National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for 1988-2011 salt caverns

  1. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Salt Cavern Storage Reservoir...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Salt Cavern Storage Reservoir Configuration About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Salt Cavern...

  2. Interior cavern conditions and salt fall potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munson, D.E.; Molecke, M.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Myers, R.E. [Strategic Petroleum Reserve, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    A relatively large number of salt caverns are used for fluid hydrocarbon storage, including an extensive set of facilities in the Gulf Coast salt domes for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Attention is focused on the SPR caverns because of available histories that detail events involving loss and damage of the hanging string casing. The total number of events is limited, making the database statistically sparse. The occurrence of the events is not evenly distributed, with some facilities, and some caverns, more susceptible than others. While not all of these events could be attributed to impacts from salt falls, many did show the evidence of such impacts. As a result, a study has been completed to analyze the potential for salt falls in the SPR storage caverns. In this process, it was also possible to deduce some of the cavern interior conditions. Storage caverns are very large systems in which many factors could possibly play a part in casing damage. In this study, all of the potentially important factors such as salt dome geology, operational details, and material characteristics were considered, with all being logically evaluated and most being determined as secondary in nature. As a result of the study, it appears that a principal factor in determining a propensity for casing damage from salt falls is the creep and fracture characteristics of salt in individual caverns. In addition the fracture depends strongly upon the concentration of impurity particles in the salt. Although direct observation of cavern conditions is not possible, the average impurity concentration and the accumulation of salt fall material can be determined. When this is done, there is a reasonable correlation between the propensity for a cavern to show casing damage events and accumulation of salt fall material. The accumulation volumes of salt fall material can be extremely large, indicating that only a few of the salt falls are large enough to cause impact damage.

  3. New public information resources on salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

    1999-08-25

    For the past decade, interest has been growing in using underground salt caverns for disposing of wastes. The Railroad Commission of Texas has permitted a few caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) and one cavern for disposal of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from oil field activities. Several salt caverns in Canada have also been permitted for disposal of NOW. In addition, oil and gas agencies in Louisiana and New Mexico are developing cavern disposal regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded several studies to evaluate the technical feasibility, legality, economic viability, and risk of disposing of NOW and NORM in caverns. The results of these studies have been disseminated to the scientific and regulatory communities. However, as use of caverns for waste disposal increases, more government and industry representatives and members of the public will become aware of this practice and will need adequate information about how disposal caverns operate and the risks they pose. In anticipation of this need, DOE has fi.mded Argonne National Laboratory to develop a salt cavern public outreach program. Key components of this program are an informational brochure designed for nontechnical persons and a website that provides greater detail on cavern operations and allows downloadable access to the reports on the topic funded by DOE. This paper provides an overview of the public outreach program.

  4. New public information resources on salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

    1999-08-25

    For the past decade, interest has been growing in using underground salt caverns for disposing of wastes. The Railroad Commission of Texas has permitted a few caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) and one cavern for disposal of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from oil field activities. Several salt caverns in Canada have also been permitted for disposal of NOW. In addition, oil and gas agencies in Louisiana and New Mexico are developing cavern disposal regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded several studies to evaluate the technical feasibility, legality, economic viability, and risk of disposing of NOW and NORM in caverns. The results of these studies have been disseminated to the scientific and regulatory communities. However, as use of caverns for waste disposal increases, more government and industry representatives and members of the public will become aware of this practice and will need adequate information about how disposal caverns operate and the risks they pose. In anticipation of this need, DOE has funded Argonne National Laboratory to develop a salt cavern public outreach program. Key components of this program are an informational brochure designed for nontechnical persons and a website that provides greater detail on cavern operations and allows downloadable access to the reports on the topic funded by DOE. This paper provides an overview of the public outreach program.

  5. Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

    2001-02-13

    This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

  6. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-03-01

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in cavern sealing and operation. The MDCF model is used in three simulations of field experiments in which indirect measures were obtained of the generation of damage. The results of the simulations help to verify the model and suggest that the model captures the correct fracture behavior of rock salt. The model is used in this work to estimate the generation and location of damage around a cylindrical storage cavern. The results are interesting because stress conditions around the cylindrical cavern do not lead to large amounts of damage. Moreover, the damage is such that general failure can not readily occur, nor does the extent of the damage suggest possible increased permeation when the surrounding salt is impermeable.

  7. Oil field waste disposal in salt caverns: An information website

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

    1999-12-10

    Argonne National Laboratory has completed the construction of a Website for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that provides detailed information on salt caverns and their use for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Specific topics in the Website include the following: descriptions of salt deposits and salt caverns within the US, salt cavern construction methods, potential types of wastes, waste emplacement, regulatory issues, costs, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic human health risks associated with postulated cavern release scenarios, new information on cavern disposal (e.g., upcoming meetings, regulatory issues, etc.), other studies supported by the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) (e.g., considerations of site location, cavern stability, development issues, and bedded salt characterization in the Midland Basin), and links to other associated Web sites. In addition, the Website allows downloadable access to reports prepared on the topic that were funded by DOE. Because of the large quantities of NOW and NORM wastes generated annually by the oil industry, information presented on this Website is particularly interesting and valuable to project managers, regulators, and concerned citizens.

  8. CAVERN ROOF STABILITY FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE IN BEDDED SALT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVries, Kerry L; Mellegard, Kirby D; Callahan, Gary D; Goodman, William M

    2005-06-01

    This report documents research performed to develop a new stress-based criterion for predicting the onset of damage in salt formations surrounding natural gas storage caverns. Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of shear stress, mean stress, pore pressure, temperature, and Lode angle on the strength and creep characteristics of salt. The laboratory test data were used in the development of the new criterion. The laboratory results indicate that the strength of salt strongly depends on the mean stress and Lode angle. The strength of the salt does not appear to be sensitive to temperature. Pore pressure effects were not readily apparent until a significant level of damage was induced and the permeability was increased to allow penetration of the liquid permeant. Utilizing the new criterion, numerical simulations were used to estimate the minimum allowable gas pressure for hypothetical storage caverns located in a bedded salt formation. The simulations performed illustrate the influence that cavern roof span, depth, roof salt thickness, shale thickness, and shale stiffness have on the allowable operating pressure range. Interestingly, comparison of predictions using the new criterion with that of a commonly used criterion indicate that lower minimum gas pressures may be allowed for caverns at shallow depths. However, as cavern depth is increased, less conservative estimates for minimum gas pressure were determined by the new criterion.

  9. Disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns: Feasibility, legality, risk, and costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    Salt caverns can be formed through solution mining in the bedded or domal salt formations that are found in many states. Salt caverns have traditionally been used for hydrocarbon storage, but caverns have also been used to dispose of some types of wastes. This paper provides an overview of several years of research by Argonne National Laboratory on the feasibility and legality of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field wastes, the risks to human populations from this disposal method, and the cost of cavern disposal. Costs are compared between the four operating US disposal caverns and other commercial disposal options located in the same geographic area as the caverns. Argonne`s research indicates that disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns is feasible and legal. The risk from cavern disposal of oil field wastes appears to be below accepted safe risk thresholds. Disposal caverns are economically competitive with other disposal options.

  10. Solution mining code for studying axisymmetric salt cavern formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, A.J.

    1981-09-01

    The solution mining of oil storage caverns in salt domes for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve has prompted the development of a code to predict cavern shape and volume as a function of prescribed flow parameters. Of particular interest is the ability to predict shape changes while leaching is proceeding at the same time the cavern is being filled with oil (leach-fill) and when oil is being withdrawn by fresh water displacement. The theory and overall numerical procedures used in the code development are described. Implicit, finite difference methods are used to solve an axisymmetric mass conservation problem. Calculated results are given which exercise each of the code options and where possible these results are compared with other calculations or available data from solution mining in progress at Bryan Mound, Texas.

  11. Leached salt cavern design using a fracture criterion for rock salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preece, D.S.; Wawersik, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    In 1975 Congress passed the Energy Conservation Act to establish a US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) with a capacity of 750 million barrels of crude oil. The most economic storage medium was determined to be salt caverns leached in salt domes in Louisiana and Texas. Salt caverns existed at several sites when the reserve was created. These were obtained by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and used to initiate SPR oil storage. In order to meet the storage capacity approved by Congress, new caverns also had to be leached. To support the resulting design effort, finite element computer programs have been used to determine the creep closure and structural stability of salt caverns. Using site specific material properties including creep models, elastic moduli and fracture data, the finite element analyses have been replaced earlier empirical approaches to cavern design. This report presents results of such finite element analyses to determine the best cavern roof shape and the minimum pillar to diameter ratio, P/D. These numerical predictions indicate that the current cavern design is safe. 12 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2009-03-01

    A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes for strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

  13. Fort Belvoir 1988 -2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    #12;BRAC at Fort Belvoir 1988 - 2011 by Gustav Person Installation Historian U.S. Army Garrison for the Fort Belvoir Garrison, first directed the writing of this history, and provided extensive guidance, the Garrison BRAC Outreach Chief. Mark Strycula, an Installation Volunteer during 2010-2011, and a budding

  14. Disposal of oil field wastes and NORM wastes into salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.

    1999-01-27

    Salt caverns can be formed through solution mining in the bedded or domal salt formations that are found in many states. Salt caverns have traditionally been used for hydrocarbon storage, but caverns have also been used to dispose of some types of wastes. This paper provides an overview of several years of research by Argonne National Laboratory on the feasibility and legality of using salt caverns for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), the risk to human populations from this disposal method, and the cost of cavern disposal. Costs are compared between the four operating US disposal caverns and other commercial disposal options located in the same geographic area as the caverns. Argonne's research indicates that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and, in most cases, would not be prohibited by state agencies (although those agencies may need to revise their wastes management regulations). A risk analysis of several cavern leakage scenarios suggests that the risk from cavern disposal of NOW and NORM wastes is below accepted safe risk thresholds. Disposal caverns are economically competitive with other disposal options.

  15. STORAGE OF CHILLED NATURAL GAS IN BEDDED SALT STORAGE CAVERNS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOel D. Dieland; Kirby D. Mellegard

    2001-11-01

    This report provides the results of a two-phase study that examines the economic and technical feasibility of converting a conventional natural gas storage facility in bedded salt into a refrigerated natural gas storage facility for the purpose of increasing the working gas capacity of the facility. The conceptual design used to evaluate this conversion is based on the design that was developed for the planned Avoca facility in Steuben County, New York. By decreasing the cavern storage temperature from 43 C to -29 C (110 F to -20 F), the working gas capacity of the facility can be increased by about 70 percent (from 1.2 x 10{sup 8} Nm{sup 3} or 4.4 billion cubic feet (Bcf) to 2.0 x 10{sup 8} Nm{sup 3} or 7.5 Bcf) while maintaining the original design minimum and maximum cavern pressures. In Phase I of the study, laboratory tests were conducted to determine the thermal conductivity of salt at low temperatures. Finite element heat transfer calculations were then made to determine the refrigeration loads required to maintain the caverns at a temperature of -29 C (-20 F). This was followed by a preliminary equipment design and a cost analysis for the converted facility. The capital cost of additional equipment and its installation required for refrigerated storage is estimated to be about $13,310,000 or $160 per thousand Nm{sup 3} ($4.29 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf)) of additional working gas capacity. The additional operating costs include maintenance refrigeration costs to maintain the cavern at -29 C (-20 F) and processing costs to condition the gas during injection and withdrawal. The maintenance refrigeration cost, based on the current energy cost of about $13.65 per megawatt-hour (MW-hr) ($4 per million British thermal units (MMBtu)), is expected to be about $316,000 after the first year and to decrease as the rock surrounding the cavern is cooled. After 10 years, the cost of maintenance refrigeration based on the $13.65 per MW-hr ($4 per MMBtu) energy cost is estimated to be $132,000. The gas processing costs are estimated to be $2.05 per thousand Nm{sup 3} ($0.055 per Mcf) of gas injected into and withdrawn from the facility based on the $13.65 per MW-hr ($4 per MMBtu) energy cost. In Phase II of the study, laboratory tests were conducted to determine mechanical properties of salt at low temperature. This was followed by thermomechanical finite element simulations to evaluate the structural stability of the cavern during refrigerated storage. The high thermal expansion coefficient of salt is expected to result in tensile stresses leading to tensile failure in the roof, walls, and floor of the cavern as it is cooled. Tensile fracturing of the cavern roof may result in loss of containment of the gas and/or loss of integrity of the casing shoe, deeming the conversion of this facility not technically feasible.

  16. Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

    1996-06-01

    Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

  17. Geomechanical Analysis and Design Considerations for Thin-Bedded Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael S. Bruno

    2005-06-15

    The bedded salt formations located throughout the United States are layered and interspersed with non-salt materials such as anhydrite, shale, dolomite and limestone. The salt layers often contain significant impurities. GRI and DOE have initialized this research proposal in order to increase the gas storage capabilities by providing operators with improved geotechnical design and operating guidelines for thin bedded salt caverns. Terralog has summarized the geologic conditions, pressure conditions, and critical design factors that may lead to: (1) Fracture in heterogeneous materials; (2) Differential deformation and bedding plane slip; (3) Propagation of damage around single and multiple cavern; and (4) Improved design recommendations for single and multiple cavern configurations in various bedded salt environments. The existing caverns within both the Permian Basin Complex and the Michigan and Appalachian Basins are normally found between 300 m to 1,000 m (1,000 ft to 3,300 ft) depth depending on local geology and salt dissolution depth. Currently, active cavern operations are found in the Midland and Anadarko Basins within the Permian Basin Complex and in the Appalachian and Michigan Basins. The Palo Duro and Delaware Basins within the Permian Basin Complex also offer salt cavern development potential. Terralog developed a number of numerical models for caverns located in thin bedded salt. A modified creep viscoplastic model has been developed and implemented in Flac3D to simulate the response of salt at the Permian, Michigan and Appalachian Basins. The formulation of the viscoplastic salt model, which is based on an empirical creep law developed for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Program, is combined with the Drucker-Prager model to include the formation of damage and failure. The Permian salt lab test data provided by Pfeifle et al. 1983, are used to validate the assumptions made in the material model development. For the actual cavern simulations two baseline models are developed for single and multiple caverns, respectively. Different parameters that affect damage propagation and deformation of salt cavern, such as cavern pressure, operating conditions, cavern height/diameter ratio, overburden stiffness and roof thickness are analyzed and the respective results summarized. For multiple horizontal caverns numerical models are developed to determine the cavern interaction and the minimum safe center to center distance. A step by step methodology for operators to assess critical cavern design parameters for thin bedded salt formations is also presented.

  18. Threat of a sinkhole: A reevaluation of Cavern 4, Bayou Choctaw salt dome, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal, J.T.; Todd, J.L.; Linn, J.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Magorian, T.R. [Magorian (Thomas R.), Amherst, NY (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Cavern Lake at Bayou Choctaw salt dome resulted from the failure of Cavern 7 in 1954. Uncontrolled solutioning of this cavern through the thin caprock had set the stage for overburden to collapse into the cavern below. A similar situation developed with nearby Cavern 4, but with less dissolutioning of the caprock. Because pressure loss was already a problem and because another 800 ft diameter lake would have endangered surface operations, solutioning of Cavern 4 was stopped and the cavern abandoned in 1957 in order to protect the already-small site. In 1978 the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) acquired a number of caverns at Bayou Choctaw, including Cavern 4, and the possible repeat of the Cavern 7 failure and formation of another lake thus became an issue. The cavern dimensions were re-sonared in 1980 for comparison with 1963 and 1977 surveys. Annual surface leveling between 1982--1992 showed less subsidence occurring than the site average, and a cavern monitoring system, installed in 1984, has revealed no anomalous motion. Repeat sonar surveys in 1992 showed very little, if any, change occurred since 1980 although a small amount of uncertainty exists as a result of changing sonar techniques. We conclude that significant additional solutioning or erosion of the caprock has not occurred and that there is no increased threat to SPR operations.

  19. A NOVEL PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LNG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; Marcus Krekel; James F. Davis; D. Braxton Scherz

    2005-05-31

    This cooperative research project validates use of man made salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships in lieu of large liquid LNG tanks. Salt caverns will not tolerate direct injection of LNG because it is a cryogenic liquid, too cold for contact with salt. This research confirmed the technical processes and the economic benefits of pressuring the LNG up to dense phase, warming it to salt compatible temperatures and then directly injecting the dense phase gas into salt caverns for storage. The use of salt caverns to store natural gas sourced from LNG imports, particularly when located offshore, provides a highly secure, large scale and lower cost import facility as an alternative to tank based LNG import terminals. This design can unload a ship in the same time as unloading at a tank based terminal. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve uses man made salt caverns to securely store large quantities of crude oil. Similarly, this project describes a novel application of salt cavern gas storage technologies used for the first time in conjunction with LNG receiving. The energy industry uses man made salt caverns to store an array of gases and liquids but has never used man made salt caverns directly in the importation of LNG. This project has adapted and expanded the field of salt cavern storage technology and combined it with novel equipment and processes to accommodate LNG importation. The salt cavern based LNG receiving terminal described in the project can be located onshore or offshore, but the focus of the design and cost estimates has been on an offshore location, away from congested channels and ports. The salt cavern based terminal can provide large volumes of gas storage, high deliverability from storage, and is simplified in operation compared to tank based LNG terminals. Phase I of this project included mathematical modeling that proved a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at lower capital cost, and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. Operating costs of a salt cavern terminal are lower than tank based terminals because ''boil off'' is eliminated and maintenance costs of caverns are lower than LNG tanks. Phase II included the development of offshore mooring designs, wave tank tests, high pressure LNG pump field tests, heat exchanger field tests, and development of a model offshore LNG facility and cavern design. Engineers designed a model facility, prepared equipment lists, and confirmed capital and operating costs. In addition, vendors quoted fabrication and installation costs, confirming that an offshore salt cavern based LNG terminal would have lower capital and operating costs than a similarly sized offshore tank based terminal. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or purposeful damage, and much more acceptable to the community. More than thirty industry participants provided cost sharing, technical expertise, and guidance in the conduct and evaluation of the field tests, facility design and operating and cost estimates. Their close participation has accelerated the industry's acceptance of the conclusions of this research. The industry participants also developed and submitted several alternative designs for offshore mooring and for high pressure LNG heat exchangers in addition to those that were field tested in this project. HNG Storage, a developer, owner, and operator of natural gas storage facilities, and a participant in the DOE research has announced they will lead the development of the first offshore salt cavern based LNG import facility. Which will be called the Freedom LNG Terminal. It will be located offshore Louisiana, and is expected to be jointly developed with other members of the research group yet to be named. An offshore port license application is scheduled to be filed by fourth quarter 2005 and the terminal could be operational by 2009. This terminal allows the large volume importa

  20. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could, from technical and legal perspectives, be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, ANL subsequently conducted a preliminary risk assessment on the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in salt caverns. The methodology for the risk assessment included the following steps: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing contaminant toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and estimating human cancer and noncancer risks. To estimate exposure routes and pathways, four postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (for noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the EPA target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results lead to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  1. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-05

    In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  2. EXAMINE AND EVALUATE A PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; D. Braxton Scherz

    2003-04-24

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy cooperative research project is to define, describe, and validate, a process to utilize salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships. The project defines the process as receiving LNG from a ship, pumping the LNG up to cavern injection pressures, warming it to cavern compatible temperatures, injecting the warmed vapor directly into salt caverns for storage, and distribution to the pipeline network. The performance of work under this agreement is based on U.S. Patent 5,511,905, and other U.S. and Foreign pending patent applications. The cost sharing participants in the research are The National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy), BP America Production Company, Bluewater Offshore Production Systems (U.S.A.), Inc., and HNG Storage, L.P. Initial results indicate that a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at about half the capital cost, less than half the operating costs and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. There is a significant body of knowledge and practice concerning natural gas storage in salt caverns, and there is a considerable body of knowledge and practice in handling LNG, but there has never been any attempt to develop a process whereby the two technologies can be combined. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or terrorist acts, and much more acceptable to the community. The project team developed conceptual designs of two salt cavern based LNG terminals, one with caverns located in Calcasieu Parish Louisiana, and the second in Vermilion block 179 about 50 miles offshore Louisiana. These conceptual designs were compared to conventional tank based LNG terminals and demonstrate superior security, economy and capacity. The potential for the development of LNG receiving terminals, utilizing salt caverns for storage and the existing comprehensive pipeline system has profound implications for the next generation of LNG terminals. LNG imports are expected to become an increasingly more important part of the U.S. energy supply and the capacities to receive LNG securely, safely, and economically must be expanded. Salt cavern LNG receiving terminals both in onshore and offshore locations can be quickly built and provide additional import capacity into the U.S. exceeding 6-10 Bcf/day in the aggregate.

  3. Test of Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve Cavern Bryan Mound 104. [Salt cavern entry wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goin, K.L.

    1985-05-01

    This document reports the certification test of Cavern Bryan Mound 104 conducted between September 19 and November 9, 1984. The test included pressurization with oil to near maximum test gradient, depressuring to maximum operating gradient, and doing nitrogen leak tests of the three cavern entry wells. Test results indicate nitrogen loss rates from the wells of 35 bbl/y from 104A, 19 bbl/y from 104B, and 0 bbl/y from 104C. These nitrogen loss rates can reasonably be assumed to correspond to a total cavern oil loss rate of 5.4 bbl/y, which is well within the DOE acceptance criterion of 100 bbl/y of oil per cavern. The final phase of the nitrogen leak test was observed by a representative of the Texas Railroad Commission. 7 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Estimate of the risks of disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes into salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

    1997-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. Potential human health risks associated with hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) in NOW were assessed under four postclosure cavern release scenarios: inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks or leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. To estimate potential human health risks for these scenarios, contaminant concentrations at the receptor were calculated using a one-dimensional solution to an advection/dispersion equation that included first order degradation. Assuming a single, generic salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, the best-estimate excess cancer risks ranged from 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} to 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} and hazard indices (referring to noncancer health effects) ranged from 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}. Under worse-case conditions in which the probability of cavern failure is 1.0, excess cancer risks ranged from 4.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and hazard indices ranged from 7.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 0.07. Even under worst-case conditions, the risks are within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure levels. From a human health risk perspective, salt caverns can, therefore, provide an acceptable disposal method for NOW.

  5. Risk analyses for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed of in domal salt caverns. In this assessment, several steps were used to evaluate potential human health risks: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing the contaminants` toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and, finally, calculating human cancer and noncancer risks. Potential human health risks associated with hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) in NOW were assessed under four postclosure cavern release scenarios: inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks or leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. To estimate potential human health risks for these scenarios, contaminant concentrations at the receptor were calculated using a one-dimensional solution to an advection/dispersion equation that included first order degradation. Even under worst-case conditions, the risks have been found to be within the US EPA target range for acceptable exposure levels. From a human health risk perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for NOW.

  6. Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blunt, D.L.; Elcock, D.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Viel, J.A.; and Williams, G.P.

    1999-01-21

    In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean ''oil field waste contaminated by NORM''.

  7. Risk analyses for disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.; Caudle, D.

    1997-12-01

    Salt caverns have been used for several decades to store various hydrocarbon products. In the past few years, four facilities in the US have been permitted to dispose nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns. Several other disposal caverns have been permitted in Canada and Europe. This report evaluates the possibility that adverse human health effects could result from exposure to contaminants released from the caverns in domal salt formations used for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal. The evaluation assumes normal operations but considers the possibility of leaks in cavern seals and cavern walls during the post-closure phase of operation. In this assessment, several steps were followed to identify possible human health risks. At the broadest level, these steps include identifying a reasonable set of contaminants of possible concern, identifying how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the toxicities of these contaminants, estimating their intakes, and characterizing their associated human health risks. The contaminants of concern for the assessment are benzene, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium. These were selected as being components of oil field waste and having a likelihood to remain in solution for a long enough time to reach a human receptor.

  8. Underground physics without underground labs: large detectors in solution-mined salt caverns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Monreal

    2014-09-30

    A number of current physics topics, including long-baseline neutrino physics, proton decay searches, and supernova neutrino searches, hope to someday construct huge (50 kiloton to megaton) particle detectors in shielded, underground sites. With today's practices, this requires the costly excavation and stabilization of large rooms in mines. In this paper, we propose utilizing the caverns created by the solution mining of salt. The challenge is that such caverns must be filled with pressurized fluid and do not admit human access. We sketch some possible methods of installing familiar detector technologies in a salt cavern under these constraints. Some of the detectors discussed are also suitable for deep-sea experiments, discussed briefly. These sketches appear challenging but feasible, and appear to force few major compromises on detector capabilities. This scheme offers avenues for enormous cost savings on future detector megaprojects.

  9. Underground physics without underground labs: large detectors in solution-mined salt caverns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monreal, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    A number of current physics topics, including long-baseline neutrino physics, proton decay searches, and supernova neutrino searches, hope to someday construct huge (50 kiloton to megaton) particle detectors in shielded, underground sites. With today's practices, this requires the costly excavation and stabilization of large rooms in mines. In this paper, we propose utilizing the caverns created by the solution mining of salt. The challenge is that such caverns must be filled with pressurized fluid and do not admit human access. We sketch some possible methods of installing familiar detector technologies in a salt cavern under these constraints. Some of the detectors discussed are also suitable for deep-sea experiments, discussed briefly. These sketches appear challenging but feasible, and appear to force few major compromises on detector capabilities. This scheme offers avenues for enormous cost savings on future detector megaprojects.

  10. Analysis of SPR salt cavern remedial leach program 2013.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Paula D.; Gutierrez, Karen A.; Lord, David L.; Rudeen, David Keith

    2013-09-01

    The storage caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) exhibit creep behavior resulting in reduction of storage capacity over time. Maintenance of oil storage capacity requires periodic controlled leaching named remedial leach. The 30 MMB sale in summer 2011 provided space available to facilitate leaching operations. The objective of this report is to present the results and analyses of remedial leach activity at the SPR following the 2011 sale until mid-January 2013. This report focuses on caverns BH101, BH104, WH105 and WH106. Three of the four hanging strings were damaged resulting in deviations from normal leach patterns; however, the deviations did not affect the immediate geomechanical stability of the caverns. Significant leaching occurred in the toes of the caverns likely decreasing the number of available drawdowns until P/D ratio criteria are met. SANSMIC shows good agreement with sonar data and reasonably predicted the location and size of the enhanced leaching region resulting from string breakage.

  11. Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

    1999-01-21

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

  12. Characterization of bedded salt for storage caverns -- A case study from the Midland Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovorka, Susan D.; Nava, Robin

    2000-06-13

    The geometry of Permian bedding salt in the Midland Basin is a product of interaction between depositional facies and postdepositional modification by salt dissolution. Mapping high-frequency cycle patterns in cross section and map view using wireline logs documents the salt geometry. Geologically based interpretation of depositional and dissolution processes provides a powerful tool for mapping and geometry of salt to assess the suitability of sites for development of solution-mined storage caverns. In addition, this process-based description of salt geometry complements existing data about the evolution of one of the best-known sedimentary basins in the world, and can serve as a genetic model to assist in interpreting other salts.

  13. Estimated human health risks of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. In this assessment, several steps were used to evaluate potential human health risks: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the contaminants` toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and, finally, calculating human cancer and noncancer risks.

  14. An Investigation of the Integrity of Cemented Casing Seals with Application to Salt Cavern Sealing and Abandonment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfeifle, T.W.; Mellegard, K.D.; Skaug, N.T.; Bruno, M.S.

    2001-04-19

    This research project was pursued in three key areas. (1) Salt permeability testing under complex stress states; (2) Hydraulic and mechanical integrity investigations of the well casing shoe through benchscale testing; and (3) Geomechanical modeling of the fluid/salt hydraulic and mechanical interaction of a sealed cavern.

  15. Gas intrusion into SPR caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinkebein, T.E.; Bauer, S.J.; Ehgartner, B.L.; Linn, J.K.; Neal, J.T.; Todd, J.L.; Kuhlman, P.S.; Gniady, C.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Underground Storage Technology Dept.; Giles, H.N. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    1995-12-01

    The conditions and occurrence of gas in crude oil stored in Strategic Petroleum Reserve, SPR, caverns is characterized in this report. Many caverns in the SPR show that gas has intruded into the oil from the surrounding salt dome. Historical evidence and the analyses presented here suggest that gas will continue to intrude into many SPR caverns in the future. In considering why only some caverns contain gas, it is concluded that the naturally occurring spatial variability in salt permeability can explain the range of gas content measured in SPR caverns. Further, it is not possible to make a one-to-one correlation between specific geologic phenomena and the occurrence of gas in salt caverns. However, gas is concluded to be petrogenic in origin. Consequently, attempts have been made to associate the occurrence of gas with salt inhomogeneities including anomalies and other structural features. Two scenarios for actual gas intrusion into caverns were investigated for consistency with existing information. These scenarios are gas release during leaching and gas permeation through salt. Of these mechanisms, the greater consistency comes from the belief that gas permeates to caverns through the salt. A review of historical operating data for five Bryan Mound caverns loosely supports the hypothesis that higher operating pressures reduce gas intrusion into caverns. This conclusion supports a permeability intrusion mechanism. Further, it provides justification for operating the caverns near maximum operating pressure to minimize gas intrusion. Historical gas intrusion rates and estimates of future gas intrusion are given for all caverns.

  16. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  17. U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Salt Caverns Capacity (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,Demand Module of theCubic Feet)49,797.6IncreasesCubic Feet) Salt

  18. 3-D Finite Element Analyses of the Egan Cavern Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klamerus, E.W.; Ehgartner, B.L.

    1999-02-01

    Three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed for the two gas-filled storage caverns at the Egan field, Jennings dome, Louisiana. The effects of cavern enlargement on surface subsidence, storage loss, and cavern stability were investigated. The finite element model simulated the leaching of caverns to 6 and 8 billion cubic feet (BCF) and examined their performance at various operating conditions. Operating pressures varied from 0.15 psi/ft to 0.9 psi/ft at the bottom of the lowest cemented casing. The analysis also examined the stability of the web or pillar of salt between the caverns under differential pressure loadings. The 50-year simulations were performed using JAC3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasistatic solids. A damage criterion based on onset of dilatancy was used to evaluate cavern instability. Dilation results from the development of microfractures in salt and, hence, potential increases in permeability onset occurs well before large scale failure. The analyses predicted stable caverns throughout the 50-year period for the range of pressures investigated. Some localized salt damage was predicted near the bottom walls of the caverns if the caverns are operated at minimum pressure for long periods of time. Volumetric cavern closures over time due to creep were moderate to excessive depending on the salt creep properties and operating pressures. However, subsidence above the cavern field was small and should pose no problem, to surface facilities.

  19. Analysis of cavern stability at the Bryan Mound SPR site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

    2009-04-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound site. The cavern field comprises 20 caverns. Five caverns (1, 2, 4, and 5; 3 was later plugged and abandoned) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 16 caverns (101-116) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a 3-D geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios due to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant result in this report is relevant to caverns 1, 2, and 5. The caverns have non-cylindrical shapes and have potential regions where the surrounding salt may be damaged during workover procedures. During a workover the normal cavern operating pressure is lowered to service a well. At this point the wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension and large deviatoric stresses at several locations. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state due to salt creep. However, the potential for salt damage and fracturing exists. The analyses predict tensile stresses at locations with sharp-edges in the wall geometry, or in the case of cavern 5, in the neck region between the upper and lower lobes of the cavern. The effects do not appear to be large-scale, however, so the only major impact is the potential for stress-induced salt falls in cavern 5, potentially leading to hanging string damage. Caverns 1 and 2 have no significant issues regarding leachings due to drawdowns; cavern 5 may require a targeted leaching of the neck region to improve cavern stability and lessen hanging string failure potential. The remaining caverns have no significant issues regarding cavern stability and may be safely enlarged during subsequent oil drawdowns. Well strains are significant and consequently future remedial actions may be necessary. Well strains certainly suggest the need for appropriate monitoring through a well-logging program. Subsidence is currently being monitored; there are no issues identified regarding damage from surface subsidence or horizontal strain to surface facilities.

  20. Analysis of cavern stability at the West Hackberry SPR site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

    2009-05-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressuization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 ft of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage is predicted under the ledge that forms the lower lobe in the cavern. The remaining caverns have no significant issues regarding cavern stability and may be safely enlarged during subsequent oil drawdowns. Predicted well strains and subsidence are significant and consequently future remedial actions may be necessary. These predicted well strains certainly suggest appropriate monitoring through a well-logging program. Subsidence is currently being monitored.

