank, African Development Bank (AfDB) Partner Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Tourism Sector Land Focus Area Biomass, Forestry, Greenhouse Gas,...

  14. Democratic Republic of Congo-Low Emission Capacity Building Programme...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for 2050. The country exported 500,000 tons of copper in 2010, as well as oil, still poverty reduction is one of the main efforts of the government.vii In its Poverty Reduction...

  15. Democratic Republic of Congo-Low Emission Capacity Building Programme...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    departments in charge of production and the environment (environment, agriculture, energy, oil, mining, transport, urban planning and housing, land-affairs), the director of...

  16. Democratic Republic of Congo-National Adaptation Plan Global...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  17. Democratic Republic of Congo-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Organization ClimateWorks, Project Catalyst, McKinsey and Company Sector Energy, Land Focus Area Forestry, Greenhouse Gas Topics Background analysis, Low emission...

  18. Democratic Republic of Congo-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE),...

  19. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... from the Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Complex with Covalently Bonded ... Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is a tick-borne, negative-sense, ...

  20. Angola-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Angola-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo Basin Jump to: navigation, search Name Angola-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo...

  1. A Review of the World Bank Forest Carbon Partnership Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    submitted by Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Guyana, Indonesia, Madagascar, Mexico, Panama and Suriname can be accessed online at: http:www.wri.orggfi ." To access...

  2. Forest Carbon Partnership Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Madagascar, Mexico, Moldova, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Republic of the Congo, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam...

  3. LEDSGP/about | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Democratic Republic of Congo Department of Science, Education, Natural Resources & Environment, Ministry of Planning and Investment of Vietnam European Commission German Agency...

  4. U.S.-Africa Energy Ministerial Co-Chairs' Summary from Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of Djibouti, the Arab Republic of Egypt, the Republic of Equatorial Guinea, the Gabonese Republic, the Republic of the Gambia,...

  5. WWS_LorrieC157L_0915

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cameroon Canada Chile China Colombia Congo Cote d'lvoire Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Egypt Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Germany Ghana Greece Honduras India Indonesia...

  6. National Action Programmes on Desertification | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho,...

  7. REDD+ Country Readiness Preparation Proposals | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    getting-ready Country: Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Guyana, Indonesia, Madagascar, Mexico, Suriname, Panama Middle Africa, Western Africa, South America,...

  8. Central African Republic-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo Basin AgencyCompany Organization Environment Canada, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector...

  9. Burundi-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo Basin AgencyCompany Organization Environment Canada, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector...

  10. Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United States Agency for International Development (USAID) initiative aimed at promoting sustainable natural resource management in the Congo Basin." References "Central...

  11. Rwanda-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo Basin AgencyCompany Organization Environment Canada, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector...

  12. Cameroon-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo Basin AgencyCompany Organization Environment Canada, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector...

  13. User:GregZiebold/Developing Country Programs Map | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Congo 12 Djibouti 3 Dominica 9 Dominican Republic 12 Ecuador 7 Egypt 14 El Salvador 8 Equatorial Guinea 4 Eritrea 3 Estonia 2 Ethiopia 21 Fiji 1 Gabon 10 ... further...


    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Operating American Refining Bradford PA 10,000 1% Operating Ergon-West Virginia NewellCongo WV 20,000 1% Operating Hess Corp. Port Reading NJ 0* 0% Operating Sunoco Inc....

  15. Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Stocks 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History U.S. 40,534 39,717 37,768 27,121 20,275 17,991 1993-2015 PAD District 1 3,913 3,741 3,513 3,190 1,785 1,901 1993-2015 Connecticut 1993-2004 Delaware 1993-2009 Florida 586 734 747 545 397 652 1993-2015 Georgia 374 251 220 269 235 220 1993-2015 Maine 130 152 254 1993-2013 Maryland 1993-2008 Massachusetts 2 4 3 6 5 5 1993-2015 New Hampshire 1993-2005 New Jersey 667 275 795 489 102 384 1993-2015 New York 194 628 483 394 43 11 1993-2015 North

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of outer membrane vesicles from Shigella flexneri under different culture conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yong; Liu, Liguo; Fu, Hua; Wei, Candong Jin, Qi


