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1

New public information resources on salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the past decade, interest has been growing in using underground salt caverns for disposing of wastes. The Railroad Commission of Texas has permitted a few caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) and one cavern for disposal of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from oil field activities. Several salt caverns in Canada have also been permitted for disposal of NOW. In addition, oil and gas agencies in Louisiana and New Mexico are developing cavern disposal regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded several studies to evaluate the technical feasibility, legality, economic viability, and risk of disposing of NOW and NORM in caverns. The results of these studies have been disseminated to the scientific and regulatory communities. However, as use of caverns for waste disposal increases, more government and industry representatives and members of the public will become aware of this practice and will need adequate information about how disposal caverns operate and the risks they pose. In anticipation of this need, DOE has funded Argonne National Laboratory to develop a salt cavern public outreach program. Key components of this program are an informational brochure designed for nontechnical persons and a website that provides greater detail on cavern operations and allows downloadable access to the reports on the topic funded by DOE. This paper provides an overview of the public outreach program.

Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

1999-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

2

New public information resources on salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the past decade, interest has been growing in using underground salt caverns for disposing of wastes. The Railroad Commission of Texas has permitted a few caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) and one cavern for disposal of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from oil field activities. Several salt caverns in Canada have also been permitted for disposal of NOW. In addition, oil and gas agencies in Louisiana and New Mexico are developing cavern disposal regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded several studies to evaluate the technical feasibility, legality, economic viability, and risk of disposing of NOW and NORM in caverns. The results of these studies have been disseminated to the scientific and regulatory communities. However, as use of caverns for waste disposal increases, more government and industry representatives and members of the public will become aware of this practice and will need adequate information about how disposal caverns operate and the risks they pose. In anticipation of this need, DOE has fi.mded Argonne National Laboratory to develop a salt cavern public outreach program. Key components of this program are an informational brochure designed for nontechnical persons and a website that provides greater detail on cavern operations and allows downloadable access to the reports on the topic funded by DOE. This paper provides an overview of the public outreach program.

Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

1999-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

3

Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

2001-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

4

Salt caverns for oil field waste disposal.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Salt caverns used for oil field waste disposal are created in salt formations by solution mining. When created, caverns are filled with brine. Wastes are introduced into the cavern by pumping them under low pressure. Each barrel of waste injected to the cavern displaces a barrel of brine to the surface. The brine is either used for drilling mud or is disposed of in an injection well. Figure 8 shows an injection pump used at disposal cavern facilities in west Texas. Several types of oil field waste may be pumped into caverns for disposal. These include drilling muds, drill cuttings, produced sands, tank bottoms, contaminated soil, and completion and stimulation wastes. Waste blending facilities are constructed at the site of cavern disposal to mix the waste into a brine solution prior to injection. Overall advantages of salt cavern disposal include a medium price range for disposal cost, large capacity and availability of salt caverns, limited surface land requirement, increased safety, and ease of establishment of individual state regulations.

Veil, J.; Ford, J.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Environmental Assessment; RMC, Consultants, Inc.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Drilling Waste Management Fact Sheet: Disposal in Salt Caverns  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Salt Caverns Salt Caverns Fact Sheet - Disposal in Salt Caverns Introduction to Salt Caverns Underground salt deposits are found in the continental United States and worldwide. Salt domes are large, fingerlike projections of nearly pure salt that have risen to near the surface. Bedded salt formations typically contain multiple layers of salt separated by layers of other rocks. Salt beds occur at depths of 500 to more than 6,000 feet below the surface. Schematic Drawing click to view larger image Schematic Drawing of a Cavern in Domal Salt Schematic Drawing click to view larger image Schematic Drawing of a Cavern in Bedded Salt Salt caverns used for oil field waste disposal are created by a process called solution mining. Well drilling equipment is used to drill a hole

6

Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in cavern sealing and operation. The MDCF model is used in three simulations of field experiments in which indirect measures were obtained of the generation of damage. The results of the simulations help to verify the model and suggest that the model captures the correct fracture behavior of rock salt. The model is used in this work to estimate the generation and location of damage around a cylindrical storage cavern. The results are interesting because stress conditions around the cylindrical cavern do not lead to large amounts of damage. Moreover, the damage is such that general failure can not readily occur, nor does the extent of the damage suggest possible increased permeation when the surrounding salt is impermeable.

Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Oil field waste disposal in salt caverns: An information website  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory has completed the construction of a Website for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that provides detailed information on salt caverns and their use for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Specific topics in the Website include the following: descriptions of salt deposits and salt caverns within the US, salt cavern construction methods, potential types of wastes, waste emplacement, regulatory issues, costs, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic human health risks associated with postulated cavern release scenarios, new information on cavern disposal (e.g., upcoming meetings, regulatory issues, etc.), other studies supported by the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) (e.g., considerations of site location, cavern stability, development issues, and bedded salt characterization in the Midland Basin), and links to other associated Web sites. In addition, the Website allows downloadable access to reports prepared on the topic that were funded by DOE. Because of the large quantities of NOW and NORM wastes generated annually by the oil industry, information presented on this Website is particularly interesting and valuable to project managers, regulators, and concerned citizens.

Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

1999-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

8

CAVERN ROOF STABILITY FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE IN BEDDED SALT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents research performed to develop a new stress-based criterion for predicting the onset of damage in salt formations surrounding natural gas storage caverns. Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of shear stress, mean stress, pore pressure, temperature, and Lode angle on the strength and creep characteristics of salt. The laboratory test data were used in the development of the new criterion. The laboratory results indicate that the strength of salt strongly depends on the mean stress and Lode angle. The strength of the salt does not appear to be sensitive to temperature. Pore pressure effects were not readily apparent until a significant level of damage was induced and the permeability was increased to allow penetration of the liquid permeant. Utilizing the new criterion, numerical simulations were used to estimate the minimum allowable gas pressure for hypothetical storage caverns located in a bedded salt formation. The simulations performed illustrate the influence that cavern roof span, depth, roof salt thickness, shale thickness, and shale stiffness have on the allowable operating pressure range. Interestingly, comparison of predictions using the new criterion with that of a commonly used criterion indicate that lower minimum gas pressures may be allowed for caverns at shallow depths. However, as cavern depth is increased, less conservative estimates for minimum gas pressure were determined by the new criterion.

Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan; William M. Goodman

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Mining Induced Seismicity -Monitoring of a Large Scale Salt Cavern Collapse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mining Induced Seismicity - Monitoring of a Large Scale Salt Cavern Collapse E. Klein* (Ineris), I in the Lorraine salt basin (France). To monitor the cavern collapse, a multi-parameter system featuring high of the roof cavern, with no ground surface movement detected. The high microseismic regime of the cavern has

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

10

Disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns: Feasibility, legality, risk, and costs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Salt caverns can be formed through solution mining in the bedded or domal salt formations that are found in many states. Salt caverns have traditionally been used for hydrocarbon storage, but caverns have also been used to dispose of some types of wastes. This paper provides an overview of several years of research by Argonne National Laboratory on the feasibility and legality of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field wastes, the risks to human populations from this disposal method, and the cost of cavern disposal. Costs are compared between the four operating US disposal caverns and other commercial disposal options located in the same geographic area as the caverns. Argonne`s research indicates that disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns is feasible and legal. The risk from cavern disposal of oil field wastes appears to be below accepted safe risk thresholds. Disposal caverns are economically competitive with other disposal options.

Veil, J.A. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Water Policy Program

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes for strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes in strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of a storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon; Herrick, Courtney Grant

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Dynamic response of underground gas storage salt cavern under seismic loads  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A dynamic elastoplastic damage constitutive model is proposed based on the failure characteristic of rock salt under seismic loads. The coding of the proposed model is achieved by the embedded FISH (short for FLACish) language of FLAC3D (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua). Numerical models of bedded salt cavern gas storage facilities in China are developed by using FLAC3D, and the proposed constitutive model is used in the simulations. The effects of seismic input angle, seismic acceleration, seismic moment, types of seismic waves, and gas pressure on the dynamic response, stress, displacement, plastic zone, and safety factor (SF) of rock masses that surround salt cavern gas storage facilities are studied. Results show that the seismic wave perpendicular to the surface poses the greatest risk to the safety of the cavern. With an increase in seismic acceleration, the cavern’s SF decreases and that of the lower structure of the cavern decreases more than that of the upper section. Plastic zones propagate from the cavern’s internal surface to the pillar, and then to the pillar and floor along the right and left corners of the cavern bottom. Higher internal gas pressure improves cavern safety. The acceleration and duration of seismic waves are critical factors in ensuring the safety of the cavern. The SF of the cavern’s lower structure is more sensitive to changes in seismic parameters than that of the other locations, which makes the cavern bottom more likely to be destroyed during an earthquake. Therefore, the lower structure should be the study target in the seismic design for a salt cavern gas storage facility. Results have been used in the seismic design of salt cavern gas storage facilities in China.

Tongtao Wang; Chunhe Yang; Xiangzhen Yan; Yinping Li; Wei Liu; Cheng Liang; Jie Li

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Avoca, New York Salt Cavern Gas Storage Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first salt cavern natural gas storage facility in the northeastern United States designed to serve the interstate gas market is being developed by J Makowski Associates and partners at Avoca in Steuben County, New York. Multiple caverns will be leached at a depth of about 3800 ft from an approximately 100 ft interval of salt within the F unit of the Syracuse Formation of the Upper Silurian Salina Group. The facility is designed to provide 5 Bcf of working gas capacity and 500 MMcfd of deliverability within an operating cavern pressure range between 760 psi and 2850 psi. Fresh water for leaching will be obtained from the Cohocton River aquifer at a maximum rate of 3 million gallons per day and produced brine will be injected into deep permeable Cambrian age sandstones and dolostones. Gas storage service is anticipated to commence in the Fall of 1997 with 2 Bcf of working gas capacity and the full 5 Bcf or storage service is scheduled to be available in the Fall of 1999.

Morrill, D.C. [J. Makowski and Associates, Boston, MA (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

STORAGE OF CHILLED NATURAL GAS IN BEDDED SALT STORAGE CAVERNS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides the results of a two-phase study that examines the economic and technical feasibility of converting a conventional natural gas storage facility in bedded salt into a refrigerated natural gas storage facility for the purpose of increasing the working gas capacity of the facility. The conceptual design used to evaluate this conversion is based on the design that was developed for the planned Avoca facility in Steuben County, New York. By decreasing the cavern storage temperature from 43 C to -29 C (110 F to -20 F), the working gas capacity of the facility can be increased by about 70 percent (from 1.2 x 10{sup 8} Nm{sup 3} or 4.4 billion cubic feet (Bcf) to 2.0 x 10{sup 8} Nm{sup 3} or 7.5 Bcf) while maintaining the original design minimum and maximum cavern pressures. In Phase I of the study, laboratory tests were conducted to determine the thermal conductivity of salt at low temperatures. Finite element heat transfer calculations were then made to determine the refrigeration loads required to maintain the caverns at a temperature of -29 C (-20 F). This was followed by a preliminary equipment design and a cost analysis for the converted facility. The capital cost of additional equipment and its installation required for refrigerated storage is estimated to be about $13,310,000 or $160 per thousand Nm{sup 3} ($4.29 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf)) of additional working gas capacity. The additional operating costs include maintenance refrigeration costs to maintain the cavern at -29 C (-20 F) and processing costs to condition the gas during injection and withdrawal. The maintenance refrigeration cost, based on the current energy cost of about $13.65 per megawatt-hour (MW-hr) ($4 per million British thermal units (MMBtu)), is expected to be about $316,000 after the first year and to decrease as the rock surrounding the cavern is cooled. After 10 years, the cost of maintenance refrigeration based on the $13.65 per MW-hr ($4 per MMBtu) energy cost is estimated to be $132,000. The gas processing costs are estimated to be $2.05 per thousand Nm{sup 3} ($0.055 per Mcf) of gas injected into and withdrawn from the facility based on the $13.65 per MW-hr ($4 per MMBtu) energy cost. In Phase II of the study, laboratory tests were conducted to determine mechanical properties of salt at low temperature. This was followed by thermomechanical finite element simulations to evaluate the structural stability of the cavern during refrigerated storage. The high thermal expansion coefficient of salt is expected to result in tensile stresses leading to tensile failure in the roof, walls, and floor of the cavern as it is cooled. Tensile fracturing of the cavern roof may result in loss of containment of the gas and/or loss of integrity of the casing shoe, deeming the conversion of this facility not technically feasible.

JOel D. Dieland; Kirby D. Mellegard

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Features of Bayou Choctaw SPR caverns and internal structure of the salt dome.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The intent of this study is to examine the internal structure of the Bayou Choctaw salt dome utilizing the information obtained from graphical representations of sonar survey data of the internal cavern surfaces. Many of the Bayou Choctaw caverns have been abandoned. Some existing caverns were purchased by the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program and have rather convoluted histories and complex cavern geometries. In fact, these caverns are typically poorly documented and are not particularly constructive to this study. Only two Bayou Choctaw caverns, 101 and 102, which were constructed using well-controlled solutioning methods, are well documented. One of these was constructed by the SPR for their use while the other was constructed and traded for another existing cavern. Consequently, compared to the SPR caverns of the West Hackberry and Big Hill domes, it is more difficult to obtain a general impression of the stratigraphy of the dome. Indeed, caverns of Bayou Choctaw show features significantly different than those encountered in the other two SPR facilities. In the number of abandoned caverns, and some of those existing caverns purchased by the SPR, extremely irregular solutioning has occurred. The two SPR constructed caverns suggest that some sections of the caverns may have undergone very regular solutioning to form uniform cylindrical shapes. Although it is not usually productive to speculate, some suggestions that point to the behavior of the Bayou Choctaw dome are examined. Also the primary differences in the Bayou Choctaw dome and the other SPR domes are noted.

Munson, Darrell E.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Regulatory, technical pressures prompt more U. S. salt-cavern gas storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Natural-gas storage in US salt caverns is meeting the need for flexible, high delivery and injection storage following implementation Nov. 1, 1993, of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Order 636. This ruling has opened the US underground natural-gas storage market to more participants and created a demand for a variety of storage previously provided by pipelines as part of their bundled sales services. Many of these new services such as no-notice and supply balancing center on use of high-delivery natural gas storage from salt caverns. Unlike reservoir storage, nothing restricts flow in a cavern. The paper discusses the unique properties of salt that make it ideal for gas storage, choosing a location for the storage facility, cavern depth and shape, cavern size, spacing, pressures, construction, conversion or brine or LPG storage caverns to natural gas, and operation.

Barron, T.F. (PB-KBB Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

18

Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could, from technical and legal perspectives, be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, ANL subsequently conducted a preliminary risk assessment on the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in salt caverns. The methodology for the risk assessment included the following steps: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing contaminant toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and estimating human cancer and noncancer risks. To estimate exposure routes and pathways, four postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (for noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the EPA target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results lead to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

Elcock, D.

1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

19

New information on disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. This paper summarizes an Argonne National Laboratory report that reviews the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicated that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied. There is no actual field experience on the long-term impacts that might arise following closure of waste disposal caverns. Although research has found that pressures will build-up in a closed cavern, none has specifically addressed caverns filled with oil field wastes. More field research on pressure build-up in closed caverns is needed. On the basis of preliminary investigations, we believe that disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns is legal and feasible. The technical suitability of the practice depends on whether the caverns are well-sited and well-designed, carefully operated, properly closed, and routinely monitored.

Veil, J.A.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Can nonhazardous oil field wastes be disposed of in salt caverns?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. This paper summarizes an Argonne National Laboratory report that reviews the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicated that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal -of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied. There is no actual field experience on the long-term impacts that might arise following closure of waste disposal caverns. Although research has found that pressures will build up in a closed cavern, none has specifically addressed caverns filled with oil field wastes. More field research on pressure build up in closed caverns is needed. On the basis of preliminary investigations, we believe that disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns is legal and feasible. The technical suitability of the practice depends on whether the caverns are well-sited and well-designed, carefully operated, properly closed, and routinely monitored.

Veil, J.A.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1988-2011 salt caverns" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

,"U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Salt Caverns Capacity (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Salt Caverns Capacity (MMcf)" Salt Caverns Capacity (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Salt Caverns Capacity (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","nga_epg0_sacws_nus_mmcfa.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/nga_epg0_sacws_nus_mmcfa.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

22

,"Underground Natural Gas Storage - Salt Cavern Storage Fields"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Salt Cavern Storage Fields" Salt Cavern Storage Fields" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Underground Natural Gas Storage - Salt Cavern Storage Fields",8,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","ngm10vmall.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/natural_gas/data_publications/natural_gas_monthly/ngm.html" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

23

Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

Elcock, D.

1998-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

24

Analysis of major risks associated with hydrocarbon storage caverns in bedded salt rock  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Salt rock is internationally accepted as an ideal medium for energy storage. As an energy storage structure, the safety of hydrocarbon storage caverns in salt rock is related to the national economy and to social public security. Risk analysis is an important method of engineering safety evaluation. In this paper the major risks associated with hydrocarbon storage caverns in bedded salt rock are defined. The major risks are classified under the headings of ‘oil and gas leakage’, ‘ground subsidence’, and ‘cavern failure’, and are discussed under these topical titles. The factors leading to the major risks associated with storage caverns are identified by reviewing descriptions of major accidents of salt storage caverns around the world. Fault tree models for the three major risks are established and analyzed. Basic paths of the risk and their occurrence probability ranking are derived. The risk factors which contribute greatly to the risk are identified by calculating the importance degree of all the basic events. Finally, a comprehensive evaluation methodology for major risk loss is generated based on the analytic hierarchy process. This provides a theoretical foundation for the evaluation and prevention of major risks in the construction and operation of storage caverns in bedded salt rock.

Chunhe Yang; Wenjun Jing; J.J.K. Daemen; Guimin Zhang; Chao Du

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

EXAMINE AND EVALUATE A PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy cooperative research project is to define, describe, and validate, a process to utilize salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships. The project defines the process as receiving LNG from a ship, pumping the LNG up to cavern injection pressures, warming it to cavern compatible temperatures, injecting the warmed vapor directly into salt caverns for storage, and distribution to the pipeline network. The performance of work under this agreement is based on U.S. Patent 5,511,905, and other U.S. and Foreign pending patent applications. The cost sharing participants in the research are The National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy), BP America Production Company, Bluewater Offshore Production Systems (U.S.A.), Inc., and HNG Storage, L.P. Initial results indicate that a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at about half the capital cost, less than half the operating costs and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. There is a significant body of knowledge and practice concerning natural gas storage in salt caverns, and there is a considerable body of knowledge and practice in handling LNG, but there has never been any attempt to develop a process whereby the two technologies can be combined. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or terrorist acts, and much more acceptable to the community. The project team developed conceptual designs of two salt cavern based LNG terminals, one with caverns located in Calcasieu Parish Louisiana, and the second in Vermilion block 179 about 50 miles offshore Louisiana. These conceptual designs were compared to conventional tank based LNG terminals and demonstrate superior security, economy and capacity. The potential for the development of LNG receiving terminals, utilizing salt caverns for storage and the existing comprehensive pipeline system has profound implications for the next generation of LNG terminals. LNG imports are expected to become an increasingly more important part of the U.S. energy supply and the capacities to receive LNG securely, safely, and economically must be expanded. Salt cavern LNG receiving terminals both in onshore and offshore locations can be quickly built and provide additional import capacity into the U.S. exceeding 6-10 Bcf/day in the aggregate.

Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; D. Braxton Scherz

2003-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

26

Dilatational and Compacting Behavior around a Cylindrical Cavern Leached Out in a SolidFluid Elastic Rock Salt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dilatational and Compacting Behavior around a Cylindrical Cavern Leached Out in a Solid-filled cylindrical cavern of circular cross section in a homogeneous infinite fluid-saturated polycristalline salt pressure. The fluid in the cavern and in the mixture is treated as ideal and the solid as elastic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

27

Experimental monitoring of a solution-mining Cavern in Salt: Identifying and Analyzing Early-Warning Signals Prior to Collapse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental monitoring of a solution-mining Cavern in Salt: Identifying and Analyzing Early. This was the context when the opportunity was taken to instrument a large size in use saline cavern, so as to test that initiate and govern the evolution of the cavern up to its collapse. After a stationary period combined

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

28

Test of Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve Cavern Bryan Mound 104. [Salt cavern entry wells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document reports the certification test of Cavern Bryan Mound 104 conducted between September 19 and November 9, 1984. The test included pressurization with oil to near maximum test gradient, depressuring to maximum operating gradient, and doing nitrogen leak tests of the three cavern entry wells. Test results indicate nitrogen loss rates from the wells of 35 bbl/y from 104A, 19 bbl/y from 104B, and 0 bbl/y from 104C. These nitrogen loss rates can reasonably be assumed to correspond to a total cavern oil loss rate of 5.4 bbl/y, which is well within the DOE acceptance criterion of 100 bbl/y of oil per cavern. The final phase of the nitrogen leak test was observed by a representative of the Texas Railroad Commission. 7 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Goin, K.L.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Estimate of the risks of disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes into salt caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. Potential human health risks associated with hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) in NOW were assessed under four postclosure cavern release scenarios: inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks or leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. To estimate potential human health risks for these scenarios, contaminant concentrations at the receptor were calculated using a one-dimensional solution to an advection/dispersion equation that included first order degradation. Assuming a single, generic salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, the best-estimate excess cancer risks ranged from 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} to 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} and hazard indices (referring to noncancer health effects) ranged from 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}. Under worse-case conditions in which the probability of cavern failure is 1.0, excess cancer risks ranged from 4.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and hazard indices ranged from 7.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 0.07. Even under worst-case conditions, the risks are within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure levels. From a human health risk perspective, salt caverns can, therefore, provide an acceptable disposal method for NOW.

Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

30

Simulation of production and injection performance of gas storage caverns in salt formations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a simple yet comprehensive mathematical model for simulation of injection and production performance of gas storage caverns in salt formations. The model predicts the pressure and temperature of the gas in the cavern and at the wellhead for an arbitrary sequence of production and injection cycles. The model incorporates nonideal gas properties, thermodynamic heat effects associated with gas expansion and compression in the cavern and tubing, heat exchange with the surrounding salt formation, and non-uniform initial temperatures but does not include rock-mechanical effects. The model is based on a mass and energy balance for the gas-filled cavern and on the Bernoulli equation and energy balance for flow in the wellbore. Cavern equations are solved iteratively at successive timesteps, and wellbore equations are solved within an iteration cycle of the cavern equations. Gas properties are calculated internally with generally accepted correlations and basic thermodynamic relations. Example calculations show that the initial temperature distribution has a strong effect on production performance of a typical gas storage cavern. The primary application of the model is in the design, planning, and operation of gas storage projects.

Hagoort, J. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Risk analyses for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed of in domal salt caverns. In this assessment, several steps were used to evaluate potential human health risks: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing the contaminants` toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and, finally, calculating human cancer and noncancer risks. Potential human health risks associated with hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) in NOW were assessed under four postclosure cavern release scenarios: inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks or leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. To estimate potential human health risks for these scenarios, contaminant concentrations at the receptor were calculated using a one-dimensional solution to an advection/dispersion equation that included first order degradation. Even under worst-case conditions, the risks have been found to be within the US EPA target range for acceptable exposure levels. From a human health risk perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for NOW.

Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Spindletop salt-cavern points way for future natural-gas storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spindletop underground natural-gas storage complex began operating in 1993, providing 1.7 bcf of working-gas capacity in its first cavern. The cavern and related facilities exemplify the importance and advantages of natural-gas storage in leached salt caverns. Development of a second cavern, along with continued leaching of the initial cavern, target 5 bcf of available working-gas capacity in both caverns by the end of this year. The facilities that currently make up the Spindletop complex include two salt dome gas-storage wells and a 24,000-hp compression and dehydration facility owned by Sabine Gas; two salt dome gas-storage wells and a 15,900-hp compression and dehydration facility owned by Centana; a 7,000-hp leaching plant; and three jointly owned brine-disposal wells. The paper discusses the development of the storage facility, design goals, leaching plant and wells, piping and compressors, dehydration and heaters, control systems, safety and monitoring, construction, first years operation, and customer base.

Shotts, S.A.; Neal, J.R.; Solis, R.J. (Southwestern Gas Pipeline Inc., The Woodlands, TX (United States)); Oldham, C. (Centana Intrastate Pipeline Co., Beaumont, TX (United States))

1994-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

33

,"U.S. Natural Gas Underground Storage Salt Caverns Capacity (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Salt Caverns Capacity (MMcf)" Salt Caverns Capacity (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural Gas Underground Storage Salt Caverns Capacity (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1393_nus_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1393_nus_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:43:34 PM"

34

,"U.S. Natural Gas Number of Underground Storage Salt Caverns Capacity (Count)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Salt Caverns Capacity (Count)" Salt Caverns Capacity (Count)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural Gas Number of Underground Storage Salt Caverns Capacity (Count)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1393_nus_8a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1393_nus_8a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:43:34 PM"

35

Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy Office of Fossil Energy National Petroleum Technology Office National Petroleum Technology Office under Contract W -31-109- under Contract W -31-109- Eng Eng -38 -38 Prepared by: Prepared by: John A. Veil, Karen P. Smith, David John A. Veil, Karen P. Smith, David Tomasko Tomasko , , Deborah Deborah Elcock Elcock , Deborah L. Blunt, and , Deborah L. Blunt, and Gustavious Gustavious P. W illiams P. W illiams Argonne National Laboratory August 1998 August 1998 Disposal of NORM - Disposal of NORM - Contam inated O il Contam inated O il Field Wastes in Salt Field Wastes in Salt Caverns Caverns Disposal of NORM in Salt Caverns Page i Table of Contents Acronyms and Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

Underground physics without underground labs: large detectors in solution-mined salt caverns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A number of current physics topics, including long-baseline neutrino physics, proton decay searches, and supernova neutrino searches, hope to someday construct huge (50 kiloton to megaton) particle detectors in shielded, underground sites. With today's practices, this requires the costly excavation and stabilization of large rooms in mines. In this paper, we propose utilizing the caverns created by the solution mining of salt. The challenge is that such caverns must be filled with pressurized fluid and do not admit human access. We sketch some possible methods of installing familiar detector technologies in a salt cavern under these constraints. Some of the detectors discussed are also suitable for deep-sea experiments, discussed briefly. These sketches appear challenging but feasible, and appear to force few major compromises on detector capabilities. This scheme offers avenues for enormous cost savings on future detector megaprojects.

Benjamin Monreal

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

37

Underground physics without underground labs: large detectors in solution-mined salt caverns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A number of current physics topics, including long-baseline neutrino physics, proton decay searches, and supernova neutrino searches, hope to someday construct huge (50 kiloton to megaton) particle detectors in shielded, underground sites. With today's practices, this requires the costly excavation and stabilization of large rooms in mines. In this paper, we propose utilizing the caverns created by the solution mining of salt. The challenge is that such caverns must be filled with pressurized fluid and do not admit human access. We sketch some possible methods of installing familiar detector technologies in a salt cavern under these constraints. Some of the detectors discussed are also suitable for deep-sea experiments, discussed briefly. These sketches appear challenging but feasible, and appear to force few major compromises on detector capabilities. This scheme offers avenues for enormous cost savings on future detector megaprojects.

Monreal, Benjamin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Desiccant bed on hydrocarbon charged to and removed from underground (salt) cavern  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A hydrocarbon fluid storage system is described which consists of in operable conjunction: a cavern formed within an underground salt strata below a ground surface, the cavern comprises a lower liquid volume of saturated sodium chloride storage brine and an upper fluid volume of wet hydrocarbon storage fluid, surface fluid handling means; conduit connecting the lower storage brine and upper storage hydrocarbon fluid with the surface fluid handling means, of fluid transfer means enabling transfer of brine and hydrocarbon fluid from the surface to the cavern and from the cavern to the surface, such that brine can be added to or withdrawn from the lower brine volume and hydrocarbon fluids can be added to or withdrawn from the upper hydrocarbon fluid volume, and at least one desiccant drier means positioned at the surface in operable association with the surface fluid handling means whereby the wet hydrocarbon fluid upon withdrawal from the cavern passes through the desiccant drier means and thereby becomes dry, and dry hydrocarbon fluid intended for storage passes through the desiccant drier prior to entering the storage cavern and thereby becomes wet.

Washer, S.P.

1986-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

39

Analysis of the Massive Salt Fall in Big Hill Cavern 103  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes recent reviews, observations, and analyses believed to be imperative to our understanding of the recent two million cubic feet salt fall event in Big Hill Cavern 103, one of the caverns of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The fall was the result of one or more stress driven mechanical instabilities, the origins of which are discussed in the report. The work has lead to important conclusions concerning the engineering and operations of the caverns at Big Hill. Specifically, Big Hill, being the youngest SPR site, was subjected to state-of-the-art solutioning methods to develop nominally well-formed, right-circular cylindrical caverns. Examination of the pressure history records indicate that operationally all Big Hill SPR caverns have been treated similarly. Significantly, new three-dimensional (3-D) imaging methods, applied to old (original) and more recent sonar survey data, have provided much more detailed views of cavern walls, roofs, and floors. This has made possible documentation of the presence of localized deviations from ''smooth'' cylindrical cavern walls. These deviations are now recognized as isolated, linear and/or planar features in the original sonar data (circa early 1990s), which persist to the present time. These elements represent either sites of preferential leaching, localized spalling, or a combination of the two. Understanding the precise origin of these phenomena remains a challenge, especially considering, in a historical sense, the domal salt at Big Hill was believed to be well-characterized. However, significant inhomogeneities in the domal salt that may imply abnormalities in leaching were not noted. Indeed, any inhomogeneities were judged inconsequential to the solution-engineering methods at the time, and, by the same token, to the approaches to modeling the rock mass geomechanical response. The rock mass was treated as isotropic and homogeneous, which in retrospect, appears to have been an over simplification. This analysis shows there are possible new opportunities regarding completing an appropriate site characterization for existing operating cavern fields in the SPR, as well as expansion of current sites or development of new sites. Such characterization should first be consistent with needs identified by this report. Secondly, the characterization needs to satisfy the input requirements of the 3-D solutioning calculational methods being developed, together with 3-D geomechanical analyses techniques which address deformation of a salt rock mass that contains inhomogeneities. It seems apparent that focusing on these important areas could preclude occurrence of unexpected events that would adversely impact the operations of SPR.

MUNSON, DARRELL E.; BAUER, STEPHEN J.; RAUTMAN, CHRISTOPHER A.; EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SATTLER, ALLAN R.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Characterization of bedded salt for storage caverns -- A case study from the Midland Basin, Texas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The geometry of Permian bedding salt in the Midland Basin is a product of interaction between depositional facies and postdepositional modification by salt dissolution. Mapping high-frequency cycle patterns in cross section and map view using wireline logs documents the salt geometry. Geologically based interpretation of depositional and dissolution processes provides a powerful tool for mapping and geometry of salt to assess the suitability of sites for development of solution-mined storage caverns. In addition, this process-based description of salt geometry complements existing data about the evolution of one of the best-known sedimentary basins in the world, and can serve as a genetic model to assist in interpreting other salts.

Hovorka, Susan D.; Nava, Robin

2000-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1988-2011 salt caverns" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Estimated human health risks of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. In this assessment, several steps were used to evaluate potential human health risks: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the contaminants` toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and, finally, calculating human cancer and noncancer risks.

Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

An Investigation of the Integrity of Cemented Casing Seals with Application to Salt Cavern Sealing and Abandonment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research project was pursued in three key areas. (1) Salt permeability testing under complex stress states; (2) Hydraulic and mechanical integrity investigations of the well casing shoe through benchscale testing; and (3) Geomechanical modeling of the fluid/salt hydraulic and mechanical interaction of a sealed cavern.

Pfeifle, T.W.; Mellegard, K.D.; Skaug, N.T.; Bruno, M.S.

2001-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

43

Potential for future development of salt cavern storage in the upper Silurian Syracuse Formation of south-central New York  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although depleted reservoirs remain the dominant structures used for storage fulfilling the demand for base load gas supply during the heating season, the current general surge in storage projects, nationwide, takes advantage of opportunities in Order 636, and makes greater use of salt caverns for gas storage. This reflects the increasing need by gas users, local distribution companies in particular, to quickly cycle a storage facility`s gas supply for services such as peak shaving, emergency supply, and system balancing to meet hourly swings. Occurrence of thick deposits of bedded salt deposits provides New York the capability to develop high deliverability salt cavern storage facilities. Furthermore, New York is uniquely positioned at the gateway to major northeastern markets to provide peak load storage services of natural gas supply. The thickest units of bedded salt in New York occur in the {open_quotes}F{close_quotes} horizon of the Upper Silurian Syracuse Formation. Three bedded salt cavern storage facilities have been recently proposed in New York. Two of these projects is much larger (with 5 Bcfg ultimate capacity), is under construction, and will provide valuable storage service to the Ellisburg-Leidy market center hub in Pennsylvania. Identification of possible sites for future salt cavern storage projects has been achieved chiefly by defining areas of thick beds of salt at sufficient depths close to gas transmission lines, with access to a freshwater supply for leaching, and possessing an acceptable method of brine disposal.

Bass, J.P.; Sarwar, G.; Guo, B. [Brooklyn College of the City Univ. of New York, Troy, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

An integrated quantitative hazard analysis method for natural gas jet release from underground gas storage caverns in salt rock. II: A sample computation and parametric study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is of great importance and necessity to perform quantitative hazard analysis on possible accidental leakage from gas storage cavern in salt rock. To improve the working safety in the cavern, an integrated quantitative method for hazard analysis on natural gas jet release from caverns in salt rock was presented. In this paper, a sample of gas storage cavern in salt rock was analyzed to demonstrate the presented method. Furthermore, the factors that influence the hazard range of leakage accidents from gas storage cavern in salt rock were discussed. The results indicated that the release rate diminishes with increased pipe length due to friction in steady-state. Meanwhile, the hazard distance from production casing also diminishes with increased pipe length. As the pipeline gets as long as several kilometers, the predicted hazard distance will be constant. However, the hazard distance increases with increasing the operating pressure and pipeline diameter.

Shigang Yang; Qin Fang; Hao Wu; Yadong Zhang; Hengbo Xiang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

A LARGE SCALE CONTINUUM-DISCRETE NUMERICAL MODELLING: APPLICATION TO OVERBURDEN DAMAGE OF A SALT CAVERN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CAVERN SOULEY Mountaka1 , MERCERAT Diego2 , DRIAD-LEBEAU Lynda1 , BERNARD Pascal2 1 INERIS, Ecole des collapse). KEYWORDS: cavern, numerical modelling, continuum-discrete, overburden, damage. RÃ?SUMÃ?: Dans l

Boyer, Edmond

46

An integrated quantitative hazard analysis method for natural gas jet release from underground gas storage caverns in salt rock. I: Models and validation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is very important and necessary to perform quantitative hazard analysis for possible accidental leakage from an underground gas storage cavern in salt rock. An integrated quantitative hazard analysis method for natural gas jet release from salt caverns is presented in this paper, which was constituted by a revised model for gas leakage rate calculation, a consequence analysis and a model of probability assessment for harm. The presented method was validated by comparing the analytical results with the data collected from the real accidents (including the leakage, jet fire, fireball and vapor cloud explosion). It is indicated that the proposed method was more accurate than the TNT equivalence method for vapor cloud explosion and gave more reasonable results when applied to the consequence analysis for the thermal radiation from jet fire and fireball.

Shigang Yang; Qin Fang; Yadong Zhang; Hao Wu; Linjian Ma

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

SWEDISH-AMERICAN COOPERATIVE PROGRAM ON RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE IN MINED CAVERNS. PROGRAM SUMMARY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WASTE STORAGE IN MINED CAVERNS by P. A. Witherspoon LawrenceWASTE STORAGE IN MINED CAVERNS INTRODUCTION Final and safeon the possibility of using mined caverns in salt as waste

Witherspoon, P.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Excavated Hard Rock Caverns. Pacific Northwest Laboratory,Lux, K.H. Design of salt caverns for the storage of naturalgas storage in unlined rock caverns. Int J Rock Mech Min Sc

Rutqvist, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Effects of cavern spacing on the performance and stability of gas-filled storage caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three-dimensional finite element analyses of gas-filled storage caverns in domal salt were performed to investigate the effects of cavern spacing on surface subsidence, storage loss, and cavern stability. The finite element model used for this study models a seven cavern storage field with one center cavern and six hexagonally spaced surrounding caverns. Cavern spacing is described in terms of the P/D ratio which is the pillar thickness (the width between two caverns) divided by the cavern diameter. With the stratigraphy and cavern size held constant, simulations were performed for P/D ratios of 6.0, 3.0, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5. Ten year simulations were performed modeling a constant 400 psi gas pressure applied to the cavern lining. The calculations were performed using JAC3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasistatic solids. For the range of P/D ratios studied, cavern deformation and storage volume were relatively insensitive to P/D ratio, while subsidence volume increased with increasing P/D ratio. A stability criterion which describes stability in terms of a limiting creep strain was used to investigate cavern stability. The stability criterion indicated that through-pillar instability was possible for the cases of P/D = 0.5 and 1.0.

Hoffman, E.L.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Bayou Choctaw Caverns 15 and 17 web analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The relatively thin web of salt that separates Bayou Choctaw Caverns 15 and 17 was evaluated using the finite-element method. The stability calculations provided insight as to whether or not any operationrestrictions or recommendations are necessary. Because of the uncertainty in the exact dimensions of the salt web, various web thicknesses were examined under different operating scenarios that included individual cavern workovers and drawdowns. Cavern workovers were defined by a sudden drop in the oil side pressure at the wellhead to atmospheric. Workovers represent periods of low cavern pressure. Cavern drawdowns were simulated by enlargening the cavern diameters, thus decreasing the thickness of the web. The calculations predict that Cavern 15 dominates the behavior of the web because of its larger diameter. Thus, giventhe choice of caverns, Cavern 17 should be used for oil withdrawal in order to minimize the adverse impacts on web resulting from pressure drops or cavern enlargement. From a stability point of view, maintaining normal pressures in Cavern 15 was found to be more important than operating the caverns as a gallery where both caverns are maintained at the same pressure. However, during a workover, it may be prudent to operate the caverns under similar pressures to avoid the possibility of a sudden pressure surge at the wellhead should the web fail.

Ehgartner, B.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Management of a complex cavern storage facility for natural gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Epe cavern storage facility operated by Ruhrgas AG has developed into one of the largest gas cavern storage facilities in the world. Currently, there are 32 caverns and 18 more are planned in the future. Working gas volume will increase from approximately 1.5 {times} 10{sup 9} to 2 {times} 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}. The stratified salt deposit containing the caverns has a surface area of approximately 7 km{sup 2} and is 250 m thick at the edge and 400 m thick in the center. Caverns are leached by a company that uses the recovered brine in the chlorine industry. Cavern dimensions are determined before leaching. The behavior of each cavern, as well as the thermodynamic properties of natural gas must be considered in cavern management. The full-length paper presents the components of a complex management system covering the design, construction, and operation of the Epe gas-storage caverns.