  1. Analysis of cavern shapes for the strategic petroleum reserve.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

    2006-07-01

    This report presents computational analyses to determine the structural integrity of different salt cavern shapes. Three characteristic shapes for increasing cavern volumes are evaluated and compared to the baseline shape of a cylindrical cavern. Caverns with enlarged tops, bottoms, and mid-sections are modeled. The results address pillar to diameter ratios of some existing caverns in the system and will represent the final shape of other caverns if they are repeatedly drawn down. This deliverable is performed in support of the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Several three-dimensional models using a close-packed arrangement of 19 caverns have been built and analyzed using a simplified symmetry involving a 30-degree wedge portion of the model. This approach has been used previously for West Hackberry (Ehgartner and Sobolik, 2002) and Big Hill (Park et al., 2005) analyses. A stratigraphy based on the Big Hill site has been incorporated into the model. The caverns are modeled without wells and casing to simplify the calculations. These calculations have been made using the power law creep model. The four cavern shapes were evaluated at several different cavern radii against four design factors. These factors included the dilatant damage safety factor in salt, the cavern volume closure, axial well strain in the caprock, and surface subsidence. The relative performance of each of the cavern shapes varies for the different design factors, although it is apparent that the enlarged bottom design provides the worst overall performance. The results of the calculations are put in the context of the history of cavern analyses assuming cylindrical caverns, and how these results affect previous understanding of cavern behavior in a salt dome.

  2. Converting LPG caverns to natural-gas storage permits fast response to market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crossley, N.G.

    1996-02-19

    Deregulation of Canada`s natural-gas industry in the late 1980s led to a very competitive North American natural-gas storage market. TransGas Ltd., Regina, Sask., began looking for method for developing cost-effective storage while at the same time responding to new market-development opportunities and incentives. Conversion of existing LPG-storage salt caverns to natural-gas storage is one method of providing new storage. To supply SaskEnergy Inc., the province`s local distribution company, and Saskatchewan customers, TransGas previously had developed solution-mined salt storage caverns from start to finish. Two Regina North case histories illustrate TransGas` experiences with conversion of LPG salt caverns to gas storage. This paper provides the testing procedures for the various caverns, cross-sectional diagrams of each cavern, and outlines for cavern conversion. It also lists storage capacities of these caverns.

  3. Horizontal natural gas storage caverns and methods for producing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russo, Anthony (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    The invention provides caverns and methods for producing caverns in bedded salt deposits for the storage of materials that are not solvents for salt. The contemplated salt deposits are of the bedded, non-domed variety, more particularly salt found in layered formations that are sufficiently thick to enable the production of commercially usefully sized caverns completely encompassed by walls of salt of the formation. In a preferred method, a first bore hole is drilled into the salt formation and a cavity for receiving insolubles is leached from the salt formation. Thereafter, at a predetermined distance away from the first bore hole, a second bore hole is drilled towards the salt formation. As this drill approaches the salt, the drill assumes a slant approach and enters the salt and drills through it in a horizontal direction until it intersects the cavity for receiving insolubles. This produces a substantially horizontal conduit from which solvent is controlledly supplied to the surrounding salt formation, leaching the salt and producing a concentrated brine which is removed through the first bore hole. Insolubles are collected in the cavity for receiving insolubles. By controlledly supplying solvent, a horizontal cavern is produced with two bore holes extending therefrom.

  4. Allowable pillar to diameter ratio for strategic petroleum reserve caverns.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2011-05-01

    This report compiles 3-D finite element analyses performed to evaluate the stability of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns over multiple leach cycles. When oil is withdrawn from a cavern in salt using freshwater, the cavern enlarges. As a result, the pillar separating caverns in the SPR fields is reduced over time due to usage of the reserve. The enlarged cavern diameters and smaller pillars reduce underground stability. Advances in geomechanics modeling enable the allowable pillar to diameter ratio (P/D) to be defined. Prior to such modeling capabilities, the allowable P/D was established as 1.78 based on some very limited experience in other cavern fields. While appropriate for 1980, the ratio conservatively limits the allowable number of oil drawdowns and hence limits the overall utility and life of the SPR cavern field. Analyses from all four cavern fields are evaluated along with operating experience gained over the past 30 years to define a new P/D for the reserve. A new ratio of 1.0 is recommended. This ratio is applicable only to existing SPR caverns.

  5. Overfilling of cavern blamed for LPG blasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-06

    Three explosions and a fire Apr. 7 at an LPG salt dome storage cavern near Brenham, Tex., were triggered when the cavern was overfilled, the Texas Railroad Commission (TRC) has reported. This paper reports that a TRC investigation found that LPG escaped to the surface at the Brenham site through brine injection tubing after excessive fill from an LPG line forced the cavern's water level below the brine tubing's bottom. At the surface, LPG was released into a brine storage pit where it turned into a dense, explosive vapor. At 7:08 a.m., the vapor was ignited by an unknown source. The resulting blast killed three persons and injured 19 and brought operations at the site to a halt.

  6. Long-term sealing analyses for US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, B.

    1994-02-01

    It is inevitable that sealing and abandonment will someday occur in a SPR cavern or caverns. To gain insight into the long-term behavior of a typical SPR cavern following sealing and abandonment, a suite of mechanical finite-element calculations was performed. The initial analyses predict how quickly and to what extent a cavern pressurizes after it is plugged. The analyses also examine the stability of the cavern as it changes shape due to the excessive pressures generated as the salt creeps and the brine in the cavern thermally expands. These large-scale analyses do not include the details of the plug but assume a good seal is established in the cavern wells. In another series of analyses, the potential for forming a leak at the plug is evaluated. A cement plug, emplaced in the casing seat of a cavern well, is loaded using the predicted brine pressures from the cavern analyses. The plugged casing analyses examine the potential for forming a leak path in and along the interfaces of salt, casing, and cement plug. In the last set of analysis, the dimensional scale of the problem is further reduced to examine a preexisting crack along a casing/salt interface. The cracked interface is assumed to be fluid filled and fully pressurized by the cavern fluids. The analyses address the potential for the fluid path to extend upwards along a plugged casing should an open microannulus surround the casing after it is plugged.

  7. Analysis of cavern and well stability at the West Hackberry SPR site using a full-dome model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobolik, Steven R.

    2015-08-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressurization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 feet of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage is predicted under the ledge that forms the lower lobe in the cavern. The remaining caverns have no significant issues regarding cavern stability and may be safely enlarged during subsequent oil drawdowns. Predicted well strains and subsidence are significant and consequently future remedial actions may be necessary. These predicted well strains certainly suggest appropriate monitoring through a well-logging program. Subsidence is currently being monitored.

  8. Manufactured caverns in carbonate rock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruce, David A.; Falta, Ronald W.; Castle, James W.; Murdoch, Lawrence C.

    2007-01-02

    Disclosed is a process for manufacturing underground caverns suitable in one embodiment for storage of large volumes of gaseous or liquid materials. The method is an acid dissolution process that can be utilized to form caverns in carbonate rock formations. The caverns can be used to store large quantities of materials near transportation facilities or destination markets. The caverns can be used for storage of materials including fossil fuels, such as natural gas, refined products formed from fossil fuels, or waste materials, such as hazardous waste materials. The caverns can also be utilized for applications involving human access such as recreation or research. The method can also be utilized to form calcium chloride as a by-product of the cavern formation process.

  9. Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts: Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-30

    Over the past 40 years, cavern storage of LPG's, petrochemicals, such as ethylene and propylene, and other petroleum products has increased dramatically. In 1991, the Gas Processors Association (GPA) lists the total U.S. underground storage capacity for LPG's and related products of approximately 519 million barrels (82.5 million cubic meters) in 1,122 separate caverns. Of this total, 70 are hard rock caverns and the remaining 1,052 are caverns in salt deposits. However, along the eastern seaboard of the U.S. and the Pacific northwest, salt deposits are not available and therefore, storage in hard rocks is required. Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. Competing methods include LNG facilities and remote underground storage combined with pipeline transportation to the area. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. DOE has identified five regions, that have not had favorable geological conditions for underground storage development: New England, Mid-Atlantic (NY/NJ), South Atlantic (DL/MD/VA), South Atlantic (NC/SC/GA), and the Pacific Northwest (WA/OR). PB-KBB reviewed published literature and in-house databases of the geology of these regions to determine suitability of hard rock formations for siting storage caverns, and gas market area storage needs of these regions.

  10. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered and a typical plant layout was developed. In addition a geomechanical review of the proposed cavern design was performed, evaluating the stability of the mine rooms and shafts, and the effects of the refrigerated gas temperatures on the stability of the cavern. Capital and operating cost estimates were also developed for the various temperature cases considered. The cost estimates developed were used to perform a comparative market analysis of this type of gas storage system to other systems that are commercially used in the region of the study.

  11. Literature Survey Concerning the Feasibility of Remedial Leach for Select Phase I Caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Paula D.; Flores, Karen A.; Lord, David L.

    2015-09-01

    Bryan Mound 5 ( BM5 ) and West Hackberry 9 ( WH9 ) have the potential to create a significant amount of new storage space should the caverns be deemed "leach - ready". This study discusses the original drilling history of the caverns, surrounding geology, current stability, and, based on this culmination of data, makes a preliminary assessment of the leach potential for the cavern. The risks associated with leaching BM5 present substantial problems for the SPR . The odd shape and large amount of insoluble material make it difficult to de termine whether a targeted leach would have the desired effect and create useable ullage or further distort the shape with preferential leaching . T he likelihood of salt falls and damaged or severed casing string is significant . In addition, a targeted le ach would require the relocation of approximately 27 MMB of oil . Due to the abundance of unknown factors associated with this cavern, a targeted leach of BM5 is not recommended. A targeted leaching of the neck of WH 9 could potentially eliminate or diminis h the mid - cavern ledge result ing in a more stable cavern with a more favorable shape. A better understanding of the composition of the surrounding salt and a less complicated leaching history yields more confidence in the ability to successfully leach this region. A targeted leach of WH9 can be recommended upon the completion of a full leach plan with consideration of the impacts upon nearby caverns .

  12. Working Gas Capacity of Salt Caverns

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3Additions (Million2.8 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.9 3.0 1993-201496,092271,785

  13. Natural Gas Salt Caverns Storage Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Marthrough 1996) in155 13,348 47,873 8,091

  14. Gas releases from salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  15. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern sulphur mines 2-4-5 certification tests and analysis. Part I: 1981 testing. Part II: 1982 testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beasley, R.R.

    1982-12-01

    Well leak tests and a cavern pressure were conducted in June through December 1981, and are described in Part I. The tests did not indicate conclusively that there was no leakage from the cavern, but the data indicate that cavern structural failure during oil storage is unlikely. The test results indicated that retesting and well workover were desirable prior to making a decision on the cavern use. Well leak tests were conducted in March through May 1982, and are described in Part II. The tests indicated that there was no significant leakage from wells 2 and 4 but that the leakage from wells 2A and 5 exceeded the DOE criterion. Because of the proximity of cavern 2-4-5 to the edge of the salt, this cavern should be considered for only one fill/withdrawal cycle prior to extensive reevaluation. 57 figures, 17 tables.

  16. Feasibility study for lowering the minimum gas pressure in solution-mined caverns based on geomechanical analyses of creep-induced damage and healing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratigan, J.L.; Nieland, J.D.; Devries, K.L.

    1998-12-31

    Geomechanical analyses were made to determine the minimum gas pressure allowable based on an existing stress-based criterion (Damage Potential) and an advanced constitutive model (MDCF model) capable of quantifying the level of damage and healing in rock salt. The MDCF model is a constitutive model developed for the WIPP to provide a continuum description of the dislocation and damage deformation of salt. The purpose of this study was to determine if the MDCF model is applicable for evaluating the minimum gas pressure of CNG storage caverns. Specifically, it was to be determined if this model would predict that the minimum gas pressure in the caverns could be lowered without compromising the stability of the cavern. Additionally, the healing behavior of the salt was analyzed to determine if complete healing of the damaged rock zone would occur during the period the cavern was at maximum gas pressure. Significant findings of this study are reported.

  17. Numerical Simulations of Leakage from Underground LPG Storage Caverns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Hajime; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    U. Case History: Blowout at an LPG Storage Cavern in Sweden,and Heads at an Underground LPG Storage Cavern Site, Journalof Leakage from Underground LPG Storage Caverns Hajime

  18. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 1, Bayou Choctaw site, Louisiana.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-10-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 1 focuses on the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, located in southern Louisiana. Volumes 2, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  19. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 2, Big Hill Site, Texas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-08-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 2 focuses on the Big Hill SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  20. Effects of cavern depth on surface subsidence and storage loss of oil-filled caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, E L

    1992-01-01

    Finite element analyses of oil-filled caverns were performed to investigate the effects of cavern depth on surface subsidence and storage loss, a primary performance criteria of SPR caverns. The finite element model used for this study was axisymmetric, approximating an infinite array of caverns spaced at 750 ft. The stratigraphy and cavern size were held constant while the cavern depth was varied between 1500 ft and 3000 ft in 500 ft increments. Thirty year simulations, the design life of the typical SPR cavern, were performed with boundary conditions modeling the oil pressure head applied to the cavern lining. A depth dependent temperature gradient of 0.012{degrees}F/ft was also applied to the model. The calculations were performed using ABAQUS, a general purpose of finite element analysis code. The user-defined subroutine option in ABAQUS was used to enter an elastic secondary creep model which includes temperature dependence. The calculations demonstrated that surface subsidence and storage loss rates increase with increasing depth. At lower depths the difference between the lithostatic stress and the oil pressure is greater. Thus, the effective stresses are greater, resulting in higher creep rates. Furthermore, at greater depths the cavern temperatures are higher which also produce higher creep rates. Together, these factors result in faster closure of the cavern. At the end of the 30 year simulations, a 1500 ft-deep cavern exhibited 4 percent storage loss and 4 ft of subsidence while a 3000 ft-deep cavern exhibited 33 percent storage loss and 44 ft of subsidence. The calculations also demonstrated that surface subsidence is directly related to the amount of storage loss. Deeper caverns exhibit more subsidence because the caverns exhibit more storage loss. However, for a given amount of storage loss, nearly the same magnitude of surface subsidence was exhibited, independent of cavern depth.

  1. SALT DAMAGE CRITERION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a field-scale application demonstrating the use of continuum damage mechanics to determine the minimum allowable operating pressure of compressed natural gas storage caverns in salt formations. A geomechanical study was performed of two natural gas storage caverns (one existing and one planned) utilizing state-of-the-art salt mechanics to assess the potential for cavern instability and collapse. The geomechanical study consisted primarily of laboratory testing, theoretical development, and analytical/numerical tasks. A total of 50 laboratory tests was performed on salt specimens to aid in the development and definition of the material model used to predict the behavior of rock salt. Material model refinement was performed that improved the predictive capability of modeling salt during damage healing, recovery of work-hardened salt, and the behavior of salt at stress states other than triaxial compression. Results of this study showed that the working gas capacity of the existing cavern could be increased by 18 percent and the planned cavern could be increased by 8 percent using the proposed method compared to a conventional stress-based method. Further refinement of the continuum damage model is recommended to account for known behavior of salt at stress conditions other than triaxial compression that is not characterized accurately by the existing model.

  2. Observations on vapor pressure in SPR caverns : sources.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munson, Darrell Eugene

    2010-05-01

    The oil of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) represents a national response to any potential emergency or intentional restriction of crude oil supply to this country, and conforms to International Agreements to maintain such a reserve. As assurance this reserve oil will be available in a timely manner should a restriction in supply occur, the oil of the reserve must meet certain transportation criteria. The transportation criteria require that the oil does not evolve dangerous gas, either explosive or toxic, while in the process of transport to, or storage at, the destination facility. This requirement can be a challenge because the stored oil can acquire dissolved gases while in the SPR. There have been a series of reports analyzing in exceptional detail the reasons for the increases, or regains, in gas content; however, there remains some uncertainty in these explanations and an inability to predict why the regains occur. Where the regains are prohibitive and exceed the criteria, the oil must undergo degasification, where excess portions of the volatile gas are removed. There are only two known sources of gas regain, one is the salt dome formation itself which may contain gas inclusions from which gas can be released during oil processing or storage, and the second is increases of the gases release by the volatile components of the crude oil itself during storage, especially if the stored oil undergoes heating or is subject to biological generation processes. In this work, the earlier analyses are reexamined and significant alterations in conclusions are proposed. The alterations are based on how the fluid exchanges of brine and oil uptake gas released from domal salt during solutioning, and thereafter, during further exchanges of fluids. Transparency of the brine/oil interface and the transfer of gas across this interface remains an important unanswered question. The contribution from creep induced damage releasing gas from the salt surrounding the cavern is considered through computations using the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, suggesting a relative minor, but potentially significant, contribution to the regain process. Apparently, gains in gas content can be generated from the oil itself during storage because the salt dome has been heated by the geothermal gradient of the earth. The heated domal salt transfers heat to the oil stored in the caverns and thereby increases the gas released by the volatile components and raises the boiling point pressure of the oil. The process is essentially a variation on the fractionation of oil, where each of the discrete components of the oil have a discrete temperature range over which that component can be volatized and removed from the remaining components. The most volatile components are methane and ethane, the shortest chain hydrocarbons. Since this fractionation is a fundamental aspect of oil behavior, the volatile component can be removed by degassing, potentially prohibiting the evolution of gas at or below the temperature of the degas process. While this process is well understood, the ability to describe the results of degassing and subsequent regain is not. Trends are not well defined for original gas content, regain, and prescribed effects of degassing. As a result, prediction of cavern response is difficult. As a consequence of this current analysis, it is suggested that solutioning brine of the final fluid exchange of a just completed cavern, immediately prior to the first oil filling, should be analyzed for gas content using existing analysis techniques. This would add important information and clarification to the regain process. It is also proposed that the quantity of volatile components, such as methane, be determined before and after any degasification operation.

  3. SALT DAMAGE CRITERION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan

    2001-12-01

    This document is the annual technical progress report for Department of Energy Contract No. DE-FC26-00NT41026 entitled Proof-of-Concept Research for an Advanced Design Criterion to Improve Working Gas Capacity for Natural Gas Storage Caverns in Salt Formations. This report covers the reporting period from October 1, 2000, through September 30, 2001. During this reporting period, the project was initiated and work was performed to develop structural models that will be used to evaluate two compressed natural gas storage caverns in the McIntosh Dome northwest of Mobile, Alabama. Information necessary to define the structural models include site-specific stress, temperature, geometry, stratigraphy, and operating scenarios in the dome and for the caverns. Additionally, material model development for the salt at the McIntosh Dome was initiated. Material model development activities include acquisition of salt core for testing, laboratory testing, and regression analyses to determine site-specific model parameter values that describe the behavior of salt around a storage cavern. Although not performed during this reporting period, the information and models developed will be used to perform advanced design storage cavern analyses for the Bay Gas caverns to determine the operating pressure ranges to maintain stable conditions.

  4. The surface expression of Longhorn Cavern, Burnet County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCaleb, Brenda Denise

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the surface to subsurface relationship at Longhorn Cavern State Park, which can become one part of an interdisciplinary educational program taught at the park. Longhorn Cavern is located on Backbone Ridge; a wedge shaped...

  5. Commercial potential of natural gas storage in lined rock caverns (LRC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-11-01

    The geologic conditions in many regions of the United States will not permit the development of economical high-deliverability gas storage in salt caverns. These regions include the entire Eastern Seaboard; several northern states, notably Minnesota and Wisconsin; many of the Rocky Mountain States; and most of the Pacific Northwest. In late 1997, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Federal Energy Technology Center engaged Sofregaz US to investigate the commercialization potential of natural gas storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC). Sofregaz US teamed with Gaz de France and Sydkraft, who had formed a consortium, called LRC, to perform the study for the USDOE. Underground storage of natural gas is generally achieved in depleted oil and gas fields, aquifers, and solution-mined salt caverns. These storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Unlined rock caverns have been used for decades to store hydrocarbons - mostly liquids such as crude oil, butane, and propane. The maximum operating pressure in unlined rock caverns is limited, since the host rock is never entirely impervious. The LRC technology allows a significant increase in the maximum operating pressure over the unlined storage cavern concept, since the gas in storage is completely contained with an impervious liner. The LRC technology has been under development in Sweden by Sydkraft since 1987. The development process has included extensive technical studies, laboratory testing, field tests, and most recently includes a storage facility being constructed in southern Sweden (Skallen). The LRC development effort has shown that the concept is technically and economically viable. The Skallen storage facility will have a rock cover of 115 meters (375 feet), a storage volume of 40,000 cubic meters (250,000 petroleum barrels), and a maximum operating pressure of 20 MPa (2,900 psi). There is a potential for commercialization of the LRC technology in the United States. Two regions were studied in some detail - the Northeast and the Southeast. The investment cost for an LRC facility in the Northeast is approximately $182 million and $343 million for a 2.6-billion cubic foot (bcf) working gas facility and a 5.2-bcf working gas storage facility, respectively. The relatively high investment cost is a strong function of the cost of labor in the Northeast. The labor union-related rules and requirements in the Northeast result in much higher underground construction costs than might result in Sweden, for example. The LRC technology gas storage service is compared to other alternative technologies. The LRC technology gas storage service was found to be competitive with other alternative technologies for a variety of market scenarios.

  6. Number of Existing Natural Gas Salt Caverns Storage Fields

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb MarthroughFeet)Feet) YearThousand81Nuclear >35 37

  7. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Salt Cavern Storage Reservoir

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969

  8. Analysis of Multistage and Other Creep Data for Domal Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munson, D.E.

    1998-10-01

    There have existed for some time relatively sparse creep databases for a number of domal salts. Although all of these data were analyzed at the time they were reported, to date there has not been a comprehensive, overall evaluation within the same analysis framework. Such an evaluation may prove of value. The analysis methodology is based on the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) description of salt creep and the corresponding model parameters determined from conventional creep tests. The constitutive model of creep wss formulated through application of principles involved in micromechanical modeling. It was possible, at minimum, to obtain the steady state parameters of the creep model from the data on the domal salts. When this was done, the creep of the domal salts, as compared to the well-defined Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) bedded clean salt, was either essentially identical to, or significantly harder (more creep resistant) than WIPP salt. Interestingly, the domal salts form two distinct groups, either sofl or hard, where the difference is roughly a factor often in creep rate between the twcl groups. As might be expected, this classification corresponds quite well to the differences in magnitude of effective creep volume losses of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns as determined by the CAVEMAN cavern pressure history analysis, depending upon the specific dome or region within the dome. Creep response shoulcl also correlate to interior cavern conditions that produce salt falls. WMle, in general, the caverns in hard sah have a noticeably greater propensity for salt falls, a smaller number of similar events are exhibited even in the caverns in soft salt.

  9. A geologic investigation of Longhorn Cavern 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walters, Victoria Lynn

    1992-01-01

    for this project possible. She provided all the lab facilities necessary to perform uranium and thorium age dating and interpreted the results. She has given me guidance and knowledge through our work together. Ethan Grossman performed the isotopic composition... from fission tracks the amount of uranium in several speleothem samples from Longhorn Cavern. I appreciate all the assistance given to me by many graduate students in the form of field work, lab analysis, construction of the model...

  10. Correlation of Creep Behavior of Domal Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munson, D.E.

    1999-02-16

    The experimentally determined creep responses of a number of domal salts have been reported in, the literature. Some of these creep results were obtained using standard (conventional) creep tests. However, more typically, the creep data have come from multistage creep tests, where the number of specimens available for testing was small. An incremental test uses abrupt changes in stress and temperature to produce several time increments (stages) of different creep conditions. Clearly, the ability to analyze these limited data and to correlate them with each other could be of considerable potential value in establishing the mechanical characteristics of salt domes, both generally and specifically. In any analysis, it is necessary to have a framework of rules to provide consistency. The basis for the framework is the Multimechanism-Deformation (M-D) constitutive model. This model utilizes considerable general knowledge of material creep deformation to supplement specific knowledge of the material response of salt. Because the creep of salt is controlled by just a few micromechanical mechanisms, regardless of the origin of the salt, certain of the material parameters are values that can be considered universal to salt. Actual data analysis utilizes the methodology developed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program, and the response of a bedded pure WIPP salt as the baseline for comparison of the domal salts. Creep data from Weeks Island, Bryan Mound, West Hackberry, Bayou Choctaw, and Big Hill salt domes, which are all sites of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage caverns, were analyzed, as were data from the Avery Island, Moss Bluff, and Jennings salt domes. The analysis permits the parameter value sets for the domal salts to be determined in terms of the M-D model with various degrees of completeness. In turn this permits detailed numerical calculations simulating cavern response. Where the set is incomplete because of the sparse database, reasonable assumptions permit the set to be completed. From the analysis, two distinct response groups were evident, with the salts of one group measurably more creep resistant than the other group. Interestingly, these groups correspond well with the indirectly determined creep closure of the SPR storage caverns, a correlation that probably should be expected. Certainly, the results suggest a simple laboratory determination of the creep characteristics of a salt material from a dome site can indicate the relative behavior of any potential cavern placed within that dome.

  11. Gas-storage calculations yield accurate cavern, inventory data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, R.G. )

    1990-07-02

    This paper discusses how determining gas-storage cavern size and inventory variance is now possible with calculations based on shut-in cavern surveys. The method is the least expensive of three major methods and is quite accurate when recorded over a period of time.

  12. Multimechanism-Deformation Parameters of Domal Salts Using Transient Creep Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MUNSON, DARRELL E

    1999-09-01

    Use of Gulf Coast salt domes for construction of very large storage caverns by solution mining has grown significantly in the last several decades. In fact, among the largest developers of storage caverns along the Gulf Coast is the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) which has purchased or constructed 62 crude oil storage caverns in four storage sites (domes). Although SPR and commercial caverns have been operated economically for many years, the caverns still exhibit some relatively poorly understood behaviors, especially involving creep closure volume loss and hanging string damage from salt falls. Since it is possible to postulate that some of these behaviors stem from geomechanical or reformational aspects of the salt, a method of correlating the cavern response to mechanical creep behavior as determined in the laboratory could be of considerable value. Recently, detailed study of the creep response of domal salts has cast some insight into the influence of different salt origins on cavern behavior. The study used a simple graphical analysis of limited non-steady state data to establish an approach or bound to steady state, as an estimate of the steady state behavior of a given salt. This permitted analysis of sparse creep databases for domal salts. It appears that a shortcoming of this steady state analysis method is that it obscures some critical differences of the salt material behavior. In an attempt to overcome the steady state analysis shortcomings, a method was developed based on integration of the Multimechanism-Deformation (M-D) creep constitutive model to obtain fits to the transient response. This integration process permits definition of all the material sensitive parameters of the model, while those parameters that are constants or material insensitive parameters are fixed independently. The transient analysis method has proven more sensitive to differences in the creep characteristics and has provided a way of defining different behaviors within a given dome. Characteristics defined by the transient analysis are related quantitatively to the volume loss creep rate of the SPR caverns. This increase in understanding of the domal material creep response already has pointed to the possibility y of delineating the existence of material spines within a specific dome. Further definition of the domal geology and structure seems possible only through expansion of the creep databases for domal salts.

  13. Geologic technical assessment of the Stratton Ridge salt dome, Texas, for potential expansion of the U.S. strategic petroleum reserve.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Snider, Anna C.; Looff, Karl M. (Geologic Consultant, Lovelady, TX)

    2006-11-01

    The Stratton Ridge salt dome is a large salt diapir located only some ten miles from the currently active Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site at Bryan Mound, Texas. The dome is approximately 15 miles south-southwest of Houston. The Stratton Ridge salt dome has been intensively developed, in the desirable central portions, with caverns for both brine production and product storage. This geologic technical assessment indicates that the Stratton Ridge salt dome may be considered a viable, if less-than-desirable, candidate site for potential expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Past development of underground caverns significantly limits the potential options for use by the SPR. The current conceptual design layout of proposed caverns for such an expansion facility is based upon a decades-old model of salt geometry, and it is unacceptable, according to this reinterpretation of salt dome geology. The easternmost set of conceptual caverns are located within a 300-ft buffer zone of a very major boundary shear zone, fault, or other structural feature of indeterminate origin. This structure transects the salt stock and subdivides it into an shallow western part and a deeper eastern part. In places, the distance from this structural boundary to the design-basis caverns is as little as 150 ft. A 300-ft distance from this boundary is likely to be the minimum acceptable stand-off, from both a geologic and a regulatory perspective. Repositioning of the proposed cavern field is possible, as sufficient currently undeveloped salt acreage appears to be available. However, such reconfiguration would be subject to limitations related to land-parcel boundaries and other existing infrastructure and topographic constraints. More broadly speaking, the past history of cavern operations at the Stratton Ridge salt dome indicates that operation of potential SPR expansion caverns at this site may be difficult, and correspondingly expensive. Although detailed information is difficult to come by, widely accepted industry rumors are that numerous existing caverns have experienced major operational problems, including salt falls, sheared casings, and unintended releases of stored product(s). Many of these difficulties may be related to on-going differential movement of individual salt spines or to lateral movement at the caprock-salt interface. The history of operational problems, only some of which appear to be a matter of public record, combined with the potential for encountering escaped product from other operations, renders the Stratton Ridge salt dome a less-than-desirable site for SPR purposes.

  14. Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2013-01-01

    abandonment Underground gas storage: Worldwide ExperiencesCritical pressure for gas storage in unlined rock caverns.for the Brooklyn Union gas storage cavern at JFK Airport,

  15. Transient Analysis for the Multimechanism-Deformation Parameters of Several Domal Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munson, Darrell E.

    1999-08-16

    Use of Gulf Coast salt domes for construction of very large storage caverns by solution mining has grown significantly in the last several decades. In fact, a nationally important Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage occurs in large cavern arrays in some of these domes. Although caverns have been operated economically for these many years, these caverns have a range of relatively poorly understood behaviors, involving creep closure fluid loss and damage from salt falls. It is certainly possible to postulate that many of these behaviors stem from geomechanical or deformational aspects of the salt response. As a result, a method of correlating the cavern response to mechanical creep behavior as determined in the laboratory could be of considerable importance. Recently, detailed study of the creep response of domal salts has cast some insight into the influence of different salt origins on cavern behavior. The study used a simple graphical analysis of the limited non-steady state data to give a bound, or an approach to steady state, as an estimate of the steady state behavior of a given domal salt. This permitted the analysis of sparse creep databases for domal salts. It appears that a shortcoming of the steady state analysis was in masking some of the salt material differences. In an attempt to overcome the steady state analysis shortcomings, a method was developed based on the integration of the Multimechanism-Deformation (M-D) creep constitutive model to fit the transient response. This integration process essentially permits definition of the material sensitive parameters of the model, while those parameters that are either constants or material insensitive parameters are fixed independently. The transient analysis method has proven more sensitive to differences in the creep characteristics and has provided a way of defining different behaviors within a given dome. Creep characteristics, as defined by the transient analysis of the creep rate, are related quantitatively to the volume loss creep rate of the caverns. This type of understanding of the domal material creep response already has pointed to the possibility of establishing various distinct material spines within a given dome. Furthermore, if the creep databases for domal salts can be expanded, one could expect additional definition of domal geology and structure.

  16. Geologic technical assessment of the Chacahoula Salt Dome, Louisiana, for potential expansion of the U.S. strategic petroleum reserve.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snider, Anna C.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Looff, Karl M.

    2006-03-01

    The Chacahoula salt dome, located in southern Louisiana, approximately 66 miles southwest of New Orleans, appears to be a suitable site for a 160-million-barrel-capacity expansion facility for the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, comprising sixteen 10-million barrel underground storage caverns. The overall salt dome appears to cover an area of some 1800 acres, or approximately 2.8 square miles, at a subsea elevation of 2000 ft, which is near the top of the salt stock. The shallowest known salt is present at 1116 ft, subsea. The crest of the salt dome is relatively flatlying, outward to an elevation of -4000 ft. Below this elevation, the flanks of the dome plunge steeply in all directions. The dome appears to comprise two separate spine complexes of quasi-independently moving salt. Two mapped areas of salt overhang, located on the eastern and southeastern flanks of the salt stock, are present below -8000 ft. These regions of overhang should present no particular design issues, as the conceptual design SPR caverns are located in the western portion of the dome. The proposed cavern field may be affected by a boundary shear zone, located between the two salt spines. However, the large size of the Chacahoula salt dome suggests that there is significant design flexibility to deal with such local geologic issues.