    Highlights: • We utilized mTRAQ-based quantification to study protein changes in Congo red-induced OMVs. • A total of 148 proteins were identified in S. flexneri-derived OMVs. • Twenty-eight and five proteins are significantly up- and down-regulated in the CR-induced OMV, respectively. • The result implied that a special sorting mechanism of particular proteins into OMVs may exist. • Key node proteins in the protein interaction network might be important for pathogenicity. - Abstract: The production of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) is a common and regulated process of gram-negative bacteria. Nonetheless, the processes of Shigella flexneri OMV production still remain unclear. S. flexneri is the causative agent of endemic shigellosis in developing countries. The Congo red binding of strains is associated with increased infectivity of S. flexneri. Therefore, understanding the modulation pattern of OMV protein expression induced by Congo red will help to elucidate the bacterial pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the proteomic composition of OMVs and the change in OMV protein expression induced by Congo red using mTRAQ-based quantitative comparative proteomics. mTRAQ labelling increased the confidence in protein identification, and 148 total proteins were identified in S. flexneri-derived OMVs. These include a variety of important virulence factors, including Ipa proteins, TolC family, murein hydrolases, and members of the serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) family. Among the identified proteins, 28 and five proteins are significantly up- and down-regulated in the Congo red-induced OMV, respectively. Additionally, by comprehensive comparison with previous studies focused on DH5a-derived OMV, we identified some key node proteins in the protein–protein interaction network that may be involved in OMV biogenesis and are common to all gram-negative bacteria.

  17. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, J.B.; Walker, T.L.


    Significant rightholding changes took place in central and southern Africa during 1987. Angola, Benin, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Seychelles, Somali Republic, Tanzania, Zaire, and Zambia announced awards or acreage open for bidding. Decreases in exploratory rightholdings occurred in Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, and Tanzania. More wells and greater footage were drilled in 1987 than in 1986. Total wells increased by 18% as 254 wells were completed compared to 217 in 1986. Footage drilled during the year increased by 46% as about 1.9 million ft were drilled compared to about 1.3 million ft in 1986. The success rate for exploration wells in 1987 improved slightly to 36% compared to 34% in 1986. Significant discoveries were made in Nigeria, Angola, Congo, and Gabon. Seismic acquisition in 1987 was the major geophysical activity during the year. Total oil production in 1987 was 773 million bbl (about 2.1 million b/d), a decrease of 7%. The decrease is mostly due to a 14% drop in Nigerian production, which comprises 60% of total regional production. The production share of OPEC countries (Nigeria and Gabon) versus non-OPEC countries of 67% remained unchanged from 1986. 24 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Multifunctional gold coated rare-earth hydroxide fluoride nanotubes for simultaneous wastewater purification and quantitative pollutant determination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Da-Quan; Sun, Tian-Ying; Yu, Xue-Feng; Jia, Yue; Chen, Ming; Wang, Jia-Hong; Huang, Hao; Chu, Paul K.


    Highlights: • The morphology and properties of Ce-doped yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanotubes (YHF:Ce NTs) were investigated. • YHF:Ce NTs were conjugated with Au nanoparticles to produce Au-YHF:Ce nanocomposites. • Au-YHF:Ce NTs showed excellent capability and efficiency in removing Congo red from solutions. • Au-YHF:Ce NTs were utilized to determine the concentration of Congo red based on SERS. - Abstract: Ce-doped yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanotubes (YHF:Ce NTs) with large surface area are synthesized and conjugated with Au nanoparticles (NPs) to produce Au-YHF:Ce nanocomposites. The Au-YHF:Ce NTs have a hollow structure, rough surface, polymer coating, and good surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) properties. They are applied to wastewater treatment to remove Congo red as a typical pollutant. The materials not only remove pollutants rapidly from the wastewater, but also detect trace amounts of the pollutants quantitatively. The multifunctional Au-YHF:Ce NTs have commercial potential as nano-absorbents and nano-detectors in water treatment and environmental monitoring.

  19. Africa: Unrest and restrictive terms limit abundant potential. [Oil and gas exploration and development in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available


    This paper summarizes the drilling and exploration activity of the oil and gas industries of Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, the Congo, Angola, and South Africa. Information is provided on current and predicted trends in well drilling activities (both onshore and offshore), numbers of new wells, footage information, production statistics and what fields accounted for this production, and planned new exploration activities. The paper also describes the current status of government policies and political problems affecting the oil and gas industry.