NONE

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Experience in testing of a solution mined storage cavern  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recertification tests were made of the U.S. Department of Energy/Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil storage cavern No. 6 in the West Hackberry, LA, salt dome. The cavern has a volume of 8,600,000 bbl. Tests included hydrostatic tests of the brine filled cavern and nitrogen leak tests of the 3 wells entering the cavern. Test procedures are described and test results are discussed.

Goin, K.L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

3-D Finite Element Analyses of the Egan Cavern Field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed for the two gas-filled storage caverns at the Egan field, Jennings dome, Louisiana. The effects of cavern enlargement on surface subsidence, storage loss, and cavern stability were investigated. The finite element model simulated the leaching of caverns to 6 and 8 billion cubic feet (BCF) and examined their performance at various operating conditions. Operating pressures varied from 0.15 psi/ft to 0.9 psi/ft at the bottom of the lowest cemented casing. The analysis also examined the stability of the web or pillar of salt between the caverns under differential pressure loadings. The 50-year simulations were performed using JAC3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasistatic solids. A damage criterion based on onset of dilatancy was used to evaluate cavern instability. Dilation results from the development of microfractures in salt and, hence, potential increases in permeability onset occurs well before large scale failure. The analyses predicted stable caverns throughout the 50-year period for the range of pressures investigated. Some localized salt damage was predicted near the bottom walls of the caverns if the caverns are operated at minimum pressure for long periods of time. Volumetric cavern closures over time due to creep were moderate to excessive depending on the salt creep properties and operating pressures. However, subsidence above the cavern field was small and should pose no problem, to surface facilities.

Klamerus, E.W.; Ehgartner, B.L.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

K. H. Lux, Design of salt caverns for the storage of naturalof CAES in a lined rock cavern. Table 2. :Leakage rate forLeakage rate for different cavern depth. Table 4. Calculated

Kim, H.-M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

CaveMan Version 3.0: A Software System for SPR Cavern Pressure Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve currently has approximately 500 million barrels of crude oil stored in 62 caverns solution-mined in salt domes along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas. One of the challenges of operating these caverns is ensuring that none of the fluids in the caverns are leaking into the environment. The current approach is to test the mechanical integrity of all the wells entering each cavern approximately once every five years. An alternative approach to detecting cavern leaks is to monitor the cavern pressure, since leaking fluid would act to reduce cavern pressure. Leak detection by pressure monitoring is complicated by other factors that influence cavern pressure, the most important of which are thermal expansion and contraction of the fluids in the cavern as they come into thermal equilibrium with the host salt, and cavern volume reduction due to salt creep. Cavern pressure is also influenced by cavern enlargement resulting from salt dissolution following introduction of raw water or unsaturated brine into the cavern. However, this effect only lasts for a month or two following a fluid injection. In order to implement a cavern pressure monitoring program, a software program called CaveMan has been developed. It includes thermal, creep and salt dissolution models and is able to predict the cavern pressurization rate based on the operational history of the cavern. Many of the numerous thermal and mechanical parameters in the model have been optimized to produce the best match between the historical data and the model predictions. Future measurements of cavern pressure are compared to the model predictions, and significant differences in cavern pressure set program flags that notify cavern operators of a potential problem. Measured cavern pressures that are significantly less than those predicted by the model may indicate the existence of a leak.

BALLARD,SANFORD; EHGARTNER,BRIAN L.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Analysis of cavern stability at the Bryan Mound SPR site.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound site. The cavern field comprises 20 caverns. Five caverns (1, 2, 4, and 5; 3 was later plugged and abandoned) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 16 caverns (101-116) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a 3-D geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios due to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant result in this report is relevant to caverns 1, 2, and 5. The caverns have non-cylindrical shapes and have potential regions where the surrounding salt may be damaged during workover procedures. During a workover the normal cavern operating pressure is lowered to service a well. At this point the wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension and large deviatoric stresses at several locations. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state due to salt creep. However, the potential for salt damage and fracturing exists. The analyses predict tensile stresses at locations with sharp-edges in the wall geometry, or in the case of cavern 5, in the neck region between the upper and lower lobes of the cavern. The effects do not appear to be large-scale, however, so the only major impact is the potential for stress-induced salt falls in cavern 5, potentially leading to hanging string damage. Caverns 1 and 2 have no significant issues regarding leachings due to drawdowns; cavern 5 may require a targeted leaching of the neck region to improve cavern stability and lessen hanging string failure potential. The remaining caverns have no significant issues regarding cavern stability and may be safely enlarged during subsequent oil drawdowns. Well strains are significant and consequently future remedial actions may be necessary. Well strains certainly suggest the need for appropriate monitoring through a well-logging program. Subsidence is currently being monitored; there are no issues identified regarding damage from surface subsidence or horizontal strain to surface facilities.

Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Analysis of cavern shapes for the strategic petroleum reserve.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents computational analyses to determine the structural integrity of different salt cavern shapes. Three characteristic shapes for increasing cavern volumes are evaluated and compared to the baseline shape of a cylindrical cavern. Caverns with enlarged tops, bottoms, and mid-sections are modeled. The results address pillar to diameter ratios of some existing caverns in the system and will represent the final shape of other caverns if they are repeatedly drawn down. This deliverable is performed in support of the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Several three-dimensional models using a close-packed arrangement of 19 caverns have been built and analyzed using a simplified symmetry involving a 30-degree wedge portion of the model. This approach has been used previously for West Hackberry (Ehgartner and Sobolik, 2002) and Big Hill (Park et al., 2005) analyses. A stratigraphy based on the Big Hill site has been incorporated into the model. The caverns are modeled without wells and casing to simplify the calculations. These calculations have been made using the power law creep model. The four cavern shapes were evaluated at several different cavern radii against four design factors. These factors included the dilatant damage safety factor in salt, the cavern volume closure, axial well strain in the caprock, and surface subsidence. The relative performance of each of the cavern shapes varies for the different design factors, although it is apparent that the enlarged bottom design provides the worst overall performance. The results of the calculations are put in the context of the history of cavern analyses assuming cylindrical caverns, and how these results affect previous understanding of cavern behavior in a salt dome.

Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Multi-parameter monitoring of a solution mining cavern collapse: first insight of precursors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multi-parameter monitoring of a solution mining cavern collapse: first insight of precursors leveling; early warning system; environmental safety; salt cavern; near-surface geophysics. Mots clés

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

59

Strategic petroleum reserve caverns casing damage update 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hanging casing strings are used for oil and brine transfer in the domal salt storage caverns of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Damage to these casings is of concern because hanging string replacement is costly and because of implications on cavern stability. Although the causes of casing damage are not always well defined, many events leading to damage are assumed to be the result of salt falls impacting the hanging strings. However, in some cases, operational aspects may be suspected. The history of damage to hanging strings is updated in this study to include the most recent events. Potential general domal and local operational and material factors that could influence the tendency for caverns to have salt falls are examined in detail. As a result of this examination, general factors, such as salt dome anomalies and crude type, and most of the operational factors, such as geometry, location and depressurizations, are not believed to be primary causes of casing damage. Further analysis is presented of the accumulation of insolubles during cavern solutioning and accumulation of salt fall material on the cavern floor. Inaccuracies in sump geometry probably make relative cavern insolubles contents uncertain. However, determination of the salt fall accumulations, which are more accurate, suggest that the caverns with the largest salt fall accumulations show the greatest number of hanging string events. There is good correlation between the accumulation rate and the number of events when the event numbers are corrected to an equivalent number for a single hanging string in a quiescent, operating cavern. The principal factor that determines the propensity for a cavern to exhibit this behavior is thought to be the effect of impurity content on the fracture behavior of salt.

Munson, D.E.; Molecke, M.A.; Neal, J.T. [and others

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Evaluating the effects of the number of caverns on the performance of underground oil storage facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three dimensional finite element calculations were performed to investigate the effect field size, in terms of the number of caverns, on the performance of SPR oil storage caverns leached in domal salt (interms of surface subsidence, storage losses, and cavern integrity). The calculations were performed for cavern fields containing 1, 7, 19, and an infinite number of caverns. The magnitude and volume of subsidence was significantly affected by increasing the number of caverns (nearly an order of magnitude increase was predicted for each increase in field size), while the extent of subsidence (approximately 2000 m fromthe center of the field) and storage loss were not. Furthermore, the percentage of storage loss volume manifested as surface subsidence increased as the cavern field was enlarged. This was attributed to elasticvolumetric dilatation of overlying strata. The multiple cavern calculations demonstrate that storage losses are greater for caverns farther from the center of the caverns field. Based on an accumulated strain stability criteria, the larger cavern fields are predicted to have a shorter life. This criteria also indicates that caverns on the periphery of a field may show signs of instability before the inner caverns. The West Hackberry site (containing 22 caverns) subsidence data closely agrees with the 19 cavern model subsidence predictions, providing confidence in the calculations. Even a 19 cavern field, substantially large by SPR standards, does not approach the behavior predicted by infinite cavern models (which are frequently used because they are economical). This demonstrates that 3D modeling is required to accurately investigate the performance of a multi-cavern array. Although based on a typical SPR cavern design, the results of this study describe mechanics common to all multi-cavern fields and should, in general, be useful tocavern engineers and architects.

Hoffman, E.L.; Ehgartner, B.L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1988-2011 salt caverns" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Experience in testing of a solution mined storage cavern. [Strategic Petroleum Reserve  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recertification tests were made of the Department of Energy/Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil storage cavern number 6 in the West Hackberry, Louisiana Salt Dome. The cavern has a volume of 8,600,000 barrels. Tests included hydrostatic tests of the brine filled cavern and nitrogen leak tests of the three wells entering the cavern. Test procedures are described and test results are discussed.

Goin, K.L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Horizontal natural gas storage caverns and methods for producing same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides caverns and methods for producing caverns in bedded salt deposits for the storage of materials that are not solvents for salt. The contemplated salt deposits are of the bedded, non-domed variety, more particularly salt found in layered formations that are sufficiently thick to enable the production of commercially usefully sized caverns completely encompassed by walls of salt of the formation. In a preferred method, a first bore hole is drilled into the salt formation and a cavity for receiving insolubles is leached from the salt formation. Thereafter, at a predetermined distance away from the first bore hole, a second bore hole is drilled towards the salt formation. As this drill approaches the salt, the drill assumes a slant approach and enters the salt and drills through it in a horizontal direction until it intersects the cavity for receiving insolubles. This produces a substantially horizontal conduit from which solvent is controlledly supplied to the surrounding salt formation, leaching the salt and producing a concentrated brine which is removed through the first bore hole. Insolubles are collected in the cavity for receiving insolubles. By controlledly supplying solvent, a horizontal cavern is produced with two bore holes extending therefrom.

Russo, Anthony (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Long-term sealing analyses for US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is inevitable that sealing and abandonment will someday occur in a SPR cavern or caverns. To gain insight into the long-term behavior of a typical SPR cavern following sealing and abandonment, a suite of mechanical finite-element calculations was performed. The initial analyses predict how quickly and to what extent a cavern pressurizes after it is plugged. The analyses also examine the stability of the cavern as it changes shape due to the excessive pressures generated as the salt creeps and the brine in the cavern thermally expands. These large-scale analyses do not include the details of the plug but assume a good seal is established in the cavern wells. In another series of analyses, the potential for forming a leak at the plug is evaluated. A cement plug, emplaced in the casing seat of a cavern well, is loaded using the predicted brine pressures from the cavern analyses. The plugged casing analyses examine the potential for forming a leak path in and along the interfaces of salt, casing, and cement plug. In the last set of analysis, the dimensional scale of the problem is further reduced to examine a preexisting crack along a casing/salt interface. The cracked interface is assumed to be fluid filled and fully pressurized by the cavern fluids. The analyses address the potential for the fluid path to extend upwards along a plugged casing should an open microannulus surround the casing after it is plugged.

Ehgartner, B.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

The depth of the oil/brine interface and crude oil leaks in SPR caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Monitoring wellhead pressure evolution is the best method of detecting crude oil leaks in SPR caverns while oil/brine interface depth measurements provide additional insight. However, to fully utilize the information provided by these interface depth measurements, a thorough understanding of how the interface movement corresponds to cavern phenomena, such as salt creep, crude oil leakage, and temperature equilibration, as well as to wellhead pressure, is required. The time evolution of the oil/brine interface depth is a function of several opposing factors. Cavern closure due to salt creep and crude oil leakage, if present, move the interface upward. Brine removal and temperature equilibration of the oil/brine system move the interface downward. Therefore, the relative magnitudes of these factors determine the net direction of interface movement. Using a mass balance on the cavern fluids, coupled with a simplified salt creep model for closure in SPR caverns, the movement of the oil/brine interface has been predicted for varying cavern configurations, including both right-cylindrical and carrot-shaped caverns. Three different cavern depths and operating pressures have been investigated. In addition, the caverns were investigated at four different points in time, allowing for varying extents of temperature equilibration. Time dependent interface depth changes of a few inches to a few feet were found to be characteristic of the range of cases studied. 5 refs, 19 figs., 1 tab.

Heffelfinger, G.S.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Test of Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Cavern 102 at Bayou Choctaw  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two brine pressure tests were conducted on the Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Cavern 102, at Bayou Choctaw from November 28, 1984, to December 18, 1984. A nitrogen leak test was then conducted from December 18, 1984, to January 9, 1985, on the Cavern 102 entry well. These tests were conducted to provide data for the State of Louisiana Cavern Certification Program. This program is covered by Statewide Order No. 29-M which provides rules and regulations pertaining to the use of salt dome cavities for storage of liquid and/or gaseous hydrocarbons. The test results indicate that the oil leak rate from Cavern 102 is approximately zero bbl/yr. Cavern 102 will be traded to Allied Chemicals' Union Texas Petroleum Division for their Cavern 17 at Bayou Choctaw per Exchange Agreement dated March 1982. 12 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Buchanan, D.K.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Salt  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Salt Salt Nature Bulletin No. 340-A April 12, 1969 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation SALT It is fortunate that Salt -- common salt, known to chemists as sodium chloride and to mineralogists as Halite -- is one of the most abundant substances on earth, because most of us crave it and must have it. Eskimos get along without salt because they live mostly on the uncooked flesh of fish and mammals. A few nomad tribes never eat it and do not need it because their diet contains so much milk cheese, and meat eaten raw or roasted. We people who eat boiled meat and many vegetables must have salt. Of the millions of tons produced commercially each year, only about three percent is used as table salt. Large quantities are required for refrigeration meat packing, curing and preserving fish, pickles, sauerkraut, and for other foods prepared in brine. A lot of it is needed for livestock. Salt is spread on sidewalks, streets and highways to melt ice in winter. It is used to glaze pottery, sewer pipe and other ceramics. It is required in many metallurgical processes, chemical industries, and the manufacture of such products as leather, glass, soap, bleaching powder and photographic supplies. It has about 14,000 uses.

67

A Simplified Solution For Gas Flow During a Blow-out in an H2 or Air Storage Cavern  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and hydrogen storage in salt caverns. Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is experiencing a rise in interest-form solutions of the blow-out problem. These solutions are applied to the cases of compressed air storageA Simplified Solution For Gas Flow During a Blow-out in an H2 or Air Storage Cavern Pierre Bérest

Boyer, Edmond

68

Natural Gas Salt Caverns Storage Capacity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

253,410 341,213 397,560 456,009 512,279 715,821 1999-2012 253,410 341,213 397,560 456,009 512,279 715,821 1999-2012 Alabama 8,300 15,900 15,900 21,900 21,900 21,900 1999-2012 Arkansas 0 1999-2012 California 0 1999-2012 Colorado 0 1999-2012 Illinois 0 1999-2012 Indiana 0 1999-2012 Kansas 931 931 931 931 931 931 1999-2012 Kentucky 0 1999-2012 Louisiana 61,660 88,806 123,341 142,253 161,668 297,020 1999-2012 Maryland 0 1999-2012 Michigan 3,851 3,827 3,821 3,834 3,834 3,834 1999-2012 Mississippi 45,383 62,424 62,301 82,411 90,452 139,627 1999-2012 Montana 0 1999-2012 Nebraska 0 1999-2012 New Mexico 0 1999-2012 New York 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 0 1999-2012 Ohio 0 1999-2012 Oklahoma 0 1999-2012 Oregon 0 1999-2012 Pennsylvania 0 1999-2012 Tennessee 0 1999-2012 Texas 124,686 160,786 182,725 196,140 224,955 246,310 1999-2012

69

Natural Gas Salt Caverns Storage Capacity  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

253,410 341,213 397,560 456,009 512,279 715,821 1999-2012 253,410 341,213 397,560 456,009 512,279 715,821 1999-2012 Alabama 8,300 15,900 15,900 21,900 21,900 21,900 1999-2012 Arkansas 0 1999-2012 California 0 1999-2012 Colorado 0 1999-2012 Illinois 0 1999-2012 Indiana 0 1999-2012 Kansas 931 931 931 931 931 931 1999-2012 Kentucky 0 1999-2012 Louisiana 61,660 88,806 123,341 142,253 161,668 297,020 1999-2012 Maryland 0 1999-2012 Michigan 3,851 3,827 3,821 3,834 3,834 3,834 1999-2012 Mississippi 45,383 62,424 62,301 82,411 90,452 139,627 1999-2012 Montana 0 1999-2012 Nebraska 0 1999-2012 New Mexico 0 1999-2012 New York 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 2,340 0 1999-2012 Ohio 0 1999-2012 Oklahoma 0 1999-2012 Oregon 0 1999-2012 Pennsylvania 0 1999-2012 Tennessee 0 1999-2012 Texas 124,686 160,786 182,725 196,140 224,955 246,310 1999-2012

70

Working Gas Capacity of Salt Caverns  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

230,456 271,785 312,003 351,017 488,268 2008-2012 230,456 271,785 312,003 351,017 488,268 2008-2012 Alabama 11,900 11,900 16,150 16,150 16,150 2008-2012 Arkansas 0 2012-2012 California 0 2012-2012 Colorado 0 2012-2012 Illinois 0 2012-2012 Indiana 0 2012-2012 Kansas 375 375 375 375 375 2008-2012 Kentucky 0 2012-2012 Louisiana 57,630 84,487 100,320 111,849 200,702 2008-2012 Maryland 0 2012-2012 Michigan 2,154 2,150 2,159 2,159 2,159 2008-2012 Mississippi 43,292 43,758 56,928 62,932 100,443 2008-2012 Montana 0 2012-2012 Nebraska 0 2012-2012 New Mexico 0 2012-2012 New York 1,450 1,450 1,450 1,450 0 2008-2012 Ohio 0 2012-2012 Oklahoma 0 2012-2012 Oregon 0 2012-2012 Pennsylvania 0 2012-2012 Tennessee 0 2012-2012 Texas 109,655 123,664 130,621 152,102 164,439 2008-2012 Utah 0 2012-2012 Virginia

71

Downhole probes evaluate cavern integrity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Obtaining natural-gas storage caverns` pressures and temperatures with downhole probes has allowed TransGas Ltd., Regina, to monitor and evaluate cavern integrity. TransGas has more than 5 years` experience with the devices. The acquired data have also helped determine gas-in-place inventory and confirm and assess changes in spatial volumes. These changes may have resulted from cavern creep (shrinkage or closure) or downhole abnormality such as fluid infill or collapse of the side walls or roof. This first of two articles presents background and many of the details and lessons to date of TransGas` cavern gas-storage probe program; the conclusion describes a specific storage site with some results.