  17. Numerical Simulations of Leakage from Underground LPG Storage Caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Hajime; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-09-01

    To secure a stable supply of petroleum gas, underground storage caverns for liquified petroleum gas (LPG) are commonly used in many countries worldwide. Storing LPG in underground caverns requires that the surrounding rock mass remain saturated with groundwater and that the water pressure be higher than the liquid pressure inside the cavern. In previous studies, gas containment criteria for underground gas storage based on hydraulic gradient and pressure have been discussed, but these studies do not consider the physicochemical characteristics and behavior of LPG such as vaporization and dissolution in groundwater. Therefore, while these studies are very useful for designing storage caverns, they do not provide better understanding of the either the environmental effects of gas contamination or the behavior of vaporized LPG. In this study, we have performed three-phase fluid flow simulations of gas leakage from underground LPG storage caverns, using the multiphase multicomponent nonisothermal simulator TMVOC (Pruess and Battistelli, 2002), which is capable of solving the three-phase nonisothermal flow of water, gas, and a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. A two-dimensional cross-sectional model resembling an actual underground LPG facility in Japan was developed, and gas leakage phenomena were simulated for three different permeability models: (1) a homogeneous model, (2) a single-fault model, and (3) a heterogeneous model. In addition, the behavior of stored LPG was studied for the special case of a water curtain suddenly losing its function because of operational problems, or because of long-term effects such as clogging of boreholes. The results of the study indicate the following: (1) The water curtain system is a very powerful means for preventing gas leakage from underground storage facilities. By operating with appropriate pressure and layout, gas containment can be ensured. (2) However , in highly heterogeneous media such as fractured rock and fault zones, local flow paths within which the gas containment criterion is not satisfied could be formed. To eliminate such zones, treatments such as pre/post grouting or an additional installment of water-curtain boreholes are essential. (3) Along highly conductive features such as faults, even partially saturated zones possess certain effects that can retard or prevent gas leakage, while a fully unsaturated fault connected to the storage cavern can quickly cause a gas blowout. This possibility strongly suggests that ensuring water saturation of the rock surrounding the cavern is a very important requirement. (4) Even if an accident should suddenly impair the water curtain, the gas plume does not quickly penetrate the ground surface. In these simulations, the plume takes several months to reach the ground surface.

  18. Bryan Mound SPR cavern 113 remedial leach stage 1 analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudeen, David Keith; Weber, Paula D.; Lord, David L.

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve implemented the first stage of a leach plan in 2011-2012 to expand storage volume in the existing Bryan Mound 113 cavern from a starting volume of 7.4 million barrels (MMB) to its design volume of 11.2 MMB. The first stage was terminated several months earlier than expected in August, 2012, as the upper section of the leach zone expanded outward more quickly than design. The oil-brine interface was then re-positioned with the intent to resume leaching in the second stage configuration. This report evaluates the as-built configuration of the cavern at the end of the first stage, and recommends changes to the second stage plan in order to accommodate for the variance between the first stage plan and the as-built cavern. SANSMIC leach code simulations are presented and compared with sonar surveys in order to aid in the analysis and offer projections of likely outcomes from the revised plan for the second stage leach.

  19. SPR salt wall leaching experiments in lab-scale vessel : data report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Stephen Walter; O'Hern, Timothy John; Hartenberger, Joel David

    2010-10-01

    During cavern leaching in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), injected raw water mixes with resident brine and eventually interacts with the cavern salt walls. This report provides a record of data acquired during a series of experiments designed to measure the leaching rate of salt walls in a labscale simulated cavern, as well as discussion of the data. These results should be of value to validate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models used to simulate leaching applications. Three experiments were run in the transparent 89-cm (35-inch) ID diameter vessel previously used for several related projects. Diagnostics included tracking the salt wall dissolution rate using ultrasonics, an underwater camera to view pre-installed markers, and pre- and post-test weighing and measuring salt blocks that comprise the walls. In addition, profiles of the local brine/water conductivity and temperature were acquired at three locations by traversing conductivity probes to map out the mixing of injected raw water with the surrounding brine. The data are generally as expected, with stronger dissolution when the salt walls were exposed to water with lower salt saturation, and overall reasonable wall shape profiles. However, there are significant block-to-block variations, even between neighboring salt blocks, so the averaged data are considered more useful for model validation. The remedial leach tests clearly showed that less mixing and longer exposure time to unsaturated water led to higher levels of salt wall dissolution. The data for all three tests showed a dividing line between upper and lower regions, roughly above and below the fresh water injection point, with higher salt wall dissolution in all cases, and stronger (for remedial leach cases) or weaker (for standard leach configuration) concentration gradients above the dividing line.

  20. Nitrogen Monitoring of West Hackberry 117 Cavern Wells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettin, Giorgia; Lord, David

    2015-02-01

    U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern West Hackberry 117 was tested under extended nitrogen monitoring following a successful mechanical integrity test in order to validate a newly developed hydrostatic column model to be used to differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen. High resolution wireline pressure and temperature data were collected during the test period and used in conjunction with the hydrostatic column model to predict the nitrogen/oil interface and the pressure along the entire fluid column from the bradenhead flange nominally at ground surface to bottom of brine pool. Results here and for other SPR caverns have shown that wells under long term nitrogen monitoring do not necessarily pressurize with a relative rate (P N2 /P brine) of 1. The theoretical relative pressure rate depends on the well configuration, pressure and the location of the nitrogen-oil interface and varies from well to well. For the case of WH117 the predicted rates were 0.73 for well A and 0.92 for well B. The measured relative pressurization rate for well B was consistent with the model prediction, while well A rate was found to be between 0.58-0.68. A number of possible reasons for the discrepancy between the model and measured rates of well A are possible. These include modeling inaccuracy, measurement inaccuracy or the possibility of the presence of a very small leak (below the latest calculated minimum detectable leak rate).

  1. ,"Underground Natural Gas Storage - Salt Cavern Storage Fields"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEtGeorgia:Illinois:WizardYatescloudDataAge Refining AirA1.All

  2. ,"Underground Natural Gas Storage - Storage Fields Other than Salt Caverns"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEtGeorgia:Illinois:WizardYatescloudDataAge Refining AirA1.AllStorage Fields

  3. U.S. Natural Gas Number of Underground Storage Salt Caverns Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,Demand Module of the NationalSalesof(MillionIndustrial Consumers(Number of

  4. U.S. Natural Gas Underground Storage Salt Caverns Capacity (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,Demand Module of theCubic Feet) Depleted Fields Capacity (Million

  5. Application of the multi-mechanism deformation model for three-dimensional simulations of salt : behavior for the strategic petroleum reserve.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Bean, James E.

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve stores crude oil in 62 solution-mined caverns in salt domes located in Texas and Louisiana. Historically, three-dimensional geomechanical simulations of the behavior of the caverns have been performed using a power law creep model. Using this method, and calibrating the creep coefficient to field data such as cavern closure and surface subsidence, has produced varying degrees of agreement with observed phenomena. However, as new salt dome locations are considered for oil storage facilities, pre-construction geomechanical analyses are required that need site-specific parameters developed from laboratory data obtained from core samples. The multi-mechanism deformation (M-D) model is a rigorous mathematical description of both transient and steady-state creep phenomena. Recent enhancements to the numerical integration algorithm within the model have created a more numerically stable implementation of the M-D model. This report presents computational analyses to compare the results of predictions of the geomechanical behavior at the West Hackberry SPR site using both models. The recently-published results using the power law creep model produced excellent agreement with an extensive set of field data. The M-D model results show similar agreement using parameters developed directly from laboratory data. It is also used to predict the behavior for the construction and operation of oil storage caverns at a new site, to identify potential problems before a final cavern layout is designed.

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

    2014-09-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  7. Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2013-01-01

    compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock cavernsCompressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) in Lined Rock Cavernscompressed air energy storage (CAES) in concrete-lined rock

  8. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bryan Mound Salt Dome, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal, J.T.; Magorian, T.R.; Ahmad, S.

    1994-11-01

    This report revises the original report that was published in 1980. Some of the topics covered in the earlier report were provisional and it is now practicable to reexamine them using new or revised geotechnical data and that obtained from SPR cavern operations, which involves 16 new caverns. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences as compared with the 1980 report and more definition in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major southeast-northwest trending anomalous zone. The original interpretation was of westward tilt of the dome, this revision shows a tilt to the southeast, consistent with other gravity and seismic data. This interpretation refines the evaluation of additional cavern space, by adding more salt buffer and allowing several more caverns. Additional storage space is constrained on this nearly full dome because of low-lying peripheral wetlands, but 60 MMBBL or more of additional volume could be gained in six or more new caverns. Subsidence values at Bryan Mound are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging about 11 mm/yr (0.4 in/yr), but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values are about the same as survey measurement accuracy. Periodic flooding is a continuing threat because of the coastal proximity and because peripheral portions of the site are at elevations less than 15 ft. This threat may increase slightly as future subsidence lowers the surface, but the amount is apt to be small. Caprock integrity may be affected by structural features, especially the faulting associated with anomalous zones. Injection wells have not been used extensively at Bryan Mound, but could be a practicable solution to future brine disposal needs. Environmental issues center on the areas of low elevation that are below 15 feet above mean sea level: the coastal proximity and lowland environment combined with the potential for flooding create conditions that require continuing surveillance.

  9. Geologic technical assessment of the Richton salt dome, Mississippi, for potential expansion of the U.S. strategic petroleum reserve.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snider, Anna C.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Looff, Karl M. (Geologic Consultant)

    2006-01-01

    Technical assessment and remodeling of existing data indicates that the Richton salt dome, located in southeastern Mississippi, appears to be a suitable site for expansion of the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The maximum area of salt is approximately 7 square miles, at a subsurface elevation of about -2000 ft, near the top of the salt stock. Approximately 5.8 square miles of this appears suitable for cavern development, because of restrictions imposed by modeled shallow salt overhang along several sides of the dome. The detailed geometry of the overhang currently is only poorly understood. However, the large areal extent of the Richton salt mass suggests that significant design flexibility exists for a 160-million-barrel storage facility consisting of 16 ten-million-barrel caverns. The dome itself is prominently elongated from northwest to southeast. The salt stock appears to consist of two major spine features, separated by a likely boundary shear zone trending from southwest to northeast. The dome decreases in areal extent with depth, because of salt flanks that appear to dip inward at 70-80 degrees. Caprock is present at depths as shallow as 274 ft, and the shallowest salt is documented at -425 ft. A large number of existing two-dimensional seismic profiles have been acquired crossing, and in the vicinity of, the Richton salt dome. At least selected seismic profiles should be acquired, examined, potentially reprocessed, and interpreted in an effort to understand the limitations imposed by the apparent salt overhang, should the Richton site be selected for actual expansion of the Reserve.

  10. Salt Waste Processing Initiatives

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Patricia Suggs Salt Processing Team Lead Assistant Manager for Waste Disposition Project Office of Environmental Management Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Initiatives 2...

  11. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-28

    Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

  12. Analysis of the Black-Capped Vireo habitat at Kickapoo Caverns State Park, Texas using a Geographic Information System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castiaux, Nathalie

    1995-01-01

    A Geographic Information System (GIS) database was developed for Y,-ickapoo Cavern State Park, Tx. The digital database was used to characterize the Black-Capped Vireo ( Vireo Attricapillus Woodhouse) breeding habitat, and to produce a potential...

  13. Salt never calls itself sweet.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baliga, Ragavendra R; Narula, Jagat

    2009-01-01

    54. 11. Frohlich ED. The role of salt in hypertension: theblockade, diuretics, and salt restriction for the managementa low- sodium high-potassium salt in hypertensive patients

  14. Slime-busting Salt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    past issues All Issues submit Slime-busting Salt A potential new treatment gets bacteria deep in their hiding places May 1, 2015 Slime-busting Salt Biofilms are made of...

  15. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  16. Dosimetry using silver salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-06-24

    The present invention provides a method for detecting ionizing radiation. Exposure of silver salt AgX to ionizing radiation results in the partial reduction of the salt to a mixture of silver salt and silver metal. The mixture is further reduced by a reducing agent, which causes the production of acid (HX) and the oxidized form of the reducing agent (R). Detection of HX indicates that the silver salt has been exposed to ionizing radiation. The oxidized form of the reducing agent (R) may also be detected. The invention also includes dosimeters employing the above method for detecting ionizing radiation.

  17. A Dash of Salt 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supercinski, Danielle

    2006-01-01

    stream_source_info A dash of salt.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9159 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name A dash of salt.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 tx H2O | pg. 18 A... Texas A&M researcher is assessing the impact of using moderately saline water for irrigating urban landscapes in West Texas and southern New Mexico. A DASH OF SALT Researcher assesses salinity impacts on grasses, trees and shrubs A Dash of Salt...

  18. NOVEL SALTS OF GRAPHITE AND A BORON NITRIDE SALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartlett, Neil

    2011-01-01

    ~ i\\f'{y AND DOCUMENTS SECTION NOVEL SALTS OF GRAPHITE ANDA BORON NITRIDE SALT Neil Bartlett, R. N. Biagioni, B. W.privately owned rights. Novel Salts of Graphite and a Boron

  19. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  20. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-09

    The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

  1. Water purification using organic salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  2. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

  3. Stability and support issues in the construction of large span caverns for physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laughton, C.; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    New physics experiments, proposed to study neutrinos and protons, call for the use of large underground particle detectors. In the United States, such detectors would be housed in the US Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), sited within the footprint of the defunct Homestake Mine, South Dakota. Although the experimental proposals differ in detail, all rely heavily upon the ability of the mined and reinforced rock mass to serve as a stable host for the detector facilities. Experimental proposals, based on the use of Water Cherenkov detector technology, specify rock caverns with excavated volumes in excess of half a million cubic meters, spans of at least 50 m, sited at depths of approximately one to 1.5 kilometers. Although perhaps sited at shallower depth, proposals based on the use of Liquid Argon (LAr) detector technology are no less challenging. LAr proposals not only call for the excavation of large span caverns, but have an additional need for the safe management of large quantities (kilo-tonnes) of cryogenic liquid, including critical provisions for the fail-safe egress of underground personnel and the reliable exhaust of Argon gas in the event of a catastrophic release. These multi-year, high value physics experiments will provide the key experimental data needed to support the research of a new generation of physicists as they probe the behavior of basic particles and the fundamental laws of nature. The rock engineer must deliver caverns that will reliably meet operational requirements and remain stable for periods conservatively estimated to be in excess of twenty years. This paper provides an overview of the DUSEL site conditions and discusses key end-user requirements and design criteria likely to dominate in determining the viability of experimental options. The paper stresses the paramount importance of collecting adequate site-specific data to inform early siting, dimensioning and layout decisions. Given the large-scale of the excavation and likely timeline to construction, the paper also strongly suggests that there are exciting opportunities for the rock mechanics and engineering community to identify and efficiently integrate research components into the design and construction process.

  4. Salt Repository Research,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation La Fonda Hotel Santa Fe, New Mexico September 7 - 11, 2014 Please join us Sunday September 7, 2014 for a welcome and reception at...

  5. Salt Repository Research,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 th USGerman Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation Hotel Pullmann Dresden Newa Dresden September 7 - 9, 2015 September 7- Monday 08:00-08:30 Registration...

  6. Amine salts of nitroazoles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

    1993-10-26

    Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

  7. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.-M.

    2012-01-01

    and R. Scharf, Huntroft CAES: More than 20 years ofbase case for modeling of CAES in a lined rock cavern. TableFigure 2. Components of a CAES system (modified from http://

  8. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  9. RECHARGEABLE MOLTEN-SALT CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2013-01-01

    KC! /FeS 2 cell lithium-silicon magnesium oxide molten-saltmolten-salt cells Na/Na glass/Na:z.Sn-S cell Na/NazO•xA!Symposium on Molten Salts, Physical Electrochemistry

  10. Actinide removal from spent salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  11. APPLICATIONS OF SALT IN ELECTROFISHING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    APPLICATIONS OF SALT IN ELECTROFISHING iNlarine Biological Laboratory LIB55.A.K.Y WOODS HOLE, MASS OF SALT IN ELECTROFISHING By Robert E . Lennon and Phillip S . Parker Fishery Research Biologists Leetown. Electric fisliliiK. 2. Salt. i. Farker, Phillip Slieridaii, 192t>- .joiut author, ii. Title. ( Series : IT

  12. Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutqvist, J.; Kim, H. -M.; Ryu, D. -W.; Synn, J. -H.; Song, W. -K.

    2012-02-01

    We applied coupled nonisothermal, multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling to study the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in concrete-lined rock caverns. The paper focuses on CAES in lined caverns at relatively shallow depth (e.g., 100 m depth) in which a typical CAES operational pressure of 5 to 8 MPa is significantly higher than both ambient fluid pressure and in situ stress. We simulated a storage operation that included cyclic compression and decompression of air in the cavern, and investigated how pressure, temperature and stress evolve over several months of operation. We analyzed two different lining options, both with a 50 cm thick low permeability concrete lining, but in one case with an internal synthetic seal such as steel or rubber. For our simulated CAES system, the thermodynamic analysis showed that 96.7% of the energy injected during compression could be recovered during subsequent decompression, while 3.3% of the energy was lost by heat conduction to the surrounding media. Our geomechanical analysis showed that tensile effective stresses as high as 8 MPa could develop in the lining as a result of the air pressure exerted on the inner surface of the lining, whereas thermal stresses were relatively smaller and compressive. With the option of an internal synthetic seal, the maximum effective tensile stress was reduced from 8 to 5 MPa, but was still in substantial tension. We performed one simulation in which the tensile tangential stresses resulted in radial cracks and air leakage though the lining. This air leakage, however, was minor (about 0.16% of the air mass loss from one daily compression) in terms of CAES operational efficiency, and did not significantly impact the overall energy balance of the system. However, despite being minor in terms of energy balance, the air leakage resulted in a distinct pressure increase in the surrounding rock that could be quickly detected using pressure monitoring outside the concrete lining.

  13. Long-Term Outcomes of Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Treatment of Cavernous Sinus Meningiomas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos, Marcos Antonio dos, E-mail: marcosrxt@gmail.com [Radiotherapy Department, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Bustos Perez de Salcedo, Jose; Gutierrez Diaz, Jose Angel [Radiotherapy Department, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Neurosurgery Department, Sanatorio San Francisco de Asis, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, Felipe A. [Radiotherapy Department, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Samblas, Jose [Radiotherapy Department, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Neurosurgery Department, Sanatorio San Francisco de Asis, Madrid (Spain); Marsiglia, Hugo [Radiotherapy Department, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Sallabanda, Kita [Radiotherapy Department, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Neurosurgery Department, Sanatorio San Francisco de Asis, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Patients with cavernous sinus meningiomas (CSM) have an elevated risk of surgical morbidity and mortality. Recurrence is often observed after partial resection. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), either alone or combined with surgery, represents an important advance in CSM management, but long-term results are lacking. Methods and Materials: A total of 88 CSM patients, treated from January 1991 to December 2005, were retrospectively reviewed. The mean follow-up was 86.8 months (range, 17.1-179.4 months). Among the patients, 22 were followed for more than 10 years. There was a female predominance (84.1%). The age varied from 16 to 90 years (mean, 51.6). In all, 47 patients (53.4%) received SRS alone, and 41 patients (46.6%) had undergone surgery before SRS. A dose of 14 Gy was prescribed to isodose curves from 50% to 90%. In 25 patients (28.4%), as a result of the proximity to organs at risk, the prescribed dose did not completely cover the target. Results: After SRS, 65 (73.8%) patients presented with tumor volume reduction; 14 (15.9%) remained stable, and 9 (10.2%) had tumor progression. The progression-free survival was 92.5% at 5 years, and 82.5% at 10 years. Age, sex, maximal diameter of the treated tumor, previous surgery, and complete target coverage did not show significant associations with prognosis. Among the 88 treated patients, 17 experienced morbidity that was related to SRS, and 6 of these patients spontaneously recovered. Conclusions: SRS is an effective and safe treatment for CSM, feasible either in the primary or the postsurgical setting. Incomplete coverage of the target did not worsen outcomes. More than 80% of the patients remained free of disease progression during long-term follow-up.

  14. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

    2012-10-09

    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  15. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  16. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  17. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  18. Batteries using molten salt electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-04-08

    An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

  19. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-10-14

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  20. Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-06-20

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  1. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-11-11

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  2. RECHARGEABLE MOLTEN-SALT CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2013-01-01

    polysulfide sodium/sulfur cell solid electrolyte Ti0 2ion conducting solid electrolyte would add flexibility forwith a combination of a solid electrolyte and a molten salt

  3. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-06-01

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selection and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.

  4. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-06-01

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selectionmore »and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.« less

  5. Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: Acyclic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: Acyclic Carbonates and Esters Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates:...

  6. Using the Choquet integral for screening geological CO2 storage sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    reservoirs, deep saline aquifers, and in salt caverns. 1 Before a detailed storage site characterization

  7. BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Assistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Assistance Program 2015 A financial assistance program of the Brigham Young University Division of Continuing Education BYU Salt Lake Center 345 West North Temple Street 3 Triad Center Salt Lake City, UT 84180 Fax: (801) 933­9456 Email: slc@byu.edu #12;BYU Salt Lake

  8. Salt Dynamics in Non-Riparian Freshwater Wetlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stacey, Mark T

    2007-01-01

    Resources Center Project “Salt Dynamics in Non-RiparianTechnical Completion Report “Salt Dynamics in Non-Riparianindicate that the flux of salt between the soil and water

  9. Salt Stress in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough: An integrated genomics approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2010-01-01

    machinery against salt-induced damage in Synechococcus.Lactobacillus plantarum to salt and nonelectrolyte stress. Jregulation of acid, heat, and salt tolerance in Escherichia

  10. Salt marsh geomorphology: Physical and ecological effects on landform Keywords: salt marsh geomorphology; AGU Chapman Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fagherazzi, Sergio

    Editorial Salt marsh geomorphology: Physical and ecological effects on landform Keywords: salt marsh geomorphology; AGU Chapman Conference Evidence that the three-dimensional structure of salt marsh, and the ratio of marsh edge:marsh interior have all been shown to affect the distribution and density of salt

  11. First Robert Stobie SALT Workshop Science with SALT Workshop Proceedings, Vol. 2, 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bershady, Matthew A.

    First Robert Stobie SALT Workshop Science with SALT Workshop Proceedings, Vol. 2, 2004 D.A.H. Buckley Galaxy Kinematics with SALT M. A. Bershady1, M. A. W. Verheijen2, D. R. Andersen3, R. A. Swaters4-gathering power of SALT coupled with the high-throughput performance of the Prime Focus Imaging Spec- trograph

  12. Prevention of Salt Damage inPrevention of Salt Damage in LimestoneLimestone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Prevention of Salt Damage inPrevention of Salt Damage in LimestoneLimestone Kathy Whitaker.jpg #12;Introduction: Sodium Sulfate Thenardite: Na2SO4 Mirabilite: Na2SO4·10H2O Salt exposure for 5 weeks the stone by capillary uptake of water containing the dissolved salt. Degradation of mortar. #12

  13. Great Salt Lake Basin Hydrologic Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarboton, David

    Great Salt Lake Basin Hydrologic Observatory Contact Information David Tarboton Utah State University of Utah 135 South 1460 East Rm 719 Salt Lake City, Utah (801) 581-5033 wjohnson. The Great Salt Lake Basin Hydrologic Observatory development team is highly committed to this concept

  14. 2013 -2014 SALT Center SCHOLARSHIP AWARD APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, Joseph C.

    2013 - 2014 SALT Center SCHOLARSHIP AWARD APPLICATION Deadline: March 1, 2013 Scholarship Awards of the candidate. (Factors considered: FAFSA, GPA, SALT Center usage) Scholarship Awards are based upon available funds. Scholarship Awards apply to SALT Center program fees only. Scholarship Application materials

  15. Salt in Dutchess Co. Waters Stuart Findlay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berkowitz, Alan R.

    Salt in Dutchess Co. Waters Stuart Findlay Vicky Kelly Where are we now? Compared to what? Where or Groundwater? STREAM · Road salt biggest source ­ others? #12;SOIL CORES HOLD Cl LONGER THAN WATER Kincaid be increasing · What else is coming along? #12;Scope for Action · Reduced Salt is in Everyone's Interest

  16. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Urquhart, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300oC, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  17. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bayou Choctaw salt dome, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Magorian, T.R. [Magorian (Thomas R.), Amherst, NY (United States); Byrne, K.O.; Denzler, S. [Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (United States)

    1993-09-01

    This report revises and updates the geologic site characterization report that was published in 1980. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major east-west trending shear zone, not mapped in the 1980 report. Excessive gas influx in Caverns 18 and 20 may be associated with this shear zone. Subsidence values at Bayou Choctaw are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging only about 10 mm/yr but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values often approximate measurement accuracy. Periodic, temporary flooding is a continuing concern because of the low site elevation (less than 10 ft), and this may intensify as future subsidence lowers the surface even further. Cavern 4 was re-sonared in 1992 and the profiles suggest that significant change has not occurred since 1980, thereby reducing the uncertainty of possible overburden collapse -- as occurred at Cavern 7 in 1954. Other potential integrity issues persist, such as the proximity of Cavern 20 to the dome edge, and the narrow web separating Caverns 15 and 17. Injection wells have been used for the disposal of brine but have been only marginally effective thus far; recompletions into more permeable lower Pleistocene gravels may be a practical way of increasing injection capacity and brinefield efficiency. Cavern storage space is limited on this already crowded dome, but 15 MMBBL could be gained by enlarging Cavern 19 and by constructing a new cavern beneath and slightly north of abandoned Cavern 13. Environmental issues center on the low site elevation: the backswamp environment combined with the potential for periodic flooding create conditions that will require continuing surveillance.

  18. Noncentrosymmetric salt inclusion oxides: Role of salt lattices and counter ions in bulk polarity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, J. Palmer; Hwu, Shiou-Jyh

    2012-11-15

    The synthesis and structural features of a newly emerged class of salt-inclusion solids (SISs) are reviewed. The descriptive chemistry with respect to the role of ionic salt and its correlation with bulk noncentrosymmetricity and polarity of the covalent oxide lattice in question is discussed by means of structure analysis. These unprecedented discoveries have opened doors to novel materials synthesis via the utilities of salt-inclusion chemistry (SIC) that are otherwise known as the molten-salt approach. The result of these investigations prove that the bulk acentricity, or cancellation of which, can be accounted for from the perspective of ionic and/or salt lattices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis and structure of newly emerged salt-inclusion solids are reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salt lattice and its symmetry correlation with polar framework are discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preservation of acentricity is accounted for from the perspective of ionic and salt lattices.

  19. Independent Oversight Assessment, Salt Waste Processing Facility...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Salt Waste Processing Facility Project The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight (Independent Oversight),...

  20. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE HEAVY METAL SALTS (selected)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    (s): ___________________________________________________ Chemical(s): heavy metal salts: acetates, chlorides, sulfates, nitrates, anhydrides, oxides, hydroxides, etc., of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, mercury, osmium, silver, and uranium. Specific

  1. Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Frank; Popp, Till; Wieczorek, Klaus; Stührenberg, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

  2. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Wu (Tempe, AZ)

    2008-01-01

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  3. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen [Mesa, AZ; Xu, Wu [Tempe, AZ

    2009-05-05

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  4. Supplementary Figure S1 Additional characterization of salt responses of [Low] and [High] responsive salt cells.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faraon, Andrei

    Supplementary Figure S1 Additional characterization of salt responses of [Low] and [High] responsive salt cells. (a) Diagram illustrating the imaging preparation (see Methods for details). Taste buds.e.m. dF/F responses for the [Low] and [High] salt-responding cells (n3). (c) TRCs activated by low

  5. Metal salt catalysts for enhancing hydrogen spillover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Ralph T; Wang, Yuhe

    2013-04-23

    A composition for hydrogen storage includes a receptor, a hydrogen dissociating metal doped on the receptor, and a metal salt doped on the receptor. The hydrogen dissociating metal is configured to spill over hydrogen to the receptor, and the metal salt is configured to increase a rate of the spill over of the hydrogen to the receptor.

  6. Nitrate Salt Surrogate Blending Scoping Test Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-13

    Test blending equipment identified in the “Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing”. Determine if the equipment will provide adequate mixing of zeolite and surrogate salt/Swheat stream; optimize equipment type and operational sequencing; impact of baffles and inserts on mixing performance; and means of validating mixing performance

  7. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay in Light of SNO Salt Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    Beta Decay in Light of SNO Salt Data Hitoshi Murayama andBeta Decay in Light of SNO Salt Data Hitoshi Murayama ? andIn the SNO data from its salt run, probably the most signi?

  8. THERMAL GRADIENT MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yagnik, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT Suresh K. Yagnik February 1982 TOF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT by Suresh K. Yagnik Materialsb u i l t in future. The salt deposits, however, are known

  9. THE MECHANISM OF INTRAGRANULAR MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Machiels, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    of Brine Inclusions in a Salt Repository", ORM. -5526 (JulyOF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT A.J. Machiels, S. Yagnik, D.R.OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT by A.J. Machiels S. Yagnik D.R.

  10. Advances in alleviating growth limitations of maize under salt stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schubert, Sven

    2009-01-01

    during the first phase of salt stress. J. Appl. Bot. 2004;during the first phase of salt stress. J. Plant Nutr. SoilC, Hartung W, Schubert S. Salt resistance is determined by

  11. Solar Policy Environment: Salt Lake

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The overall objective of the “Solar Salt Lake” (SSL) team is to develop a fully-scoped city and county-level implementation plan that will facilitate at least an additional ten megawatts of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations in the government, commercial, industrial, and residential sectors by 2015. To achieve this aggressive goal, the program strategy includes a combination of barrier identification, research, and policy analysis that utilizes the input of various stakeholders. Coupled with these activities will be the development and implementation of pilot installations in the government and residential sectors, and broad outreach to builders and potential practitioners of solar energy products in the process. In this way, while creating mechanisms to enable a demand for solar, SSL will also facilitate capacity building for suppliers, thereby helping to ensure long-term sustainability for the regional market.

  12. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Penn Salt Manufacturing...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Salt Manufacturing Co Whitemarsh Research Laboratories - PA 20 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: PENN SALT MANUFACTURING CO., WHITEMARSH RESEARCH LABORATORIES (PA.20) Eliminated from...

  13. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar...

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    LLC. The Order, at paragraph 22, requires the Permittees to submit a WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan for identified nitrate salt bearing waste...

  15. Hybrid Polymer/Lipid Vesicles via Salt and Agitation Induced...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Hybrid PolymerLipid Vesicles via Salt and Agitation Induced Fusion. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hybrid PolymerLipid Vesicles via Salt and...

  16. Project Profile: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant Conceptual Design and Feasibility Project Profile: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant Conceptual Design and Feasibility...

  17. Energy Department Completes Salt Coolant Material Transfer to...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Completes Salt Coolant Material Transfer to Czech Republic for Advanced Reactor Research Energy Department Completes Salt Coolant Material Transfer to Czech Republic for Advanced...

  18. Microsoft Word - UFD-salt-testing-technical-baseline-FCRD-UFD...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    pressure, room closure, salt permeability, salt resistivity, active and passive seismic, self-potential, and gas-generation were all being observed during the...

  19. Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes...