  20. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health


    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  1. Turmoil doesn`t dampen enthusiasm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)


    The paper discusses the outlook for the African gas and oil industries. Though Africa remains politically and economically volatile, its vast energy potential is becoming increasingly attractive to foreign oil and gas companies. Separate evaluations are given for Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Angola, Libya, Congo, Gabon, Tunisia, Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, and briefly for South Africa, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Zaire, Benin, Mozambique, Chad, Namibia, Tanzania, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Morocco, Sao Tome and Principe, Ethiopia, Niger, Madagascar, Rwanda, Mauritania, Seychelles, Uganda, and Liberia.

  2. World frontiers beckon oil finders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available


    This paper discusses the international aspects of the petroleum industry. Most who work in the industry agree that the possibilities for huge are found largely in international regions. Something that is helping fuel that possibility is the way countries are increasingly opening their doors to US oil industry involvement. Listed in this paper is a partial list of the reported projects now underway around the world involving US companies. It is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather an indication of how work continues despite a general lull atmosphere for the oil industry. These include Albania, Bulgaria, Congo, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ireland, Malta, Madagascar, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Panama, Paraquay, and Senegal.

  3. Non-OPEC oil supply continues to grow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, D.H.


    Global reserves of crude oil remain at 1 trillion bbl, according to OGJ`s annual survey of producing countries. Significant gains are in Brazil, Colombia, Congo, Egypt, Libya, Nigeria, Oman, and Papua New Guinea. Decreases were reported by Indonesia, Norway, the U.K., Iran, Canada, Mexico, and the US. Natural gas reserves slipped to 4.9 quadrillion cu ft. The major production trend is a lasting surge from outside of OPEC. This year`s Worldwide Production report begins with a detailed analysis of this crucial development by an international authority. This article discusses the OECD outlook by region and the turnaround in production in the former Soviet Union.

  4. High efficient ZnO nanowalnuts photocatalyst: A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Feng; Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hongfeng; Qu, Fengyu; Cai, Xue; Wu, Xiang


    Highlights: • Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. • Morphologies and microstructures of the as-obtained ZnO products were investigated. • The photocatalytic results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. - Abstract: Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are successfully synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The photocatalytic properties of ZnO nanowalnuts are investigated by photodegradating several organic dyes, such as Congo red (CR), methyl orange (MO) and eosin red aqueous solutions under UV irradiation, respectively. The results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. In addition, eosin red and Congo red (CR) aqueous solution degradation experiments are also conducted in the same condition, respectively. It showed that ZnO nanowalnuts represent high photocatalytic activities with a degradation efficiency of 87% for CR with 115 min of irradiation and 97% for eosin red with 55 min of irradiation. The reported ZnO products may be promising candidates as the photocatalysts in waste water treatment.

  5. Africa: the emphasis is exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available


    Individual country reports on drilling, oil and gas production, and petroleum exploration and reserves are given for Africa. Nigeria was the continent's largest oil producer in 1979, averaging 2.3 million bpd, followed closely by Libya with 2.07 million bpd. Algeria cut production of crude oil in 1979 to a level of 1,194,350 bpd, and increased gas production to 2031 mmcfd. In Egypt, the return of Israeli-occupied oil fields and a surge in productive capacity enabled production averaging 524,000 bpd. Brief country reports are included for Gabon, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Cameroun, Tunisia, Morocco, Zaire, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Niger, Chad, Republic of South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Equatorial Guinea, Seychelles Islands, Mauritania, Republic of Mali, Benin, Kenya, Madagascar, Botswana, Gambia, Mozambique, and Senegal.

  6. Emissions Scenarios, Costs, and Implementation Considerations of REDD Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Ken; Chan, Peter


    Greenhouse gas emissions from the forestry sector are estimated to be 8.4 GtCO2-eq./year or about 17percent of the global emissions. We estimate that the cost forreducing deforestation is low in Africa and several times higher in Latin America and Southeast Asia. These cost estimates are sensitive to the uncertainties of how muchunsustainable high-revenue logging occurs, little understood transaction and program implementation costs, and barriers to implementation including governance issues. Due to lack of capacity in the affected countries, achieving reduction or avoidance of carbon emissions will require extensive REDD-plus programs. Preliminary REDD-plus Readiness cost estimates and program descriptions for Indonesia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guyana and Mexico show that roughly one-third of potential REDD-plus mitigation benefits might come from avoided deforestation and the rest from avoided forest degradation and other REDD-plus activities.