Crossley, N.G. [TransGas Ltd., Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada)

1997-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

72

Tensile Effective Stresses in Hydrocarbon Storage Caverns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tensile Effective Stresses in Hydrocarbon Storage Caverns Hippolyte Djizanne and Pierre Bérest LMS, Germany,1-2 October 2012 TENSILE EFFECTIVE STRESSES IN HYDROCARBON STORAGE CAVERNS Hippolyte Djizanne1 that effective tensile stresses can be generated at a cavern wall after a rapid increase or decrease in pressure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

73

Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern sulphur mines 2-4-5 certification tests and analysis. Part I: 1981 testing. Part II: 1982 testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Well leak tests and a cavern pressure were conducted in June through December 1981, and are described in Part I. The tests did not indicate conclusively that there was no leakage from the cavern, but the data indicate that cavern structural failure during oil storage is unlikely. The test results indicated that retesting and well workover were desirable prior to making a decision on the cavern use. Well leak tests were conducted in March through May 1982, and are described in Part II. The tests indicated that there was no significant leakage from wells 2 and 4 but that the leakage from wells 2A and 5 exceeded the DOE criterion. Because of the proximity of cavern 2-4-5 to the edge of the salt, this cavern should be considered for only one fill/withdrawal cycle prior to extensive reevaluation. 57 figures, 17 tables.

Beasley, R.R.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Feasibility study for lowering the minimum gas pressure in solution-mined caverns based on geomechanical analyses of creep-induced damage and healing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geomechanical analyses were made to determine the minimum gas pressure allowable based on an existing stress-based criterion (Damage Potential) and an advanced constitutive model (MDCF model) capable of quantifying the level of damage and healing in rock salt. The MDCF model is a constitutive model developed for the WIPP to provide a continuum description of the dislocation and damage deformation of salt. The purpose of this study was to determine if the MDCF model is applicable for evaluating the minimum gas pressure of CNG storage caverns. Specifically, it was to be determined if this model would predict that the minimum gas pressure in the caverns could be lowered without compromising the stability of the cavern. Additionally, the healing behavior of the salt was analyzed to determine if complete healing of the damaged rock zone would occur during the period the cavern was at maximum gas pressure. Significant findings of this study are reported.

Ratigan, J.L.; Nieland, J.D.; Devries, K.L.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

75

CAVERN: A Distributed Architecture for Supporting Scalable Persistence and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CAVERN: A Distributed Architecture for Supporting Scalable Persistence and InteroperabilityFanti Electronic Visualization Laboratory University of Illinois at Chicago Abstract: CAVERN, the CAVE Research is the common collaborative software architecture for CAVERN. CAVERNsoft uses light-weight distributed data

Johnson, Andrew

76

Natural gas cavern storage regulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Investigation of an incident at an LPG storage facility in Texas by U.S. Department of Transportation resulted in recommendation that state regulation of natural gas cavern storage might be improved. Interstate Oil & Gas Compact Commission has established a subcommittee to analyze the benefits and risks associated with natural gas cavern storage, and to draft a regulation model which will suggest engineering and performance specifications. The resulting analysis and regulatory language will be reviewed by I.O.G.C.C., and if approved, distributed to member states (including New York) for consideration. Should the states desire assistance in modifying the language to reflect local variables, such as policy and geology, I.O.G.C.C. may offer assistance. The proposed presentation will review the I.O.G.C.C. product (if published at that date), and discuss implications of its application in New York.

Heneman, H.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Effects of cavern depth on surface subsidence and storage loss of oil-filled caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Finite element analyses of oil-filled caverns were performed to investigate the effects of cavern depth on surface subsidence and storage loss, a primary performance criteria of SPR caverns. The finite element model used for this study was axisymmetric, approximating an infinite array of caverns spaced at 750 ft. The stratigraphy and cavern size were held constant while the cavern depth was varied between 1500 ft and 3000 ft in 500 ft increments. Thirty year simulations, the design life of the typical SPR cavern, were performed with boundary conditions modeling the oil pressure head applied to the cavern lining. A depth dependent temperature gradient of 0.012{degrees}F/ft was also applied to the model. The calculations were performed using ABAQUS, a general purpose of finite element analysis code. The user-defined subroutine option in ABAQUS was used to enter an elastic secondary creep model which includes temperature dependence. The calculations demonstrated that surface subsidence and storage loss rates increase with increasing depth. At lower depths the difference between the lithostatic stress and the oil pressure is greater. Thus, the effective stresses are greater, resulting in higher creep rates. Furthermore, at greater depths the cavern temperatures are higher which also produce higher creep rates. Together, these factors result in faster closure of the cavern. At the end of the 30 year simulations, a 1500 ft-deep cavern exhibited 4 percent storage loss and 4 ft of subsidence while a 3000 ft-deep cavern exhibited 33 percent storage loss and 44 ft of subsidence. The calculations also demonstrated that surface subsidence is directly related to the amount of storage loss. Deeper caverns exhibit more subsidence because the caverns exhibit more storage loss. However, for a given amount of storage loss, nearly the same magnitude of surface subsidence was exhibited, independent of cavern depth.

Hoffman, E.L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

SALT DAMAGE CRITERION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT RESEARCH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to conduct a field-scale application demonstrating the use of continuum damage mechanics to determine the minimum allowable operating pressure of compressed natural gas storage caverns in salt formations. A geomechanical study was performed of two natural gas storage caverns (one existing and one planned) utilizing state-of-the-art salt mechanics to assess the potential for cavern instability and collapse. The geomechanical study consisted primarily of laboratory testing, theoretical development, and analytical/numerical tasks. A total of 50 laboratory tests was performed on salt specimens to aid in the development and definition of the material model used to predict the behavior of rock salt. Material model refinement was performed that improved the predictive capability of modeling salt during damage healing, recovery of work-hardened salt, and the behavior of salt at stress states other than triaxial compression. Results of this study showed that the working gas capacity of the existing cavern could be increased by 18 percent and the planned cavern could be increased by 8 percent using the proposed method compared to a conventional stress-based method. Further refinement of the continuum damage model is recommended to account for known behavior of salt at stress conditions other than triaxial compression that is not characterized accurately by the existing model.

Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Pilot Stabilisatie Cavernes Twente Advies over reikwijdte en detailniveau  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pilot Stabilisatie Cavernes Twente Advies over reikwijdte en detailniveau van het ondergrondse holtes (cavernes) ontstaan. Van deze cavernes voldoen er 63 niet aan de huidige regels ter voorkoming van daling aan het aardoppervlak.1 In de huidige praktijk worden potentieel instabiele2 cavernes

Hack, Robert

80

SALT DAMAGE CRITERION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT RESEARCH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the annual technical progress report for Department of Energy Contract No. DE-FC26-00NT41026 entitled Proof-of-Concept Research for an Advanced Design Criterion to Improve Working Gas Capacity for Natural Gas Storage Caverns in Salt Formations. This report covers the reporting period from October 1, 2000, through September 30, 2001. During this reporting period, the project was initiated and work was performed to develop structural models that will be used to evaluate two compressed natural gas storage caverns in the McIntosh Dome northwest of Mobile, Alabama. Information necessary to define the structural models include site-specific stress, temperature, geometry, stratigraphy, and operating scenarios in the dome and for the caverns. Additionally, material model development for the salt at the McIntosh Dome was initiated. Material model development activities include acquisition of salt core for testing, laboratory testing, and regression analyses to determine site-specific model parameter values that describe the behavior of salt around a storage cavern. Although not performed during this reporting period, the information and models developed will be used to perform advanced design storage cavern analyses for the Bay Gas caverns to determine the operating pressure ranges to maintain stable conditions.

Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1988-2011 salt caverns" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Cavern Protection (Texas) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cavern Protection (Texas) Cavern Protection (Texas) Cavern Protection (Texas) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Investor-Owned Utility Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Savings Category Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Texas Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Texas General Land Office It is public policy of the state to provide for the protection of caves on or under Texas lands. For the purposes of this legislation, "cave" means any naturally occurring subterranean cavity, and includes or is synonymous with cavern, pit, pothole, well, sinkhole, and grotto. No person may excavate, remove, destroy, injure, alter in any significant manner, or deface any part of a cave owned by the State of Texas, unless the person

82

Site tests validate benefits of cavern probes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 5 years` experience with downhole probes has allowed TransGas Ltd., Regina, to monitor and evaluate cavern integrity. The devices access natural-gas storage caverns` pressures and temperatures. Acquired data have helped determine gas-in-place inventory volumes, confirm spatial volumes, and assess changes in spatial volumes that may have resulted from cavern creep (shrinkage or closure) or downhole abnormality such as fluid infill or collapse of the side walls or roof areas. This conclusion of two articles presents details and results of a specific storage-site. The first article presented background and many of the details and lessons of TransGas` cavern gas-storage probe program.

Crossley, N.G. [TransGas Ltd., Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada)

1997-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

83

Gaines Cavern Wind Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cavern Wind Project Cavern Wind Project Jump to: navigation, search Name Gaines Cavern Wind Project Facility Gaines Cavern Wind Project Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner General Compression Developer Texas Dispatchable Wind 1 LLC Location Gaines County TX Coordinates 32.688556°, -103.062464° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.688556,"lon":-103.062464,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

84

Napoleonville cavern usability in the SPR: a preliminary geotechnical assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One conclusion drawn from this preliminary analysis is that the web between the Georgia-Pacific cavern and Clifton cavern number 1 at Napoleonville should be stable if the pressure integrity of each cavern is maintained and the pillar width is not less than 100', but some spallation may occur if the pressure head cannot be maintained. The second conclusion drawn is that the creep closure of cavern number 6 at Napoleonville is not significantly different from that anticipated in cavern number 6 at West Hackberry. The primary recommendation which results from this evaluation is that prior to site acceptance a thorough program of field and laboratory investigations should be designed and conducted to assure cavern integrity and usability. In addition, the test procedures and results from the recertification tests on West Hackberry cavern number 6 should be carefully reviewed to aid in the evaluation of the Napoleonville caverns.

Tillerson, J.R.; Gubbels, M.H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Sonar surveys used in gas-storage cavern analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Natural-gas storage cavern internal configuration, inspection information, and cavern integrity data can be obtained during high-pressure operations with specialized gas-sonar survey logging techniques. TransGas Ltd., Regina, Sask., has successfully performed these operations on several of its deepest and highest pressurized caverns. The data can determine gas-in-place inventory and assess changes in spatial volumes. These changes can result from cavern creep, shrinkage, or closure or from various downhole abnormalities such as fluid infill or collapse of the sidewall or roof. The paper discusses conventional surveys with sonar, running surveys in pressurized caverns, accuracy of the sonar survey, initial development of Cavern 5, a roof fall, Cavern 4 development, and a damaged string.

Crossley, N.G. [TransGas Ltd., Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada)

1998-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

86

Air quality in the Carlsbad cavern  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The air quality in the Carlsbad Cavern has been investigated, but there are no reports on radon progeny and aerosols. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the activity size distribution of radon progeny and the air exchange rate inside the Cavern. Teams from ITRI and New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NMT) conducted the field study in July 1994. The ITRI graded diffusion battery (GDB) was used to determine the activity size distribution, progeny concentration, equilibrium factor, and unattached fraction of the radon progeny. The design, calibration, and performance of the GDB have been described. For this study, each stage of the GDB contained one stainless steel screen, with the mesh sizes arranged in a series of 30, 50, 145, 200, and 635 mesh from the air inlet to the outlet. A 47-nm type A/E glass fiber filter was used to collect all particles that penetrated the screens. The flow rate was 5 L/min. The average ventilation rate in the cavern is 0.0026 V/hr. Our results showed that the cavern atmosphere may be quite different from other underground environments. The atmosphere in the summer is stable and relatively free of airborne particles, partly due to the extremely slow air exchange rate.

Cheng, Yung-Seng; Chen, Tou-Rong [Tsing-Hua Univ. (Taiwan, Province of China); Wasiolek, P.T. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Tensile effective stresses in hydrocarbon storage caverns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The "no-tensile effective stress" criterion is discussed. It is proven that effective tensile stresses can be generated at a cavern wall after a rapid increase or decrease in pressure. The Etzel K-102 test, performed in Germany more than 20 years ago, is revisited using the notion of effective tensile stresses.

Djizanne, Hippolyte; Brouard, Benoît

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

FEBS J . Author manuscript Recent insights into cerebral cavernous malformations: a complex jigsaw  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FEBS J . Author manuscript Page /1 10 Recent insights into cerebral cavernous malformations: Eva Faurobert Abstract Cerebral cavernous malformations are common-Matrix Junctions ; physiology ; Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System ; genetics ; metabolism

Boyer, Edmond

89

E-Print Network 3.0 - atlas cavern side Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

cavern side Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atlas cavern side Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Radiation in the USA15 cavern in ATLAS...

90

RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE IN MINED CAVERNS IN CRYSTALLINE ROCK-RESULTS OF FIELD INVESTIGATIONS AT STRIPA, SWEDEN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Waste Storage in Mined Caverns—Program Summary. LawrenceWASTE STORAGE IN MINED CAVERNS IN CRYSTALLINE ROCK- BESULTS

Witherspoon, P.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Compilation of Gas Intrusion Measurements, Variations, and Consequence Modeling for SPR Caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The intrusion of gas into oils stored within the SPR has been examined. When oil is stored in domal salts, gases intrude into the stored oil from the surrounding salt. Aspects of the mechanism of gas intrusion have been examined. In all cases, this gas intrusion results in increases in the oil vapor pressure. Data that have been gathered from 1993 to August 2002 are presented to show the resultant increases in bubble-point pressure on a cavern-by-cavern as well as on a stream basis. The measurement techniques are presented with particular emphasis on the TVP 95. Data analysis methods are presented to show the methods required to obtain recombined cavern oil compositions. Gas-oil ratios are also computed from the data and are presented on a cavern-by-cavern and stream basis. The observed increases in bubble-point pressure and gas-oil ratio are further statistically analyzed to allow data interpretation. Emissions plume modeling is used to determine adherence to state air regulations. Gas intrusion is observed to be variable among the sites and within each dome. Gas intrusions at Bryan Mound and Big Hill have resulted in the largest increases in bubble-point pressure for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The streams at Bayou Choctaw and West Hackberry show minimal bubble-point pressure increases. Emissions plume modeling, using the state mandated ISCST code, of oil storage tanks showed that virtually no gas may be released when H2S standards are considered. DOE plans to scavenge H{sub 2}S to comply with the very tight standards on this gas. With the assumption of scavenging, benzene releases become the next most controlling factor. Model results show that a GOR of 0.6 SCF/BBL may be emissions that are within standards. Employing the benzene gas release standard will significantly improve oil deliverability. New plume modeling using the computational fluid dynamics code, FLUENT, is addressing limitations of the state mandated ISCST model.

HINKEBEIN, THOMAS E.

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Strategic petroleum reserve (SPR): oil-storage cavern, Sulphur Mines 6 certification tests and analysis. [Louisiana  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Well leak tests and a cavern pressure test were conducted in June and July 1981 and indicated that oil leakage from the cavern is unlikely to exceed the DOE criterion if oil is stored at near atmospheric wellhead brine pressures and higher pressures are only used for short periods of oil fill and withdrawal. The data indicate that cavern structural failure during oil storage is unlikely and that there was no leakage from cavern 6 to the adjacent cavern 7. Because of the proximity of cavern 6 to cavern 7, it is recommended that a similar type of oil be stored in these two caverns.

Beasley, R.R.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Gas-storage calculations yield accurate cavern, inventory data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses how determining gas-storage cavern size and inventory variance is now possible with calculations based on shut-in cavern surveys. The method is the least expensive of three major methods and is quite accurate when recorded over a period of time.

Mason, R.G. (Transcontinental Gas Pipeline Corp., Houston, TX (US))

1990-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

94

Feasibility report on alternative methods for cooling cavern oils at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oil caverns at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) are subjected to geothermal heating from the surrounding domal salt. This process raises the temperature of the crude oil from around 75 F upon delivery to SPR to as high as 130 F after decades of storage. While this temperature regime is adequate for long-term storage, it poses challenges for offsite delivery, with warm oil evolving gases that pose handling and safety problems. SPR installed high-capacity oil coolers in the mid-1990's to mitigate the emissions problem by lowering the oil delivery temperature. These heat exchanger units use incoming raw water as the cooling fluid, and operate only during a drawdown event where incoming water displaces the outgoing oil. The design criteria for the heat exchangers are to deliver oil at 100 F or less under all drawdown conditions. Increasing crude oil vapor pressures due in part to methane intrusion in the caverns is threatening to produce sufficient emissions at or near 100 F to cause the cooled oil to violate delivery requirements. This impending problem has initiated discussion and analysis of alternative cooling methods to bring the oil temperature even lower than the original design basis of 100 F. For the study described in this report, two alternative cooling methods were explored: (1) cooling during a limited drawdown, and (2) cooling during a degas operation. Both methods employ the heat exchangers currently in place, and do not require extra equipment. An analysis was run using two heat transfer models, HEATEX, and CaveMan, both developed at Sandia National Laboratories. For cooling during a limited drawdown, the cooling water flowrate through the coolers was varied from 1:1 water:oil to about 3:1, with an increased cooling capacity of about 3-7 F for the test cavern Bryan Mound 108 depending upon seasonal temperature effects. For cooling in conjunction with a degas operation in the winter, cavern oil temperatures for the test cavern Big Hill 102 were cooled sufficiently that the cavern required about 9 years to return to the temperature prior to degas. Upon reviewing these results, the authors recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy that a broader study of the cooling during degas be pursued in order to examine the potential benefits of cooling on all caverns in the current degasification schedule.

Levin, Bruce L.; Lord, David L.; Hadgu, Teklu

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Fire Simulation, Evacuation Analysis and Proposal of Fire Protection Systems Inside an Underground Cavern  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fire Simulation, Evacuation Analysis and Proposal of Fire Protection Systems Inside an Underground Cavern

Stella, Carlo

96

Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil-storage cavern: West Hackberry 6 recertification tests and analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The final cavern pressure test and well leak test made in June-July 1981 indicated combined oil leakage from the three cavern entry wells will be well within the DOE leak rate criterion of 100 bbls/y per cavern at the most severe design operating conditions of the cavern. The tests did not indicate conclusively that there was no leakage from the cavern other than from the wells. However, they did give a positive indication of no leakage to cavern 9, the nearest cavern about 200 feet away. It is believed that serious structural failure of the cavern is unlikely during long term oil storage at normal pressures, or during accidental depressurization to oil head pressures.

Goin, K.L.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Assessment of seawater intrusion into underground oil storage cavern and prediction of its sustainability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Operation of underground oil (gas) storage cavern in coastal area can induce seawater intrusion because excavation of underground storage cavern causes the groundwater level decrease of coastal aquifer. Seawater ...