  20. Examination of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L

    2014-01-01

    The need for high efficiency power conversion and energy transport systems is increasing as world energy use continues to increase, petroleum supplies decrease, and global warming concerns become more prevalent. There are few heat transport fluids capable of operating above about 600oC that do not require operation at extremely high pressures. Liquid fluoride salts are an exception to that limitation. Fluoride salts have very high boiling points, can operate at high temperatures and low pressures and have very good heat transfer properties. They have been proposed as coolants for next generation fission reactor systems, as coolants for fusion reactor blankets, and as thermal storage media for solar power systems. In each case, these salts are used to either extract or deliver heat through heat exchange equipment, and in order to design this equipment, liquid salt heat transfer must be predicted. This paper discusses the heat transfer characteristics of liquid fluoride salts. Historically, heat transfer in fluoride salts has been assumed to be consistent with that of conventional fluids (air, water, etc.), and correlations used for predicting heat transfer performance of all fluoride salts have been the same or similar to those used for water conventional fluids an, water, etc). A review of existing liquid salt heat transfer data is presented, summarized, and evaluated on a consistent basis. Less than 10 experimental data sets have been found in the literature, with varying degrees of experimental detail and measured parameters provided. The data has been digitized and a limited database has been assembled and compared to existing heat transfer correlations. Results vary as well, with some data sets following traditional correlations; in others the comparisons are less conclusive. This is especially the case for less common salt/materials combinations, and suggests that additional heat transfer data may be needed when using specific salt eutectics in heat transfer equipment designs. All of the data discussed above were taken under forced convective conditions (both laminar and turbulent). Some recent data taken at ORNL under free convection conditions are also presented and results discussed. This data was taken using a simple crucible experiment with an instrumented nickel heater inserted in the salt to induce natural circulation within the crucible. The data was taken over a temperature range of 550oC to 650oC in FLiNaK salt. This data covers both laminar and turbulent natural convection conditions, and is compared to existing forms of natural circulation correlations.

  1. Estimation of low energy neutron flux ($E_n\\leq15$ MeV) in India-based Neutrino Observatory cavern using Monte Carlo techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dokania, N; Mathimalar, S; Garai, A; Nanal, V; Pillay, R G; Bhushan, K G

    2015-01-01

    The neutron flux at low energy ($E_n\\leq15$ MeV) resulting from the radioactivity of the rock in the underground cavern of the India-based Neutrino Observatory is estimated using Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulations. The neutron production rate due to the spontaneous fission of U, Th and ($\\alpha, n$) interactions in the rock is determined employing the actual rock composition. It has been demonstrated that the total flux is equivalent to a finite size cylindrical rock ($D=L=140$ cm) element. The energy integrated neutron flux thus obtained at the center of the underground tunnel is 2.76 (0.47) $\\times 10^{-6}\\rm~n ~cm^{-2}~s^{-1}$. The estimated neutron flux is of the same order ($\\sim10^{-6}\\rm~n ~cm^{-2}~s^{-1}$)~as measured in other underground laboratories.

  2. Estimation of low energy neutron flux ($E_n\\leq15$ MeV) in India-based Neutrino Observatory cavern using Monte Carlo techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Dokania; V. Singh; S. Mathimalar; A. Garai; V. Nanal; R. G. Pillay; K. G. Bhushan

    2015-09-23

    The neutron flux at low energy ($E_n\\leq15$ MeV) resulting from the radioactivity of the rock in the underground cavern of the India-based Neutrino Observatory is estimated using Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulations. The neutron production rate due to the spontaneous fission of U, Th and ($\\alpha, n$) interactions in the rock is determined employing the actual rock composition. It has been demonstrated that the total flux is equivalent to a finite size cylindrical rock ($D=L=140$ cm) element. The energy integrated neutron flux thus obtained at the center of the underground tunnel is 2.76 (0.47) $\\times 10^{-6}\\rm~n ~cm^{-2}~s^{-1}$. The estimated neutron flux is of the same order ($\\sim10^{-6}\\rm~n ~cm^{-2}~s^{-1}$)~as measured in other underground laboratories.

  3. Director, Salt Waste Processing Facility Project Office

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located within The Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River (SR) Operations Office, Salt Waste Processing Facility Project Office (SWPFPO). SR is located in Aiken, South Carolina....

  4. Determining Salt Tolerance Among Sunflower Genotypes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masor, Laura Lee

    2012-02-14

    Crop lands around the world are becoming more salt-affected due to natural processes and agricultural practices. Due to this increase of salinization, acquisition of saline tolerant germplasm for breeding purposes is becoming a priority. Although...

  5. Advanced heat exchanger development for molten salts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Clark, Denis; Glazoff, Michael; Zheng, Guiqiu; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark

    2014-12-01

    This study addresses present work concerned with advanced heat exchanger development for molten salt in nuclear and non nuclear thermal systems. The molten salt systems discussed herein use alloys, such as Hastelloy N and 242, which show corrosion resistance to molten salt at nominal operating temperatures up to 700°C. These alloys were diffusion welded, and the corresponding information is presented. Test specimens were prepared for exposing diffusion welds to molten salt environments. Hastelloy N and 242 were found to be weldable by diffusion welding, with ultimate tensile strengths about 90% of base metal values. Both diffusion welds and sheet materialmore »in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in?58 mol% KF and 42 mol% ZrF4 at 650, 700, and 850°C for 200, 500, and 1,000 hours. Corrosion rates found were similar between welded and nonwelded materials, typically « less

  6. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor.

  7. The Effect of Salt Water on Rice. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1909-01-01

    NO. izz. June, 1909. THE EFFECT OF SALT WATE ON RICE, LAPS, Che Postoffice College Station, 1 --- Texas. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT S I'ATIONS. OFFICERS. GOVERNING BOARD. (Board of Directors A. and M. College..., Texas. Reports and bulletins are sent upon application to the Director. The Effect of Salt Water on Rice. . ...... By G. S. FRAPS. At some of the rice farms located near the coast, the amount of water lxml~etl is sometimes greater than...

  8. SchoolFEFLOW Exercise Salt Intrusion From Top

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kornhuber, Ralf

    Summer SchoolFEFLOW® Exercise Salt Intrusion From Top Vertical cross section #12;Summer SchoolSalt refinement (via Rubberbox and Border Options) FEFLOW Mesh Generation Height approx. 100 m #12;Summer SchoolSalt time stepping, FE/BE time integration Final time: 36500 days (100 years) #12;Summer SchoolSalt

  9. SALT--Structured Assertion Language for Temporal Logic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cengarle, María Victoria

    SALT--Structured Assertion Language for Temporal Logic Andreas Bauer, Martin Leucker , and Jonathan,leucker,streit}@informatik.tu-muenchen.de Abstract. This paper presents Salt. Salt is a general purpose speci- fication and assertion language other formalisms used for temporal specification of properties, Salt does not target a specific domain

  10. SALT---Structured Assertion Language for Temporal Logic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leucker, Martin

    SALT---Structured Assertion Language for Temporal Logic Andreas Bauer, Martin Leucker,leucker,streit}@informatik.tu­muenchen.de Abstract. This paper presents Salt. Salt is a general purpose speci­ fication and assertion language other formalisms used for temporal specification of properties, Salt does not target a specific domain

  11. Salt Concentration Differences Alter Membrane Resistance in Reverse Electrodialysis Stacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salt Concentration Differences Alter Membrane Resistance in Reverse Electrodialysis Stacks Geoffrey is usually measured by immersing the membrane in a salt solution at a single, fixed concentration. While salt resistance of the membranes separating different salt concentration solutions has implications for modeling

  12. Non-Normal Effects on Salt Finger Growth IAN EISENMAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisenman, Ian

    , but the more rapid diffusion of heat than salt in water allows the potential energy stored in the salinity pockets of salty or sugary water called salt fingers. Since solar heating of the up- per ocean leads 2004) ABSTRACT Salt fingers, which occur because of the difference in diffusivities of salt and heat

  13. Oldenburg and Pan CO2 as Cushion Gas for CAES 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisen, Michael

    world-wide. · Huntorf, Germany (290 MW, in operation for 30 yrs) · Two solution-mined salt caverns · 48

  14. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PROJECT; HISTORICAL ASPECTS; GOVERNMENT POLICIES; INLAND WATERWAYS; WATER RESERVOIRS; DAMS; ENHANCED RECOVERY; UNDERGROUND SPACE; SALT CAVERNS; SEISMOLOGY; UNDERGROUND DISPOSAL...

  15. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  16. Distribution and Invasion Potential of Limonium ramosissimum subsp. provinciale in San Francisco Estuary Salt Marshes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archbald, Gavin; Boyer, Katharyn E.

    2014-01-01

    of southern California coastal salt marshes: a communitygrowth and cation uptake of salt marsh plants. New Phytolof vegetation patterns in salt marshes of central Argentina.

  17. The Effect of Salt Water on Rice. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1927-01-01

    *. .. r * - .=.-ksl-, G v $. THE EFFECT OF SALT WATER ON RICE AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President \\ STATION ,,,bfINISTRATION: *B. YOUNGBLOOD, M. S., Ph. D.,, Director A B CONNER M. S Actrng Drrector R: E: KARPER: B.... SYNOPSIS Rice farmers sometimes have trouble with salt in the water used for irrigation. Varying conditions, such as character of soil, amount of water already on the land, stage of growth of the rice, and others, render it difficult to say how much...

  18. A hypothesis concerning the distribution of salt and salt structures in the Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antoine, John Woodworth

    1970-01-01

    is that the Gu'f v;as a shallow sea during latest Triassic and Jusas ic time (the age cf the salt) and thick salt deposits accumulated across the entire sea, including the present Sigsbee Deep (Fig. 1). Later, the central part subsided and received great... is that the Gulf always has been a deep bas n, and during Triassic and Jurassic times salt v as deposited in beth the shallow marginal areas and the deep central basin. T?e diapirs su?sequently began to form. Schmalz's (1969) genetic model for the deposition...

  19. Ketone Production from the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylate Salts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landoll, Michael 1984-

    2012-08-15

    The MixAlco process uses an anaerobic, mixed-culture fermentation to convert lignocellulosic biomass to carboxylate salts. The fermentation broth must be clarified so that only carboxylate salts, water, and minimal impurities remain. Carboxylate...

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Excavated Salt Agreement Supports...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program, benefits from the agreement by not having to dispose of the salt and put it in a landfill. Except for the excavated salt that is removed as a result of this agreement -...

  1. Accident Investigation of the February 5, 2014, Underground Salt...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5, 2014, Underground Salt Haul Truck Fire at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad NM Accident Investigation of the February 5, 2014, Underground Salt Haul Truck Fire at the...

  2. Salt Wells Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Program EA(DOI-BLM...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Salt Wells Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Program EA (DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2009-0006-EA) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Salt Wells...

  3. Summary - Salt Waste Processing Facility Design at the Savannah...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of the Salt Waste Processing Facility Design at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Why DOE-EM Did This Review The Salt Waste Processing...

  4. Nuclear salt-in-crude monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheikh, S.; Richter, A.P.

    1983-05-01

    The Arabian American Oil Co. (ARAMCO) recently installed a nuclear salt-in-crude monitor (SICM) that continuously measures the salt content of a flowing stream of crude oil. This device was developed by Texaco Inc.'s Bellaire (TX) Research Laboratory. The monitor consists of two parts: a counting chamber and an instrument console. The counting chamber is a length of 24-in.-diameter pipe containing a long-life neutron source and a gamma ray detector, both mounted in cross pipes so that there is no direct contact with the flowing crude. Neutrons from the source are absorbed by chloride ions in the stream, which in turn emit gamma rays. The intensity of the gamma rays is proportional to the amount of chlorine in the crude. The gamma ray detector is electrically connected to the instrument console, which is located in a control room. The console contains the necessary instrumentation to process the data from the detector, to compute the salt concentration, and to provide a continuous printed record of the salt per thousand barrels (PTB).

  5. Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR) System Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woolley, Robert D; Miller, Laurence F

    2014-04-01

    Can the hybrid system combination of (1) a critical fission Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) having a thermal spectrum and a high Conversion Ratio (CR) with (2) an external source of high energy neutrons provide an attractive solution to the world's expanding demand for energy? The present study indicates the answer is an emphatic yes.

  6. Salt repository project closeout status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1988-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE`s) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Method for preparing salt solutions having desired properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ally, Moonis R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Braunstein, Jerry (Clinton, TN)

    1994-01-01

    The specification discloses a method for preparing salt solutions which exhibit desired thermodynamic properties. The method enables prediction of the value of the thermodynamic properties for single and multiple salt solutions over a wide range of conditions from activity data and constants which are independent of concentration and temperature. A particular application of the invention is in the control of salt solutions in a process to provide a salt solution which exhibits the desired properties.

  8. Energy Efficient Buildings, Salt Lake County, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, Kimberly

    2012-04-30

    Executive Summary Salt Lake County's Solar Photovoltaic Project - an unprecedented public/private partnership Salt Lake County is pleased to announce the completion of its unprecedented solar photovoltaic (PV) installation on the Calvin R. Rampton Salt Palace Convention Center. This 1.65 MW installation will be one the largest solar roof top installations in the country and will more than double the current installed solar capacity in the state of Utah. Construction is complete and the system will be operational in May 2012. The County has accomplished this project using a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) financing model. In a PPA model a third-party solar developer will finance, develop, own, operate, and maintain the solar array. Salt Lake County will lease its roof, and purchase the power from this third-party under a long-term Power Purchase Agreement contract. In fact, this will be one of the first projects in the state of Utah to take advantage of the recent (March 2010) legislation which makes PPA models possible for projects of this type. In addition to utilizing a PPA, this solar project will employ public and private capital, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants (EECBG), and public/private subsidized bonds that are able to work together efficiently because of the recent stimulus bill. The project also makes use of recent changes to federal tax rules, and the recent re-awakening of private capital markets that make a significant public-private partnership possible. This is an extremely innovative project, and will mark the first time that all of these incentives (EECBG grants, Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, New Markets tax credits, investment tax credits, public and private funds) have been packaged into one project. All of Salt Lake County's research documents and studies, agreements, and technical information is available to the public. In addition, the County has already shared a variety of information with the public through webinars, site tours, presentations, and written correspondence.

  9. REVIEW SHEET 3 (1) A tank contains 100 gallon of salt water which ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-04-30

    REVIEW SHEET 3. (1) A tank contains 100 gallon of salt water which contains 10 lbs of salt. A salt solution of 2lbs of salt per gallon enters the tank at a rate of 3 ...

  10. Molten Salt Synthesis of Calcium Hydroxyapatite Whiskers A. Cuneyt Tas*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    Molten Salt Synthesis of Calcium Hydroxyapatite Whiskers A. Cu¨neyt Tas¸*, Department hydroxyapatite (HA) whiskers and crystals were produced by the route of molten salt synthesis. The effects. A tentative X-ray diffraction pattern was proposed for the HA whiskers. Molten salt synthesis with a K2SO4

  11. Graphic: FL Dept. of Environmental Protection Please pass the Salt!!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graphic: FL Dept. of Environmental Protection Please pass the Salt!! Mangroves are a very unique protruding from the tree trunk and branches. These prop roots are special because they exclude salt from actually absorb saltwater through their roots, but have specially designed leaves with salt glands

  12. New York State Salt Marsh Restoration and Monitoring Guidelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;New York State Salt Marsh Restoration and Monitoring Guidelines prepared by: Nancy L. Niedowski;The Salt Marsh Restoration and Monitoring Guidelines were prepared under the National OceanicState,Division of CoastalResources,41 State Street,Albany, New York 12231. December 2000 #12;PREFACE All salt marsh

  13. Developing salt-tolerant crop plants: challenges and opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blumwald, Eduardo

    Developing salt-tolerant crop plants: challenges and opportunities Toshio Yamaguchi and Eduardo areas of the world; the need to produce salt-tolerant crops is evident. Two main approaches are being used to improve salt tolerance: (i) the exploitation of natural genetic variations, either through

  14. South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project SYNTHESES OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project SYNTHESES OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE for Maintaining and Improving Functioning of the South Bay Ecosystem and Restoring Tidal Salt Marsh and Associated Habitats over) Maintaining and Improving Functioning of the South Bay Ecosystem and (2) Restoring tidal salt marsh

  15. SALT-flSH INPUSTRIES FISHERY LEAFLET 240

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SALT-flSH INPUSTRIES FISHERY LEAFLET 240 FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT, Albert M. Day, Director #12;THE VENEZUKLAN SALT-FISH INDUSTRIES CONTE^fTS Part II Potential Productive and Craft 29 Development of Unused or Underutilized Species 29 Development of New Areas 35 Salt 35 Studies

  16. Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2014-09-09

    This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

  17. Influence of Salt Purity on Na+ and Palmitic Acid Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of Salt Purity on Na+ and Palmitic Acid Interactions Zishuai Huang, Wei Hua, Dominique of salt purity on the interactions between Na+ ions and the carboxylate (COO- ) head group of palmitic frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. Ultrapure (UP) and ACS grade NaCl salts are used for aqueous

  18. Simulation of salt migrations in density dependent groundwater flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    Simulation of salt migrations in density dependent groundwater flow E.S. van Baaren Master's Thesis for the salt migration in the groundwater underneath the polders near the coast. The problem description of this thesis is to investigate the possibilities of modelling salt migrations in density dependent groundwater

  19. SOLUTION MINING IN SALT DOMES OF THE GULF COAST EMBAYMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griswold, G. B.

    1981-02-01

    Following a description of salt resources in the salt domes of the gulf coast embayment, mining, particularly solution mining, is described. A scenario is constructed which could lead to release of radioactive waste stored in a salt dome via inadvertent solution mining and the consequences of this scenario are analyzed.

  20. Tracking the Salt Front Page 1 Name __________________________________________ Date____________________

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lance, Veronica P.

    , moving the salt front inland. Scientists track the salt front using Hudson River Miles, abbreviated HRM, is HRM 0. The George Washington Bridge is at HRM 12, the city of Kingston at HRM 91. Ocean tides reach the Federal Dam in Troy at HRM 153. Using the graph "Hudson River Salt Front: Average Location by Month

  1. Capillary forces and osmotic gradients in salt water -oil systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Capillary forces and osmotic gradients in salt water - oil systems Georg Ellila Chemical study. This is to my knowledge the first time the transport mechanisms in capillary oil-salt water and the Vista Program. 1 #12;Abstract This project looks at the capillary systems with salt water and oil

  2. Structural restoration of Louann Salt and overlying sediments, De Soto Canyon Salt Basin, northeastern Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Mengdong

    1997-01-01

    The continental margin of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico is suited for seismic stratigraphic analysis and salt tectonism analysis. Jurassic strata include the Louann Salt on the continental shelf and upper slope of the Destin Dome OCS area...

  3. Polymeric salt bridges for conducting electric current in microfluidic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Tichenor, Mark S. (San Diego, CA); Artau, Alexander (Humacao, PR)

    2009-11-17

    A "cast-in-place" monolithic microporous polymer salt bridge for conducting electrical current in microfluidic devices, and methods for manufacture thereof is disclosed. Polymeric salt bridges are formed in place in capillaries or microchannels. Formulations are prepared with monomer, suitable cross-linkers, solvent, and a thermal or radiation responsive initiator. The formulation is placed in a desired location and then suitable radiation such as UV light is used to polymerize the salt bridge within a desired structural location. Embodiments are provided wherein the polymeric salt bridges have sufficient porosity to allow ionic migration without bulk flow of solvents therethrough. The salt bridges form barriers that seal against fluid pressures in excess of 5000 pounds per square inch. The salt bridges can be formulated for carriage of suitable amperage at a desired voltage, and thus microfluidic devices using such salt bridges can be specifically constructed to meet selected analytical requirements.

  4. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

    1982-09-20

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  5. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullins, Lawrence J. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, Dana C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium from electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  6. Dense QCD: a Holographic Dyonic Salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mannque Rho; Sang-Jin Sin; Ismail Zahed

    2009-10-23

    Dense QCD at zero temperature with a large number of colors is a crystal. We show that in the holographic dual description, the crystal is made out of pairs of dyons with $e=g=\\pm 1$ charges in a salt-like arrangement. We argue that with increasing density the dyon masses and topological charges equalize, turning the salt-like configuration to a bcc of half-instantons. The latter is dual to a cubic crystal of half-skyrmions. We estimate the transition from an fcc crystal of instantons to a bcc crystal of dyons to about 3 times nuclear matter density with a dyon binding energy of about 180 MeV.

  7. Supplemental Cooling for Nitrate Salt Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, Mitchell S.

    2015-08-19

    In July 2015, Los Alamos National Laboratory completed installation of a supplemental cooling system in the structure where remediated nitrate salt waste drums are stored. Although the waste currently is in a safe configuration and is monitored daily,controlling the temperature inside the structure adds another layer of protection for workers, the public,and the environment.This effort is among several layers of precautions designed to secure the waste.

  8. Advanced heat exchanger development for molten salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Clark, Denis; Glazoff, Michael; Zheng, Guiqiu; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark

    2014-12-01

    This study addresses present work concerned with advanced heat exchanger development for molten salt in nuclear and non nuclear thermal systems. The molten salt systems discussed herein use alloys, such as Hastelloy N and 242, which show corrosion resistance to molten salt at nominal operating temperatures up to 700°C. These alloys were diffusion welded, and the corresponding information is presented. Test specimens were prepared for exposing diffusion welds to molten salt environments. Hastelloy N and 242 were found to be weldable by diffusion welding, with ultimate tensile strengths about 90% of base metal values. Both diffusion welds and sheet material in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in?58 mol% KF and 42 mol% ZrF4 at 650, 700, and 850°C for 200, 500, and 1,000 hours. Corrosion rates found were similar between welded and nonwelded materials, typically <10 mils per year. For materials of construction, nickel and alloys with dense nickel coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides, but not so in chlorides. Hence, additional testing of selected alloys for resistance to intergranular corrosion is needed, as is a determination of corrosion rate as a function of contaminant type and alloy composition with respect to chromium and carbon to better define the optimal chromium and carbon composition, independent of galvanic or differential solubility effects. Also presented is the division of the nuclear reactor and high temperature components per ASME standards, along with design requirements for a subcritical Rankine power cycle heat exchanger that has to overcome pressure difference of about 17 MPa.

  9. Stationary phase deposition based on onium salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM); Dirk, Shawn M. (Albuquerque, NM); Trudell, Daniel E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-01-01

    Onium salt chemistry can be used to deposit very uniform thickness stationary phases on the wall of a gas chromatography column. In particular, the stationary phase can be bonded to non-silicon based columns, especially microfabricated metal columns. Non-silicon microfabricated columns may be manufactured and processed at a fraction of the cost of silicon-based columns. In addition, the method can be used to phase-coat conventional capillary columns or silicon-based microfabricated columns.

  10. Denaturation of DNA at high salt concentrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maity, Arghya; Singh, Navin

    2015-01-01

    Cations present in the solution are important for the stability of two negative strands of DNA molecules. Experimental as well as theoretical results show that the DNA molecule is more stable as the concentration of salt (or cations) increases. It is known that the two strands of DNA molecule carry negative charge due to phosphate group along the strands. These cations act as a shielding particles to the two like charge strands. Recently, in an experiment it is shown that there is a critical value in the concentration of salts (or cations) that can stabilize the helical structure of DNA. If one add more salt in the solution beyond this critical value, the stability of the DNA molecule will disrupt. In this work we study the stability of DNA molecules at higher concentrations. How the stability at higher concentration can be explained through some theoretical calculations is the aim of this manuscript. We consider the PBD model with proper modifications that can explain the negative stability of the molecule a...

  11. Denaturation of DNA at high salt concentrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arghya Maity; Amar Singh; Navin Singh

    2015-08-19

    Cations present in the solution are important for the stability of two negative strands of DNA molecules. Experimental as well as theoretical results show that the DNA molecule is more stable as the concentration of salt (or cations) increases. It is known that the two strands of DNA molecule carry negative charge due to phosphate group along the strands. These cations act as a shielding particles to the two like charge strands. Recently, in an experiment it is shown that there is a critical value in the concentration of salts (or cations) that can stabilize the helical structure of DNA. If one add more salt in the solution beyond this critical value, the stability of the DNA molecule will disrupt. In this work we study the stability of DNA molecules at higher concentrations. How the stability at higher concentration can be explained through some theoretical calculations is the aim of this manuscript. We consider the PBD model with proper modifications that can explain the negative stability of the molecule at higher concentration. Our findings are in close match with the experimental results.

  12. Three dimensional simulation for bayou choctaw strategic petroleum reserve (SPR).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon; Lee, Moo Yul

    2006-12-01

    Three dimensional finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of the caverns located at the Bayou Choctaw (BC) site which is considered a candidate for expansion. Fifteen active and nine abandoned caverns exist at BC, with a total cavern volume of some 164 MMB. A 3D model allowing control of each cavern individually was constructed because the location and depth of caverns and the date of excavation are irregular. The total cavern volume has practical interest, as this void space affects total creep closure in the BC salt mass. Operations including both cavern workover, where wellhead pressures are temporarily reduced to atmospheric, and cavern enlargement due to leaching during oil drawdowns that use water to displace the oil from the caverns, were modeled to account for as many as the five future oil drawdowns in the six SPR caverns. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence, infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified.

  13. MODELING OF A NOVEL SOLUTION POTASH MINING PROCESS Sergio Almada, Harvey Haugen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by drilling followed by a number of steps to develop a solution mining cavern. Water is injected to dissolve a sump area within the salt at the base of the solution mining cavern. The sump allows insoluble materials settle within the cavern to avoid affecting the solution mining process and the dissolved salt can

  14. Pierre Brest, Jean-Franois Beraud, Vincent de Greef LMS, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Key words: Cavern abandonment, in situ test, salt creep Introduction In the long term, salt behaves Technical Conference Galveston, Texas, USA, 18 ­ 19 April 2011 CREEP CLOSURE RATE OF A SHALLOW CAVERN Pierre de l'Est, Levallois-Perret, France Abstract Cavern creep closure rate was recorded in the SG13-SG14

  15. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, Christi D.; Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United States repository development, such as seal system design, coupled process simulation, and application of performance assessment methodology, helps define a clear strategy for a heat-generating nuclear waste repository in salt.

  16. Tank 37H Salt Removal Batch Process and Salt Dissolution Mixing Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, K.C.

    2001-09-18

    Tank 30H is the receipt tank for concentrate from the 3H Evaporator. Tank 30H has had problems, such as cooling coil failure, which limit its ability to receive concentrate from the 3H Evaporator. SRS High Level Waste wishes to use Tank 37H as the receipt tank for the 3H Evaporator concentrate. Prior to using Tank 37H as the 3H Evaporator concentrate receipt tank, HLW must remove 50 inches of salt cake from the tank. They requested SRTC to evaluate various salt removal methods for Tank 37H. These methods include slurry pumps, Flygt mixers, the modified density gradient method, and molecular diffusion.

  17. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reavis, J.G.

    1985-06-01

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Salt Wells Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS Report UrlNM-bRenewableSMUD Wind FarmSmart Grid Project Jump to:Salt

  19. The Salt or Sodium Chloride Content of Feeds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Lomanitz, S. (Sebastian)

    1920-01-01

    STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, Preeident BULLETIN NO. 271 OCTOBER, 1920 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEEDS B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOK COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTT, TEXAS I..... ................... Summary ancl conclusions. Page. l1 [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] BULLETIN XO. 271. OCTOBE- '"On THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEI The Texas feed law requires the statement of the ingredients of many mixed feeds. Common salt or sodium...

  20. Molecular dynamics study of salt–solution interface: Solubility and surface charge of salt in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Liang, Yunfeng E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Matsuoka, Toshifumi E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Sakka, Tetsuo

    2014-04-14

    The NaCl salt–solution interface often serves as an example of an uncharged surface. However, recent laser-Doppler electrophoresis has shown some evidence that the NaCl crystal is positively charged in its saturated solution. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the NaCl salt–solution interface system, and calculated the solubility of the salt using the direct method and free energy calculations, which are kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, respectively. The direct method calculation uses a salt–solution combined system. When the system is equilibrated, the concentration in the solution area is the solubility. In the free energy calculation, we separately calculate the chemical potential of NaCl in two systems, the solid and the solution, using thermodynamic integration with MD simulations. When the chemical potential of NaCl in the solution phase is equal to the chemical potential of the solid phase, the concentration of the solution system is the solubility. The advantage of using two different methods is that the computational methods can be mutually verified. We found that a relatively good estimate of the solubility of the system can be obtained through comparison of the two methods. Furthermore, we found using microsecond time-scale MD simulations that the positively charged NaCl surface was induced by a combination of a sodium-rich surface and the orientation of the interfacial water molecules.

  1. Independent Oversight Review, Savannah River Site Salt Waste...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Quality and Fire Protection Systems The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and...

  2. Accident Investigation of the February 5, 2014, Underground Salt...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Accident Investigation of the February 5, 2014, Underground Salt Haul Truck Fire at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad NM Accident Investigation of the February 5, 2014,...

  3. Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA); Troup, R. Lee (Murrysville, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

    1999-01-01

    An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride.

  4. Salt River Electric- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Salt River Electric serves as the rural electric provider in Kentucky's Bullitt, Nelson, Spencer, and Washington counties. Residential customers are eligible for a variety of cash incentives for...

  5. Multispectral Imaging At Columbus Salt Marsh Area (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Multispectral Imaging At Columbus Salt Marsh Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Multispectral Imaging...

  6. Controlled Source Frequency-Domain Magnetics At Salt Wells Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Controlled Source Frequency-Domain Magnetics At Salt Wells Area (Montgomery, Et Al., 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  7. Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    addresses granular salt reconsolidation from three vantage points: laboratory testing, modeling, and petrofabrics. The experimental data 1) provide greater insight and...

  8. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Salt Wells Area (Coolbaugh...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Compound and Elemental Analysis At Salt Wells Area (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2006) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and...

  9. Independent Oversight Review, Savannah River Site Salt Waste...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Quality and Fire Protection Systems The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight...

  10. Project Profile: Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Storage

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES), under the Thermal Storage FOA, created a composite thermal energy storage material by embedding nanoparticles in a molten salt base material.

  11. Method for the production of uranium chloride salt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westphal, Brian R.; Mariani, Robert D.

    2013-07-02

    A method for the production of UCl.sub.3 salt without the use of hazardous chemicals or multiple apparatuses for synthesis and purification is provided. Uranium metal is combined in a reaction vessel with a metal chloride and a eutectic salt- and heated to a first temperature under vacuum conditions to promote reaction of the uranium metal with the metal chloride for the production of a UCl.sub.3 salt. After the reaction has run substantially to completion, the furnace is heated to a second temperature under vacuum conditions. The second temperature is sufficiently high to selectively vaporize the chloride salts and distill them into a condenser region.

  12. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Salt Wells Area (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Compound and Elemental Analysis At Salt Wells Area (Shevenell & Garside, 2003) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and...

  13. WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Implementatio...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Implementation Update May 12, 2015 Panel 6 and Panel 7, Room 7 a. Rollback * Contamination Assessment-This prerequisite is...

  14. Surface Indicators of Geothermal Activity at Salt Wells, Nevada...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surface Indicators of Geothermal Activity at Salt Wells, Nevada, USA, Including Warm Ground, Borate Deposits, and Siliceous Alteration Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  15. Development Wells At Salt Wells Area (Nevada Bureau of Mines...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Development Wells At Salt Wells Area (Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Development Wells...

  16. Independent Oversight Review, Savannah River Site Salt Waste...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Safety Basis and Design Development. This report documents the results of an independent oversight review of the safety basis and...

  17. Domestic Material Content in Molten-Salt Concentrating Solar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Domestic Material Content in Molten-Salt Concentrating Solar Power Plants Craig Turchi, Parthiv Kurup, Sertac Akar, and Francisco Flores Technical Report NRELTP-5500-64429 August...

  18. Savannah River Site - Salt Waste Processing Facility Independent...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY INDEPENDENT TECHNICAL REVIEW November 22, 2006 Conducted by: Harry Harmon, Team Lead CivilStructural Sub Team Facility Safety Sub Team Engineering...

  19. Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Technology...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Technology Readiness Assessment Report Kurt D. Gerdes Harry D. Harmon Herbert G. Sutter Major C. Thompson John R. Shultz Sahid C....

  20. Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.; Troup, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Hosler, R.B.

    1999-08-17

    An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride. 4 figs.

  1. Project Profile: Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    characteristics compared to current salts: Lower melting point Higher energy density Lower power-generation cost This program aims to develop a heat transfer fluidstorage...

  2. Salt Screening and Selection: New Challenges and Considerations in the Modern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capecchi, Mario R.

    Salt Screening and Selection: New Challenges and Considerations in the Modern Pharmaceutical R · Introduction · Theoretical Considerations · pH-solubility profiles, pKa and salt formation · Prediction of salt solubility · Solubility product and in situ salt screening · Solubility/dissolution rate of salts

  3. Lead and other metals distribution in local cooking salt from the Fofi salt- spring in Akwana, Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dim, L.A.; Kinyua, A.M.; Munyithya, J.M.; Adetunji, J. (Centre for Nuclear Science Techniques, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nairobi (Kenya))

    1991-06-01

    Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique has been used to determine the concentrations of lead(Pb) and other heavy metals in local cooking salts (LCS) from Akwana village, Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria. The comparison of the distribution of these metals in LCS, fake salt (FS) and the usual common salts (CS) are given. Lead was found to be enriched in LCS by factor exceeding 200 times compared to the other salts. The origin of Pb contamination in the LCS is examined and its effects on the inhabitants of the village are considered.