  7. Chrysolcolla Redefined as Spertiniite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farges, Francois; Benzerara, Karim; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci. /SLAC, SSRL


    XAFS and {mu}-XAFS spectra were collected at the Cu K-edge for seven chrysocolla samples (Peru, USA, and Congo). The results suggest that the local structure around Cu is similar to that in Cu(OH){sub 2} (spertiniite). Cu-L{sub 3} STXM imaging and spectroscopy confirm that the chrysocolla samples examined here consist of mesoscopic Cu(II)-rich domains surrounded by Si-rich domains (in agreement with results from infra-red spectroscopy). Hence, we suggest that chrysocolla, which is generally considered to be orthorhombic with composition (Cu,Al){sub 2}H{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4} {center_dot} nH{sub 2}O, is in actually a mesoscopic assemblage composed dominantly of spertiniite (Cu(OH){sub 2}), water and amorphous silica (SiO{sub 2}).

  8. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrew, H.J.


    All exploratory activity in central and southern Africa decreased in 1983, reflecting world economic conditions and excess productive capacity. Seismic activity has declined sharply from its peak year of 1981. Land operations suffered the greatest drop in 1983, whereas party-months of marine work increased slightly. 3-D recording continued to be used but at a reduced rate compared with 1982. Large aeromagnetic surveys were made in several countries; however, the coverage was less than in 1982. Gravity continues to be used to supplement other geophysical work, but other exploratory techniques are being used infrequently. Total wells drilled dropped from 464 in 1982 to 387 in 1983. Most of the decline was in exploratory drilling, which dropped from 132 to 86 wells. This was reflected in the number of discoveries, which decreased from 48 to 27 while the success rate continued about the same. Development drilling continued at a high level in Cameroon and Congo, whereas in Nigeria the emphasis shifted to the drilling of appraisal wells. In all, 2,937,708 ft (895,643 m) of hole was drilled, a decrease of about 20% from 1982. Oil production of 673,075,667 bbl in 1983 was an increase of 1.7% over 1982's production, bringing cumulative production to over 12 billion bbl. Marked increases in production were recorded in Cabinda, Ivory Coast, and Congo. Production from Nigerian fields continued to dominate this part of the world as they contributed about 67% of the annual production and 75% of the cumulative production. 44 figures, 15 tables.

  9. Central and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrew, H.J.


    Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

  10. Synthesis of WO{sub 3} nanoparticles by citric acid-assisted precipitation and evaluation of their photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sánchez-Martínez, D.; Martínez-de la Cruz, A.; López-Cuéllar, E.


    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple citric acid-assisted precipitation. ? WO{sub 3} photocatalyst was able to the partial mineralization of rhB, IC and MO. ? WO{sub 3} can be considered as a photocatalyst active under visible light irradiation. -- Abstract: WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by citric acid-assisted precipitation method using a 1:1.5 molar ratio of ammonium paratungstate hydrate (H{sub 42}N{sub 10}O{sub 42}W{sub 12}·xH{sub 2}O):citric acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 7}). The formation of monoclinic crystal structure of WO{sub 3} at different temperatures was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The characterization of the samples synthesized was complemented by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer–Emmitt–Teller surface area (BET) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). According to the thermal treatment followed during the synthesis of WO{sub 3}, the morphology of the nanoparticles formed was characterized by rectangular and ovoid shapes. The photocatalytic activity of WO{sub 3} obtained under different experimental conditions was evaluated in the degradation of rhodamine B (rhB), indigo carmine (IC), methyl orange (MO), and Congo red (CR) in aqueous solution under UV and UV–vis radiation. The highest photocatalytic activity was observed in the sample obtained by thermal treatment at 700 °C. In general, the sequence of degradation of the organic dyes was: indigo carmine (IC) > rhodamine B (rhB) > methyl orange (MO) > Congo red (CR). The mineralization degree of organic dyes by WO{sub 3} photocatalysts was determined by total organic carbon analysis (TOC) reaching percentages of mineralization of 82% (rhB), 85% (IC), 28% (MO), and 7% (CR) for 96 h of lamp irradiation.

  11. Interannual variation of the surface temperature of tropical forests from satellite observations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Huilin; Zhang, Shuai; Fu, Rong; Li, Wenhong; Dickinson, Robert E.