Eunhee Lee; Jeong-Won Lim; Hee Sun Moon; Kang-Kun Lee

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Radiometric Modeling of Cavernous Targets to Assist in the Determination of Absolute Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiometric Modeling of Cavernous Targets to Assist in the Determination of Absolute Temperature108, Aiken, SC, USA ABSTRACT Determining the temperature of an internal surface within cavernous of these internal surfaces. The cavernous target has often been assumed to be a blackbody, but in field experiments

Salvaggio, Carl

99

The First Result of Global Commissioning of the ATALS Endcap Muon Trigger System in ATLAS Cavern  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The First Result of Global Commissioning of the ATALS Endcap Muon Trigger System in ATLAS Cavern T to the ATLAS cavern by the end of September 2007. To integrate all sub-detectors before the physics run. The first Result of Global Commissioning of the ATALS Endcap Muon Trigger System in ATLAS Cavern I

Fukunaga, Chikara

100

Recent insights into Cerebral Cavernous Malformations: a complex jigsaw puzzle under construction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent insights into Cerebral Cavernous Malformations: a complex jigsaw puzzle under construction.faurobert@ujf-grenoble.fr Running title: Emerging signaling pathways regulated by CCM proteins Abstract : Cerebral cavernous the etiology of the disease. Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are common vascular malformations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1988-2011 salt caverns" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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101

Test of Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve cavern Bryan Mound 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document reports the cavern integrity test of cavern Bryan Mound 1 conducted between May 23 and June 14, 1985. The test included pressurization with oil to near maximum test gradient, depressuring to maximum operating gradient, and doing nitrogen leak tests of the two cavern entry wells. Test results indicate nitrogen loss rates from the wells of 133 bbl/yr from 1A and 660 bbl/yr from 1. These nitrogen loss rates can reasonably be assumed to correspond to a total cavern oil loss rate of 79 bbl/yr, compared to the DOE goal of 100 bbl/yr of oil per cavern. 6 refs., 9 figs.

Goin, K.L.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Deformation of underground deep cavities in rock salts at their long-term operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The underground deep cavities are created in rock salts of various morphological types with the purpose of storage of petroleum, gas and nuclear wastes. It is well known that the rock salt has rheological properties, which can result in closure of caverns and loss of their stability. In the evaporitic rocks, especially those containing halite, time-dependent deformation is pronounced even at comparatively low stress levels. At high stress levels this creep becomes a dominant feature of the mechanical behavior of salt rocks. So the knowledge of creep behavior of rock salt is of paramount importance in underground storage application of gas, petroleum products and nuclear wastes.

Zhuravleva, T.; Shafarenko, E. [Podzemgasprom, STC, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Evaluation of hard-rock-cavern construction methods for compressed-air energy storage: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of construction cost and schedule estimates for caverns mined in hard rock for 100-MW and 220-MW compressed air energy storage (CAES) plants with 10 hours storage capacity and using either water-compensated cavern operation with constant turbine-inlet pressure operation on uncompensated cavern operation with sliding turbine-inlet pressure operation. The estimates are made for caverns mined by large-parallel-tunnel methods and by room-and-pillar methods. The results indicate that, for the cavern sizes involved, the room-and-pillar method is cost-competitive with the large-parallel-tunnel methods, but the method requires marginally more construction time. The largest cavern size in the estimates may, however, be approaching the size where the room-and-pillar method may no longer be competitive. The technical feasibility of water curtains for preventing or minimizing leakage of air from CAES hard-rock caverns is evaluated, and construction cost and schedule estimates are made for uncompensated caverns. It is concluded that the performance of water curtains is dependent upon the accuracy of the values of site specific variables and assumptions utilized in the design. A method is presented for assessing if a water curtain may be economical for a compensated CAES cavern. Such an assessment for a water curtain for an uncompensated CAES cavern is more complex and beyond the scope of this study. Also, a program for testing the operation of a water curtain in conjunction with an air-storage cavern operation is proposed. For the specific cavern sizes considered in this report, the estimated water-curtain construction costs and times for the uncompensated room-and-pillar caverns are found to be greater than for the uncompensated large-parallel-tunnel caverns. 11 refs., 18 figs., 19 tabs.

Thrasher, J.E.; Lange, R.B.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

1 INTRODUCTION Gas storage caverns were developed mainly for sea-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

recovery periods. This operation mode also is considered for Compressed Air Storage (CAES) facilities1 INTRODUCTION Gas storage caverns were developed mainly for sea- sonal storage, with one or a few are discussed. In Section 4, the energy bal- ance equation is established and some simplifica- tions allow

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

105

Numerical Simulations of Leakage from Underground LPG Storage Caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To secure a stable supply of petroleum gas, underground storage caverns for liquified petroleum gas (LPG) are commonly used in many countries worldwide. Storing LPG in underground caverns requires that the surrounding rock mass remain saturated with groundwater and that the water pressure be higher than the liquid pressure inside the cavern. In previous studies, gas containment criteria for underground gas storage based on hydraulic gradient and pressure have been discussed, but these studies do not consider the physicochemical characteristics and behavior of LPG such as vaporization and dissolution in groundwater. Therefore, while these studies are very useful for designing storage caverns, they do not provide better understanding of the either the environmental effects of gas contamination or the behavior of vaporized LPG. In this study, we have performed three-phase fluid flow simulations of gas leakage from underground LPG storage caverns, using the multiphase multicomponent nonisothermal simulator TMVOC (Pruess and Battistelli, 2002), which is capable of solving the three-phase nonisothermal flow of water, gas, and a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. A two-dimensional cross-sectional model resembling an actual underground LPG facility in Japan was developed, and gas leakage phenomena were simulated for three different permeability models: (1) a homogeneous model, (2) a single-fault model, and (3) a heterogeneous model. In addition, the behavior of stored LPG was studied for the special case of a water curtain suddenly losing its function because of operational problems, or because of long-term effects such as clogging of boreholes. The results of the study indicate the following: (1) The water curtain system is a very powerful means for preventing gas leakage from underground storage facilities. By operating with appropriate pressure and layout, gas containment can be ensured. (2) However , in highly heterogeneous media such as fractured rock and fault zones, local flow paths within which the gas containment criterion is not satisfied could be formed. To eliminate such zones, treatments such as pre/post grouting or an additional installment of water-curtain boreholes are essential. (3) Along highly conductive features such as faults, even partially saturated zones possess certain effects that can retard or prevent gas leakage, while a fully unsaturated fault connected to the storage cavern can quickly cause a gas blowout. This possibility strongly suggests that ensuring water saturation of the rock surrounding the cavern is a very important requirement. (4) Even if an accident should suddenly impair the water curtain, the gas plume does not quickly penetrate the ground surface. In these simulations, the plume takes several months to reach the ground surface.

Yamamoto, Hajime; Pruess, Karsten

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern sulfur mines 7. Certification tests and analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cavern 7 at the Sulphur Mines, Louisiana SPR oil storage site was certified for oil storage on December 17, 1977. The Dowell Sonar caliper survey taken November 29, 1977, indicated a total cavern volume of 5.60 x 10/sup 6/ bbls. The surveys taken December 19, 1979, and June 10, 1981, indicated a total cavern volume of 6.33 x 10/sup 6/ and 6.36 x 10/sup 6/ bbls respectively. This volume increase was a result of continued brining, prior to June 10, 1981, to get brine enrichment for PPG. A well leak test in May 1981 indicated some well leakage. Well workover actions to repair well and wellhead leaks were taken by Texas Brine Corp/Dravo Utility Constructors, Inc. (TBC/DUCI). Testing was restarted in June 1981 using test procedures which were developed in conjunction with the procedures and testing of West Hackberry cavern 6. This report includes a general history of the cavern and a description of the certification testing, analyses, conclusions, and recommendations. The data from cavern 7 and 6 indicate no fluid communication between caverns. Cavern 7 is about 160 ft from the dome edge. The pressure data at maximum operating pressure is comparable to the data from both West Hackberry cavern 6 and Sulphur Mines cavern 6. Therefore, it is considered unlikely that there is a leak to the dome edge. The well test data indicates leaks in the well casing seat area are approximately 100 bbls/yr.

Beasley, R.R.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Platon, La Rpublique, trad. Victor Cousin (1833). livre VII : le mythe de la caverne.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Platon, La République, trad. Victor Cousin (1833). livre VII : le mythe de la caverne. [514a, que les ombres qui vont se retracer, à la lueur du feu, sur le côté de la caverne exposé à leurs ? Assurément. Si maintenant on l'arrache de sa caverne malgré lui, et qu'on le traîne, par le sentier rude et

Aubin, David

108

DES NANDERTALIENS DANS LA TROISIME CAVERNE DE GOYET Hlne Rougier, Isabelle Crvecoeur, Patrick Smal & Michel Toussaint  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DES N�ANDERTALIENS DANS LA TROISI�ME CAVERNE DE GOYET Hélène Rougier, Isabelle Crèvecoeur, Patrick 1870 à la troisième caverne par le géologue �douard Dupont. La cinquantaine de vestiges mis au jour à). Il y a donc des restes humains récents dans la troisième caverne de Goyet mais, étant donné la

Boyer, Edmond

109

ESS 2012 Peer Review - CAES Geo Performance for Natural Gas and Salt Reservoirs and TMH Response of GSFs - Payton Gardner, SNL  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

CAES Geo Performance CAES Geo Performance for Natural Gas and Salt Reservoirs, Thermal-Mechanical- Hydraulic Response of Geological Storage Formations for CAES 27 September 2012 SJ Bauer, M Martinez, W. Payton Gardner, J Holland 2 CAES Geo Performance for Natural Gas and Salt Reservoirs / Thermal-Mechanical-Hydraulic (T-M-H) Response of Geological Storage Formations for CAES  Problem: Siting of CAES facilities may be limited by specific geologic conditions  Opportunity: Fundamental understanding of T-M-H will enable/extend CAES siting potential throughout the US 3 Images taken from: http://www.rwe.com/ 1. CAES in Mined Salt Caverns  Model large scale salt cavern response to air pressure cycling  Experimentally evaluate thermal cycling effect on domal salt

110

Structural analysis of the West Hackbery No. 6 SPR storage cavern  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Four separate structural analyses of the West Hackberry No. 6 SPR storage cavern are presented. One analysis covers the creep response of the cavern beginning shortly before the time when an accidental fire occurred and proceeding through the cavern recertification pressure test. The second analysis models the surface uplife that is expected during the same pressure test. The third and fourth numerical studies investigate the structural response of West Hackberry No. 6 to slabbing and a rapid pressure drop. All analyses indicate that this cavern should be structurally stable for the conditions assumed.

Benzley, S.E.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Abstract-The ALICE trigger system is situated in the experimental cavern and has a centralized layout: the Central  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract- The ALICE trigger system is situated in the experimental cavern and has a centralized. Layout of the ALICE CTP in the experimental cavern The ALICE Central Trigger System D. Evans1 , S. Fedor2

Birmingham, University of

112

Supai salt karst features: Holbrook Basin, Arizona  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 300 sinkholes, fissures, depressions, and other collapse features occur along a 70 km (45 mi) dissolution front of the Permian Supai Formation, dipping northward into the Holbrook Basin, also called the Supai Salt Basin. The dissolution front is essentially coincident with the so-called Holbrook Anticline showing local dip reversal; rather than being of tectonic origin, this feature is likely a subsidence-induced monoclinal flexure caused by the northward migrating dissolution front. Three major areas are identified with distinctive attributes: (1) The Sinks, 10 km WNW of Snowflake, containing some 200 sinkholes up to 200 m diameter and 50 m depth, and joint controlled fissures and fissure-sinks; (2) Dry Lake Valley and contiguous areas containing large collapse fissures and sinkholes in jointed Coconino sandstone, some of which drained more than 50 acre-feet ({approximately}6 {times} 10{sup 4} m{sup 3}) of water overnight; and (3) the McCauley Sinks, a localized group of about 40 sinkholes 15 km SE of Winslow along Chevelon Creek, some showing essentially rectangular jointing in the surficial Coconino Formation. Similar salt karst features also occur between these three major areas. The range of features in Supai salt are distinctive, yet similar to those in other evaporate basins. The wide variety of dissolution/collapse features range in development from incipient surface expression to mature and old age. The features began forming at least by Pliocene time and continue to the present, with recent changes reportedly observed and verified on airphotos with 20 year repetition. The evaporate sequence along interstate transportation routes creates a strategic location for underground LPG storage in leached caverns. The existing 11 cavern field at Adamana is safely located about 25 miles away from the dissolution front, but further expansion initiatives will require thorough engineering evaluation.

Neal, J.T.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

113

Magnetic Cavern Solenoid R&D A. Bross, V.V Kashikhin and A.V. Zlobin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Magnetic Cavern Solenoid R&D A. Bross, V.V Kashikhin and A.V. Zlobin Fermilab (Feb. 16, 2010) #12 Cavern design concept · · · STL is placed inside the external support structure (cylindrical strongback) · Cavern Wall?Solenoid strongback Thermal shield STL cable Invar pipe with SC strands, stabilizer and LHe

McDonald, Kirk

114

EXPOSITION GROTTES, GROUFFRES ET CAVERNES A la lumire de la splologie  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EXPOSITION « GROTTES, GROUFFRES ET CAVERNES A la lumière de la spéléologie » BIBLIOGRAPHIE - 1 « GROTTES, GROUFFRES ET CAVERNES A la lumière de la spéléologie » BIBLIOGRAPHIE - 2 - · ISBN : 2

Dambrine, Marc

115

Stress measurements in rock salt using hydraulic fracturing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing was applied in horizontal drillholes in the Salado salt formation near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Testing took place approximately 650 m below surface in order to support the design of a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense activities of the United States. Hydraulic fracturing was performed primarily to determine whether the virgin in situ stress state at the WIPP site is isotropic and whether the magnitudes of the the virgin in situ stresses correspond to the weight of the overburden. Beyond these limited objectives, measurements are being analyzed to evaluate the usefulness of hydraulic fracturing in salt formations in general. Such measurements are desirable to determine stresses induced by mining and to monitor time-dependent stress changes around underground excavations in salt masses. Hydraulic fracturing measurements are also relevant to the evaluation of allowable pressures before fracturing is induced in pressurized boreholes and storage caverns.

Wawersik, W.R.; Stone, C.M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Iodized Salt  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Iodized Salt Iodized Salt Name: Theresa Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Why do they put iodine in salt? Replies: Iodine was introduced into salt at earlier this century when it was discovered that certain areas of the US had a mark deficiency in iodine in the diet of people, and people developed a neck swelling (goiter). The Great Lakes region is one of these areas where the soil is lacking iodine. Goiter can be caused when the thyroid gland swells because of a lack of iodine in the diet. Most medical advise now states that iodine in salt is no longer necessary due to our food sources arising from all over the world. Steve Sample Hi Theresa...see, there are a variety of elements and compounds that are necessary for the proper maintenance of our life. One of these is iodine, since a small quantity of iodine is needed for the adequate functioning of the thyroid gland. A deficiency of iodine produces dire effects, as goiter, where the thyroid gland swollens due to the lack of iodine traces in the diet. The iodine affects directly the tyrhoid gland secretions, which themselves, to a great extent, control heart action, nerve response to stimuli, rate of body growth and metabolism.

117

Application of the multi-mechanism deformation model for three-dimensional simulations of salt : behavior for the strategic petroleum reserve.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve stores crude oil in 62 solution-mined caverns in salt domes located in Texas and Louisiana. Historically, three-dimensional geomechanical simulations of the behavior of the caverns have been performed using a power law creep model. Using this method, and calibrating the creep coefficient to field data such as cavern closure and surface subsidence, has produced varying degrees of agreement with observed phenomena. However, as new salt dome locations are considered for oil storage facilities, pre-construction geomechanical analyses are required that need site-specific parameters developed from laboratory data obtained from core samples. The multi-mechanism deformation (M-D) model is a rigorous mathematical description of both transient and steady-state creep phenomena. Recent enhancements to the numerical integration algorithm within the model have created a more numerically stable implementation of the M-D model. This report presents computational analyses to compare the results of predictions of the geomechanical behavior at the West Hackberry SPR site using both models. The recently-published results using the power law creep model produced excellent agreement with an extensive set of field data. The M-D model results show similar agreement using parameters developed directly from laboratory data. It is also used to predict the behavior for the construction and operation of oil storage caverns at a new site, to identify potential problems before a final cavern layout is designed.

Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Bean, James E.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Effects of cavern spacing and pressure on subsidence and storage losses for the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of cavern spacing and operating pressure on surface subsidence and cavern storage losses were evaluated using the finite- element method. The base case for the two sensitivity studies was a typical SPR cavern. The predicted responses of the base case and those from the pressurization study compared quite closely to measured surface subsidence and oil pressurization rates. This provided credibility for the analyses and constitutive models used. Subsidence and cavern storage losses were found to be strongly influenced by cavern spacing and pressurization. The relationship between subsidence volume and losses in storage volume varied as cavern spacing and operating pressure deviated from the base case. However, for a typical SPR cavern subsidence volume is proportional to storage loss and when expressed in ft., subsidence is equal to the percentage of storage loss.

Ehgartner, B.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Cavern background measurement with the ATLAS RPC system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The measurement of cavern background has been carried out systematically since the beginning of LHC, as soon as the luminosity produced a detectable signal, from L = 10^28 cm^2s^1 of the early 2010 operation up to L=10^28 cm^2s^1 at the end of 2011 proton-proton run, which is just 1/3 of the nominal LHC luminosity. The reason for this is to early foresee the running condition for the detector for the nominal LHC luminosity and beyond, in view of the super-LHC upgrade. Background Montecarlo calculations have been validated against data and the background map analysis pointed out hotspots due to localized cracks in the radiation shielding. The RPCs participated to this effort since the earliest stages providing an accurate correlation between luminosity and background, a 3D background map in the barrel region and a direct measurement of the cavern activation. Moreover due to the high sensitivity and very good signal to noise ratio of the proposed method, based on the gap current, the measurement was provided in...

Aielli, G; The ATLAS collaboration

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Hydrogeologic factors affecting cavern morphology within rocks of Mississippian age in northwestern Arkansas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cavern development within rocks of Mississippian age in northwestern Arkansas is associated with two Pleistocene erosional features, the Boston Mountains Plateau and the Springfield Plateau. Each plateau is characterized by a distinct stratigraphic sequence with unique lithologies. Cavern morphology (both cross-sectional and planimetric) in each plateau is the result of the complex interaction of numerous hydrogeologic factors. Four of the most dominant factors which affect cavern morphology appear to be: (1) composition and continuity of the confining units; (2) percentage of noncarbonate components in rocks of the cavern-forming interval; (3) nature and distribution of ground-water recharge to the cavern-forming interval; and (4) nature and distribution of fractures within the cavern-forming interval. Network maze patterns typically develop in the Pitkin Limestone, the formation in which most caverns form beneath the Boston Mountains Plateau. The Pitkin, a bioclastic limestone, is confined above by siltstones of the Cane Hill member of the Hale Formation and below by shales of the Fayetteville Formation. The maze pattern indicates that these caverns probably were formed by dissolution of the rock matrix by diffuse recharge moving vertically through leaky confining units. Single rooms are the dominant cavern morphology in the chert-dominated Boone Formation of the Springfield Plateau. Where the concentration of chert is greater than 50 percent, the Boone lacks structural integrity and fails to develop well-integrated conduit networks. Point recharge features in outcrop areas of the Boone Formation are not visible in most of the Springfield Plateau because the insoluble residuum masks the upper bedrock surface. Where the Boone Formation is less than 7 meters thick, surface karst features are more prevalent.