  4. Laboratory investigation of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory test program was conducted to investigate the consolidation behavior of crushed salt and fracture healing in natural and artificial salt. Crushed salt is proposed for use as backfill in a nuclear waste repository in salt. Artificial block salt is proposed for use in sealing a repository. Four consolidation tests were conducted in a hydrostatic pressure vessel at a maximum pressure of 2500 psi (17.2 MPa) and at room temperature. Three 1-month tests were conducted on salt obtained from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and one 2-month test was conducted on salt from Avery Island. Permeability was obtained using argon and either a steady-state or transient method. Initial porosities ranged from 0.26 to 0.36 and initial permeabilities from 2000 to 50,000 md. Final porosities and permeabilities ranged from 0.05 to 0.19 and from <10/sup -5/ md to 110 md, respectively. The lowest final porosity (0.05) and permeability (<10/sup -5/ md) were obtained in a 1-month test in which 2.3% moisture was added to the salt at the beginning of the test. The consolidation rate was much more rapid than in any of the dry salt tests. The fracture healing program included 20 permeability tests conducted on fractured and unfractured samples. The tests were conducted in a Hoek cell at hydrostatic pressures up to 3000 psi (20.6 MPa) with durations up to 8 days. For the natural rock salt tested, permeability was strongly dependent on confining pressure and time. The effect of confining pressure was much weaker in the artificial salt. In most cases the combined effects of time and pressure were to reduce the permeability of fractured samples to the same order of magnitude (or less) as the permeability measured prior to fracturing.

  5. Salt-sensitive hypertension in mitochondrial superoxide dismutase deficiency is associated with intra-renal oxidative stress and inflammation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, K; Vaziri, ND

    2014-01-01

    tion, autoimmunity and salt-sensitive hypertension. Clin ExpSOD deficiency with salt-sensitive hypertension andblood pressure levels in salt-sensitive hypertension. Am J

  6. Why SALT WorksSALTwascreatedbythenonprofitAmericanStudentAssistance(ASA),who'sbeenhelpingstudents managetheireducationdebtfor50+years.ASAhasworkedwithnearly1.4millionstudentswithcollege

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spirtes, Peter

    Why SALT Works. FinancialEducation SALT'sfinancialeducationcoursesuseatraditionalmethodology,aswell asself,attherighttime,intherightformat,resultinginbetter educationaloutcomes. EducationDebtManagement ThroughSALT

  7. The "salt hypothesis" is that higher levels of salt in the diet lead to higher levels of blood pressure, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Intersalt, a cross-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freedman, David A.

    The "salt hypothesis" is that higher levels of salt in the diet lead to higher levels of blood pressure, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Intersalt, a cross- sectional study of salt levels and blood pressures in 52 populations, is often cited to support the salt hypothesis, but the data

  8. CONTROLLED CRYSTALLIZATION OF SALTS FROM NUCLEAR WASTE SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallivan, Martha A.

    CONTROLLED CRYSTALLIZATION OF SALTS FROM NUCLEAR WASTE SOLUTIONS Daniel Gri n Martha Grover Yoshiaki Kawajiri Ronald Rousseau Published in Proceedings of the Waste Management Conference, Phoenix, AR-activity salt from nuclear waste solutions. The viability of such a process hinges on the ability to partition

  9. Leucobacter salsicius sp. nov., from a salt-fermented food

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    Leucobacter salsicius sp. nov., from a salt- fermented food Ji-Hyun Yun,1 Seong Woon Roh,1,2 Min, Daejeon 305-806, Republic of Korea Strain M1-8T was isolated from jeotgal, a Korean salt-fermented food contained 2,4-diaminobutyric acid, glutamic acid, alanine, glycine and c-aminobutyric acid. The major

  10. Molten salts and nuclear energy production Christian Le Bruna*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    with solid fuels, liquid fuel in molten salt reactor, solvents for spent nuclear solid fuel in the caseMolten salts and nuclear energy production Christian Le Bruna* a Laboratoire de Physique or chlorides) have been taken in consideration very soon in nuclear energy production researches

  11. Alternative Waste Forms for Electro-Chemical Salt Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Brian J.; Matyas, Josef; Arreguin, Shelly A.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-10-28

    This study was undertaken to examine alternate crystalline (ceramic/mineral) and glass waste forms for immobilizing spent salt from the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) electrochemical separations process. The AFCI is a program sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a process for recycling spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The electrochemical process is a molten salt process for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in an electrorefiner and generates spent salt that is contaminated with alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanide fission products (FP) that must either be cleaned of fission products or eventually replaced with new salt to maintain separations efficiency. Currently, these spent salts are mixed with zeolite to form sodalite in a glass-bonded waste form. The focus of this study was to investigate alternate waste forms to immobilize spent salt. On a mole basis, the spent salt is dominated by alkali and Cl with minor amounts of alkaline earth and lanthanides. In the study reported here, we made an effort to explore glass systems that are more compatible with Cl and have not been previously considered for use as waste forms. In addition, alternate methods were explored with the hope of finding a way to produce a sodalite that is more accepting of as many FP present in the spent salt as possible. This study was done to investigate two different options: (1) alternate glass families that incorporate increased concentrations of Cl; and (2) alternate methods to produce a mineral waste form.

  12. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J.; Heslop, M.; Wernly, K.

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  13. Salt River (Rio Salado Oeste), Phoenix, Maricopa County, Arizona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Salt River (Rio Salado Oeste), Phoenix, Maricopa County, Arizona 18 October 2006 Abstract: The Rio of Phoenix encompassing eight miles of the Salt River from 19th to 83rd Avenues on the southwest side is $164,950,000. The project cost will be shared between the Federal government and the city of Phoenix

  14. Does jasmonic acid control the maize shoot growth during the first phase of salt stress?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Pollmann, Stephan; Schubert, Sven

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Salt stress affects plant growth in twohormones, pH) in response to salt/drought stress is notin response to osmotic/salt stress (Creelman and Mullet

  15. Global transcriptional, physiological and metabolite analyses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough responses to salt adaptation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Zhou, and J. D. Keasling. 2006. Salt stress in Desulfovibrioregulation of acid, heat, and salt tolerance in EscherichiaMR-1 in response to elevated salt conditions. J. Bacteriol.

  16. Salt stress affects polyamine concentrations and plasma membrane H+-ATPase proton pumping in maize

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingold, Mariko; Hanstein, Stefan; Schubert, Sven

    2009-01-01

    during the first phase of salt stress? J. Plant Nutr. SoilH + -ATPase in roots, is lowered by salt treatment.synthesis of polyamines under salt stress may contribute to

  17. PEP-carboxylase activity supports organic acid metabolism of maize (Zea mays) under salt stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatzig, Sarah Vanessa; Kumar, Ashwani; Neubert, Anja; Schubert, Sven

    2009-01-01

    physical basis for improving salt resistance in maize. Inand their expression under salt stress. J. Plant Physiol.may have a function for the salt resistance of maize during

  18. An Algorithm for Locating Microseismic Events Brian L.F. Daku, J. Eric Salt, Li Sha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    An Algorithm for Locating Microseismic Events Brian L.F. Daku, J. Eric Salt, Li Sha University is potash mines. Potash mines produce potash salts, and potas- sium, extracted from potash salts, is a major

  19. Invasive Spartina densiflora Brongn. Reduces Primary Productivity in a Northern California Salt Marsh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lagarde, Luc A.

    2012-01-01

    and Distichlis spicata in salt marshes at Humboldt Bay,Carolina Spartina alterniflora salt marsh. Estuaries 4:97-die-off of southern U.S. salt marshes. Science 310:1803-

  20. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt 2014; published online 14 October 2014) Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced

  1. Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Bao-Guo; Gu, Ji-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results demonstrate how these reactors can possess and realize extraordinary excellent characteristics, no prompt critical, long-term safe and stable operation with negative feedback, closed uranium-plutonium cycle chain within the vessel, normal operation only with depleted-uranium, and depleted-uranium high burnup in reality, to realize with fission nuclear energy sufficiently satisfying humanity long-term energy resource needs, as well as thoroughly solve the challenges of nuclear criticality safety, uranium resource insuffic...

  2. Technical review of Molten Salt Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The process was reviewed for destruction of mixed low-level radioactive waste. Results: extensive development work and scaleup has been documented on coal gasification and hazardous waste which forms a strong experience base for this MSO process; it is clearly applicable to DOE wastes such as organic liquids and low-ash wastes. It also has potential for processing difficult-to-treat wastes such as nuclear grade graphite and TBP, and it may be suitable for other problem waste streams such as sodium metal. MSO operating systems may be constructed in relatively small units for small quantity generators. Public perceptions could be favorable if acceptable performance data are presented fairly; MSO will likely require compliance with regulations for incineration. Use of MSO for offgas treatment may be complicated by salt carryover. Figs, tabs, refs.

  3. Parametric study of natural circulation flow in molten salt fuel in molten salt reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pauzi, Anas Muhamad; Cioncolini, Andrea; Iacovides, Hector

    2015-04-29

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is one of the most promising system proposed by Generation IV Forum (GIF) for future nuclear reactor systems. Advantages of the MSR are significantly larger compared to other reactor system, and is mainly achieved from its liquid nature of fuel and coolant. Further improvement to this system, which is a natural circulating molten fuel salt inside its tube in the reactor core is proposed, to achieve advantages of reducing and simplifying the MSR design proposed by GIF. Thermal hydraulic analysis on the proposed system was completed using a commercial computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software called FLUENT by ANSYS Inc. An understanding on theory behind this unique natural circulation flow inside the tube caused by fission heat generated in molten fuel salt and tube cooling was briefly introduced. Currently, no commercial CFD software could perfectly simulate natural circulation flow, hence, modeling this flow problem in FLUENT is introduced and analyzed to obtain best simulation results. Results obtained demonstrate the existence of periodical transient nature of flow problem, hence improvements in tube design is proposed based on the analysis on temperature and velocity profile. Results show that the proposed system could operate at up to 750MW core power, given that turbulence are enhanced throughout flow region, and precise molten fuel salt physical properties could be defined. At the request of the authors and the Proceedings Editor the name of the co-author Andrea Cioncolini was corrected from Andrea Coincolini. The same name correction was made in the Acknowledgement section on page 030004-10 and in reference number 4. The updated article was published on 11 May 2015.

  4. 1 | De-icing salt damage to trees | November 2011 Pathology Advisory Note

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 | De-icing salt damage to trees | November 2011 Pathology Advisory Note (No. 11) De-icing salt damage to trees De-icing Salt Damage to Trees Joan F Webber, David R Rose, Martin C Dobson #12;2 | De-icing salt damage to trees | November 2011 S a l t D a m a g e De-icing Salt Damage Introduction Rock salt

  5. Proceedings of 3rd US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Proceedings of 3rd USGerman Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation Proceedings of 3rd USGerman Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation...

  6. Sandia Energy - 2014 US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2014 USGerman Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation Home Stationary Power Nuclear Fuel Cycle Nuclear Energy Workshops 2014 USGerman Workshop on Salt...

  7. Sandia Energy - 2016 US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2016 USGerman Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation Home Stationary Power Nuclear Fuel Cycle Nuclear Energy Workshops 2016 USGerman Workshop on Salt...

  8. Sandia Energy - 2015 US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 USGerman Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation Home Stationary Power Nuclear Fuel Cycle Nuclear Energy Workshops 2015 USGerman Workshop on Salt...

  9. Protein Diffusiophoresis and Salt Osmotic Diffusion in Aqueous Onofrio Annunziata,* Daniela Buzatu,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Annunziata, Onofrio

    Protein Diffusiophoresis and Salt Osmotic Diffusion in Aqueous Solutions Onofrio Annunziata salt osmotic diffusion induced by a protein concentration gradient, and is related to protein

  10. Energy Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies in Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2000-01-01

    Commission Report P300-94-007. Sacramento, CA. Commercialthe (New Orleans, Sacramento & Salt Lake City) MetropolitanStrategies in Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City S.

  11. Invasive Spartina densiflora Brongn. Reduces Primary Productivity in a Northern California Salt Marsh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lagarde, Luc A.

    2012-01-01

    alterniflora and benthic microalgae in salt marsh food webs:dynamics of benthic microalgae in salt marshes. Pages 81-106primary productivity of microalgae and cyanobacteria (Geider

  12. Levels of metals from salt marsh plants from Southern California, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoyt, Kimberly Ann

    2009-01-01

    alterniflora and benthic microalgae in salt marsh foodalterniflora and benthic microalgae in salt marsh foodSpartina, but feed on microalgae (Currin,1990). Isotope

  13. Elucidation of Mechanisms of Salinity Tolerance in Zoysia matrella Cultivars: A Study of Structure and Function of Salt Glands 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rao, Sheetal

    2012-07-16

    Salt glands are important structural adaptations in some plant and animal species that are involved in the excretion of excess salts. Zoysia matrella is a highly salt tolerant turf grass that has salt glands. Two cultivars of Z. matrella, ‘Diamond...

  14. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. III. Computational vibrational spectroscopy of HDO in aqueous salt solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Lim, Sohee; Chon, Bonghwan; Cho, Minhaeng; Kim, Heejae; Kim, Seongheun

    2015-05-28

    The vibrational frequency, frequency fluctuation dynamics, and transition dipole moment of the O—D stretch mode of HDO molecule in aqueous solutions are strongly dependent on its local electrostatic environment and hydrogen-bond network structure. Therefore, the time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy the O—D stretch mode has been particularly used to investigate specific ion effects on water structure. Despite prolonged efforts to understand the interplay of O—D vibrational dynamics with local water hydrogen-bond network and ion aggregate structures in high salt solutions, still there exists a gap between theory and experiment due to a lack of quantitative model for accurately describing O—D stretch frequency in high salt solutions. To fill this gap, we have performed numerical simulations of Raman scattering and IR absorption spectra of the O—D stretch mode of HDO in highly concentrated NaCl and KSCN solutions and compared them with experimental results. Carrying out extensive quantum chemistry calculations on not only water clusters but also ion-water clusters, we first developed a distributed vibrational solvatochromic charge model for the O—D stretch mode in aqueous salt solutions. Furthermore, the non-Condon effect on the vibrational transition dipole moment of the O—D stretch mode was fully taken into consideration with the charge response kernel that is non-local polarizability density. From the fluctuating O—D stretch mode frequencies and transition dipole vectors obtained from the molecular dynamics simulations, the O—D stretch Raman scattering and IR absorption spectra of HDO in salt solutions could be calculated. The polarization effect on the transition dipole vector of the O—D stretch mode is shown to be important and the asymmetric line shapes of the O—D stretch Raman scattering and IR absorption spectra of HDO especially in highly concentrated NaCl and KSCN solutions are in quantitative agreement with experimental results. We anticipate that this computational approach will be of critical use in interpreting linear and nonlinear vibrational spectroscopies of HDO molecule that is considered as an excellent local probe for monitoring local electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding environment in not just salt but also other confined and crowded solutions.

  15. Fluoroalkyl containing salts combined with fluorinated solvents for electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Erickson, Michael Jason

    2015-04-21

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. An electrolyte may include a fluoroalkyl-substituted LiPF.sub.6 salt or a fluoroalkyl-substituted LiBF.sub.4 salt. In some embodiments, at least one fluorinated alkyl of the salt has a chain length of from 1 to 8 or, more specifically, between about 2 and 8. These fluorinated alkyl groups, in particular, relatively large fluorinated alkyl groups improve solubility of these salts in fluorinated solvents that are less flammable than, for example, conventional carbonate solvents. At the same time, the size of fluoroalkyl-substituted salts should be limited to ensure adequate concentration of the salt in an electrolyte and low viscosity of the electrolyte. In some embodiments, the concentration of a fluoroalkyl-substituted salt is at least about 0.5M. Examples of fluorinated solvents include various fluorinated esters, fluorinated ethers, and fluorinated carbonates, such a 1-methoxyheptafluoropropane, methyl nonafluorobutyl ether, ethyl nonafluorobutyl ether, 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,5-decafluoro-3-methoxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)-pentane, 3-ethoxy-1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-dodecafluoro-2-trifluoromethyl-hexane, and 1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoro-4-(1,1,2,3,3,3-hexafluoropropoxy)-pentane.

  16. Experimental Investigation of Two-Phase Flow in Rock Salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malama, Bwalya; Howard, Clifford L.

    2014-07-01

    This Test Plan describes procedures for conducting laboratory scale flow tests on intact, damaged, crushed, and consolidated crushed salt to measure the capillary pressure and relative permeability functions. The primary focus of the tests will be on samples of bedded geologic salt from the WIPP underground. However, the tests described herein are directly applicable to domal salt. Samples being tested will be confined by a range of triaxial stress states ranging from atmospheric pressure up to those approximating lithostatic. Initially these tests will be conducted at room temperature, but testing procedures and equipment will be evaluated to determine adaptability to conducting similar tests under elevated temperatures.

  17. Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Hung-Sui (East Setauket, NY); Geng, Lin (Coram, NY); Skotheim, Terje A. (Shoreham, NY)

    1996-07-23

    The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity.

  18. The Thorium Molten Salt Reactor : Moving on from the MSBR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Mathieu; D. Heuer; R. Brissot; C. Le Brun; E. Liatard; J. M. Loiseaux; O. Méplan; E. Merle-Lucotte; A. Nuttin; J. Wilson; C. Garzenne; D. Lecarpentier; E. Walle; the GEDEPEON Collaboration

    2005-06-02

    A re-evaluation of the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor concept has revealed problems related to its safety and to the complexity of the reprocessing considered. A reflection is carried out anew in view of finding innovative solutions leading to the Thorium Molten Salt Reactor concept. Several main constraints are established and serve as guides to parametric evaluations. These then give an understanding of the influence of important core parameters on the reactor's operation. The aim of this paper is to discuss this vast research domain and to single out the Molten Salt Reactor configurations that deserve further evaluation.

  19. A mechanical model of early salt dome growth 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irwin, Frank Albert

    1988-01-01

    salt and the upper layer representing the overlying sediment, is used to study the mechanics of growth in the early stages of salt dome formation. Three cases of this model, each representing a particular rate of removal of the surface topography..., are examined to determine which case best fits observations of salt domes in East Texas, Northwest Germany, and the North Sea. These observations include the spacing and growth rate of the dome and the amount of deformation of the sediments above the dome...

  20. Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, H.S.; Geng, L.; Skotheim, T.A.

    1996-07-23

    The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity. 2 figs.

  1. Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  2. Sol-gel processing with inorganic metal salt precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2004-10-19

    Methods for sol-gel processing that generally involve mixing together an inorganic metal salt, water, and a water miscible alcohol or other organic solvent, at room temperature with a macromolecular dispersant material, such as hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) added. The resulting homogenous solution is incubated at a desired temperature and time to result in a desired product. The methods enable production of high quality sols and gels at lower temperatures than standard methods. The methods enable production of nanosize sols from inorganic metal salts. The methods offer sol-gel processing from inorganic metal salts.

  3. Engineering Evaluation of Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiement for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlberg, Jon A.; Roberts, Kenneth T.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Little, Leslie E.; Brady, Sherman D.

    2009-09-30

    This evaluation was performed by Pro2Serve in accordance with the Technical Specification for an Engineering Evaluation of the Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (BJC 2009b). The evaluators reviewed the Engineering Evaluation Work Plan for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Residual Salt Removal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2008). The Work Plan (DOE 2008) involves installing a salt transfer probe and new drain line into the Fuel Drain Tanks and Fuel Flush Tank and connecting them to the new salt transfer line at the drain tank cell shield. The probe is to be inserted through the tank ball valve and the molten salt to the bottom of the tank. The tank would then be pressurized through the Reactive Gas Removal System to force the salt into the salt canisters. The Evaluation Team reviewed the work plan, interviewed site personnel, reviewed numerous documents on the Molten Salt Reactor (Sects. 7 and 8), and inspected the probes planned to be used for the transfer. Based on several concerns identified during this review, the team recommends not proceeding with the salt transfer via the proposed alternate salt transfer method. The major concerns identified during this evaluation are: (1) Structural integrity of the tanks - The main concern is with the corrosion that occurred during the fluorination phase of the uranium removal process. This may also apply to the salt transfer line for the Fuel Flush Tank. Corrosion Associated with Fluorination in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fluoride Volatility Process (Litman 1961) shows that this problem is significant. (2) Continued generation of Fluorine - Although the generation of Fluorine will be at a lower rate than experienced before the uranium removal, it will continue to be generated. This needs to be taken into consideration regardless of what actions are taken with the salt. (3) More than one phase of material - There are likely multiple phases of material in the salt (metal or compound), either suspended through the salt matrix, layered in the bottom of the tank, or both. These phases may contribute to plugging during any planned transfer. There is not enough data to know for sure. (4) Probe heat trace - The alternate transfer method does not include heat tracing of the bottom of the probe. There is a concern that this may cool the salt and other phases of materials present enough to block the flow of salt. (5) Stress-corrosion cracking - Additionally, there is a concern regarding moisture that may have been introduced into the tanks. Due to time constraints, this concern was not validated. However, if moisture was introduced into the tanks and not removed during heating the tanks before HF and F2 sparging, there would be an additional concern regarding the potential for stress-corrosion cracking of the tank walls.

  4. Determining the extragalactic extinction law with SALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ido Finkelman; Noah Brosch; Alexei Y. Kniazev; David Buckley; Darragh O'Donoghue; Yas Hashimoto; Nicola Loaring; Encarni Romero; Martin Still; Petri Vaisanen

    2008-08-05

    We present CCD imaging observations of early-type galaxies with dark lanes obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) during its performance-verification phase. We derive the extinction law by the extragalactic dust in the dark lanes in the spectral range 1.11mu m^{-1} < lambda^{-1} < 2.94 mu m^{-1} by fitting model galaxies to the unextinguished parts of the image, and subtracting from these the actual images. We find that the extinction curves run parallel to the Galactic extinction curve, which implies that the properties of dust in the extragalactic enviroment are similar to those of the Milky Way. The ratio of the total V band extinction to the selective extinction between the V and B bands is derived for each galaxy with an average of 2.82+-0.38, compared to a canonical value of 3.1 for the Milky Way. The similar values imply that galaxies with well-defined dark lanes have characteristic dust grain sizes similar to those of Galactic dust.

  5. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

  6. Continuous Commissioning of Salt Lake Community College South City Campus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Hood, J.

    2004-01-01

    The State of Utah's Department of Natural Resources funded two projects in Salt Lake City to demonstrate the feasibility of the Continuous Commissioning® (CC®)1 process. The two sites selected were a modern state building, the Matheson Courthouse [1...

  7. Polyimide amic acid salts and polyimide membranes formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz; Macheras, James Timothy

    2004-04-06

    The invention relates to preparation and uses of novel polymeric materials, polyimide amic acid salts (PIAAS). The use of these materials for the fabrication of fluid separation membranes is further disclosed.

  8. Aksaray And Ecemis Faults - Diapiric Salt Relationships- Relevance...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    To The Hydrocarbon Exploration In The Tuz Golu (Salt Lake) Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  9. Salt Tolerance of Landscape Plants Common to the Southwest 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyamoto, S.

    2008-01-01

    With sharply increasing costs of providing potable water, many communities in the Southwest are attempting to utilize non-potable saline water for irrigating large landscapes. This publication provides the information related to salt effects...

  10. Regional Gravity Survey of the Northern Great Salt Lake Desert...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Regional Gravity Survey of the Northern Great Salt Lake Desert and Adjacent Areas in Utah, Nevada, and Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  11. Enterprise Assessments Review of the Savannah River Site Salt...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a review of construction quality and startup test plans at the DOE Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility from November 3-7, 2014. EA is performing a series of these...

  12. Salt-induced changes of colloidal interactions in critical mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ursula Nellen; Julian Dietrich; Laurent Helden; Shirish Chodankar; Kim Nygard; J. Friso van der Veen; Clemens Bechinger

    2011-04-28

    We report on salt-dependent interaction potentials of a single charged particle suspended in a binary liquid mixture above a charged wall. For symmetric boundary conditions (BC) we observe attractive particle-wall interaction forces which are similar to critical Casimir forces previously observed in salt-free mixtures. However, in case of antisymmetric BC we find a temperature-dependent crossover from attractive to repulsive forces which is in strong contrast to salt-free conditions. Additionally performed small-angle x-ray scattering experiments demonstrate that the bulk critical fluctuations are not affected by the addition of salt. This suggests that the observed crossover can not be attributed alone to critical Casimir forces. Instead our experiments point towards a possible coupling between the ionic distributions and the concentration profiles in the binary mixture which then affects the interaction potentials in such systems.

  13. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    f luids molt en salt s of f er a suf f icient reduct ion in levelized energy cost s t o pursue f urt her development , and t o develop t he component s required f or t...

  14. Prediction of Heat Capacities of Solid Inorganic Salts from Group

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Prediction of Heat Capacities of Solid Inorganic Salts from Group Contributions. )&-SUB -- 7 5- g 7 A. T. M. Golam Mostafa, James M. Eakman* Department of Chemical Engineering New...

  15. Conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williamson, Shelly Ann

    2000-01-01

    , municipal solid wastes, sewage sludge, and industrial biosludge. Using a proprietary technology owned by Texas A&M University the wastes are first treated with lime to enhance reactivity. Then they are converted to calcium carboxylate salts using a mixed...

  16. Molten salt electrolyte battery cell with overcharge tolerance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL); Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte battery having an increased overcharge tolerance employs a negative electrode with two lithium alloy phases of different electrochemical potential, one of which allows self-discharge rates which permits battery cell equalization.

  17. Geomorphic structure of tidal hydrodynamics in salt marsh creeks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fagherazzi, Sergio

    .1029/2007WR006289. 1. Introduction [2] Salt marshes are important transitional areas between terrestrial providing preferen- tial pathways for marsh flooding and drainage during the tidal cycle. Because

  18. Oxidation of aqueous pollutants using ultrasound: Salt-induced enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour, J.D.; Gupta, R.B.

    1997-09-01

    Ultrasound can be used to oxidize aqueous pollutants; however, due to economic reasons, higher oxidation/destruction rates are needed. This study reports enhancements of reaction rates by the addition of sodium chloride salt. Using 20 kHz ultrasound, large salt-induced enhancements are observed--6-fold for chlorobenzene, 7-fold for p-ethylphenol, and 3-fold for phenol oxidation. The reaction rate enhancements are proportional to the diethyl ether--water partitioning coefficient of the pollutants. It appears that the majority of oxidation reactions occur in the bubble-bulk interface region. The addition of salt increases the ionic strength of the aqueous phase which drives the organic pollutants toward the bubble-bulk interface. A first order reaction rate equation is proposed which can represent the observed enhancement with a good accuracy. A new sonochemical-waste-oxidation process is proposed utilizing the salt-induced enhancement.

  19. EM Gains Insight from Germany on Salt-Based Repositories

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    KARLSRUHE and PEINE, Germany – EM officials recently took part in workshops in Germany to benefit from the exchange of research and experience operating salt-based repositories for radioactive waste.

  20. Liquid Salt Heat Exchanger Technology for VHTR Based Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Mark; Sridhara, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Peterson, Per

    2012-10-11

    The objective of this research is to evaluate performance of liquid salt fluids for use as a heat carrier for transferring high-temperature process heat from the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) to chemical process plants. Currently, helium is being considered as the heat transfer fluid; however, the tube size requirements and the power associated with pumping helium may not be economical. Recent work on liquid salts has shown tremendous potential to transport high-temperature heat efficiently at low pressures over long distances. This project has two broad objectives: To investigate the compatibility of Incoloy 617 and coated and uncoated SiC ceramic composite with MgCl2-KCl molten salt to determine component lifetimes and aid in the design of heat exchangers and piping; and, To conduct the necessary research on the development of metallic and ceramic heat exchangers, which are needed for both the helium-to-salt side and salt-to-process side, with the goal of making these heat exchangers technologically viable. The research will consist of three separate tasks. The first task deals with material compatibility issues with liquid salt and the development of techniques for on-line measurement of corrosion products, which can be used to measure material loss in heat exchangers. Researchers will examine static corrosion of candidate materials in specific high-temperature heat transfer salt systems and develop an in situ electrochemical probe to measure metallic species concentrations dissolved in the liquid salt. The second task deals with the design of both the intermediate and process side heat exchanger systems. Researchers will optimize heat exchanger design and study issues related to corrosion, fabrication, and thermal stresses using commercial and in-house codes. The third task focuses integral testing of flowing liquid salts in a heat transfer/materials loop to determine potential issues of using the salts and to capture realistic behavior of the salts in a small scale prototype system. This includes investigations of plugging issues, heat transfer, pressure drop, and the corrosion and erosion of materials in the flowing system.

  1. Screening of hydrodynamic interactions for polyelectrolytes in salt solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jens Smiatek; Friederike Schmid

    2008-09-30

    We provide numerical evidence that hydrodynamic interactions are screened for charged polymers in salt solution on time scales below the Zimm time. At very short times, a crossover to hydrodynamic behavior is observed. Our conclusions are drawn from extensive coarse-grained computer simulations of polyelectrolytes in explicit solvent and explicit salt, and discussed in terms of analytical arguments based on the Debye-Hueckel approximation.

  2. Salt Bridge Formation, Rev 9.1.99 Warner Instrument Corporation1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Movileanu, Liviu

    Salt Bridge Formation, Rev 9.1.99 Warner Instrument Corporation1 A procedure for the formation of agar salt bridges. The purpose of an agar salt bridge is to provide an electrical connection the following procedure to create salt bridges. This procedure involves: 1) formation of bridges 2) preparing

  3. Efficient salt removal in a continuously operated upflow microbial desalination cell with an air cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efficient salt removal in a continuously operated upflow microbial desalination cell with an air of salt removal. During the 4-month operation, the UMDC constantly removed salts and generated bio-electricity. At a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 days (salt solution) and current production of $62 mA, the UMDC was able

  4. Global sea-salt modeling: Results and validation against multicampaign shipboard measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global sea-salt modeling: Results and validation against multicampaign shipboard measurements of sea-salt concentrations from five different campaigns are used to validate the sea-salt). The validity of the sea-salt parameterizations is tested by employing a global forecasting model and transport

  5. Journal of Marine Research, 69, 5777, 2011 Secondary instability of salt sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, William David

    Journal of Marine Research, 69, 57­77, 2011 Secondary instability of salt sheets by Satoshi Kimura1), the salt-fingering instability is supplanted by the salt-sheet instability. Previous direct numerical simulation (DNS) experiments on salt sheets revealed that flow becomes turbulent via secondary instabilities

  6. Ion Secretion by Salt Glands of Desert Iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) Lisa C. Hazard*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazard, Lisa C.

    22 Ion Secretion by Salt Glands of Desert Iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) Lisa C. Hazard* DepartmentCl-secreting salt glands of many birds and reptiles, the nasal salt glands of lizards can secrete potassium as well iguana, Dipsosaurus dorsalis. Lizards were given combinations of ions for several days, and secreted salt

  7. ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY The effects of tree establishment on water and salt dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY The effects of tree establishment on water and salt dynamics in naturally salt an imprint on salt accumulation and distribution patterns. We explored how the conversion of native grasslands to oak plantations affected the abundance and distribution of salts on soils and groundwater

  8. Damage in porous media due to salt crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noushine Shahidzadeh-Bonn; Julie Desarnaud; François Bertrand; Xavier Chateau; Daniel Bonn

    2010-07-13

    We investigate the origins of salt damage in sandstones for the two most common salts: sodium chloride and sulfate. The results show that the observed difference in damage between the two salts is directly related to the kinetics of crystallization and the interfacial properties of the salt solutions and crystals with respect to the stone. We show that, for sodium sulfate, the existence of hydrated and anhydrous crystals and specifically their dissolution and crystallization kinetics are responsible for the damage. Using magnetic resonance imaging and optical microscopy we show that when water imbibes sodium sulfate contaminated sandstones, followed by drying at room temperature, large damage occurs in regions where pores are fully filled with salts. After partial dissolution, anhydrous sodium sulfate salt present in these regions gives rise to a very rapid growth of the hydrated phase of sulfate in the form of clusters that form on or close to the remaining anhydrous microcrystals. The rapid growth of these clusters generates stresses in excess of the tensile strength of the stone leading to the damage. Sodium chloride only forms anhydrous crystals that consequently do not cause damage in the experiments.