    Land surface temperatures (LSTs) within tropical forests contribute to climate variations. However, observational data are very limited in such regions. This study used passive microwave remote sensing data from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS), providing observations under all weather conditions, to investigate the LST over the Amazon and Congo rainforests. The SSM/I and SSMIS data were collected from 1996 to 2012. The morning and afternoon observations from passive microwave remote sensing facilitate the investigation of the interannual changes of LST anomalies on a diurnal basis. As a result of the variability ofmore » cloud cover and the corresponding reduction of solar radiation, the afternoon LST anomalies tend to vary more than the morning LST anomalies. The dominant spatial and temporal patterns for interseasonal variations of the LST anomalies over the tropical rainforest were analyzed. The impacts of droughts and El Niños on this LST were also investigated. Lastly, the differences between early morning and late afternoon LST anomalies were identified by the remote sensing product, with the morning LST anomalies controlled by humidity (according to comparisons with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data).« less

  12. Multiplex Degenerate Primer Design for Targeted Whole Genome Amplification of Many Viral Genomes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gardner, Shea N.; Jaing, Crystal J.; Elsheikh, Maher M.; Peña, José; Hysom, David A.; Borucki, Monica K.


    Background . Targeted enrichment improves coverage of highly mutable viruses at low concentration in complex samples. Degenerate primers that anneal to conserved regions can facilitate amplification of divergent, low concentration variants, even when the strain present is unknown. Results . A tool for designing multiplex sets of degenerate sequencing primers to tile overlapping amplicons across multiple whole genomes is described. The new script, run_tiled_primers, is part of the PriMux software. Primers were designed for each segment of South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis, Henipaviruses, Arenaviruses, Filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus.more » Each group is highly diverse with as little as 5% genome consensus. Primer sets were computationally checked for nontarget cross reactions against the NCBI nucleotide sequence database. Primers for murine hepatitis virus were demonstrated in the lab to specifically amplify selected genes from a laboratory cultured strain that had undergone extensive passage in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions . This software should help researchers design multiplex sets of primers for targeted whole genome enrichment prior to sequencing to obtain better coverage of low titer, divergent viruses. Applications include viral discovery from a complex background and improved sensitivity and coverage of rapidly evolving strains or variants in a gene family.« less

  13. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.


    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  14. Lithospheric Thickness Modeled from Long Period Surface Wave Dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasyanos, M E


    The behavior of surface waves at long periods is indicative of subcrustal velocity structure. Using recently published dispersion models, we invert surface wave group velocities for lithospheric structure, including lithospheric thickness, over much of the Eastern Hemisphere, encompassing Eurasia, Africa, and the Indian Ocean. Thicker lithosphere under Precambrian shields and platforms are clearly observed, not only under the large cratons (West Africa, Congo, Baltic, Russia, Siberia, India), but also under smaller blocks like the Tarim Basin and Yangtze craton. In contrast, it is found that remobilized Precambrian structures like the Saharan Shield and Sino-Korean Paraplatform do not have well-established lithospheric keels. The thinnest lithospheric thickness is found under oceanic and continental rifts, as well as along convergence zones. We compare our results to thermal models of continental lithosphere, lithospheric cooling models of oceanic lithosphere, lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) estimates from S-wave receiver functions, and velocity variations of global tomography models. In addition to comparing results for the broad region, we examine in detail the regions of Central Africa, Siberia, and Tibet. While there are clear differences in the various estimates, overall the results are generally consistent. Inconsistencies between the estimates may be due to a variety of reasons including lateral and depth resolution differences and the comparison of what may be different lithospheric features.

  15. Ocean FUSRAP: feasibility of ocean disposal of materials from the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Progam (FUSRAP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kupferman, S.L.; Anderson, D.R.; Brush, L.H.; Gomez, L.S.; Laul, J.C.; Shephard, L.E.