Fanning, B.J. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States). Dept. of Geology); Brahana, J.V. (Univ. of Arkansas , Fayetteville, AR (United States). Geological Survey)

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1988-2011 salt caverns" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE FINAL REPORT DOE CONTRACT NUMBER DE-AC26-97FT34349 SUBMITTED BY: PB-KBB INC. 11757 KATY FREEWAY, SUITE 600 HOUSTON, TX 77079 SEPTEMBER 1998 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily

122

A geochemical assessment of petroleum from underground oil storage caverns in relation to petroleum from natural reservoirs offshore Norway.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The aim of this study is to compare oils from known biodegraded fields offshore Norway to waxes and oils from an artificial cavern storage facility,… (more)

Østensen, Marie

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

CAVERN: The CAVE Research Network Andrew E. Johnson, Jason Leigh, Thomas A. DeFanti, Maxine D. Brown, and Daniel J. Sandin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CAVERN: The CAVE Research Network Andrew E. Johnson, Jason Leigh, Thomas A. DeFanti, Maxine D CAVERN, the CAVE Research Network, is an alliance of industrial and research institutions equipped, to at least six in 1997 , so now EVL turns its attention to the design and implementation of CAVERN, the CAVE

Johnson, Andrew

124

Heptaketides from Corynespora sp. Inhabiting the Cavern Beard Lichen, Usnea caWernosa: First Report of Metabolites of an Endolichenic Fungus1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heptaketides from Corynespora sp. Inhabiting the Cavern Beard Lichen, Usnea caWernosa: First Report fungal strain, Corynespora sp. BA-10763, occurring in the cavern beard lichen Usnea ca the lichen Usnea caVernosa (cavern beard lichen; Parmeliaceae; Lecanorales), collected in early 2005 from

Arnold, A. Elizabeth

125

Huge cavern touted as partial remedy to demands on the Dixie pipeline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The SCANA Hydrocarbons cavern near York, S.C. is expected to play an increasingly important role for the LP-gas industry in the Southeast in the years ahead. Situated in Tirzah, S.C. between York and Rick Hill near the North Carolina border, the site actually consists of a similar 15-million-gal. cavern (the one that is currently unused) as well as a larger one with 65 million gal. of capacity. The two cavities are 200 yards apart at the closest point and encompass 160 acres. A 6-in., 62-mile-long pipeline known as the C and T connects the caverns to the Dixie pipeline at Bethune, S.C.

Prowler, S.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Simulation of the passage of muons through the rock overburden into the Soudan 2 cavern  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

I have investigated the energy dependence of the transmission of muons from the surface through the rock into the Soudan 2 cavern using the detector simulation package GEANT. I find the simulation of the various contributions to the muon energy loss in good agreement with available data and formulae for muon energies up into the multi-TeV region. The prediction for the transmission rates and mean energies appearing in the cavern agree with simple calculations in most but not all cases. I use the simulation to determine the energy spread apparent in the Soudan 2 cavern for fixed energies at the surface and the survival probabilities for energies at the surface up to 100 TeV. 28 refs., 16 figs.

Trost, H.J.

1991-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

127

Commissioning of the CMS Cryogenic System After Final Installation in the Underground Cavern  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

After having served for the surface tests of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) magnet, the cold box and ancillaries of the CMS helium refrigerator have been dismantled, moved and re-installed in the USC55 cavern in 2007. The full re-commissioning in the cavern has been followed by several tests of the refrigerator to confirm its nominal performance before it was used for the magnet and detector tests in 2008. During these tests the safety modes of the refrigeration system have been tested and improved. After a nine-year project both, the magnet and the refrigeration system are now ready for the CMS operation.

Dupont, T; Perinic, G; 10.1063/1.3422381

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Retrospective salt tectonics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conceptual breakthroughs in understanding salt tectonics can be recognized by reviewing the history of salt tectonics, which divides naturally into three parts: the pioneering era, the fluid era, and the brittle era. The pioneering era (1856-1933) featured the search for a general hypothesis of salt diapirism, initially dominated by bizarre, erroneous notions of igneous activity, residual islands, in situ crystallization, osmotic pressures, and expansive crystallization. Gradually data from oil exploration constrained speculation. The effects of buoyancy versus orogeny were debated, contact relations were characterized, salt glaciers were discovered, and the concepts of downbuilding and differential loading were proposed as diapiric mechanisms. The fluid era (1933-{approximately}1989) was dominated by the view that salt tectonics resulted from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in which a dense fluid overburden having negligible yield strength sinks into a less dense fluid salt layer, displacing it upward. Density contrasts, viscosity contrasts, and dominant wavelengths were emphasized, whereas strength and faulting of the overburden were ignored. During this era, palinspastic reconstructions were attempted; salt upwelling below thin overburdens was recognized; internal structures of mined diapirs were discovered; peripheral sinks, turtle structures, and diapir families were comprehended; flow laws for dry salt were formulated; and contractional belts on divergent margins and allochthonous salt sheets were recognized. The 1970s revealed the basic driving force of salt allochthons, intrasalt minibasins, finite strains in diapirs, the possibility of thermal convection in salt, direct measurement of salt glacial flow stimulated by rainfall, and the internal structure of convecting evaporites and salt glaciers. The 1980`s revealed salt rollers, subtle traps, flow laws for damp salt, salt canopies, and mushroom diapirs.

Jackson, M.P.A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

129

Design of a novel Cherenkov detectors system for machine induced background monitoring in the CMS cavern  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A novel detector system has been designed for an efficient online measurement of the machineinduced background in the CMS experimental cavern. The suppression of the CMS cavern background originating from pp collision products and the 25 ns bunch spacing have set the requirements for the detector design. Each detector unit will be a radiation hard, cylindrical Cherenkov radiator optically coupled to an ultra-fast UV-sensitive photomultiplier tube, providing a prompt, directionally sensitive measurement. Simulation and test beam measurements have shown the achievability of the goals that have driven the baseline design. The system will consist of 20 azimuthally distributed detectors per end, installed at a radius of r ~ 180 cm and a distance 20.6 m away from the CMS interaction region. The detector units will enable a measurement of the transverse distribution of the bunchby- bunch machine induced background flux. This will provide important feedback from the CMS on the beam conditions during the LHC machine s...

Orfanelli, Styliani; Giunta, Marina; Stickland, David P; Ambrose, Mitchell J; Rusack, Roger; Finkel, Alexey

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) geological site characterization report, Big Hill Salt Dome  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geological and geophysical analyses of the Big Hill Salt Dome were performed to determine the suitability of this site for use in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Development of 140 million barrels (MMB) of storage capacity in the Big Hill Salt Dome is planned as part of the SPR expansion to achieve 750 MMB of storage capacity. Objectives of the study were to: (1) Acquire, evaluate, and interpret existing data pertinent to geological characterization of the Big Hill Dome; (2) Characterize the surface and near-surface geology and hydrology; (3) Characterize the geology and hydrology of the overlying cap rock; (4) Define the geometry and geology of the dome; (5) Determine the feasibility of locating and constructing 14 10-MMB storage caverns in the south portion of the dome; and (6) Assess the effects of natural hazards on the SPR site. Recommendations are included. (DMC)

Hart, R.J.; Ortiz, T.S.; Magorian, T.R.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Ancient Salt Beds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

North Carolina School of Medicine. In examining fluid inclusions in the salt and solid halite crystals, scientists found abundant cellulose microfibers, estimated to be 250 million...

132

Inside Sea Salt | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sea salt particles are emitted into the atmosphere by the action of ocean waves and bubble bursting at the ocean surface. They are ubiquitous in the atmospheric environment....

133

Integrated investigation of seawater intrusion around oil storage caverns in a coastal fractured aquifer using hydrogeochemical and isotopic data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Summary Seawater intrusion can be activated by the construction of underground caverns which act as groundwater sinks near a coastal area. In an environment complicated with such artificial structures, seawater intrusion is not simple and thus needs to be evaluated by means of multiple analytical approaches. This study uses geochemical and isotopic indicators to assess the characteristics of salinized seepage into an underground oil storage cavern in Yeosu, Korea. Cl?/Br? ratios, principal component analysis (PCA) of chemical data, and stable isotope data were used to determine the origin and the extent of salinization. Indications of seawater intrusion into the cavern through fractured bedrocks were observed; however, it was highly probable that another source may have contributed to the observed salinity. The PCA results revealed that the seepage water chemistry was predominantly affected both by seawater mixing and cement material dissolution. The maximum seawater mixing ratio in the seepage water was estimated on the basis of the Cl?–Br? mixing ratio and the Cl?–?18O relation, with the results showing considerable variation ranging from less than 1% to as high as 14%, depending on the cavern location. The spatial variations in the chemical characteristics and in mixing ratios are believed to have resulted from the hydrogeological heterogeneity of the study site, as caused by both fractured aquifer and the cavern facilities.

Jeong-Won Lim; Eunhee Lee; Hee Sun Moon; Kang-Kun Lee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, April 2005 39 Donald A. McFarlane and Joyce Lundberg -The 19th century excavation of Kent's Cavern, England. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, v. 67, no. 1, p. 39-47.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

th century excavation of Kent's Cavern, England. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, v. 67, no. 1, p conducted a series of excavations in Kent's Cavern, a well known site in Wellswood (now a suburb of Torquay) Chamber of Kent's Cavern had been extensively modified by centuries of use and souvenir hunting, Mac

McFarlane, Donald A.

135

Salt Waste Processing Initiatives  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Patricia Suggs Patricia Suggs Salt Processing Team Lead Assistant Manager for Waste Disposition Project Office of Environmental Management Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Initiatives 2 Overview * Current SRS Liquid Waste System status * Opportunity to accelerate salt processing - transformational technologies - Rotary Microfiltration (RMF) and Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) - Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (ARP/MCU) extension with next generation extractant - Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) performance enhancement - Saltstone enhancements * Life-cycle impacts and benefits 3 SRS Liquid Waste Total Volume >37 Million Gallons (Mgal) Total Curies 183 MCi (51% ) 175 MCi (49% ) >358 Million Curies (MCi) Sludge 34.3 Mgal (92% ) 3.0 Mgal (8%)

136

Amine salts of nitroazoles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

137

Salt Selected (FINAL)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

WHY SALT WAS SELECTED AS A DISPOSAL MEDIUM WHY SALT WAS SELECTED AS A DISPOSAL MEDIUM Waste Isolation Pilot Plant U.S. Department Of Energy Government officials and scientists chose the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site through a selection process that started in the 1950s. At that time, the National Academy of Sciences conducted a nationwide search for geological formations stable enough to contain radioactive wastes for thousands of years. In 1955, after extensive

138

A Dash of Salt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tx H2O | pg. 18 A Texas A&M researcher is assessing the impact of using moderately saline water for irrigating urban landscapes in West Texas and southern New Mexico. A DASH OF SALT Researcher assesses salinity impacts on grasses, trees... and shrubs A Dash of Salt Story by Danielle Supercinski { } tx H2O | pg. 19 ?The primary purpose of using moderately saline water for irrigation, including reclaimed water, is to conserve potable [drinkable] water,? said Dr. Seiichi Miyamoto, a...

Supercinski, Danielle

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Fundamental Properties of Salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Compressed air energy storage monitoring to support refrigerated mined rock cavern technology.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the final report for the Compressed Air Energy Storage Monitoring to Support Refrigerated-Mined Rock Cavern Technology (CAES Monitoring to Support RMRCT) (DE-FC26-01NT40868) project to have been conducted by CAES Development Co., along with Sandia National Laboratories. This document provides a final report covering tasks 1.0 and subtasks 2.1, 2.2, and 2.5 of task 2.0 of the Statement of Project Objectives and constitutes the final project deliverable. The proposed work was to have provided physical measurements and analyses of large-scale rock mass response to pressure cycling. The goal was to develop proof-of-concept data for a previously developed and DOE sponsored technology (RMRCT or Refrigerated-Mined Rock Cavern Technology). In the RMRCT concept, a room and pillar mine developed in rock serves as a pressure vessel. That vessel will need to contain pressure of about 1370 psi (and cycle down to 300 psi). The measurements gathered in this study would have provided a means to determine directly rock mass response during cyclic loading on the same scale, under similar pressure conditions. The CAES project has been delayed due to national economic unrest in the energy sector.

Lee, Moo Yul; Bauer, Stephen J.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1988-2011 salt caverns" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Geomechanical testing of MRIG-9 core for the potential SPR siting at the Richton salt dome.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A laboratory testing program was developed to examine the mechanical behavior of salt from the Richton salt dome. The resulting information is intended for use in design and evaluation of a proposed Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facility in that dome. Core obtained from the drill hole MRIG-9 was obtained from the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology. Mechanical properties testing included: (1) acoustic velocity wave measurements; (2) indirect tensile strength tests; (3) unconfined compressive strength tests; (4) ambient temperature quasi-static triaxial compression tests to evaluate dilational stress states at confining pressures of 725, 1450, 2175, and 2900 psi; and (5) confined triaxial creep experiments to evaluate the time-dependent behavior of the salt at axial stress differences of 4000 psi, 3500 psi, 3000 psi, 2175 psi and 2000 psi at 55 C and 4000 psi at 35 C, all at a constant confining pressure of 4000 psi. All comments, inferences, discussions of the Richton characterization and analysis are caveated by the small number of tests. Additional core and testing from a deeper well located at the proposed site is planned. The Richton rock salt is generally inhomogeneous as expressed by the density and velocity measurements with depth. In fact, we treated the salt as two populations, one clean and relatively pure (> 98% halite), the other salt with abundant (at times) anhydrite. The density has been related to the insoluble content. The limited mechanical testing completed has allowed us to conclude that the dilatational criteria are distinct for the halite-rich and other salts, and that the dilation criteria are pressure dependent. The indirect tensile strengths and unconfined compressive strengths determined are consistently lower than other coastal domal salts. The steady-state-only creep model being developed suggests that Richton salt is intermediate in creep resistance when compared to other domal and bedded salts. The results of the study provide only limited information for structural modeling needed to evaluate the integrity and safety of the proposed cavern field. This study should be augmented with more extensive testing. This report documents a series of test methods, philosophies, and empirical relationships, etc., that are used to define and extend our understanding of the mechanical behavior of the Richton salt. This understanding could be used in conjunction with planned further studies or on its own for initial assessments.

Dunn, Dennis P.; Broome, Scott Thomas; Bronowski, David R.; Bauer, Stephen J.; Hofer, John H.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Salt Creek Student Homepage  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Salt Creek Investigation Salt Creek Investigation</2> "Whales Dying in the Pacific Ocean" "Fish Dying in Lake Michigan" Recent headlines remind us of environmental problems near and far away. Scientists have been wondering if these problems could be due to the warmer temperatures this past spring and summer or could there be other reasons? Lack of rain and near drought conditions have forced many areas to restrict water use. We know from past history that pollution affects our drinking water and marine life. Remember what we read about Lake Erie and from reading A River Ran Wild by Lynne Cherry. There are many factors affecting the environment around us . . . even in Salt Creek which runs through our area. We may not be able to investigate the Pacific Ocean and Lake Michigan

143

Thermo-fluidal behavior of the air in a cavern for the CAES-G/T[Compressed Air Energy Storage Gas Turbine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, a numerical analysis was performed to gain the detailed features of the thermo-fluidal behavior of the air inside the cavern for the compressed air storage gas turbine (CAES-G/T). The CAES-G/T, a peak shave power plant is now on the installation in Japan, where energy is stored in off peak period by compressed air in an underground cavern at pressure up to 80 atm abs. In the present work, an analytical model based on the two-dimensional laminar flow on the cross-section of the circular cavern was developed to quantify the effect of the transient process occurring in the cavern and wall during injection, storage and release of compressed air in the experimental circular cavern. the air was introduced until the required pressure inside the cavern is reached, then it was released outside after the storage period. It was found that the stratified temperature distribution was maintained in the cavern during compression and expansion periods. The wall temperature varied together with the variation of the air temperature with time, leading to the heat storage in the wall.

Tada, Shigeru; Yoshida, Hideo; Echigo, Ryozo; Oishi, Yasushi

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Untitled-1  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Introduction to Introduction to Salt Caverns & Their Use for Disposal of Oil Field Wastes An Introduction to Salt Caverns & Their Use for Disposal of Oil Field Wastes 1 What Are Salt Caverns? ........................................................................................... 2 Why Are Salt Caverns Important? ............................................................................ 2 Where Are Salt Deposits and Caverns Found? ......................................................... 3 How Are Caverns Formed? ...................................................................................... 4 How Are Caverns Used? .......................................................................................... 5 What Types of Wastes Are Considered to Be Oil Field Wastes?

145

Ammoniated salt heat pump  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermochemical heat pump/energy storage system using liquid ammoniate salts is described. The system, which can be used for space heating or cooling, provides energy storage for both functions. The bulk of the energy is stored as chemical energy and thus can be stored indefinitely. The system is well suited to use with a solar energy source or industrial waste heat.

Haas, W.R.; Jaeger, F.J.; Giordano, T.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Stability and support issues in the construction of large span caverns for physics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New physics experiments, proposed to study neutrinos and protons, call for the use of large underground particle detectors. In the United States, such detectors would be housed in the US Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), sited within the footprint of the defunct Homestake Mine, South Dakota. Although the experimental proposals differ in detail, all rely heavily upon the ability of the mined and reinforced rock mass to serve as a stable host for the detector facilities. Experimental proposals, based on the use of Water Cherenkov detector technology, specify rock caverns with excavated volumes in excess of half a million cubic meters, spans of at least 50 m, sited at depths of approximately one to 1.5 kilometers. Although perhaps sited at shallower depth, proposals based on the use of Liquid Argon (LAr) detector technology are no less challenging. LAr proposals not only call for the excavation of large span caverns, but have an additional need for the safe management of large quantities (kilo-tonnes) of cryogenic liquid, including critical provisions for the fail-safe egress of underground personnel and the reliable exhaust of Argon gas in the event of a catastrophic release. These multi-year, high value physics experiments will provide the key experimental data needed to support the research of a new generation of physicists as they probe the behavior of basic particles and the fundamental laws of nature. The rock engineer must deliver caverns that will reliably meet operational requirements and remain stable for periods conservatively estimated to be in excess of twenty years. This paper provides an overview of the DUSEL site conditions and discusses key end-user requirements and design criteria likely to dominate in determining the viability of experimental options. The paper stresses the paramount importance of collecting adequate site-specific data to inform early siting, dimensioning and layout decisions. Given the large-scale of the excavation and likely timeline to construction, the paper also strongly suggests that there are exciting opportunities for the rock mechanics and engineering community to identify and efficiently integrate research components into the design and construction process.

Laughton, C.; /Fermilab

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Salt Creek Scenario  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Scenario Scenario HELP Index Summary Scenario References Student Pages Two branches of Salt Creek run through the city of Rolling Meadows, Illinois, not far from our school. Five members of our team of eighth grade teachers from different subject areas (science, language arts, bilingual education and special education), decided to develop an interdisciplinary study of Salt Creek as a way of giving our students authentic experiences in environmental studies. The unit begins when students enter school in August, running through the third week of September, and resuming for three weeks in October. Extension activities based on using the data gathered at the creek continue throughout the school year, culminating in a presentation at a city council meeting in the spring.

148

Strategic petroleum reserve (SPR) geological site characterization report, Bayou Choctaw Salt Dome. Sections I and II  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report comprises two sections: Bayou Choctaw cavern stability issues, and geological site characterization of Bayou Choctaw. (DLC)

Hogan, R.G. (ed.)