  9. EIS-0099: Remedial Actions at the Former Vitro Chemical Company Site, South Salt Lake, Salt Lake County, Utah

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to evaluate the environmental impacts of various scenarios associated with the cleanup of those residues remaining at the abandoned uranium mill tailings site located in South Salt Lake, Utah.

  10. Assessment of the Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Purifying Coolant and Heat Transfer Salts in the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

    2010-09-28

    This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor.

  11. A coarse-grained model with implicit salt for RNAs: Predicting 3D structure, stability and salt effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Ya-Zhou; Wang, Feng-Hua; Wu, Yuan-Yan; Tan, Zhi-Jie

    2014-09-14

    To bridge the gap between the sequences and 3-dimensional (3D) structures of RNAs, some computational models have been proposed for predicting RNA 3D structures. However, the existed models seldom consider the conditions departing from the room/body temperature and high salt (1M NaCl), and thus generally hardly predict the thermodynamics and salt effect. In this study, we propose a coarse-grained model with implicit salt for RNAs to predict 3D structures, stability, and salt effect. Combined with Monte Carlo simulated annealing algorithm and a coarse-grained force field, the model folds 46 tested RNAs (?45 nt) including pseudoknots into their native-like structures from their sequences, with an overall mean RMSD of 3.5 Å and an overall minimum RMSD of 1.9 Å from the experimental structures. For 30 RNA hairpins, the present model also gives the reliable predictions for the stability and salt effect with the mean deviation ? 1.0 °C of melting temperatures, as compared with the extensive experimental data. In addition, the model could provide the ensemble of possible 3D structures for a short RNA at a given temperature/salt condition.

  12. LIFE Materails: Molten-Salt Fuels Volume 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R; Brown, N; Caro, A; Farmer, J; Halsey, W; Kaufman, L; Kramer, K; Latkowski, J; Powers, J; Shaw, H; Turchi, P

    2008-12-11

    The goals of the Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) is to use fusion neutrons to fission materials with no enrichment and minimum processing and have greatly reduced wastes that are not of interest to making weapons. Fusion yields expected to be achieved in NIF a few times per day are called for with a high reliable shot rate of about 15 per second. We have found that the version of LIFE using TRISO fuel discussed in other volumes of this series can be modified by replacing the molten-flibe-cooled TRISO fuel zone with a molten salt in which the same actinides present in the TRISO particles are dissolved in the molten salt. Molten salts have the advantage that they are not subject to radiation damage, and hence overcome the radiation damage effects that may limit the lifetime of solid fuels such as TRISO-containing pebbles. This molten salt is pumped through the LIFE blanket, out to a heat exchanger and back into the blanket. To mitigate corrosion, steel structures in contact with the molten salt would be plated with tungsten or nickel. The salt will be processed during operation to remove certain fission products (volatile and noble and semi-noble fission products), impurities and corrosion products. In this way neutron absorbers (fission products) are removed and neutronics performance of the molten salt is somewhat better than that of the TRISO fuel case owing to the reduced parasitic absorption. In addition, the production of Pu and rare-earth elements (REE) causes these elements to build up in the salt, and leads to a requirement for a process to remove the REE during operation to insure that the solubility of a mixed (Pu,REE)F3 solid solution is not exceeded anywhere in the molten salt system. Removal of the REE will further enhance the neutronics performance. With molten salt fuels, the plant would need to be safeguarded because materials of interest for weapons are produced and could potentially be removed.

  13. Energy Storage Systems 2010 Update Conference Presentations ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ESS 2010 Update Conference - Seneca Advanced CAES 150 MW Plant Using an Existing Salt Cavern - James Rettberg, NYSEG.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy Storage...

  14. week0916

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    next heating season because of improvements in the capability of delivering gas from salt storage caverns and beds. Moreover, imports of natural gas along with increased...

  15. Geomechanical Analysis and Design Considerations for Thin-Bedded...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Geomechanical Analysis and Design Considerations for Thin-Bedded Salt Caverns Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Geomechanical Analysis and Design Considerations for...

  16. Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baes, C.F. Jr.; Gilpatrick, L.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Bronstein, H.R.; Shor, A.J.

    1983-09-01

    Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma ..delta..P rather than sigma ..delta..P/sup 2/ (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and ..delta..P is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model.

  17. Vitrification of IFR and MSBR halide salt reprocessing wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siemer, D.D.

    2013-07-01

    Both of the genuinely sustainable (breeder) nuclear fuel cycles (IFR - Integral Fast Reactor - and MSBR - Molten Salt Breeder Reactor -) studied by the USA's national laboratories would generate high level reprocessing waste (HLRW) streams consisting of a relatively small amount ( about 4 mole %) of fission product halide (chloride or fluoride) salts in a matrix comprised primarily (about 95 mole %) of non radioactive alkali metal halide salts. Because leach resistant glasses cannot accommodate much of any of the halides, most of the treatment scenarios previously envisioned for such HLRW have assumed a monolithic waste form comprised of a synthetic analog of an insoluble crystalline halide mineral. In practice, this translates to making a 'substituted' sodalite ('Ceramic Waste Form') of the IFR's chloride salt-based wastes and fluoroapatite of the MSBR's fluoride salt-based wastes. This paper discusses my experimental studies of an alternative waste management scenario for both fuel cycles that would separate/recycle the waste's halide and immobilize everything else in iron phosphate (Fe-P) glass. It will describe both how the work was done and what its results indicate about how a treatment process for both of those wastes should be implemented (fluoride and chloride behave differently). In either case, this scenario's primary advantages include much higher waste loadings, much lower overall cost, and the generation of a product (glass) that is more consistent with current waste management practices. (author)

  18. CRITICALITY SAFETY OF PROCESSING SALT SOLUTION AT SRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, K; Davoud Eghbali, D; Michelle Abney, M

    2008-01-15

    High level radioactive liquid waste generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site has been stored as 36 million gallons in underground tanks. About ten percent of the waste volume is sludge, composed of insoluble metal hydroxides primarily hydroxides of Mn, Fe, Al, Hg, and most radionuclides including fission products. The remaining ninety percent of the waste volume is saltcake, composed of primarily sodium (nitrites, nitrates, and aluminates) and hydroxides. Saltcakes account for 30% of the radioactivity while the sludge accounts for 70% of the radioactivity. A pilot plant salt disposition processing system has been designed at the Savannah River Site for interim processing of salt solution and is composed of two facilities: the Actinide Removal Process Facility (ARPF) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Data from the pilot plant salt processing system will be used for future processing salt at a much higher rate in a new salt processing facility. Saltcake contains significant amounts of actinides, and other long-lived radioactive nuclides such as strontium and cesium that must be extracted prior to disposal as low level waste. The extracted radioactive nuclides will be mixed with the sludge from waste tanks and vitrified in another facility. Because of the presence of highly enriched uranium in the saltcake, there is a criticality concern associated with concentration and/or accumulation of fissionable material in the ARP and MCU.

  19. Method for making a uranium chloride salt product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Lockport, IL)

    2004-10-05

    The subject apparatus provides a means to produce UCl.sub.3 in large quantities without incurring corrosion of the containment vessel or associated apparatus. Gaseous Cl is injected into a lower layer of Cd where CdCl.sub.2 is formed. Due to is lower density, the CdCl.sub.2 rises through the Cd layer into a layer of molten LiCl--KCL salt where a rotatable basket containing uranium ingots is suspended. The CdCl.sub.2 reacts with the uranium to form UCl.sub.3 and Cd. Due to density differences, the Cd sinks down to the liquid Cd layer and is reused. The UCl.sub.3 combines with the molten salt. During production the temperature is maintained at about 600.degree. C. while after the uranium has been depleted the salt temperature is lowered, the molten salt is pressure siphoned from the vessel, and the salt product LiCl--KCl-30 mol % UCl.sub.3 is solidified.

  20. Development of high temperature transport technology for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in pyroprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Hansoo; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Jeong-Guk

    2013-07-01

    The development of high-temperature transport technologies for molten salt is a prerequisite and a key issue in the industrialization of pyro-reprocessing for advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The solution of a molten salt centrifugal pump was discarded because of the high corrosion power of a high temperature molten salt, so the suction pump solution was selected. An apparatus for salt transport experiments by suction was designed and tested using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The experimental results of lab-scale molten salt transport by suction showed a 99.5% transport rate (ratio of transported salt to total salt) under a vacuum range of 100 mtorr - 10 torr at 500 Celsius degrees. The suction system has been integrated to the PRIDE (pyroprocessing integrated inactive demonstration) facility that is a demonstrator using non-irradiated materials (natural uranium and surrogate materials). The performance of the suction pump for the transport of molten salts has been confirmed.

  1. Tests of prototype salt stripper system for IFR fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carls, E.L.; Blaskovitz, R.J.; Johnson, T.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ogata, T. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-09-01

    One of the waste treatment steps for the on-site reprocessing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycles is stripping of the electrolyte salt used in the electrorefining process. This involves the chemical reduction of the actinides and rare earth chlorides forming metals which then dissolve in a cadmium pool. To develop the equipment for this step, a prototype salt stripper system has been installed in an engineering scale argon-filled glovebox. Pumping trails were successful in transferring 90 kg of LiCl-KCl salt containing uranium and rare earth metal chlorides at 500{degree}C from an electrorefiner to the stripper vessel at a pumping rate of about 5 L/min. The freeze seal solder connectors which were used to join sections of the pump and transfer line performed well. Stripping tests have commenced employing an inverted cup charging device to introduce a Cd-15 wt % Li alloy reductant to the stripper vessel.

  2. Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1996-01-01

    An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath.

  3. Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.

    1996-02-13

    An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath. 2 figs.

  4. Salt transport extraction of transuranium elements from lwr fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierce, R. Dean (Naperville, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL); Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL)

    1992-01-01

    A process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels which contain rare earth and noble metal fission products. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of CaCl.sub.2 and a Cu--Mg alloy containing not less than about 25% by weight Mg at a temperature in the range of from about 750.degree. C. to about 850.degree. C. to precipitate uranium metal and some of the noble metal fission products leaving the Cu--Mg alloy having transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals and some of the noble metal fission products dissolved therein. The CaCl.sub.2 having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein is separated and electrolytically treated with a carbon electrode to reduce the CaO to Ca metal while converting the carbon electrode to CO and CO.sub.2. The Ca metal and CaCl.sub.2 is recycled to reduce additional oxide fuel. The Cu--Mg alloy having transuranium metals and rare earth fission product metals and the noble metal fission products dissolved therein is contacted with a transport salt including Mg Cl.sub.2 to transfer Mg values from the transport salt to the Cu--Mg alloy while transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product metals transfer from the Cu--Mg alloy to the transport salt. Then the transport salt is mixed with a Mg--Zn alloy to transfer Mg values from the alloy to the transport salt while the transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product values dissolved in the salt are reduced and transferred to the Mg--Zn alloy.

  5. Salt transport extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierce, R.D.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Miller, W.E.

    1992-11-03

    A process is described for separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels which contain rare earth and noble metal fission products. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of CaCl[sub 2] and a Cu--Mg alloy containing not less than about 25% by weight Mg at a temperature in the range of from about 750 C to about 850 C to precipitate uranium metal and some of the noble metal fission products leaving the Cu--Mg alloy having transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals and some of the noble metal fission products dissolved therein. The CaCl[sub 2] having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein is separated and electrolytically treated with a carbon electrode to reduce the CaO to Ca metal while converting the carbon electrode to CO and CO[sub 2]. The Ca metal and CaCl[sub 2] is recycled to reduce additional oxide fuel. The Cu--Mg alloy having transuranium metals and rare earth fission product metals and the noble metal fission products dissolved therein is contacted with a transport salt including MgCl[sub 2] to transfer Mg values from the transport salt to the Cu--Mg alloy while transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product metals transfer from the Cu--Mg alloy to the transport salt. Then the transport salt is mixed with a Mg--Zn alloy to transfer Mg values from the alloy to the transport salt while the transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product values dissolved in the salt are reduced and transferred to the Mg--Zn alloy. 2 figs.

  6. Attenuation of acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. B. Price

    2005-06-27

    Two classes of natural solid media (glacial ice and salt domes) are under consideration as media in which to deploy instruments for detection of neutrinos with energy >1e18 eV. Though insensitive to 1e11 to 1e16 eV neutrinos for which observatories (e.g., AMANDA and IceCube) that utilize optical Cherenkov radiation detectors are designed, radio and acoustic methods are suited for searches for the very low fluxes of neutrinos with energies >1017 eV. This is because, due to the very long attenuation lengths of radio and acoustic waves in ice and salt, detection modules can be spaced very far apart. In this paper, I calculate the absorption and scattering coefficients as a function of frequency and grain size for acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes and show that experimental measurements on laboratory samples and in glacial ice and salt domes are consistent with theory. For South Pole ice with grain size 0.2 cm at -51 degrees C, scattering lengths are calculated to be 2000 km and 25 km at 10 kHz and 30 kHz, respectively, and the absorption length is calculated to be 9 km at frequencies above 100 Hz. For NaCl (rock salt) with grain size 0.75 cm, scattering lengths are calculated to be 120 km and 1.4 km at 10 kHz and 30 kHz, and absorption lengths are calculated to be 30,000 km and 3300 km at 10 kHz and 30 kHz. Existing measurements are consistent with theory. For ice, absorption is the limiting factor; for salt, scattering is the limiting factor.

  7. The role of plasma membrane H+-ATPase and apoplastic pH in adaptation of maize (Zea mays) to salt stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitann, Britta; Mühling, Karl H.

    2009-01-01

    NaCl is the predominant salt species, whose principleconcept for understanding of salt-induced growth repressionthe purpose of designing salt- resistant crops, the complete

  8. Avian Communities in Tidal Salt Marshes of San Francisco Bay: A Review of Functional Groups by Foraging Guild and Habitat Association

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    report on the Cargill Salt Ponds. Senate select committee onartificial salt evaporation ponds of the San Francisco BayMA. 2005. South Bay salt ponds restoration project short-

  9. Materials and methods for stabilizing nanoparticles in salt solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, David Bruce; Zuckermann, Ronald; Buffleben, George M.

    2013-06-11

    Sequence-specific polymers are proving to be a powerful approach to assembly and manipulation of matter on the nanometer scale. Ligands that are peptoids, or sequence-specific N-functional glycine oligomers, allow precise and flexible control over the arrangement of binding groups, steric spacers, charge, and other functionality. We have synthesized short peptoids that can prevent the aggregation of gold nanoparticles in high-salt environments including divalent salt, and allow co-adsorption of a single DNA molecule. This degree of precision and versatility is likely to prove essential in bottom-up assembly of nanostructures and in biomedical applications of nanomaterials.

  10. Damage due to salt crystallization in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noushine Shahidzadeh Bonn; Francois Bertrand; Daniel Bonn

    2009-06-13

    We investigate salt crystallization in porous media that can lead to their disintegration. For sodium sulfate we show for the first time experimentally that when anhydrous crystals are wetted with water, there is very rapid growth of the hydrated form of sulfate in clusters that nucleate on anhydrous salt micro crystals. The molar volume of the hydrated crystals being four times bigger, the growth of these clusters can generate stresses in excess of the tensile strength of the stone and lead therefore to damage.

  11. Simulation of water transport in heated rock salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlich, M.; Jockwer, N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes computer simulation studies on water transport in German rock salt. Based on JOCKWERS experimental investigations on water content and water liberation, the object of these studies was to select a water transport model, that matches the water inflow which was measured in some heater experiments in the Asse Salt Mine. The main result is, that an evaporation front model, with Knudsen-type vapor transport combined with fluid transport by thermal expansion of the adsorbed water layers in the non evaporated zone, showed the best agreement with experimental evidence.

  12. Control of Soluble Salts in Farming and Gardening. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longenecker, D. E.; Lyerly, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    by the high salinity of the ground waters of that area. Many wells in the smaller irrigated areas of 9: * -- West Central Texas contain enough soluble salts to affect crop growth. In the extensive High Plains irrigated area, gradual depletion of good... and how these problems often can be rec- ognized, minimized or even eliminated by good man- agement or simple know-how. 'From paper by C. Godfrey (27) and recent unpublished studies by the SOLUBLE SALTS IN WATERS AND SOILS 1 Trvar Water Development...

  13. Review: The World of the Salt Marsh: Appreciating and Protecting the Tidal Marshes of the Southeastern Atlantic Coast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Ryder W.

    2013-01-01

    Review: The World of the Salt Marsh: Appreciating andCharles. The World of the Salt Marsh: Appreciating andseafood movement. World of the Salt Marsh can be a “Silent

  14. Effects of Nutrient Additions on Three Coastal Salt Marsh Plants Found in Sunset Cove, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rulon, Leslie

    2012-02-14

    Eutrophication, particularly due to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) input, has been massively altered by anthropogenic activities. Thus it is important to understand the impact on salt marsh plants; however studies on salt ...

  15. Supporting Information Geobacter sp. SD-1 with enhanced electrochemical activity in high salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Supporting Information Geobacter sp. SD-1 with enhanced electrochemical activity in high salt title: Geobacter sp. SD-1 in high salt solutions #12;2 Fig. S1. Current generation as a function of time

  16. Supplementary Information for: In situ spatially and temporally resolved measurements of salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santiago, Juan G.

    Supplementary Information for: In situ spatially and temporally resolved measurements of salt additional figures. #12;SI1 SI1: Additional comparisons of salt concentration profiles In Figure SI1, we

  17. New Opportunities for Metals Extraction and Waste Treatment by Electrochemical Processing in Molten Salts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald R.

    2001-01-01

    Molten salt electrolysis is a proven technology for the extraction of metals -- all the world's primary aluminum is produced in this manner. The unique properties of molten salts also make them

  18. Sample results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T. B.

    2015-11-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 9 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H.

  19. Examination of the Effects of Sea Salt Aerosols on Southeast Texas Ozone and Secondary Organic Aerosol 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benoit, Mark David

    2013-02-06

    of this research is to examine sea salt aerosols and their impact on polluted environments. Sea salt aerosols act as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) as well as providing a surface for heterogeneous reactions. Such reactions have implications for trace gases...

  20. How different home styles are valued in the Salt Lake City market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Barrett, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    This thesis focuses on market valuation of attributes of single family housing in the Salt Lake City market. Using data from different sub-regions of Salt Lake County, this paper addresses the question of buyer demand with ...

  1. Transport Processes in a Salt-Dome Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kornhuber, Ralf

    Transport Processes in a Salt-Dome Environment Sylvia Rockel Sebastian Sklorz Maurizio Vaccaro Summerschool in Modelling of Mass and Energy Transport in Porous Media With Practical Applications Berlin, 15 october 2010 #12;Problem · Subsurface flow and transport within a vertical cross section of a sedimentary

  2. Molten salt processing of mixed wastes with offgas condensation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, J.F.; Brummond, W.; Celeste, J.; Farmer, J.; Hoenig, C.; Krikorian, O.H.; Upadhye, R. ); Gay, R.L.; Stewart, A.; Yosim, S. . Energy Systems Group)

    1991-05-13

    We are developing an advanced process for treatment of mixed wastes in molten salt media at temperatures of 700--1000{degrees}C. Waste destruction has been demonstrated in a single stage oxidation process, with destruction efficiencies above 99.9999% for many waste categories. The molten salt provides a heat transfer medium, prevents thermal surges, and functions as an in situ scrubber to transform the acid-gas forming components of the waste into neutral salts and immobilizes potentially fugitive materials by a combination of particle wetting, encapsulation and chemical dissolution and solvation. Because the offgas is collected and assayed before release, and wastes containing toxic and radioactive materials are treated while immobilized in a condensed phase, the process avoids the problems sometimes associated with incineration processes. We are studying a potentially improved modification of this process, which treats oxidizable wastes in two stages: pyrolysis followed by catalyzed molten salt oxidation of the pyrolysis gases at ca. 700{degrees}C. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Decommissioning of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment: A technical evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Notz, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    This report completes a technical evaluation of decommissioning planning for the former Molten Salt Reactor Experiment, which was shut down in December, 1969. The key issues revolve around the treatment and disposal of some five tons of solid fuel salt which contains over 30 kg of fissionable uranium-233 plus fission products and higher actinides. The chemistry of this material is complicated by the formation of elemental fluorine via a radiolysis reaction under certain conditions. Supporting studies carried out as part of this evaluation include (a) a broad scope analysis of possible options for storage/disposal of the salts, (b) calculation of nuclide decay in future years, (c) technical evaluation of the containment facility and hot cell penetrations, (d) review and update of surveillance and maintenance procedures, (e) measurements of facility groundwater radioactivity and sump pump operation, (f) laboratory studies of the radiolysis reaction, and (g) laboratory studies which resulted in finding a suitable getter for elemental fluorine. In addition, geologic and hydrologic factors of the surrounding area were considered, and also the implications of entombment of the fuel in-place with concrete. The results of this evaluation show that the fuel salt cannot be left in its present form and location permanently. On the other hand, extended storage in its present form is quite acceptable for 20 to 30 years, or even longer. For continued storage in-place, some facility modifications are recommended. 30 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Project Profile: Long-Shafted Molten Salt Pump

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR), under the CSP R&D FOA, is validating the manufacturability of a large-scale molten salt receiver panel and then confirming its operation in prototypic solar flux. This work is an important step in reducing the LCOE from a central receiver solar power plant.

  5. Technology for treatment of salt residue stored at NPPs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobelev, A.P.; Savkin, A.E.; Sinjakin, O.G.; Kachalova, E.A.; Sorokoletova, A.N.; Nechaev, V.R. [SUE Moscow SIA Radon (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    At Moscow SIA 'Radon', three (3) options for NPP salt residue treatment were developed and tested. Option 1 consists of dissolving the salt residue and subsequent treatment by ozonization, separation of the deposits formed from ozonization and selective cleaning by ferrocyanide sorbents. Option 2 consists of fusion of the salt residue, addition of glass-forming additives and melting of borosilicate glass in a melter such as a 'cold crucible'. Option 3 consists of dissolving the salt residue, oxidation of the solution obtained, removal of radionuclides by collectors and the separate handling of formed deposits and the solution. The deposits containing more than 99 % of the activity are directed to vitrification and the solution is directed either to a concentrates dryer or to cementation. The vitrified waste product is placed in repository for solid radioactive waste storage and the solidified product from the solution goes to an industrial waste disposal site or a repository specially developed at NPP sites for 'exempt waste' products by IAEA classification. (authors)

  6. Standard practice for modified salt spray (fog) testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers and sets forth conditions for five modifications in salt spray (fog) testing for specification purposes. These are in chronological order of their development: 1.1.1 Annex A1, acetic acid-salt spray test, continuous. 1.1.2 Annex A2, cyclic acidified salt spray test. 1.1.3 Annex A3, seawater acidified test, cyclic (SWAAT). 1.1.4 Annex A4, SO2 salt spray test, cyclic. 1.1.5 Annex A5, dilute electrolyte cyclic fog dry test. 1.2 This practice does not prescribe the type of modification, test specimen or exposure periods to be used for a specific product, nor the interpretation to be given to the results. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to consult and establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicabilit...

  7. TGS measurements of pyrochemical salts at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mercer, D. J.; Hansen, J. S.; Lestone, J. P.; Prettyman, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    A new skid-mounted tomographic gamma scanner (TGS) was designed to assist in the decommissioning of Rocky Flats Building 37 1, This instrument was used to assay pyrochemical salts as a prerequisite for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The following paper discusses measurement challenges and results from the first year of operation of the instrument.

  8. The Estimation of Salt and Molasses in Mixed Feeds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1931-01-01

    . KNOX, M. S., Animal IIushandry A. K. MACKEY, M. S., Animnl Hrrshondry *Dean School of Veterinary Medicine. ?As of May 1. 1931. **In cooperation with U. S. Department of Agriculture. A statement of the percentage of salt in mixed feeds is required...

  9. Sample Results from Routine Salt Batch 7 Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.

    2015-05-13

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the “microbatches” of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 7B have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES), and Ion Chromatography Anions (IC-A). The results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from earlier samples from this and previous macrobatches. The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) continue to show more than adequate Pu and Sr removal, and there is a distinct positive trend in Cs removal, due to the use of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) notes that historically, most measured Concentration Factor (CF) values during salt processing have been in the 12-14 range. However, recent processing gives CF values closer to 11. This observation does not indicate that the solvent performance is suffering, as the Decontamination Factor (DF) has still maintained consistently high values. Nevertheless, SRNL will continue to monitor for indications of process upsets. The bulk chemistry of the DSSHT and SEHT samples do not show any signs of unusual behavior.

  10. MANAGEMENT OF GROUNDWATER IN SALT WATER INGRESS COASTAL AQUIFERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, C.P.

    MANAGEMENT OF GROUNDWATER IN SALT WATER INGRESS COASTAL AQUIFERS C. P. Kumar Scientist `E1 dealing with exploitation, restoration and management of fresh groundwater in coastal aquifers, the key is disturbed by groundwater withdrawals and other human activities that lower groundwater levels, reduce fresh

  11. Salt Lake City, Utah: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Salt Lake City, UT, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  12. Dynamic Salting Route Optimisation using Evolutionary Computation Hisashi Handa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Xin

    , if salt is spread when it is not actually required, there are unnecessary financial and environ- mental realises daily dynamic routing and it will yield considerable ben- efits for areas with a marginal ice effective use of resources (i.e. treat- ment vehicles, personnel and de-icing chemical material). The aim

  13. Anionic Salt Programs for Close-Up Dry Cows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokes, Sandra R.

    1998-12-17

    Dairy farmers can improve long-term milk production by having a well-managed program for dry cows during the last 3 weeks before calving. This publication explains how an anionic salt program can help control subclinical hypocalcemia and "droopy cow...

  14. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  15. Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsai, Shih-Perng (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid.

  16. Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsai, S.P.

    1997-07-08

    A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants-containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid. 6 figs.

  17. BLENDING ANALYSIS FOR RADIOACTIVE SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.

    2012-05-10

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated methods to mix and blend the contents of the blend tanks to ensure the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 21 and Tank 24 to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The tank contents consist of three forms: dissolved salt solution, other waste salt solutions, and sludge containing settled solids. This paper focuses on developing the computational model and estimating the operation time of submersible slurry pump when the tank contents are adequately blended prior to their transfer to the SWPF facility. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach was taken by using the full scale configuration of SRS Type-IV tank, Tank 21H. Major solid obstructions such as the tank wall boundary, the transfer pump column, and three slurry pump housings including one active and two inactive pumps were included in the mixing performance model. Basic flow pattern results predicted by the computational model were benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data. Tank 21 is a waste tank that is used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work scope described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the steady state flow pattern calculations before the addition of acid solution for tank blending operation and the transient mixing analysis during miscible liquid blending operation. The transient blending calculations were performed by using the 95% homogeneity criterion for the entire liquid domain of the tank. The initial conditions for the entire modeling domain were based on the steady-state flow pattern results with zero second phase concentration. The performance model was also benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data.

  18. Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system customer interface document.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.; Briggs, Ronald D.

    2013-09-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories has a unique test capability called the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system. MSTL is a test capability that allows customers and researchers to test components in flowing, molten nitrate salt. The components tested can range from materials samples, to individual components such as flex hoses, ball joints, and valves, up to full solar collecting systems such as central receiver panels, parabolic troughs, or linear Fresnel systems. MSTL provides realistic conditions similar to a portion of a concentrating solar power facility. The facility currently uses 60/40 nitrate %E2%80%9Csolar salt%E2%80%9D and can circulate the salt at pressure up to 40 bar (600psi), temperature to 585%C2%B0C, and flow rate of 44-50kg/s(400-600GPM) depending on temperature. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for customers to evaluate the applicability to their testing needs, and to provide an outline of expectations for conducting testing on MSTL. The document can serve as the basis for testing agreements including Work for Others (WFO) and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA). While this document provides the basis for these agreements and describes some of the requirements for testing using MSTL and on the site at Sandia, the document is not sufficient by itself as a test agreement. The document, however, does provide customers with a uniform set of information to begin the test planning process.

  19. Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raade, Justin; Roark, Thomas; Vaughn, John; Bradshaw, Robert

    2013-07-22

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are comprised of many miles of fluid-filled pipes arranged in large grids with reflective mirrors used to capture radiation from the sun. Solar radiation heats the fluid which is used to produce steam necessary to power large electricity generation turbines. Currently, organic, oil-based fluid in the pipes has a maximum temperature threshold of 400 °C, allowing for the production of electricity at approximately 15 cents per kilowatt hour. The DOE hopes to foster the development of an advanced heat transfer fluid that can operate within higher temperature ranges. The new heat transfer fluid, when used with other advanced technologies, could significantly decrease solar electricity cost. Lower costs would make solar thermal electricity competitive with gas and coal and would offer a clean, renewable source of energy. Molten salts exhibit many desirable heat transfer qualities within the range of the project objectives. Halotechnics developed advanced heat transfer fluids (HTFs) for application in solar thermal power generation. This project focused on complex mixtures of inorganic salts that exhibited a high thermal stability, a low melting point, and other favorable characteristics. A high-throughput combinatorial research and development program was conducted in order to achieve the project objective. Over 19,000 candidate formulations were screened. The workflow developed to screen various chemical systems to discover salt formulations led to mixtures suitable for use as HTFs in both parabolic trough and heliostat CSP plants. Furthermore, salt mixtures which will not interfere with fertilizer based nitrates were discovered. In addition for use in CSP, the discovered salt mixtures can be applied to electricity storage, heat treatment of alloys and other industrial processes.

  20. Role of Symmetry Breaking on the Optical Transitions in Lead-Salt Quantum Dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Stryland, Eric

    Role of Symmetry Breaking on the Optical Transitions in Lead-Salt Quantum Dots Gero Nootz to explain optical transitions in lead-salt QDs. Thus, while the band anisotropy of the bulk semiconductor functions. These studies clarify the controversy of the origin of spectral features in lead-salt QDs

  1. Flow, Sedimentation, and Biomass Production on a Vegetated Salt Marsh in South Carolina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mudd, Simon Marius

    . Introduction Vegetated salt marshes are a common feature along tectonically quiescent coastal mar- gins9 Flow, Sedimentation, and Biomass Production on a Vegetated Salt Marsh in South Carolina: Toward, sedimentation, and plant community evolution on a salt marsh populated by Spartina alterniflora is deve- loped

  2. Active salt tectonics in the Needles District, Canyonlands (Utah) as detected by interferometric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Karl

    Active salt tectonics in the Needles District, Canyonlands (Utah) as detected by interferometric. Mueller, and J. Wahr (2007), Active salt tectonics in the Needles District, Canyonlands (Utah) as detected, overlying a mobile layer of evaporites (the Paradox Formation) that originated mostly as salt deposited

  3. Ionic cloud distribution close to a charged surface in the presence of salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podgornik, Rudolf

    OFFPRINT Ionic cloud distribution close to a charged surface in the presence of salt O. Punkkinen close to a charged surface in the presence of salt O. Punkkinen1,2(a) , A. Naji3 , R. Podgornik4,5,6 , I salts, etc. Abstract ­ Despite its importance, the understanding of ionic cloud distribution close

  4. Salt Lake Community College Articulations USU General Education Articulation 2012-2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flann, Nicholas

    Salt Lake Community College Articulations USU General Education Articulation 2012-2013 General Education The following courses taken at Salt Lake Community College will meet USU General Education requirements. Below the names of the USU categories, the names of the Salt Lake Community College General

  5. Salt dissolution and sinkhole formation along the Dead Sea shore Eyal Shalev,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyakhovsky, Vladimir

    Salt dissolution and sinkhole formation along the Dead Sea shore Eyal Shalev,1 Vladimir Lyakhovsky cavities formed by salt dissolution. This dissolution is related to the recession of the Dead Sea by freshwater. Our finite element modeling shows that dissolution of this salt layer is a plausible mechanism

  6. RAY TRACING IN THE SMOOTHED ACOUSTIC SEG/EAGE SALT MODEL.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    RAY TRACING IN THE SMOOTHED ACOUSTIC SEG/EAGE SALT MODEL. PART 1: SEISMOGRAMS V â?? ACLAV BUCHA­waves in the smoothed acoustic SEG/EAGE Salt Model are computed. The shot­receiver configuration is derived from that the smoothed SEG/EAGE Salt Model is suitable for two­point ray tracing. KEY WORDS Velocity model, ray tracing

  7. Global identification of miRNAs and targets in Populus euphratica under salt stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xing-Wang

    Global identification of miRNAs and targets in Populus euphratica under salt stress Bosheng Li, a typical hydro-halophyte, is ideal for studying salt stress responses in woody plants. MicroRNAs (miRNA may regulate tolerance to salt stress but this has not been widely studied in P. euphratica

  8. Salt diapirs in the Dead Sea basin and their relationship to Quaternary extensional tectonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ten Brink, Uri S.