    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the Department of Energy is designed to identify and evaluate the radiological conditions at sites formerly used by the Corps of Engineers Manhattan Engineer District and the US Atomic Energy Commission. Where required, remedial action will be instituted to remove potential restrictions on the use of the sites due to residual low-level radioactive contamination. A total of 31 sites that may require remedial action has been identified. The purpose of the Ocean FUSRAP Program, which began in March 1981, is to assess the technical, environmental, and institutional feasibility of disposing, in the ocean and on the ocean floor, of FUSRAP soil and rubble which contains traces of natural radioactive materials. The initial focus has been on the Middlesex, New Jersey, Sampling Plant site and surrounding properties, which contain on the order of 100,000 metric tons of material. The Belgian Congo uranium ore and other uranium ores used by the United States were handled at the sampling plant site. In studying the feasibility of ocean disposal of FUSRAP material from Middlesex, New Jersey, we have begun to examine institutional requirements to be met, the composition of the source material with regard to its inventory of toxic chemical and radiochemical components and the impact of the source material in the marine environment. To date we have found nothing that would preclude safe and inexpensive disposal of this material in the ocean.

  16. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrew, H.J.


    Exploratory activity in central and southern Africa continued to grow during 1981. Geophysical operations reached nearly record levels and the number of wells increased markedly. Oil production suffered from the adverse conditions that existed throughout the world and dropped by a significant amount. New Concession acquisitions occurred in several of the countries in northeast Africa. Elsewhere, the operating companies negotiated new concessions and renewed those that were expiring. In several countries where production has been proven, the operators were assigned exploitation concessions. Seismic crews and marine geophysical vessels were active throughout the countries in this area. A total of 365 party-months of work was done to yield 98,035 km of new lines. A moderate amount of 3-D recording was carried out in connection with field development. Some aeromagnetic work was done, principally in northeast Africa and in Mozambique. Forty-four new fields or pools were discovered by drilling 115 new-field wildcat and exploratory wells. These wells accounted for 1,060,254 ft (323,248 m) of hole. Appraisal and development drilling resulted in 321 wells with a total of 2,533,305 ft (772,349 m) of hole drilled. At year end, 25 exploratory wells were under way or resting, and 49 rigs were active in development drilling. Oil production for the year was 691,995,939 bbl, a decrease of nearly 25% from 1980. Nigeria suffered the greatest drop in production; however, increases were achieved in Cameroon, Congo, and Zaire. The cumulative production from this part of Africa passed the 10 billion bbl mark.

  17. Structure of the Crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokam, A K; Tabod, C T; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Wiens, D A; Pasyanos, M E


    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a major geologic feature that cuts across Cameroon from the south west to the north east. It is a unique volcanic lineament which has both an oceanic and a continental sector and consists of a chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline volcanoes stretching from the Atlantic island of Pagalu to the interior of the African continent. The oceanic sector includes the islands of Bioko (formerly Fernando Po) and Sao Tome and Principe while the continental sector includes the Etinde, Cameroon, Manengouba, Bamboutos, Oku and Mandara mountains, as well as the Adamawa and Biu Plateaus. In addition to the CVL, three other major tectonic features characterize the region: the Benue Trough located northwest of the CVL, the Central African Shear Zone (CASZ), trending N70 degrees E, roughly parallel to the CVL, and the Congo Craton in southern Cameroon. The origin of the CVL is still the subject of considerable debate, with both plume and non-plume models invoked by many authors (e.g., Deruelle et al., 2007; Ngako et al, 2006; Ritsema and Allen, 2003; Burke, 2001; Ebinger and Sleep, 1998; Lee et al, 1994; Dorbath et al., 1986; Fairhead and Binks, 1991; King and Ritsema, 2000; Reusch et al., 2010). Crustal structure beneath Cameroon has been investigated previously using active (Stuart et al, 1985) and passive (Dorbath et al., 1986; Tabod, 1991; Tabod et al, 1992; Plomerova et al, 1993) source seismic data, revealing a crust about 33 km thick at the south-western end of the continental portion of the CVL (Tabod, 1991) and the Adamawa Plateau, and thinner crust (23 km thick) beneath the Garoua Rift in the north (Stuart et al, 1985) (Figure 1). Estimates of crustal thickness obtained using gravity data show similar variations between the Garoua rift, Adamawa Plateau, and southern part of the CVL (Poudjom et al., 1995; Nnange et al., 2000). In this study, we investigate further crustal structure beneath the CVL and the adjacent regions in Cameroon using 1-D shear wave velocity models obtained from the joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and P-receiver functions for 32 broadband seismic stations. From the 1-D shear wave velocity models, we obtain new insights into the composition and structure of the crust and upper mantle across Cameroon. After briefly reviewing the geological framework of Cameroon, we describe the data and the joint inversion method, and then interpret variations in crustal structure found beneath Cameroon in terms of the tectonic history of the region.