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

salt lake city.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Locations of the Salt Lake City Processing and Disposal Sites Locations of the Salt Lake City Processing and Disposal Sites This fact sheet provides information about the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 Title I processing site and disposal site at Salt Lake City, Utah. These sites are managed by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. Salt Lake City, Utah, Processing and Disposal Sites Site Descriptions and History Regulatory Setting The former Salt Lake City processing site is located about 4 miles south-southwest of the center of Salt Lake City, Utah, at 3300 South and Interstate 15. The Vitro Chemical Company processed uranium and vanadium ore at the site from 1951 until 1968. Milling operations conducted at the processing site created radioactive tailings, a predominantly sandy material.

150

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

1980-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

151

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1982-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

152

Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

153

Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

154

Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

155

Batteries using molten salt electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

156

Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selection and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.

Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Independent Oversight Assessment, Salt Waste Processing Facility...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Salt Waste Processing Facility Project - January 2013 January 2013 Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Salt Waste Processing Facility Project The U.S. Department of Energy...

158

Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We applied coupled nonisothermal, multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling to study the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in concrete-lined rock caverns. The paper focuses on CAES in lined caverns at relatively shallow depth (e.g., 100 m depth) in which a typical CAES operational pressure of 5 to 8 MPa is significantly higher than both ambient fluid pressure and in situ stress. We simulated a storage operation that included cyclic compression and decompression of air in the cavern, and investigated how pressure, temperature and stress evolve over several months of operation. We analyzed two different lining options, both with a 50 cm thick low permeability concrete lining, but in one case with an internal synthetic seal such as steel or rubber. For our simulated CAES system, the thermodynamic analysis showed that 96.7% of the energy injected during compression could be recovered during subsequent decompression, while 3.3% of the energy was lost by heat conduction to the surrounding media. Our geomechanical analysis showed that tensile effective stresses as high as 8 MPa could develop in the lining as a result of the air pressure exerted on the inner surface of the lining, whereas thermal stresses were relatively smaller and compressive. With the option of an internal synthetic seal, the maximum effective tensile stress was reduced from 8 to 5 MPa, but was still in substantial tension. We performed one simulation in which the tensile tangential stresses resulted in radial cracks and air leakage though the lining. This air leakage, however, was minor (about 0.16% of the air mass loss from one daily compression) in terms of CAES operational efficiency, and did not significantly impact the overall energy balance of the system. However, despite being minor in terms of energy balance, the air leakage resulted in a distinct pressure increase in the surrounding rock that could be quickly detected using pressure monitoring outside the concrete lining.

Rutqvist, J.; Kim, H. -M.; Ryu, D. -W.; Synn, J. -H.; Song, W. -K.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Scaling Laws for Reduced-Scale Tests of Pulse Jet Mixing Systems in Non-Newtonian Slurries: Mixing Cavern Behavior  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction at the Hanford Site will use pulse jet mixer (PJM) technology for mixing and gas retention control applications in tanks expected to contain waste slurries exhibiting a non-Newtonian rheology. This paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental studies undertaken to establish a methodology to perform reduced-scale mixing tests with PJM systems in non-Newtonian fluids. A theoretical model for mixing cavern formation from steady and pulsed jets is developed and compared with data from a single unsteady jet in a yield stress simulant. Dimensional analysis is used to identify the important dimensionless parameters affecting mixing performance in more complex systems. Scaling laws are proposed based on the modeling and dimensional analysis. Experimental validation of the scaling laws governing unsteady jet mixing in non-Newtonian fluids are also presented. Tests were conducted at three scales using two non-Newtonian simulants. The data were compared non-dimensionally, and the important scale laws were confirmed. The key dimensionless parameters were found to be the Strouhal number (which describes unsteady pulse jet mixer operation), the yield Reynolds number (which governs cavern formation due to non-Newtonian fluid behavior), and the viscous Reynolds number (which determines the flow regime and the degree of turbulence). The experimentally validated scaling laws provide the basis for reduced scale testing of prototypic WTP mixing systems. It is argued that mixing systems developed from reduced scale testing will produce conservative designs at full scale.

Meyer, Perry A.; Kurath, Dean E.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Barnes, Steven M.; Etchells, Arthur W.

2006-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

160

Freshwater fish in salt water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Freshwater fish in salt water Freshwater fish in salt water Name: Shannon Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: What would actually happen if a fresh water fish had to live in salt water? Replies: For most fish, they would die. But some, like eels and salmon, can move freely between the two at certain stages of their lives. To do this they have special mechanisms of excretion and absorption of salt and water. --ProfBill If you put a freshwater fish into saltwater, most fish would lose weight (from losing water from its body) and eventually die. Approximately 2% of all 21000 species of fish actually move from freshwater to saltwater or from salt to fresh at some point in their lives, the move would kill any other fish. But even with these special varieties of fish, the move must be gradual so their bodies can adjust, or they too, will die from the change. If you want to learn more about why the freshwater fish will lose water, (or why a saltwater fish in freshwater would gain water), look up the words "diffusion" and "osmosis"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1988-2011 salt caverns" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Why Sequence Great Salt Lake?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Great Salt Lake? Great Salt Lake? On average, the Great Salt Lake is four times saltier than the ocean and also has heavy metals, high concentrations of sulfur and petroleum seeps. In spite of all this, the lake is the saltiest body of water to support life. The lake hosts brine shrimp, algae and a diverse array of microbes, not to mention the roughly 5 million birds that migrate there annually. The secret to these microbes' ability to survive under such harsh conditions might be revealed in their genes. Researchers expect the genetic data will provide insight into how the microorganisms tolerate pollutants such as sulfur and detoxify pollutants such as sulfur and heavy metals like mercury. The information could then be used to develop bioremediation techniques. Researchers also expect that sequencing microorganisms sampled

162

Salt Lake Community College | .EDUconnections  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SLCC Partners with DOE's Rocky Mountain Solar Training Program This program is a joint partnership between DOE's Solar Energy Technogies Program, Salt Lake Community College, Solar Energy International, and the Utah Solar Energy Association that works to accelerate use of solar electric technologies, training and facilities at community and technical college solar training programs within a 15 western United States region. DOE Solar Instructor Training Network Salt Lake City, Utah DOE Applauds SLCC's Science and Technical Programs Architectural Technology Biology Biotechnology Biomanufacturing Chemistry Computer Science Electric Sector Training Energy Management Engineering Geographic Information Sciences Geosciences InnovaBio Manufacturing & Mechanical Engineering Technology

163

Salt dome discoveries mounting in Mississippi  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Exploratory drilling around piercement salt domes in Mississippi has met with a string of successes in recent months. Exploration of these salt features is reported to have been initiated through the review of non-proprietary, 2D seismic data and subsurface control. This preliminary data and work were then selectively upgraded by the acquisition of additional, generally higher quality, conventional 2D seismic lines. This current flurry of successful exploration and ensuing development drilling by Amerada Hess Corp. on the flanks of salt domes in Mississippi has resulted in a number of significant Hosston discoveries/producers at: Carson salt dome in Jefferson Davis County; Dry Creek salt dome in Covington County, Midway salt dome in lamar County, Monticello salt dome in Lawrence County, and Prentiss salt dome in Jefferson Davis County. The resulting production from these fields is gas and condensate, with wells being completed on 640 acre production units.

Ericksen, R.L. [Mississippi Office of Geology, Jackson, MS (United States)

1996-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

164

Arylsulfatase Activity in Salt Marsh Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Arylsulfatase Activity in Salt Marsh Soils R. L. Oshrain W. J. Wiebe...Arylsulfatase Activity in Salt Marsh Soilst R. L. OSHRAIN: AND W...Gallagher, J. L., R. J. Reimold, and D...Remote sensing and salt marsh productivity, p. 338-348...

R. L. Oshrain; W. J. Wiebe

1979-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

The economics of salt cake recycling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Process Evaluation Section at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a major program aimed at developing cost-effective technologies for salt cake recycling. This paper addresses the economic feasibility of technologies for the recovery of aluminum, salt, and residue-oxide fractions from salt cake. Four processes were assessed for salt recovery from salt cake: (1) base case: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, with evaporation to crystallize salts; (2) high-temperature case: leaching in water at 250{degree}C, with flash crystallization to precipitate salts; (3) solventlantisolvent case: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, concentrating by evaporation, and reacting with acetone to precipitate salts; and (4) electrodialysis: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, with concentration and recovery of salts by electrodialysis. All test cases for salt recovery had a negative present value, given current pricing structure and 20% return on investment. Although manufacturing costs (variable plus fixed) could reasonably be recovered in the sales price of the salt product, capital costs cannot. The economics for the recycling processes are improved, however, if the residueoxide can be sold instead of landfilled. For example, the base case process would be profitable at a wet oxide value of $220/metric ton. The economics of alternative scenarios were also considered, including aluminum recovery with landfilling of salts and oxides.

Graziano, D.; Hryn, J.N.; Daniels, E.J.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Simple Method for Killing Halophilic Bacteria in Contaminated Solar Salt  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...growth and also to sterilize solar salt. Two samples of solar salt, contaminated with red...it had a much lower buffering capacity than the used salt, presumably...economical method of freeing solar salt from halophilic bacteria...

D. J. Kushner; G. Masson; N. E. Gibbons

1965-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Radar investigation of the Hockley salt dome  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Geophysics RADAR INVESTIGATION OF THE HOCKLEY SALT DOME A Thesis by UAMES ANDREW HLUCHANEK A'pproved as to style and content by: (Head of Departme t ? Member) May 1. 973 ABSTRACT Radar investigation of the Hockley Salt Dome. . (Nay, 1973) James... Andrew Hluchanek, B. S. , Texas A&M University Directed by: Dr. Robert R. Unterberger Radar probing through salt was accomplished at 17 radar stations established in the United Salt Company mine at Hockley, Texas. The top of the salt dom is mapped...

Hluchanek, James Andrew

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

168

The Salt Defense Disposal Investigations (SDDI)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Salt Defense Disposal Investigations (SDDI) Salt Defense Disposal Investigations (SDDI) will utilize a newly mined Underground Research Lab (URL) in WIPP to perform a cost effective, proof-of-principle field test of the emplacement of heat-generating radioactive waste and validate modeling efforts. The goals of the SDDI Thermal Test are to: * Demonstrate a proof-of-principle concept for in-drift disposal in salt. * Investigate, in a specific emplacement concept, the response of the salt to heat. * Develop a full-scale response for run-of- mine (ROM) salt. * Develop a validated coupled process model for disposal of heat-generating wastes in salt. * Evaluate the environmental conditions of the

169

Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Salt River Project  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The mission of Salt River Project's (SRP) Electric Vehicle Initiative is to encourage greater use of clean energy transportation. Under this program, SRP's headquarters received two Level 2...

170

Sandia National Laboratories: molten salt test loop  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Partnership, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, Solar, Solar Newsletter, SunShot, Systems Engineering AREVA and Sandia began operations of their molten salt...

171

Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

Frank Hansen; Till Popp; Klaus Wieczorek; Dieter Stührenberg

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Strategic Petroleum Reserve, West Hackberry oil storage cavern fire and spill of September 21, 1978: an environmental assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes an environmental assessment of the fire and oil spill at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site, West Hackberry, Louisiana. Subjective identification of oil contaminated habitats was supported by a more rigorous classification of samples utilizing discriminant analysis. Fourteen contaminated stations were identified along the shore of Black Lake just north and west of Wellpad 6, encompassing approximately 9 hectares. Seasonal variation in the structures of marsh and lake bottom communities in this contaminated area were not generally distinguishable from that of similar communities in uncontaminated habitats along the southern and southeastern shores of Black Lake. The major impact of spilled oil on the marsh vegetation was to accelerate the natural marsh deterioration which will eventually impact animals dependent on marsh vegetation for habitat structure. Vanadium, the predominate trace metal in the oil, and pyrogenic products due to the fire were found at the most distant sampling site (5 km) from Cavern 6 during Phase I, but were not detected downwind of the fire in excess of background levels in the later phases. Remote sensing evaluation of vegetation under the plume also indicated that stress existed immediately after the fire, but had disappeared by the end of the 1-year survey.

Taylor, A

1980-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

173

Disparities in Salt Lake County and Salt Lake City Mortgage Outcomes and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

who applied for Salt Lake County properties selected West Valley. · As the overall application volume). · Over 54 percent of all Salt Lake County mortgage applications from 2006 to 2011 were for homes in West Valley, unincorporated areas, West Jordan, and Salt Lake City. For Hispanic/Latino applicants

Feschotte, Cedric

174

Molten Salt Oxidation of mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) can be characterized as a simple noncombustion process; the basic concept is to introduce air and wastes into a bed of molten salt, oxidize the organic wastes in the molten salt, use the heat of oxidation to keep the salt molten and remove the salt for disposal or processing and recycling. The process has been developed through bench-scale and pilot-scale testing, with successful destruction demonstration of a wide variety of hazardous and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes including chemical warfare agents, combustible solids, halogenated solvents, polychlorinated biphenyls, plutonium-contaminated solids, uranium-contaminated solvents and fission product-contaminated oil. The MSO destruction efficiency of the hazardous organic constituents in the wastes exceeds 99.9999%. Radioactive species, such as actinides and rare earth fission products, are retained in the salt bath. These elements can be recovered from the spent salt using conventional chemical processes, such as ion exchange, to render the salt as nonradioactive and nonhazardous. This paper reviews the principles and capabilities of MSO, previous mixed waste studies, and a new US Department of Energy program to demonstrate the process for the treatment of mixed wastes.

Gay, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.; Newman, C. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

175

Metal salt catalysts for enhancing hydrogen spillover  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A composition for hydrogen storage includes a receptor, a hydrogen dissociating metal doped on the receptor, and a metal salt doped on the receptor. The hydrogen dissociating metal is configured to spill over hydrogen to the receptor, and the metal salt is configured to increase a rate of the spill over of the hydrogen to the receptor.

Yang, Ralph T; Wang, Yuhe

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

176

Salt Wells Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Program EA  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Salt Wells Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Program EA Salt Wells Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Program EA (DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2009-0006-EA) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Salt Wells Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Program EA (DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2009-0006-EA) Abstract No abstract available. Author Bureau of Land Management Published U.S. Department of the Interior- Bureau of Land Management, Carson City Field Office, Nevada, 09/14/2009 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org Online Internet link for Salt Wells Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Program EA (DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2009-0006-EA) Citation Bureau of Land Management. Salt Wells Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Program EA (DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2009-0006-EA) [Internet]. 09/14/2009. Carson City, NV. U.S. Department of the Interior- Bureau of Land Management,

177

Solar Policy Environment: Salt Lake  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The overall objective of the “Solar Salt Lake” (SSL) team is to develop a fully-scoped city and county-level implementation plan that will facilitate at least an additional ten megawatts of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations in the government, commercial, industrial, and residential sectors by 2015. To achieve this aggressive goal, the program strategy includes a combination of barrier identification, research, and policy analysis that utilizes the input of various stakeholders. Coupled with these activities will be the development and implementation of pilot installations in the government and residential sectors, and broad outreach to builders and potential practitioners of solar energy products in the process. In this way, while creating mechanisms to enable a demand for solar, SSL will also facilitate capacity building for suppliers, thereby helping to ensure long-term sustainability for the regional market.

178

Underground Salt Haul Truck Fire at the Waste Isolation Pilot...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Underground Salt Haul Truck Fire at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant February 5, 2014 March 2014 Salt Haul Truck Fire at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Haul Truck Fire at the...

179

Sandia National Laboratories: Molten Nitrate Salt Initial Flow...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

David Gill, ddgill@sandia.gov, (505)-844-1524. Tagged with: Concentrating Solar Power * CSP * Molten Salt * molten salt test loop * National Solar Thermal Test Facility * NSTTF *...

180

Sandia National Laboratories: molten salt energy storage demonstration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

molten salt energy storage demonstration Sandia-AREVA Commission Solar ThermalMolten Salt Energy-Storage Demonstration On May 21, 2014, in Capabilities, Concentrating Solar Power,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1988-2011 salt caverns" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization...

182

Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar...

183

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Tatum Salt Dome Test Site...  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Tatum Salt Dome Test Site - MS 01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Tatum Salt Dome Test Site (MS.01) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site...

184

Project Profile: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

salt receiver A distributed molten salt transport system Hybridization with natural gas or biofuels. Publications, Patents, and Awards J. E. Pacheco, C. Moursund, D. Rogers;...

185

Project Profile: Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation Project Profile: Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power...

186

Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular Salt Consolidation, Constitutive Model and Micromechanics Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes...

187

Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt and Organic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt and Organic Particles: Surprising Reactivity of NaCl with Weak Organic Acids Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt...

188

Project Profile: Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids Project Profile: Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids Halotechnics...

189

Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a numerical modeling study of coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transport associated with underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. Specifically, we explored the concept of using concrete lined caverns at a relatively shallow depth for which constructing and operational costs may be reduced if air tightness and stability can be assured. Our analysis showed that the key parameter to assure long-term air tightness in such a system was the permeability of both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. The analysis also indicated that a concrete lining with a permeability of less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2} would result in an acceptable air leakage rate of less than 1%, with the operational pressure range between 5 and 8 MPa at a depth of 100 m. It was further noted that capillary retention properties and the initial liquid saturation of the lining were very important. Indeed, air leakage could be effectively prevented when the air-entry pressure of the concrete lining is higher than the operational air pressure and when the lining is kept moist at a relatively high liquid saturation. Our subsequent energy-balance analysis demonstrated that the energy loss for a daily compression and decompression cycle is governed by the air-pressure loss, as well as heat loss by conduction to the concrete liner and surrounding rock. For a sufficiently tight system, i.e., for a concrete permeability off less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2}, heat loss by heat conduction tends to become proportionally more important. However, the energy loss by heat conduction can be minimized by keeping the air-injection temperature of compressed air closer to the ambient temperature of the underground storage cavern. In such a case, almost all the heat loss during compression is gained back during subsequent decompression. Finally, our numerical simulation study showed that CAES in shallow rock caverns is feasible from a leakage and energy efficiency viewpoint. Our numerical approach and energy analysis will next be applied in designing and evaluating the performance of a planned full-scale pilot test of the proposed underground CAES concept.

Kim, H.-M.; Rutqvist, J.; Ryu, D.-W.; Choi, B.-H.; Sunwoo, C.; Song, W.-K.

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

190

Salt Tolerance of Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Suppression of ion intensity in the presence of high salt matrices is common in most mass spectrometry ionization techniques. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is an ionization method that exhibits salt tolerance, and this is investigated. DESI analysis was performed on three different drug mixtures in the presence of 0, 0.2, 2, 5, 10, and 20% NaCl:KCl weight by volume from seven different surfaces. At physiological concentrations individual drugs in each mixture were observed with each surface. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) was used to provide additional confirmation for select compounds. Multiple stage experiments, to MS5, were performed for select compounds. Even in the absence of added salt, the benzodiazepine containing mixture yielded sodium and potassium adducts of carbamazepine which masked the ions of interest. These adducts were eliminated by adding 0.1% 7M ammonium acetate to the standard methanol:water (1:1) spray solvent. Comparison of the salt tolerance of DESI with that of electrospray ionization (ESI) demonstrated much better signal/noise characteristics for DESI in this study. The salt tolerance of DESI was also studied by performing limit of detection and dynamic range experiments. Even at a salt concentration significantly above physiological concentrations, select surfaces were effective in providing spectra that allowed the ready identification of the compounds of interest. The already high salt tolerance of DESI can be optimized further by appropriate choices of surface and spray solution.