    Salt diapirs in the Dead Sea basin and their relationship to Quaternary extensional tectonics extension of a brittle overburden and underlying salt causes differential loading that is thought example of a large salt diapir in the Dead Sea pull-apart basin, the Lisan diapir, which we believe

  9. Zr-Hf separation based on a molten salt/metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    Zr-Hf separation based on a molten salt/metal equilibrium )URP ROGIDVKLRQHG Ã?DVKEXOEV to newfangled. These involve complicated multistep batch processes. This new purification method is based on molten salt to raw zirconium and hafnium metal, so a molten metal stream can be achieved and tin chloride salts

  10. Ray tracing computations in the smoothed SEG/EAGE Salt Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Ray tracing computations in the smoothed SEG/EAGE Salt Model V#19;aclav Bucha Department to compute rays and synthetic seismograms of refracted and re ected P-waves in the smoothed SEG/EAGE Salt The original 3-D SEG/EAGE Salt Model (Aminzadeh et al. 1997) is very complex model and cannot be used for ray

  11. Sample Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 6 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-12-11

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 6 for the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). This document reports partial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 6 strategy are identified.

  12. Doctoral Defense "Frost Deterioration in Concrete Due to Deicer Salt Exposure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    Doctoral Defense "Frost Deterioration in Concrete Due to Deicer Salt Exposure: Mechanism-freeze climate zone. During winter a deicer-salt application is needed to melt snow on highways. Freezing in the presence of a deicer salt solution is considered a severe concrete exposure condition. Prolonged exposure

  13. FEATURE ARTICLE Unified Molecular Picture of the Surfaces of Aqueous Acid, Base, and Salt Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FEATURE ARTICLE Unified Molecular Picture of the Surfaces of Aqueous Acid, Base, and Salt Solutions inorganic ions. Molecular dynamics calculations show that in salt solutions and bases the positively charged, consequently, these acids (unlike bases and salts) reduce the surface tension of water. The results

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Arcellacea (Testate Amoebae) as Bio-indicators of Road Salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, Timothy

    ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Arcellacea (Testate Amoebae) as Bio-indicators of Road Salt in a significant reduction in road accidents. Deicing salts can, however, pose a major threat to water quality lakes that have become contaminated by winter deicing salts, particularly sodium chloride. We analysed

  15. A potential mechanism for disturbance-mediated channel migration in a southeastern United States salt marsh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lottig, Noah R.

    salt marsh Noah R. Lottig, Justin M. Fox University of Wisconsin-Madison Center for Limnology 680 North September 2006; accepted 8 September 2006 Available online 27 October 2006 Abstract Coastal salt marsh tidal Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Wrack; Disturbance; Salt marsh tidal creek; Channel migration

  16. HORTSCIENCE 47(10):15041511. 2012. Sodium Distribution in Salt-stressed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, Jacqueline K.

    HORTSCIENCE 47(10):1504­1511. 2012. Sodium Distribution in Salt-stressed Citrus Rootstock Seedlings 33850 Additional index words. Na+ exclusion, Na+ transport, salinity tolerance, salt stress, vacuole sequestration Abstract. Although citrus trees are considered relatively salt-sensitive, there are consistent

  17. Molten salt as heat transfer fluid for a 500 m2 dish concentrator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molten salt as heat transfer fluid for a 500 m2 dish concentrator Nicolás del Pozo 1 , Rebecca Dunn salt based thermal storage system with the ANU SG4 500 m2 dish solar concentrator was performed. Specifically, the objective was to research the behaviour of molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for the SG4

  18. Salt removal using multiple microbial desalination cells under continuous flow conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salt removal using multiple microbial desalination cells under continuous flow conditions Youpeng that inhibit bacterial metabolism. The salt solution also moved through each desalination chamber in series. Increasing the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of the salt so- lution from 1 to 2 days increased total Na

  19. Sheared salt fingers: Instability in a truncated system Francesco Paparella and Edward A. Spiegel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paparella, Francesco

    Sheared salt fingers: Instability in a truncated system Francesco Paparella and Edward A. Spiegel custom we shall call the more slowly diffusing property salt and the other temperature. In a particular called salt fingers. This configuration allows the fluid to take advantage of the diffusive effects

  20. Ray tracing in the smoothed acoustic SEG/EAGE Salt Model.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Ray tracing in the smoothed acoustic SEG/EAGE Salt Model. Part 2: Maps of re ections V#19;aclav of the P-wave re ected from the at bottom interface in the smoothed acoustic SEG/EAGE Salt Model. The illumination of the large shadow area below the trunk of the salt body is discussed. Keywords Velocity model

  1. Kinetics of Bile Salt Binding to Liposomes Revealed by Carboxyfluorescein Release and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinow, Peter

    Kinetics of Bile Salt Binding to Liposomes Revealed by Carboxyfluorescein Release and Mathematical by the binding of different bile salts to the leaflets of the lipid bilayer. We find that the permeability of the liposomal bilayer depends on the difference in the concentrations of bile salt in the inner and outer

  2. Unusual Salt Stability in Highly Charged Diblock Co-polypeptide Hydrogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breedveld, Victor

    Unusual Salt Stability in Highly Charged Diblock Co-polypeptide Hydrogels Andrew P. Nowak, Victor of poly(L-lysine HBr) or poly(L-glutamic acid sodium salt), and helical, hydrophobic segments of poly as low as 0.25 wt %, stability in salt or buffer solutions was found to be only achieved at moderately

  3. Zeolite Salt Occlusion: A Potential Route for the Immobilisation of Iodine-129? Neil C. Hyatt,1*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    Zeolite ­ Salt Occlusion: A Potential Route for the Immobilisation of Iodine-129? Neil C. Hyatt,1 examined as possible starting routes to the long term immobilisation of iodine-129. Heating the salts, where the iodide salt migrates into the zeolite pores. Detailed studies of the Na-A / 5AgI complex

  4. Hydrotropic salt promotes anionic surfactant self-assembly into vesicles and ultralong fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianbin

    Hydrotropic salt promotes anionic surfactant self-assembly into vesicles and ultralong fibers November 2011 Available online 6 December 2011 Keywords: Surfactant self-assembly Hydrotropic salt Fiber dodecylbenzene sulfo- nate, SDBS) and a hydrotropic salt (benzylamine hydrochloride, BzCl) in aqueous solution

  5. Enhancement of charged macromolecule capture by nanopores in a salt gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Alex J.

    Enhancement of charged macromolecule capture by nanopores in a salt gradient Tom Choua Department. However, recent experiments have shown that salt concentration gradients applied across nanopores can also length, we obtain accurate analytic expressions showing how salt gradients control the local conductivity

  6. Water Dynamics in Salt Solutions Studied with Ultrafast Two-Dimensional Infrared (2D IR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Water Dynamics in Salt Solutions Studied with Ultrafast Two-Dimensional Infrared (2D IR. Many of these species are charged. In the ocean, water interacts with dissolved salts. In biological systems, water interacts with dissolved salts as well as charged amino acids, the zwitterionic head groups

  7. Hydrogen Generation in Microbial Reverse-Electrodialysis Electrolysis Cells Using a Heat-Regenerated Salt Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Regenerated Salt Solution Joo-Youn Nam, Roland D. Cusick, Younggy Kim, and Bruce E. Logan* Department of Civil-gradient energy such as river water and seawater solutions. Here, it is shown that ammonium bicarbonate salts be successfully operated using ammonium bicarbonate salts that can be regenerated using conventional distillation

  8. Salt-and-Pepper Noise Removal by Median-type Noise Detectors and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Raymond

    1 Salt-and-Pepper Noise Removal by Median-type Noise Detectors and Detail-preserving Regularization for removing salt-and-pepper impulse noise. In the first phase, an adaptive median filter is used to identify remove salt-and-pepper-noise with noise level as high as 90%. Index Terms Impulse noise, adaptive median

  9. Salt Effect on Microstructures in Cationic Gemini Surfactant Solutions as Studied by Dynamic Light Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianbin

    Salt Effect on Microstructures in Cationic Gemini Surfactant Solutions as Studied by Dynamic Light, C12C12C12(Et) underwent a typical "ordinary-to-extraordinary (o-e) transition" with decreasing salt concentration to zero. At higher salt concentration, a single relaxation mode, corresponding to the diffusion

  10. Salt-stabilized globular protein structure in 7 M aqueous urea solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wider, Gerhard

    1 Salt-stabilized globular protein structure in 7 M aqueous urea solution V. Dötsch,1 G. Wider, G Hochschule- Hönggerberg, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland Keywords Protein folding; Urea denaturation; Salt changing the solution conditions. In this paper we describe the influence of various salts or non

  11. Salt Sensitivity and the Activities of the H+ -ATPases in Cotton Seedlings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schumaker, Karen

    Salt Sensitivity and the Activities of the H+ -ATPases in Cotton Seedlings Howard Lin, Sandra S environ- ments. Sensitivityto high levels of salt in plants is associated with an inability to effectively+ -pumping ATPases may provide the driving force for Na+ transport via Na+ -H+ exchangers. In a salt

  12. Molten salt synthesis of potassium-containing hydroxyapatite microparticles used as protein substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    Molten salt synthesis of potassium-containing hydroxyapatite microparticles used as protein Molten salt synthesis Bovine serum albumin Adsorption a b s t r a c t The bioactivity of a material may-containing calcium phosphate bioceramic microparticles were manufac- tured by molten salt synthesis. The effects

  13. Salt stress response in rice: genetics, molecular biology, and comparative genomics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blumwald, Eduardo

    REVIEW Salt stress response in rice: genetics, molecular biology, and comparative genomics Chandan. Evidence show that salt tolerance in plants is a quantitative trait. Several traditional cultivars materials for donation of requisite salt tolerance genes. A large number of quantitative trait loci (QTL

  14. Sample Results From The Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 6 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-12-20

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 6 for the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). This document reports partial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 6 strategy are identified.

  15. Salt Accumulation in the Loessial Sequence in the Be'er Sheva Basin, Israel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gvirtzman, Haim

    Salt Accumulation in the Loessial Sequence in the Be'er Sheva Basin, Israel MORDECKAIMAGARr / Evidence of climatic changes is recorded in the salt content of the surface sediments in arid zones, In wetter periods airborne salts are removed downward by leaching to the groundwater, whereas in drier

  16. SALT: An XML Application for Web-based Multimodal Dialog Kuansan Wang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SALT: An XML Application for Web-based Multimodal Dialog Management Kuansan Wang Speech Technology://research.microsoft.com/stg Abstract This paper describes the Speech Application Language Tags, or SALT, an XML based spoken dialog standard for multimodal or speech-only applications. A key premise in SALT design is that speech

  17. RAY TRACING IN THE SMOOTHED ACOUSTIC SEG/EAGE SALT MODEL.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    RAY TRACING IN THE SMOOTHED ACOUSTIC SEG/EAGE SALT MODEL. PART 2: MAPS OF REFLECTIONS V â?? ACLAV­wave reflected from the flat bottom interface in the smoothed acoustic SEG/EAGE Salt Model are calculated of the large shadow area below the trunk of the salt body is discussed. KEY WORDS Velocity model, ray tracing

  18. Salt Dependence of Ion Transport and DNA Translocation through Solid-State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Nynke

    Salt Dependence of Ion Transport and DNA Translocation through Solid-State Nanopores Ralph M. M of the salt dependence of ion transport and DNA translocation through solid-state nanopores. The ionic conductance shows a three-order-of-magnitude decrease with decreasing salt concentrations from 1 M to 1 µ

  19. Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elder, H.H.

    2001-07-11

    The HLW salt waste (salt cake and supernate) now stored at the SRS must be treated to remove insoluble sludge solids and reduce the soluble concentration of radioactive cesium radioactive strontium and transuranic contaminants (principally Pu and Np). These treatments will enable the salt solution to be processed for disposal as saltstone, a solid low-level waste.

  20. Brine Rejection from Freezing Salt Solutions: A Molecular Dynamics Study Lubos Vrbka and Pavel Jungwirth*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    Brine Rejection from Freezing Salt Solutions: A Molecular Dynamics Study Lubos Vrbka and Pavel process of brine rejection from freezing salt solutions is investigated with atomic resolution using. The presence of salt slows down the freezing process, which leads to the formation of an almost neat ice next

  1. Role of the Salt-bridge between Switch-1 and Switch-2 of Dictyostelium Myosin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manstein, Dietmar J.

    Role of the Salt-bridge between Switch-1 and Switch-2 of Dictyostelium Myosin Marcus Furch1-phosphate. The closed form seems to be necessary for hydrolysis and is stabilised by the formation of a salt-bridge between an arginine residue in N2 and a glutamate residue in N3. We examined the role of this salt-bridge

  2. Salt Disposal Investigations to Study Thermally Hot Radioactive Waste In A Deep Geologic Repository in Bedded Rock Salt - 12488

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Roger A. [DOE, Carlsbad Field Office, Carlsbad NM (United States); Buschman, Nancy [DOE, Office of Environmental Management, Washington DC (United States)

    2012-07-01

    A research program is proposed to investigate the behavior of salt when subjected to thermal loads like those that would be present in a high-level waste repository. This research would build upon results of decades of previous salt repository program efforts in the US and Germany and the successful licensing and operation of a repository in salt for disposal of defense transuranic waste. The proposal includes a combination of laboratory-scale investigations, numerical simulations conducted to develop validated models that could be used for future repository design and safety case development, and a thermal field test in an underground salt formation with a configuration that replicates a small portion of a conceptual repository design. Laboratory tests are proposed to measure salt and brine properties across and beyond the range of possible repository conditions. Coupled numerical models will seek to describe phenomenology (thermal, mechanical, and hydrological) observed in the laboratory tests. Finally, the field test will investigate many phenomena that have been variously cited as potential issues for disposal of thermally hot waste in salt, including buoyancy effects and migration of pre-existing trapped brine up the thermal gradient (including vapor phase migration). These studies are proposed to be coordinated and managed by the Carlsbad Field Office of DOE, which is also responsible for the operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) within the Office of Environmental Management. The field test portion of the proposed research would be conducted in experimental areas of the WIPP underground, far from disposal operations. It is believed that such tests may be accomplished using the existing infrastructure of the WIPP repository at a lower cost than if such research were conducted at a commercial salt mine at another location. The phased field test is proposed to be performed over almost a decade, including instrumentation development, several years of measurements during heating and then subsequent cooling periods, and the eventual forensic mining back of the test bed to determine the multi-year behavior of the simulated waste/rock environment. Funding possibilities are described, and prospects for near term start-up are discussed. Mining of the access drifts required to create the test area in the WIPP underground began in November 2011. Because this mining uses existing WIPP infrastructure and labor, it is estimated to take about two years to complete the access drifts. WIPP disposal operations and facility maintenance activities will take priority over the SDI field test area mining. Funding of the SDI proposal was still being considered by DOE's Offices of Environmental Management and Nuclear Energy at the time this paper was written, so no specific estimates of the progress in 2012 have been included. (authors)

  3. The role of syn-kinematic sedimentation on early salt tectonic processes in the Post-Permian Salt Basin, Southern North Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    history, subsequent Cretaceous-Cenozoic basin evolution, salt tectonic structures and petroleum systems & analogue modelling, geomechanics. #12;How to Apply: Please use the online application system (http

  4. Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco-Martin, Laura; Molins, Sergi; Trebotich, David; Birkholzer, Jens

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we present FY2015 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This is a combined milestone report related to milestone Salt R&D Milestone “Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures” (M3FT-15LB0818012) and the Salt Field Testing Milestone (M3FT-15LB0819022) to support the overall objectives of the salt field test planning.

  5. Domestic Material Content in Molten-Salt Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, Craig; Kurup, Parthiv; Akar, Sertac; Flores, Francisco

    2015-08-26

    This study lists material composition data for two concentrating solar power (CSP) plant designs: a molten-salt power tower and a hypothetical parabolic trough plant, both of which employ a molten salt for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and thermal storage media. The two designs have equivalent generating and thermal energy storage capacities. The material content of the saltHTF trough plant was approximately 25% lower than a comparably sized conventional oil-HTF parabolic trough plant. The significant reduction in oil, salt, metal, and insulation mass by switching to a salt-HTF design is expected to reduce the capital cost and LCOE for the parabolic trough system.

  6. Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: Acyclic Carbonates and Esters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afroz, Taliman; Seo, D. M.; Han, Sang D.; Boyle, Paul D.; Henderson, Wesley A.

    2015-03-06

    Solvate crystal structures serve as useful models for the molecular-level interactions within the diverse solvates present in liquid electrolytes. Although acyclic carbonate solvents are widely used for Li-ion battery electrolytes, only three solvate crystal structures with lithium salts are known for these and related solvents. The present work, therefore, reports six lithium salt solvate structures with dimethyl and diethyl carbonate: (DMC)2:LiPF6, (DMC)1:LiCF3SO3, (DMC)1/4:LiBF4, (DEC)2:LiClO4, (DEC)1:LiClO4 and (DEC)1:LiCF3SO3 and four with the structurally related methyl and ethyl acetate: (MA)2:LiClO4, (MA)1:LiBF4, (EA)1:LiClO4 and (EA)1:LiBF4.

  7. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Sabharwall; M. Green; S.J. Yoon; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing concerns in the production of reliable energy sources, the next generation in reliable power generation, hybrid energy systems, are being developed to stabilize these growing energy needs. The hybrid energy system incorporates multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilizing and storing the overproduction of energy to meet peak demands of energy at the time of need. With high thermal energy production of the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct properties. This paper will discuss the different energy storage options with the criteria for efficient energy storage set forth, and will primarily focus on different molten salt energy storage system options through a thermodynamic analysis

  8. Cooling molten salt reactors using “gas-lift”

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zitek, Pavel E-mail: klimko@kke.zcu.cz; Valenta, Vaclav E-mail: klimko@kke.zcu.cz; Klimko, Marek E-mail: klimko@kke.zcu.cz

    2014-08-06

    This study briefly describes the selection of a type of two-phase flow, suitable for intensifying the natural flow of nuclear reactors with liquid fuel - cooling mixture molten salts and the description of a “Two-phase flow demonstrator” (TFD) used for experimental study of the “gas-lift” system and its influence on the support of natural convection. The measuring device and the application of the TDF device is described. The work serves as a model system for “gas-lift” (replacing the classic pump in the primary circuit) for high temperature MSR planned for hydrogen production. An experimental facility was proposed on the basis of which is currently being built an experimental loop containing the generator, separator bubbles and necessary accessories. This loop will model the removal of gaseous fission products and tritium. The cleaning of the fuel mixture of fluoride salts eliminates problems from Xenon poisoning in classical reactors.

  9. Engineering Options Assessment Report. Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-13

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 above-ground UNS, and 79 candidate below-ground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  10. Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-18

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 aboveground UNS, and 79 candidate belowground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  11. Fluorination utilizing thermodynamically unstable fluorides and fluoride salts thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartlett, Neil (Orinda, CA); Whalen, J. Marc (Corning, NY); Chacon, Lisa (Corning, NY)

    2000-12-12

    A method for fluorinating a carbon compound or cationic carbon compound utilizes a fluorination agent selected from thermodynamically unstable nickel fluorides and salts thereof in liquid anhydrous hydrogen fluoride. The desired carbon compound or cationic organic compound to undergo fluorination is selected and reacted with the fluorination agent by contacting the selected organic or cationic organic compound and the chosen fluorination agent in a reaction vessel for a desired reaction time period at room temperature or less.

  12. Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-04-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  13. Aggregation Patterns of Salt Crystalizing in Drying Colloidal Solvents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choudhury, Moutushi Dutta; Dutta, Sruti; Tarafdar, Sujata

    2012-01-01

    We report a study of the structure of droplets of colloidal gels containing dissolved sodium chloride. The components segregate and form intricate patterns. The salt crystalizes in fractal and multi-fractal dendritic forms which are determined by the material which forms the colloidal gel. Here potato starch, gelatine and carboxymethyl cellulose have been used. The substrate also plays a role in some cases. Photographs and micrographs at different level of magnification are shown.

  14. Generic effluent monitoring system certification for salt well portable exhauster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Maughan, A.D.

    1997-09-01

    Tests were conducted to verify that the Generic Effluent Monitoring System (GEMS), as it is applied to the Salt Well Portable Exhauster, meets all applicable regulatory performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. These performance criteria address both the suitability of the air sampling probe location and the transport of the sample to the collection devices. The criteria covering air sampling probe location ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the probe location such that the extracted sample represents the whole. The sample transport criteria ensure that the sampled contaminants are quantitatively delivered to the collection device. The specific performance criteria are described in detail in the report. The tests demonstrated that the GEMS/Salt Well Exhauster system meets all applicable performance criteria. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted the testing using a mockup of the Salt Well Portable Exhauster stack at the Numatec Hanford Company`s 305 Building. The stack/sampling system configuration tested was designed to provide airborne effluent control for the Salt Well pumping operation at some U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, Washington. The portable design of the exhauster allows it to be used in other applications and over a range of exhaust air flowrates (approximately 200 - 1100 cubic feet per minute). The unit includes a stack section containing the sampling probe and another stack section containing the airflow, temperature and humidity sensors. The GEMS design features a probe with a single shrouded sampling nozzle, a sample delivery line, and sample collection system. The collection system includes a filter holder to collect the sample of record and an in-line detector head and filter for monitoring beta radiation-emitting particles.

  15. Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIAL TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE Supports the deploymentSalts and

  16. Impact of Salt Purity on Interfacial Water Organization Revealed by Conventional and Heterodyne-Detected Vibrational Sum Frequency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Impact of Salt Purity on Interfacial Water Organization Revealed by Conventional and Heterodyne of the chosen salts and their solutions. This is true not only for the ACS grade salts but also vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) and heterodyne-detected VSFG (HD-VSFG) spectroscopy that salt

  17. natgas weekly

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    shortfall was in the industry's conventional storage facilities. The State's fast-cycle salt cavern storage sites held 45.5 Bcf, only about 5 percent less than last year. Salt...

  18. Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia

    2012-05-01

    The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700 C. (RR E) A different set of alloys, such as Alloy N and 242, are needed to handle molten salts at this temperature. The diffusion welding development work described here builds on techniques developed during the NGNP work, as applied to these alloys. There is also the matter of dissimilar metal welding, since alloys suitable for salt service are generally not suited for service in gaseous oxidizing environments, and vice versa, and welding is required for the Class I boundaries in these systems, as identified in the relevant ASME codes.

  19. Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia; Piyush Sabharwall

    2012-09-01

    The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 °C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700 °C. (RR E) A different set of alloys, such as Alloy N and 242, are needed to handle molten salts at this temperature. The diffusion welding development work described here builds on techniques developed during the NGNP work, as applied to these alloys. There is also the matter of dissimilar metal welding, since alloys suitable for salt service are generally not suited for service in gaseous oxidizing environments, and vice versa, and welding is required for the Class I boundaries in these systems, as identified in the relevant ASME codes.

  20. Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, Ramana G.

    2013-10-23

    The explicit UA program objective is to develop low melting point (LMP) molten salt thermal energy storage media with high thermal energy storage density for sensible heat storage systems. The novel Low Melting Point (LMP) molten salts are targeted to have the following characteristics: 1. Lower melting point (MP) compared to current salts (<222ºC) 2. Higher energy density compared to current salts (>300 MJ/m3) 3. Lower power generation cost compared to current salt In terms of lower power costs, the program target the DOE's Solar Energy Technologies Program year 2020 goal to create systems that have the potential to reduce the cost of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) to less than $15/kWh-th and achieve round trip efficiencies greater than 93%. The project has completed the experimental investigations to determine the thermo-physical, long term thermal stability properties of the LMP molten salts and also corrosion studies of stainless steel in the candidate LMP molten salts. Heat transfer and fluid dynamics modeling have been conducted to identify heat transfer geometry and relative costs for TES systems that would utilize the primary LMP molten salt candidates. The project also proposes heat transfer geometry with relevant modifications to suit the usage of our molten salts as thermal energy storage and heat transfer fluids. The essential properties of the down-selected novel LMP molten salts to be considered for thermal storage in solar energy applications were experimentally determined, including melting point, heat capacity, thermal stability, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, vapor pressure, and corrosion resistance of SS 316. The thermodynamic modeling was conducted to determine potential high temperature stable molten salt mixtures that have thermal stability up to 1000 °C. The thermo-physical properties of select potential high temperature stable (HMP) molten salt mixtures were also experimentally determined. All the salt mixtures align with the go/no-go goals stipulated by the DOE for this project. Energy densities of all salt mixtures were higher than that of the current solar salt. The salt mixtures costs have been estimated and TES system costs for a 2 tank, direct approach have been estimated for each of these materials. All estimated costs are significantly below the baseline system that used solar salt. These lower melt point salts offer significantly higher energy density per volume than solar salt – and therefore attractively smaller inventory and equipment costs. Moreover, a new TES system geometry has been recommended A variety of approaches were evaluated to use the low melting point molten salt. Two novel changes are recommended that 1) use the salt as a HTF through the solar trough field, and 2) use the salt to not only create steam but also to preheat the condensed feedwater for Rankine cycle. The two changes enable the powerblock to operate at 500°C, rather than the current 400°C obtainable using oil as the HTF. Secondly, the use of salt to preheat the feedwater eliminates the need to extract steam from the low pressure turbine for that purpose. Together, these changes result in a dramatic 63% reduction required for 6 hour salt inventory, a 72% reduction in storage volume, and a 24% reduction in steam flow rate in the power block. Round trip efficiency for the Case 5 - 2 tank “direct” system is estimated at >97%, with only small losses from time under storage and heat exchange, and meeting RFP goals. This attractive efficiency is available because the major heat loss experienced in a 2 tank “indirect” system - losses by transferring the thermal energy from oil HTF to the salt storage material and back to oil to run the steam generator at night - is not present for the 2 tank direct system. The higher heat capacity values for both LMP and HMP systems enable larger storage capacities for concentrating solar power.

  1. Baseload Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant Design Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilley, Drake; Kelly, Bruce; Burkholder, Frank

    2014-12-12

    The objectives of the work were to demonstrate that a 100 MWe central receiver plant, using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator, can 1) operate, at full load, for 6,400 hours each year using only solar energy, and 2) satisfy the DOE levelized energy cost goal of $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $). To achieve these objectives the work incorporated a large range of tasks relating to many different aspects of a molten salt tower plant. The first Phase of the project focused on developing a baseline design for a Molten Salt Tower and validating areas for improvement. Tasks included a market study, receiver design, heat exchanger design, preliminary heliostat design, solar field optimization, baseline system design including PFDs and P&IDs and detailed cost estimate. The baseline plant met the initial goal of less than $0.14/kWhe, and reinforced the need to reduce costs in several key areas to reach the overall $0.09/kWhe goal. The major improvements identified from Phase I were: 1) higher temperature salt to improve cycle efficiency and reduce storage requirements, 2) an improved receiver coating to increase the efficiency of the receiver, 3) a large receiver design to maximize storage and meet the baseload hours objective, and 4) lower cost heliostat field. The second Phase of the project looked at advancing the baseline tower with the identified improvements and included key prototypes. To validate increasing the standard solar salt temperature to 600 °C a dynamic test was conducted at Sandia. The results ultimately proved the hypothesis incorrect and showed high oxide production and corrosion rates. The results lead to further testing of systems to mitigate the oxide production to be able to increase the salt temperature for a commercial plant. Foster Wheeler worked on the receiver design in both Phase I and Phase II looking at both design and lowering costs utilizing commercial fossil boiler manufacturing. The cost and design goals for the project were met with this task, but the most interesting results had to do with defining the failure modes and looking at a “shakedown analysis” of the combined creep-fatigue failure. A separate task also looked at improving the absorber coatings on the receiver tubes that would improve the efficiency of the receiver. Significant progress was made on developing a novel paint with a high absorptivity that was on par with the current Pyromark, but shows additional potential to be optimized further. Although the coating did not meet the emissivity goals, preliminary testing the new paint shows potential to be much more durable, and potential to improve the receiver efficiency through a higher average absorptivity over the lifetime. Additional coatings were also designed and modeled results meet the project goals, but were not tested. Testing for low cycle fatigue of the full length receiver tubes was designed and constructed, but is still currently undergoing testing. A novel small heliostat was developed through an extensive brainstorming and down select. The concept was then detailed further with inputs from component testing and eventually a full prototype was built and tested. This task met or exceeded the accuracy and structure goals and also beat the cost goal. This provides a significant solar field costs savings for Abengoa that will be developed further to be used in future commercial plants. Ultimately the $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $) and 6,400 hours goals of the project were met.

  2. Blending of Radioactive Salt Solutions in Million Gallon Tanks - 13002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 - 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, 'One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory'. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks. (authors)

  3. Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

    2012-12-10

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

  4. Transportation of pyrochemical salts from Rocky Flats to Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiber, S.B.

    1997-02-01

    Radioactive legacy wastes or residues are currently being stored on numerous Sites around the former Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nuclear Weapons Complex. Since most of the operating facilities were shut down and have not operated since before the declared end to the Cold War in 1993, the historical method for treating these residues no longer exists. The risk associated with continued storage of these residues will dramatically increase with time. Thus, the DOE was directed by the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board in its Recommendation 94-1 to address and stabilize these residues and established an eight year time frame for doing so. There are only two options available to respond to this requirement: (1) restart existing facilities to treat and package the residues for disposal or (2) transport the residues to another operating facility within the Complex where they can be treated and packaged for disposal. This paper focuses on one such residue type, pyrochemical salts, produced at one Complex site, the Rocky Flats Plant located northwest of Denver, Colorado. One option for treating the salts is their shipment to Los Alamos, New Mexico, for handling at the Plutonium Facility. The safe transportation of these salts can be accomplished at present with several shipping containers including a DOT 6M, a DOE 9968, Type A or Type B quantity 55-gallon drum overpacks, or even the TRUPACT II. The tradeoffs between each container is examined with the conclusion that none of the available shipping containers is fully satisfactory. Thus, the advantageous aspects of each container must be utilized in an integrated and efficient way to effectively manage the risk involved. 1 fig.

  5. Electrophoresis of colloidal dispersions in the low-salt regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir Lobaskin; Burkhard Duenweg; Martin Medebach; Thomas Palberg; Christian Holm

    2006-12-15

    We study the electrophoretic mobility of spherical charged colloids in a low-salt suspension as a function of the colloidal concentration. Using an effective particle charge and a reduced screening parameter, we map the data for systems with different particle charges and sizes, including numerical simulation data with full electrostatics and hydrodynamics and experimental data for latex dispersions, on a single master curve. We observe two different volume fraction-dependent regimes for the electrophoretic mobility that can be explained in terms of the static properties of the ionic double layer.

  6. Tanzania wildcats to evaluate Jurassic Mandawa salt basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagati, M.

    1996-10-07

    After 5 years of stagnant exploration in East Africa, Canadian independent Tanganyika Oil Co. of Vancouver, B.C., will drill two wildcats in Tanzania to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of the coastal Jurassic Mandawa salt basin. Mita-1, spudded around Oct. 1, will be drilled to about 7,000 ft, East Lika-1 will be drilled in early December 1996 to approximately 6,000 ft. The two wells will test different structures and play concepts. The paper describes the exploration history, source rock potential, hydrocarbon shows, potential reservoir, and the prospects.

  7. Study of maximizing acoustic energy coupling to salt 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Yng-Jou

    1979-01-01

    STUDY OF MAXIMIZING ACOUSTIC ENERGY COUPLING TO SALT A Thesis by YNG-JOV HNANG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major... spaced a=0, N/2 and N, for D/%=16, with correlated photographed simulated images of the beam cross- section; the intense brightness means high acoustic pressure. 71 F I GURE 25 LIST OF FIGURES (con' t. ) Acoustic pressure on the axis of a piston...

  8. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, M.A.; Pereira, C.

    1997-03-18

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000 K to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  9. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Michele A. (Naperville, IL); Pereira, Candido (Lisle, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000.degree. K. to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  10. SODIUM ALUMINOSILICATE FOULING AND CLEANING OF DECONTAMINATED SALT SOLUTION COALESCERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M; Thomas Peters, T; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

    2008-10-28

    During initial non-radioactive operations at the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU), the pressure drop across the decontaminated salt solution coalescer reached {approx}10 psi while processing {approx}1250 gallons of salt solution, indicating possible fouling or plugging of the coalescer. An analysis of the feed solution and the 'plugged coalescer' concluded that the plugging was due to sodium aluminosilicate solids. MCU personnel requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate the formation of the sodium aluminosilicate solids (NAS) and the impact of the solids on the decontaminated salt solution coalescer. Researchers performed developmental testing of the cleaning protocols with a bench-scale coalescer container 1-inch long segments of a new coalescer element fouled using simulant solution. In addition, the authors obtained a 'plugged' Decontaminated Salt Solution coalescer from non-radioactive testing in the MCU and cleaned it according to the proposed cleaning procedure. Conclusions from this testing include the following: (1) Testing with the bench-scale coalescer showed an increase in pressure drop from solid particles, but the increase was not as large as observed at MCU. (2) Cleaning the bench-scale coalescer with nitric acid reduced the pressure drop and removed a large amount of solid particles (11 g of bayerite if all aluminum is present in that form or 23 g of sodium aluminosilicate if all silicon is present in that form). (3) Based on analysis of the cleaning solutions from bench-scale test, the 'dirt capacity' of a 40 inch coalescer for the NAS solids tested is calculated as 450-950 grams. (4) Cleaning the full-scale coalescer with nitric acid reduced the pressure drop and removed a large amount of solid particles (60 g of aluminum and 5 g of silicon). (5) Piping holdup in the full-scale coalescer system caused the pH to differ from the target value. Comparable hold-up in the facility could lead to less effective cleaning and precipitation of bayerite solid particles. (6) Based on analysis of the cleaning solutions from the full-scale test, the 'dirt capacity' of a 40 inch coalescer for these NAS solids was calculated to be 40-170 grams.

  11. Low-melting point inorganic nitrate salt heat transfer fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradshaw, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Brosseau, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-09-15

    A low-melting point, heat transfer fluid made of a mixture of four inorganic nitrate salts: 9-18 wt % NaNO.sub.3, 40-52 wt % KNO.sub.3, 13-21 wt % LiNO.sub.3, and 20-27 wt % Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2. These compositions can have liquidus temperatures less than 100 C; thermal stability limits greater than 500 C; and viscosity in the range of 5-6 cP at 300 C; and 2-3 cP at 400 C.

  12. Method for removing semiconductor layers from salt substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuskus, Alexander J. (West Hartford, CT); Cowher, Melvyn E. (East Brookfield, MA)

    1985-08-27

    A method is described for removing a CVD semiconductor layer from an alkali halide salt substrate following the deposition of the semiconductor layer. The semiconductor-substrate combination is supported on a material such as tungsten which is readily wet by the molten alkali halide. The temperature of the semiconductor-substrate combination is raised to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the substrate but less than the temperature of the semiconductor and the substrate is melted and removed from the semiconductor by capillary action of the wettable support.

  13. File:Salt2.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New Pages Recent ChangesPower-in-practice-and-theory-teacher.pdf2.pdf Jump4.pdf JumpSalt2.pdf

  14. Salt River Electric Coop Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg,EnergyEastCarbon Development |SMCHarbor WaterElectric JumpSalt

  15. Columbus Salt Marsh Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (Utility Company)| Open EnergyColorado ParksKentucky:County, NorthColumbus Salt

  16. ENEL Salt Wells Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePower VenturesInformation9)askDoubleEERE - Energy DataEIQENEL Salt Wells

  17. Salt Waste Contractor Reaches Contract Milestone | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-AA-1 SECTION JSTEM-ing the TideautomotiveSafety,Sales ofSalt

  18. Climate Action Champions: Salt Lake City, UT | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) chargingWASHINGTON, DCThe City ofOberlin, Ohio,Salt

  19. Reconnaissance Survey of Salt Sources and Loading into the Pecos River 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyamoto, S.; Yuan, Fasong; Anand, Shilpa

    2006-01-01

    in May, 2005. Soil salinity at the depth 30 to 60 cm was slightly higher, 10 – 15% on the average. These soil salinity levels indicate that bank salt storage is not a significant source for salt flushing as long as the current frequency of bank... of Salt Sources and Loading into the Pecos River by S. Miyamoto, Fasong Yuan and Shilpa Anand Texas Agricultural Experiment Station The Texas A&M University Agricultural Research and Extension Center at El Paso In cooperation...

  20. Advanced Thermal Storage System with Novel Molten Salt: December 8, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonemann, M.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Halotechnics Subcontract No. NEU-2-11979-01. Halotechnics has demonstrated an advanced thermal energy storage system with a novel molten salt operating at 700 degrees C. The molten salt and storage system will enable the use of advanced power cycles such as supercritical steam and supercritical carbon dioxide in next generation CSP plants. The salt consists of low cost, earth abundant materials.

  1. DNA translocation through nanopores with salt gradients: The role of osmotic flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatlo, Marius M; van Roij, René

    2010-01-01

    Recent experiments of translocation of double stranded DNA through nanopores [M. Wanunu et al. Nature Nanotech. 5, 160 (2010)] reveal that the DNA capture rate can be significantly influenced by a salt gradient across the pore. We show that osmotic flow combined with electrophoresis can quantitatively explain the experimental data on the capture rate. The osmotic flow is induced by the salt gradient across the nanopore, and can be the dominant mechanism for DNA translocation through nanopores with a salt gradient.

  2. Maintaining molten salt electrolyte concentration in aluminum-producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.; Bradford, Donald R

    2005-01-04

    A method of maintaining molten salt concentration in a low temperature electrolytic cell used for production of aluminum from alumina dissolved in a molten salt electrolyte contained in a cell free of frozen crust wherein volatile material is vented from the cell and contacted and captured on alumina being added to the cell. The captured volatile material is returned with alumina to cell to maintain the concentration of the molten salt.

  3. Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Michele A. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL)

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

  4. Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Michele A.; Johnson, Terry R.

    1993-09-07

    The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

  5. Effect of hydrotropic salts on phase relationships involving hydrocarbons, water, and alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, P.C.; Kraus, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrotropic salts, which can increase the solubility of organic materials in aqueous solutions, are useful to tertiary oil recovery. We have examined effects on solubility of hydrocarbons in water (with and without alcohols) through addition of inorganic hydrotropic salts, such as perchlorates, thiocyanates, and iodides - high in the usual Hofmeister series - and of organic salts such as short chain alkyl benzene sulfonates and other salts based on substituted benzene derivatives. Although the inorganic salts are relatively ineffective in increasing solubility of hydrocarbons in water, many of the organic salts are excellent hydrotropic agents for hydrocarbons. We have examined the phase relationships for several series of aromatic salts such as sulfonates, carboxylates and hydroxycarboxylates, as a function of alkyl-carbon substitution in three-component (hydrocarbon, salt, water) and in four-component (hydrocarbon, salt, alcohol, water) systems. We have also examined miscibility relationships for a given hydrotropic salt as the chain length of alkanes and alkyl benzenes is systematically varied. While miscibilities decrease with increase in chain length of the hydrocarbon, the hydrotropic properties in these systems increase rapidly with the number of alkyl carbons on the benzene ring of the salts and they are relatively insensitive to the type of charged group (sulfonate vs carboxylate) attached to the benzene ring. However, there were significant increases in hydrotropy as one goes from equally substituted sulfonates or carboxylates to salicylates. A number of salts have been identified which have much greater hydrotropic properties for hydrocarbons than such well-known hydrotropic materials as toluene and xylene sulfonates.

  6. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed. The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts. For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates. 54 figs.

  7. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

  8. Thermal Gradient Holes At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Gradient Holes At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient...

  9. Project Profile: Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Halotechnics, under the Thermal Storage FOA, is conducting high-throughput, combinatorial research and development of salt formulations for use as highly efficient heat transfer fluids (HTFs).

  10. Single-Well and Cross-Well Seismic At Salt Wells Area (Bureau...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Single-Well and Cross-Well Seismic At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  11. Salt-induced collapse and reexpansion of highly charged flexible polyelectrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pai-Yi Hsiao; Erik Luijten

    2006-10-05

    We study the salt-dependent conformations of dilute flexible polyelectrolytes in solution via computer simulations. Low concentrations of multivalent salt induce the known conformational collapse of individual polyelectrolyte chains, but as the salt concentration is increased further this is followed by a reexpansion. We explicitly demonstrate that multivalent counterions can overcompensate the bare charge of the chain in the reexpansion regime. Both the degree of reexpansion and the occurrence of overcharging sensitively depend on ion size. Our findings are relevant for a wide range of salt-induced complexation phenomena.

  12. Process for improving the energy density of feedstocks using formate salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R.P.; Case, Paige A.

    2015-09-01

    Methods of forming liquid hydrocarbons through thermal deoxygenation of cellulosic compounds are disclosed. Aspects cover methods including the steps of mixing a levulinic acid salt-containing feedstock with a formic acid salt, exposing the mixture to a high temperature condition to form hydrocarbon vapor, and condensing the hydrocarbon vapor to form liquid hydrocarbons, where both the formic acid salt and the levulinic acid salt-containing feedstock decompose at the high temperature condition and wherein one or more of the mixing, exposing, and condensing steps is carried out a pressure between about vacuum and about 10 bar.

  13. Amended Record of Decision for the Savannah River Site Salt Processing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    facility. The remaining salt solution, which would have high concentrations of cesium (Cs) but very low concentrations of actinides after the MST step, would be further...

  14. 6th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LIST of Participants (August 25, 2015) 6th USGerman Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design and Operations LAST NAME FIRST NAME COMPANY EMAIL lizowski Jarosaw AGH...

  15. Site selection for the Salt Disposition Facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowers, J.A.

    2000-01-03

    The purpose of this report is to identify, assess, and rank potential sites for the proposed Salt Disposition Facility (SDF) at the Savannah River Site.

  16. Regulation of benthic algal and animal communities by salt marsh plants: Impact of shading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitcraft, Christine R.; Levin, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    of marine wetland microalgae and photosyn- thetic bacteria:concentrating mechanisms in microalgae. Canadian Journal ofalterni?ora and benthic microalgae in salt marsh food webs:

  17. Hazard evaluation for cutting tank 241-A-101 salt well casing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Board, B.D.

    1997-01-10

    This document identifies the hazards of using an abrasive water jet to add perforations to the salt well screen in tank 241-A-101.

  18. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Project- February 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation to determine whether Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Project is continuing to perform at a level deserving DOE-VPP Star recognition.

  19. Evaluating the Effects of Organic Amendment Applications on Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Salt-Affected Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulla Reddy Gari, Namratha

    2013-01-01

    2009) Effectiveness of compost use in salt-affected soil.municipal solid waste compost reduces the negative effectsmunicipal solid waste compost reduces the negative effects

  20. Nouvelles problematiques posees par le cyclage thermo-mecanique en cavites salines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pellizzaro, Cyrille; Brouard, Benoît; Karimi-Jafari, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Storage of natural gas in salt caverns had been developed mainly for seasonal storage, resulting in a small number of yearly pressure cycles and moderate gas-production rates. The needs of energy traders are changing towards more aggressive operational modes. The "high-frequency cycling" operation of salt caverns raises questions concerning the effects of frequently repeated and intense mechanical and thermal loading. These questions concern the constitutive creep laws for salt, laboratory test procedures, criteria to be used at the design stage to provide operability, and the long-term integrity of the underground salt caverns.

  1. Recent advances in the molten salt destruction of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruneda, C. O., LLNL

    1996-09-01

    We have demonstrated the use of the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for destroying explosives, liquid gun propellant, and explosives-contaminated materials on a 1.5 kg of explosive/hr bench- scale unit (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). In our recently constructed 5 kg/hr pilot- scale unit we have also demonstrated the destruction of a liquid gun propellant and simulated wastes containing HMX (octogen). MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. The destruction of energetic materials waste is accomplished by introducing it, together with air, into a vessel containing molten salt (a eutectic mixture of sodium, potassium, and lithium carbonates). The following pure explosives have been destroyed in our bench-scale experimental unit located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF): ammonium picrate, HMX, K- 6 (keto-RDX), NQ, NTO, PETN, RDX, TATB, and TNT. In addition, the following compositions were also destroyed: Comp B, LX- IO, LX- 1 6, LX- 17, PBX-9404, and XM46 (liquid gun propellant). In this 1.5 kg/hr bench-scale unit, the fractions of carbon converted to CO and of chemically bound nitrogen converted to NO{sub x} were found to be well below 1%. In addition to destroying explosive powders and compositions we have also destroyed materials that are typical of residues which result from explosives operations. These include shavings from machined pressed parts of plastic-bonded explosives and sump waste containing both explosives and non-explosive debris. Based on the process data obtained on the bench-scale unit we designed and constructed a next-generation 5 kg/hr pilot-scale unit, incorporating LLNL`s advanced chimney design. The pilot unit has completed process implementation operations and explosives safety reviews. To date, in this pilot unit we have successfully destroyed liquid gun propellant and dimethylsulfoxide containing HMX in continuous, long-duration runs.

  2. Single Location Doublet Well to Reduce Salt-Water Encroachment: Phase I-Numerical Simulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddell, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    C. E. Jacob received patents in 1965 for a single location well doublet that would produce fresh water overlying salt-water without upconing of the heavier salt-water and pollution of the fresh water zone. No known evaluation of the concept...

  3. Nekton of New Seagrass Habitats Colonizing a Subsided Salt Marsh in Galveston Bay, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nekton of New Seagrass Habitats Colonizing a Subsided Salt Marsh in Galveston Bay, Texas SETH P Delwood Beach Road, Panama City, Florida 32408 ABSTRACT: Subsidence and erosion of intertidal salt marsh on this system is the extrac- tion of subsurface oil, gas, and water resources that has caused land subsidence

  4. Overexpression of Late Embryogenesis Abundant 14 enhances Arabidopsis salt stress tolerance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Fengjuan Qi, Shengdong Li, Hui Liu, Pu Li, Pengcheng Wu, Changai Zheng, Chengchao Huang, Jinguang

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • It is the first time to investigate the biological function of AtLEA14 in salt stress response. • AtLEA14 enhances the salt stress tolerance both in Arabidopsis and yeast. • AtLEA14 responses to salt stress by stabilizing AtPP2-B11, an E3 ligase, under normal or salt stress conditions. - Abstract: Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are implicated in various abiotic stresses in higher plants. In this study, we identified a LEA protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtLEA14, which was ubiquitously expressed in different tissues and remarkably induced with increased duration of salt treatment. Subcellular distribution analysis demonstrated that AtLEA14 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Transgenic Arabidopsis and yeast overexpressing AtLEA14 all exhibited enhanced tolerance to high salinity. The transcripts of salt stress-responsive marker genes (COR15a, KIN1, RD29B and ERD10) were overactivated in AtLEA14 overexpressing lines compared with those in wild type plants under normal or salt stress conditions. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that AtLEA14 could effectively stabilize AtPP2-B11, an important E3 ligase. These results suggested that AtLEA14 had important protective functions under salt stress conditions in Arabidopsis.

  5. Management of Salt Waste from Electrochemical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael F. Simpson; Michael N. Patterson; Joon Lee; Yifeng Wang; Joshua Versey; Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; James Allensworth; Man-Sung Yim

    2013-10-01

    Electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel involves operation of one or more cells containing molten salt electrolyte. Processing of the fuel results in contamination of the salt via accumulation of fission products and transuranic (TRU) actinides. Upon reaching contamination limits, the salt must be removed and either disposed or treated to remove the contaminants and recycled back to the process. During development of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent fuel treatment process, waste salt from the electrorefiner was to be stabilized in a ceramic waste form and disposed of in a high-level waste repository. With the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository, other options are now being considered. One approach that involves direct disposal of the salt in a geologic salt formation has been evaluated. While waste forms such as the ceramic provide near-term resistance to corrosion, they may not be necessary to ensure adequate performance of the repository. To improve the feasibility of direct disposal, recycling a substantial fraction of the useful salt back to the process equipment could minimize the volume of the waste. Experiments have been run in which a cold finger is used for this purpose to crystallize LiCl from LiCl/CsCl. If it is found to be unsuitable for transportation, the salt waste could also be immobilized in zeolite without conversion to the ceramic waste form.

  6. Management of salt waste from electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.F.; Patterson, M.N.; Lee, J.; Wang, Y.; Versey, J.; Phongikaroon, S.

    2013-07-01

    Electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel involves operation of one or more cells containing molten salt electrolyte. Processing of the fuel results in contamination of the salt via accumulation of fission products and transuranic (TRU) actinides. Upon reaching contamination limits, the salt must be removed and either disposed or treated to remove the contaminants and recycled back to the process. During development of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent fuel treatment process, waste salt from the electro-refiner was to be stabilized in a ceramic waste form and disposed of in a high-level waste repository. With the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository, other options are now being considered. One approach that involves direct disposal of the salt in a geologic salt formation has been evaluated. While waste forms such as the ceramic provide near-term resistance to corrosion, they may not be necessary to ensure adequate performance of the repository. To improve the feasibility of direct disposal, recycling a substantial fraction of the useful salt back to the process equipment could minimize the volume of the waste. Experiments have been run in which a cold finger is used for this purpose to crystallize LiCl from LiCl/CsCl. If it is found to be unsuitable for transportation, the salt waste could also be immobilized in zeolite without conversion to the ceramic waste form. (authors)

  7. GREEN BLUE CITY Visions of Green-Blue Infrastructure in the Salt Lake Valley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capecchi, Mario R.

    GREEN BLUE CITY Visions of Green-Blue Infrastructure in the Salt Lake Valley Memorial House, Memory will focus on the natural systems of land and water that support and enhance the economy, ecology and quality:55 SARAH HINNERS Ecological Planning Center 2:20 Break 2:35 JEFF NIERMEYER Salt Lake City Public Utilities

  8. POTENTIAL OF THORIUM MOLTEN SALT REACTORS : DETAILED CALCULATIONS AND CONCEPT EVOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    the concept of Thorium Molten Salt Reactor dedicated to future nuclear energy production. The fuel MSBR features, for energy production with 232 Th/233 U fuel from the start. We thus test different thorium fuel, Molten Salt Reactor, MCNP, radiotoxicity, pyrochemistry #12;1. INTRODUCTION Nuclear energy

  9. Improving Permeability and Salt Leaching in Irrigated Sports Fields: Exploratory Testing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyamoto, S; Martinez, Ignacio; Luna, Francisco; Tirre, David

    2008-01-01

    corrugated surface to permit lateral drainage was also highly effective in salt leaching in deep clay. Subsoiling of Glendale and Saneli silty clay loam followed by topdressing with a thin layer of sand also resulted in good salt leaching, especially when...

  10. Critical bifurcation of shallow microtidal landforms in tidal flats and salt marshes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fagherazzi, Sergio

    Critical bifurcation of shallow microtidal landforms in tidal flats and salt marshes Sergio by the Editorial Board April 14, 2006 (received for review September 25, 2005) Shallow tidal basins are characterized by extensive tidal flats and salt marshes that lie within specific ranges of elevation, whereas

  11. Molecular dynamics simulations of the effects of salts on the aggregation properties of benzene in water.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P. E.

    2003-07-16

    The specific aims of the project were: to provide an atomic level description of the interactions between benzene, water and ions in solutions. To determine the degree of association between two benzene molecules in aqueous and salt solutions. To investigate the structure and dynamics of the interface between benzene and water or salt solution.

  12. Salt-Dependent Compaction of Di-and Trinucleosomes Studied by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langowski, Jörg

    Salt-Dependent Compaction of Di- and Trinucleosomes Studied by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering, Germany, and Institut Laue-Langevin Grenoble, F-38042 Grenoble, France ABSTRACT Using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we have measured the salt-dependent static structure factor of di- and trinucleosomes from

  13. A microfluidic platform for pharmaceutical salt screening Michael R. Thorson,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    A microfluidic platform for pharmaceutical salt screening Michael R. Thorson,a Sachit Goyal*a Received 16th July 2011, Accepted 15th September 2011 DOI: 10.1039/c1lc20645a We describe a microfluidic presents a microfluidic approach that addresses these challenges by enabling extensive salt screenings

  14. Composition of Fish Communities in a European Macrotidal Salt Marsh (the Mont Saint-Michel Bay,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Composition of Fish Communities in a European Macrotidal Salt Marsh (the Mont Saint-Michel Bay At least 100 fish species are known to be present in the intertidal areas (estuaries, mudflats and salt, such as estuaries and lagoons, play a nursery role for many fish species. However, in Europe little attention has

  15. Graduation/ Student assistent (9 months) combination: Gas production decline due to salt deposition (NaCl)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    (NaCl) Mentors: Hans Bruining1 (reactive flow, chemistry), Han Velthuis/Aris Twerda (TNO Oil & Gas: · The source of salt in the gas reservoir · The location, rate and field condition dependence of salt precipitation. · How to rinse the near-well bore reservoir efficiently (frequency and amount fresh water washes

  16. Finding the Salt Front: Page 1 Saltwater fish like flounder move up

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lance, Veronica P.

    upriver, which is 20-50 mg/L. The salt front's location is given in Hudson River Miles (abbreviated HRM). Hudson River Miles start at Manhattan's southern tip. This spot, called the Battery, is HRM 0. Going north, Yonkers is at HRM 18, Poughkeepsie at HRM 75. The salt front moves with the tides, weather

  17. Salt tectonics driven by differential sediment loading: Stability analysis and finite element experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaumont, Christopher

    1 Salt tectonics driven by differential sediment loading: Stability analysis and finite element of the basin. We use 2-D finite element modelling to investigate systems in which a linear viscous salt layer is used to investigate the subsequent finite deformation. As the systems evolve, overburden extension

  18. Cloud-Point Phenomena in Wormlike Micellar Systems Containing Cationic Surfactant and Salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raghavan, Srinivasa

    unusual phase behavior in aqueous solution as a function of temperature and added salt concentration. Low and the zero-shear viscosity 0 pass in parallel through minima as a function of NaTos concentration. Cloud M NaSal. High concentrations of salt can also cause cationic surfactant solutions to separate

  19. Design of a 2400MW liquid-salt cooled flexible conversion ratio reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petroski, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    A 2400MWth liquid-salt cooled flexible conversion ratio reactor was designed, utilizing the ternary chloride salt NaCl-KCl-MgCI2 (30%-20%-50%) as coolant. The reference design uses a wire-wrapped, hex lattice core, and is ...

  20. Urban carbon dioxide cycles within the Salt Lake Valley: A multiplebox model validated by observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehleringer, Jim

    Urban carbon dioxide cycles within the Salt Lake Valley: A multiplebox model validated within Salt Lake Valley, Utah, USA. The model was forced by observed winds, soundingderived mixing depths, and ecosystem type. The model was validated using hourly CO2 mole fractions measured at five sites in the urban

  1. MHD EFFECTS ON HEAT TRANSFER IN A MOLTEN SALT BLANKET Sergey Smolentsev, Reza Miraghaie, Mohamed Abdou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    MHD EFFECTS ON HEAT TRANSFER IN A MOLTEN SALT BLANKET Sergey Smolentsev, Reza Miraghaie, Mohamed-mail (Sergey Smolentsev): Sergey@fusion.ucla.edu Heat transfer in closed channel flows of molten salts (MS of the concept is that the flows in the FW channels are turbulent to provide a high heat transfer coefficient

  2. Observational Estimates of Entrainment and Vertical Salt Flux in the Interior of a Spreading River Plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacCready, Parker

    Observational Estimates of Entrainment and Vertical Salt Flux in the Interior of a Spreading River@ocean.washington.edu #12;Abstract: Observational estimates of entrainment and vertical salt flux into the tidally- pulsed are used to determine the plume depth and entrainment velocity throughout the experiment. This approach

  3. A new mechanism for ozonolysis of unsaturated organics on solids: phosphocholines on NaCl as a model for sea salt particles.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karagulian, Federico; Scott Lea, A; Dilbeck, Christopher W; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2008-01-01

    and S. E. Schwartz, Sea Salt Aerosol Production: Mechanisms,the Na + and Cl ions in the salt, respectively. As discussedshown in Fig. 2. Coating of the salt by the organic would be

  4. Ion Partitioning at the liquid/vapor interface of a multi-component alkali halide solution: A model for aqueous sea salt aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosal, Sutapa

    2009-01-01

    A model for aqueous sea salt aerosols Sutapa Ghosal, 1species associated with sea salt ice and aerosols has beena minor component in sea salt, which has a Br – /Cl – molar

  5. A Subject of Sea and Salty Sediment: Diasporic Labor and Queer (Be)longing in Monique Truong’s The Book of Salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peek, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Harcourt, Press Release for The Book of Salt, April, 2003.Truong, The Book of Salt, 10. Ibid. , 19. Ibid. Ibid. , 13.15. Truong, The Book of Salt, 11. Ibid. , 198. Ibid. , 81.

  6. Avian Communities in Tidal Salt Marshes of San Francisco Bay: A Review of Functional Groups by Foraging Guild and Habitat Association

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    trophic adaptations of the salt marsh song sparrow MelospizaBasham MP, Mewaldt LR. 1987. Salt water tolerance and thereport on the Cargill Salt Ponds. Senate select committee on

  7. Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koyama, Tadafumi.

    1994-08-23

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities.

  8. Preliminary analyses of scenarios for potential human interference for repositories in three salt formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    Preliminary analyses of scenarios for human interference with the performance of a radioactive waste repository in a deep salt formation are presented. The following scenarios are analyzed: (1) the U-Tube Connection Scenario involving multiple connections between the repository and the overlying aquifer system; (2) the Single Borehole Intrusion Scenario involving penetration of the repository by an exploratory borehole that simultaneously connects the repository with overlying and underlying aquifers; and (3) the Pressure Release Scenario involving inflow of water to saturate any void space in the repository prior to creep closure with subsequent release under near lithostatic pressures following creep closure. The methodology to evaluate repository performance in these scenarios is described and this methodology is applied to reference systems in three candidate formations: bedded salt in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas; bedded salt in the Paradox Basin, Utah; and the Richton Salt Dome, Mississippi, of the Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin.

  9. Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koyama, T.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities.

  10. Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koyama, Tadafumi (Tokyo, JP)

    1994-01-01

    A method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities.

  11. Expedited demonstration of molten salt mixed waste treatment technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-02-02

    This final report discusses the molten salt mixed waste project in terms of the various subtasks established. Subtask 1: Carbon monoxide emissions; Establish a salt recycle schedule and/or a strategy for off-gas control for MWMF that keeps carbon monoxide emission below 100 ppm on an hourly averaged basis. Subtask 2: Salt melt viscosity; Experiments are conducted to determine salt viscosity as a function of ash composition, ash concentration, temperature, and time. Subtask 3: Determine that the amount of sodium carbonate entrained in the off-gas is minimal, and that any deposited salt can easily be removed form the piping using a soot blower or other means. Subtask 4: The provision of at least one final waste form that meets the waste acceptance criteria of a landfill that will take the waste. This report discusses the progress made in each of these areas.

  12. Preventing fuel failure for a beyond design basis accident in a fluoride salt cooled high temperature reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minck, Matthew J. (Matthew Joseph)

    2013-01-01

    The fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) combines high-temperature coated-particle fuel with a high-temperature salt coolant for a reactor with unique market and safety characteristics. This combination can ...

  13. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System: Molten Salt Energy Storage (Summer Report 2013)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Michael George mckellar; Su-Jong Yoon

    2013-11-01

    Effective energy use is a main focus and concern in the world today because of the growing demand for energy. The nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) is a valuable technical concept that can potentially diversify and leverage existing energy technologies. This report considers a particular NHES design that combines multiple energy systems including a nuclear reactor, energy storage system (ESS), variable renewable generator (VRG), and additional process heat applications. Energy storage is an essential component of this particular NHES because its design allows the system to produce peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant power output. Many energy storage options are available, but this study mainly focuses on a molten salt ESS. The primary purpose of the molten salt ESS is to enable the nuclear reactor to be a purely constant heat source by acting as a heat storage component for the reactor during times of low demand, and providing additional capacity for thermo-electric power generation during times of peak electricity demand. This report will describe the rationale behind using a molten salt ESS and identify an efficient molten salt ESS configuration that may be used in load following power applications. Several criteria are considered for effective energy storage and are used to identify the most effective ESS within the NHES. Different types of energy storage are briefly described with their advantages and disadvantages. The general analysis to determine the most efficient molten salt ESS involves two parts: thermodynamic, in which energetic and exergetic efficiencies are considered; and economic. Within the molten salt ESS, the two-part analysis covers three major system elements: molten salt ESS designs (two tank direct and thermocline), the molten salt choice, and the different power cycles coupled with the molten salt ESS. Analysis models are formulated and analyzed to determine the most effective ESS. The results show that the most efficient idealized energy storage system is the two tank direct molten salt ESS with an Air Brayton combined cycle using LiF-NaF-KF as the molten salt, and the most economical is the same design with KCl MgCl2 as the molten salt. With energy production being a major worldwide industry, understanding the most efficient molten salt ESS boosts development of an effective NHES with cheap, clean, and steady power.

  14. Salt-induced stabilization of apoflavodoxin at neutral pH is mediated through cation-specific effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sancho, Javier

    Salt-induced stabilization of apoflavodoxin at neutral pH is mediated through cation stability of apoflavodoxin were studied by measurement of the proton and salt-linked stability of electrostatic Gibbs free energy were performed in parallel over a range of pH values and salt concentrations

  15. Asymmetric salt fingers induced by a nonlinear equation of state Tamay M. O zgokmen and Oleg E. Esenkov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozgökmen, Tamay M.

    Asymmetric salt fingers induced by a nonlinear equation of state Tamay M. O¨ zgo¨kmen and Oleg E and sinking fluid. In the original theory and experiment performed with a heat-salt system Stern1 , the two orders of magnitude difference between the diffusivities of salt and heat led to the near conservation

  16. Cloning and salt-induced, ABA-independent expression of choline mono-oxygenase in Atriplex prostrata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Showalter, Allan M.

    Cloning and salt-induced, ABA-independent expression of choline mono-oxygenase in Atriplex transcript and glycinebetaine both increased in response to NaCl treatment. Without salt treatment, CMO mRNA was detected in stems and 5-day-old seedlings, but not in leaves, roots and older seedlings. With salt

  17. Salt: Combining ACID and BASE in a Distributed Database Chao Xie, Chunzhi Su, Manos Kapritsos, Yang Wang,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvisi, Lorenzo

    Salt: Combining ACID and BASE in a Distributed Database Chao Xie, Chunzhi Su, Manos Kapritsos, Yang: This paper presents Salt, a distributed database that allows developers to improve the perfor- mance and scalability of their ACID applications through the incremental adoption of the BASE approach. Salt

  18. On the interaction between bathymetry and climate in the system dynamics and preferred levels of the Great Salt Lake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarboton, David

    of the Great Salt Lake Ibrahim Nourein Mohammed1 and David G. Tarboton1 Received 21 May 2010; revised 24 October 2010; accepted 19 November 2010; published 17 February 2011. [1] The Great Salt Lake is a terminal bathymetry and climate in the system dynamics and preferred levels of the Great Salt Lake, Water Resour. Res

  19. Thermodynamic properties of a spin-1/2 spin-liquid state in a -type organic salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    LETTERS Thermodynamic properties of a spin-1/2 spin-liquid state in a -type organic salt SATOSHI-based organic charge-transfer salt -(BEDT-TTF)2Cu2(CN)3, with a triangular lattice structure down to 75 m-dimensional triangular lattice is still unclear. The -type salts consisting of BEDT-TTF donors show an interesting phase

  20. RESPONSE TO EPA COMMENT DATED JUNE 7, 2012: Review of Alternate Data Sets for Defining Permeability of Crushed Salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Permeability of Crushed Salt EPA Comment Dated June 7, 2012: Please provide an explanation why DOE believes) on the salt permeability and density relationship. EPA-Provided Background DOE has elected to use the Brodsky and T3 times for the ROM salt panel closure. In addition to the Brodsky 1994 data, our review identified