Jackson, Ayanna U. [Purdue University; Talaty, Nari [Purdue University; Cooks, R G [Purdue University; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Category:Salt Lake City, UT | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UT UT Jump to: navigation, search Go Back to PV Economics By Location Media in category "Salt Lake City, UT" The following 16 files are in this category, out of 16 total. SVFullServiceRestaurant Salt Lake City UT Moon Lake Electric Assn Inc (Utah).png SVFullServiceRestauran... 57 KB SVHospital Salt Lake City UT Moon Lake Electric Assn Inc (Utah).png SVHospital Salt Lake C... 57 KB SVLargeHotel Salt Lake City UT Moon Lake Electric Assn Inc (Utah).png SVLargeHotel Salt Lake... 55 KB SVLargeOffice Salt Lake City UT Moon Lake Electric Assn Inc (Utah).png SVLargeOffice Salt Lak... 57 KB SVMediumOffice Salt Lake City UT Moon Lake Electric Assn Inc (Utah).png SVMediumOffice Salt La... 62 KB SVMidriseApartment Salt Lake City UT Moon Lake Electric Assn Inc (Utah).png

192

Examination of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transfer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The need for high efficiency power conversion and energy transport systems is increasing as world energy use continues to increase, petroleum supplies decrease, and global warming concerns become more prevalent. There are few heat transport fluids capable of operating above about 600oC that do not require operation at extremely high pressures. Liquid fluoride salts are an exception to that limitation. Fluoride salts have very high boiling points, can operate at high temperatures and low pressures and have very good heat transfer properties. They have been proposed as coolants for next generation fission reactor systems, as coolants for fusion reactor blankets, and as thermal storage media for solar power systems. In each case, these salts are used to either extract or deliver heat through heat exchange equipment, and in order to design this equipment, liquid salt heat transfer must be predicted. This paper discusses the heat transfer characteristics of liquid fluoride salts. Historically, heat transfer in fluoride salts has been assumed to be consistent with that of conventional fluids (air, water, etc.), and correlations used for predicting heat transfer performance of all fluoride salts have been the same or similar to those used for water conventional fluids an, water, etc). A review of existing liquid salt heat transfer data is presented, summarized, and evaluated on a consistent basis. Less than 10 experimental data sets have been found in the literature, with varying degrees of experimental detail and measured parameters provided. The data has been digitized and a limited database has been assembled and compared to existing heat transfer correlations. Results vary as well, with some data sets following traditional correlations; in others the comparisons are less conclusive. This is especially the case for less common salt/materials combinations, and suggests that additional heat transfer data may be needed when using specific salt eutectics in heat transfer equipment designs. All of the data discussed above were taken under forced convective conditions (both laminar and turbulent). Some recent data taken at ORNL under free convection conditions are also presented and results discussed. This data was taken using a simple crucible experiment with an instrumented nickel heater inserted in the salt to induce natural circulation within the crucible. The data was taken over a temperature range of 550oC to 650oC in FLiNaK salt. This data covers both laminar and turbulent natural convection conditions, and is compared to existing forms of natural circulation correlations.

Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Acoustic probing of salt using sonar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACOUSTIC PROBING OF SALT USING SONAR A Thesis by KENNETH BRYAN BUTLER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Oecember 1977 Major Subject...: Geophysics ACOUSTIC PROBING OF SALT USING SONAR A Thesis by KENNETH BRYAN BUTLER Approved as to style and content by: C airman of Com ttee ea of e r nt em er ember December 1977 ABSTRACT Acoustic Probing of Salt Using Sonar. (December 1977...

Butler, Kenneth Bryan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

194

Salt Wells Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Salt Wells Geothermal Area Salt Wells Geothermal Area (Redirected from Salt Wells Area) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermal Resource Area: Salt Wells Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory and Environmental Issues 4 Future Plans 5 Exploration History 6 Well Field Description 7 Research and Development Activities 8 Technical Problems and Solutions 9 Geology of the Area 9.1 Regional Setting 9.2 Stratigraphy 9.3 Structure 10 Hydrothermal System 11 Heat Source 12 Geofluid Geochemistry 13 NEPA-Related Analyses (9) 14 Exploration Activities (28) 15 References Area Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: Nevada Exploration Region: Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region GEA Development Phase: Operational"Operational" is not in the list of possible values (Phase I - Resource Procurement and Identification, Phase II - Resource Exploration and Confirmation, Phase III - Permitting and Initial Development, Phase IV - Resource Production and Power Plant Construction) for this property.

195

Molten Salt Batteries and Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter describes recent work on batteries and fuel cells using molten salt electrolytes. This entails a comparison with other batteries and fuel cells utilizing aqueous and organic electrolytes; for...(1,2)

D. A. J. Swinkels

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Determining Salt Tolerance Among Sunflower Genotypes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Crop lands around the world are becoming more salt-affected due to natural processes and agricultural practices. Due to this increase of salinization, acquisition of saline tolerant germplasm for breeding purposes is becoming a priority. Although...

Masor, Laura Lee

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

197

The Effect of Salt Water on Rice.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ERIME .-- - --- - -- BULLETIN NO. izz. June, 1909. THE EFFECT OF SALT WATE ON RICE, LAPS, Che Postoffice College Station, 1 --- Texas. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT S I'ATIONS. OFFICERS. GOVERNING BOARD. (Board of Directors A. and M... is Col- lege Station, Texas. Reports and bulletins are sent upon application to the Director. The Effect of Salt Water on Rice. . ...... By G. S. FRAPS. At some of the rice farms located near the coast, the amount of water lxml~etl is sometimes...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1909-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole and preparation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole and preparation. This salt has been found to be useful as an explosive alone and in eutectic mixtures with ammonium nitrate and/or other explosive compounds. Its eutectic with ammonium nitrate has been demonstrated to behave in a similar manner to a monomolecular explosive such as TNT, and is less sensitive than the pure salt. Moreover, this eutectic mixture, which contains 87.8 mol % of ammonium nitrate, is close to the CO.sub.2 -balanced composition of 90 mol %, and has a relatively low melting point of 110.5 C. making it readily castable. The ternary eutectic system containing the ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole, ammonium nitrate and ethylenediamine dinitrate has a eutectic temperature of 89.5 C. and gives a measured detonation pressure of 24.8 GPa, which is 97.6% of the calculated value. Both the pure ethylenediamine salt and its known eutectic compounds behave in substantially ideal manner. Methods for the preparation of the salt are described.

Lee, Kien-yin (Los Alamos, NM); Coburn, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Ammonia Solubility in High Concentration Salt Solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solubility data for ammonia in water and various dilute solutions are abundant in the literature. However, there is a noticeable lack of ammonia solubility data for high salt, basic solutions of various mixtures of salts including those found in many of the Hanford Washington underground waste tanks. As a result, models based on solubility data for dilute salt solutions have been used to extrapolate to high salt solutions. These significant extrapolations need to be checked against actual laboratory data. Some indirect vapor measurements have been made. A more direct approach is to determine the ratio of solubility of ammonia in water to its solubility in high salt solutions. In various experiments, pairs of solutions, one of which is water and the other a high salt solution, are allowed to come to equilibrium with a common ammonia vapor pressure. The ratio of concentrations of ammonia in the two solutions is equal to the ratio of the respective ammonia solubilities (Henry's Law constants) at a given temperature. This information can then be used to refine the models that predict vapor space compositions of ammonia. Ammonia at Hanford is of concern because of its toxicity in the environment and its contribution to the flammability of vapor space gas mixtures in waste tanks.

HEDENGREN, D.C.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Excavated Salt Agreement Supports  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Excavated Salt Agreement Supports Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Excavated Salt Agreement Supports Conservation Education, Other Public Initiatives Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Excavated Salt Agreement Supports Conservation Education, Other Public Initiatives November 14, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Approximately 1.8 million tons of salt have been mined out of the underground at WIPP. Approximately 1.8 million tons of salt have been mined out of the underground at WIPP. Proceeds from the WIPP salt allowed hundreds of southeast New Mexico students to learn about resource conservation. Proceeds from the WIPP salt allowed hundreds of southeast New Mexico students to learn about resource conservation. The crushed salt is used as a supplement in cattle feed. Since the salt from WIPP has been mined from the middle of a large salt formation, its quality is high, according to Magnum Minerals.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1988-2011 salt caverns" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Excavated Salt Agreement Supports  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Excavated Salt Agreement Supports Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Excavated Salt Agreement Supports Conservation Education, Other Public Initiatives Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Excavated Salt Agreement Supports Conservation Education, Other Public Initiatives November 14, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Approximately 1.8 million tons of salt have been mined out of the underground at WIPP. Approximately 1.8 million tons of salt have been mined out of the underground at WIPP. Proceeds from the WIPP salt allowed hundreds of southeast New Mexico students to learn about resource conservation. Proceeds from the WIPP salt allowed hundreds of southeast New Mexico students to learn about resource conservation. The crushed salt is used as a supplement in cattle feed. Since the salt from WIPP has been mined from the middle of a large salt formation, its quality is high, according to Magnum Minerals.

202

Chemistry control and corrosion mitigation of heat transfer salts for the fluoride salt reactor (FHR)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was a prototype nuclear reactor which operated from 1965 to 1969 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The MSRE used liquid fluoride salts as a heat transfer fluid and solvent for fluoride based {sup 235}U and {sup 233}U fuel. Extensive research was performed in order to optimize the removal of oxide and metal impurities from the reactor's heat transfer salt, 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} (FLiBe). This was done by sparging a mixture of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen gas through the FLiBe at elevated temperatures. The hydrofluoric acid reacted with oxides and hydroxides, fluorinating them while simultaneously releasing water vapor. Metal impurities such as iron and chromium were reduced by hydrogen gas and filtered out of the salt. By removing these impurities, the corrosion of reactor components was minimized. The Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison is currently researching a new chemical purification process for fluoride salts that make use of a less dangerous cleaning gas, nitrogen trifluoride. Nitrogen trifluoride has been predicted as a superior fluorinating agent for fluoride salts. These purified salts will subsequently be used for static and loop corrosion tests on a variety of reactor materials to ensure materials compatibility for the new FHR designs. Demonstration of chemistry control methodologies along with potential reduction in corrosion is essential for the use of a fluoride salts in a next generator nuclear reactor system. (authors)

Kelleher, B. C.; Sellers, S. R.; Anderson, M. H.; Sridharan, K.; Scheele, R. D. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, Univ.of Wisconsin - Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole and preparation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole has been found to be useful as an explosive alone and in eutectic mixtures with ammonium nitrate and/or other explosive compounds. Its eutectic with ammonium nitrate has been demonstrated to behave in a similar manner to a monomolecular explosive such as TNT, and is less sensitive than the pure salt. Moreover, this eutectic mixture, which contains 87.8 mol% of ammonium nitrate, is close to the CO/sub 2/-balanced composition of 90 mol%, and has a relatively low melting point of 110.5 C making it readily castable. The ternary eutectic system containing the ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole, ammonium nitrate and ethylenediamine dinitrate has a eutectic temperature of 89.5 C and gives a measured detonation pressure of 24.8 GPa, which is 97.6% of the calculated value. Both the pure ethylenediamine salt and its known eutectic compounds behave in substantially ideal manner. Methods for the preparation of the salt are described.

Lee, K.; Coburn, M.D.

1984-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

204

Salt Wells Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Salt Wells Geothermal Area Salt Wells Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermal Resource Area: Salt Wells Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory and Environmental Issues 4 Future Plans 5 Exploration History 6 Well Field Description 7 Research and Development Activities 8 Technical Problems and Solutions 9 Geology of the Area 9.1 Regional Setting 9.2 Stratigraphy 9.3 Structure 10 Hydrothermal System 11 Heat Source 12 Geofluid Geochemistry 13 NEPA-Related Analyses (9) 14 Exploration Activities (28) 15 References Area Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: Nevada Exploration Region: Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region GEA Development Phase: Operational"Operational" is not in the list of possible values (Phase I - Resource Procurement and Identification, Phase II - Resource Exploration and Confirmation, Phase III - Permitting and Initial Development, Phase IV - Resource Production and Power Plant Construction) for this property.

205

Salt Wells Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Salt Wells Geothermal Project Salt Wells Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Development Project: Salt Wells Geothermal Project Project Location Information Coordinates 39.580833333333°, -118.33444444444° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.580833333333,"lon":-118.33444444444,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

206

Brine flow in heated geologic salt.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Geology of Damon Mound Salt Dome, Texas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geological investigation of the stratigraphy, cap-rock characteristics, deformation and growth history, and growth rate of a shallow coastal diapir. Damon Mound salt dome, located in Brazoria County, has salt less than 600 feet and cap rock less than 100 feet below the surface; a quarry over the dome provides excellent exposures of cap rock as well as overlying Oligocene to Pleistocene strata. These conditions make it ideal as a case study for other coastal diapirs that lack bedrock exposures. Such investigations are important because salt domes are currently being considered by chemical waste disposal companies as possible storage and disposal sites. In this book, the author reviews previous research, presents additional data on the subsurface and surface geology at Damon Mound, and evaluates Oligocene to post-Pleistocene diapir growth.

Collins, E.W.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Molten nitrate salt technology development status report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recognizing thermal energy storage as potentially critical to the successful commercialization of solar thermal power systems, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established a comprehensive and aggressive thermal energy storage technology development program. Of the fluids proposed for heat transfer and energy storage molten nitrate salts offer significant economic advantages. The nitrate salt of most interest is a binary mixture of NaNO/sub 3/ and KNO/sub 3/. Although nitrate/nitrite mixtures have been used for decades as heat transfer and heat treatment fluids the use has been at temperatures of about 450/sup 0/C and lower. In solar thermal power systems the salts will experience a temperature range of 350 to 600/sup 0/C. Because central receiver applications place more rigorous demands and higher temperatures on nitrate salts a comprehensive experimental program has been developed to examine what effects, if any, the new demands and temperatures have on the salts. The experiments include corrosion testing, environmental cracking of containment materials, and determinations of physical properties and decomposition mechanisms. This report details the work done at Sandia National Laboratories in each area listed. In addition, summaries of the experimental programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the University of New York, EIC Laboratories, Inc., and the Norwegian Institute of Technology on molten nitrate salts are given. Also discussed is how the experimental programs will influence the near-term central receiver programs such as utility repowering/industrial retrofit and cogeneration. The report is designed to provide easy access to the latest information and data on molten NaNO/sub 3//KNO/sub 3/ for the designers and engineers of future central receiver projects.

Carling, R.W.; Kramer, C.M.; Bradshaw, R.W.; Nissen, D.A.; Goods, S.H.; Mar, R.W.; Munford, J.W.; Karnowsky, M.M.; Biefeld, R.N.; Norem, N.J.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Control of Soluble Salts in Farming and Gardening.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Soluble Salts in Farming and Gardening This publication on soluble salts is dedicated to Dr. Paul Lyerl!. Resident Director of Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Center at El Paso. From his arrival at the Center in 1942 until his... 23 23 26 27 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 31 31 7- :.- 31 32 33 33 34 SUMMARY INTRODUCTION SOLUBLE SALTS IN WATERS AND SOILS Where Salts Come From Kinds and Amounts of Salt How Salt Problems Develop Definition of Terms...

Longenecker, D. E.; Lyerly, P. J.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

The Salt Industry at Sterling, Kansas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Exhaust stean of the engine plant is ad- mitted to the first evaporator and warms the "brine, then passes to the second and warns it lesD and condenses, causing a partial vacuum in the first where the brine then boils violent- ly. The vapor thus... and is condensed by a jet condenser, whereupon the third boils. Each evaporator has its own electric prop- eller stirrers and its own electric elevator to remove the salt. Nearly all the handling is done by electric conveyors until the salt is discharged...

Horner, Robert Messenger

1914-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

The Effect of Salt Water on Rice.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mq A QTF *'. ' . - - . 1 bC1 r*. .. r * - .=.-ksl-, G v $. THE EFFECT OF SALT WATER ON RICE AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President \\ STATION ,,,bfINISTRATION: *B. YOUNGBLOOD, M. S., Ph. D.,, Director A B CONNER... of Agriculture. ****In cooperation with the School of Agriculture. SYNOPSIS Rice farmers sometimes have trouble with salt in the water used for irrigation. Varying conditions, such as character of soil, amount of water already on the land, stage of growth...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1927-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Accelerators for Subcritical Molten-Salt Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accelerator parameters for subcritical reactors have usually been based on using solid nuclear fuel much like that used in all operating critical reactors as well as the thorium burning accelerator-driven energy amplifier proposed by Rubbia et al. An attractive alternative reactor design that used molten salt fuel was experimentally studied at ORNL in the 1960s, where a critical molten salt reactor was successfully operated using enriched U235 or U233 tetrafluoride fuels. These experiments give confidence that an accelerator-driven subcritical molten salt reactor will work better than conventional reactors, having better efficiency due to their higher operating temperature, having the inherent safety of subcritical operation, and having constant purging of volatile radioactive elements to eliminate their accumulation and potential accidental release in dangerous amounts. Moreover, the requirements to drive a molten salt reactor can be considerably relaxed compared to a solid fuel reactor, especially regarding accelerator reliability and spallation neutron targetry, to the point that much of the required technology exists today. It is proposed that Project-X be developed into a prototype commercial machine to produce energy for the world by, for example, burning thorium in India and nuclear waste from conventional reactors in the USA.

Johnson, Roland (Muons, Inc.) [Muons, Inc.

2011-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

214

Mineral Salt: A Source of Costly Energy?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...required to pump salt water into a solution cavity...the flow of cooling water of a conventional or...con-siderable preliminary treatment. Os-motic flow through...process of in-verse electrodialysis, only the ions pass...nor extensive pre-treatment of the fluids (1...

W. GARY WILLIAMS

1979-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

215

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE HEAVY METAL SALTS (selected)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MSDS ___Special training provided by the department/supervisor ___Review of the OSHA Lab Standard ___Review of the departmental safety manual ___Review of the Chemical Hygiene Plan ___Safety meetings12.1 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE for HEAVY METAL SALTS (selected) Location

Pawlowski, Wojtek

216

Solar with a Grain of Salt  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...zone, and a bot-tom storage zone. The upper zone...electricity. Hot water is pumped out of the bottom zone...sequentially on the top of the storage zone. Howard C. Bryant...leached salts to the storage zone. One way to do...says French, but the seawater itself is turbid and...

THOMAS H. MAUGH II

1982-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

217

NOVEL GRAPHITE SALTS OF HIGH OXIDIZING POTENTIAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hr volatiles none AsFS AsFS > CF4 AsFS AsFS AsFS C13.l AsF 6C16.l AsF 6 C24.3AsF6·l/2 F2 > CF4> CF4 > CF4 Table VI-7. Graphite hexafluoroarsenate salts +

McCarron III, Eugene Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Salt repository project closeout status report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE`s) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

NONE

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Salt Wells, Eight Mile Flat | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Salt Wells, Eight Mile Flat Salt Wells, Eight Mile Flat Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Salt Wells, Eight Mile Flat Abstract Abstract unavailable. Author Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Published Online Nevada Encyclopedia, 2009 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org Online Internet link for Salt Wells, Eight Mile Flat Citation Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology. Salt Wells, Eight Mile Flat [Internet]. 2009. Online Nevada Encyclopedia. [updated 2009/03/24;cited 2013/08/07]. Available from: http://www.onlinenevada.org/articles/salt-wells-eight-mile-flat Related Geothermal Exploration Activities Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Development Wells At Salt Wells Area (Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, 2009) Salt Wells Geothermal Area

220

Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Experiments were used to examine water content in Permian salt samples (Salado Formation) collected from the WIPP site. The profile of water release and movement is recognized as a function of temperature from 30 to 275 oC using classical gravimetric methods to measure weight loss as a result of heating. The amount of water released from heating the salt was found to be correlated with the salts accessory mineral content (clay, other secondary minerals lost up to 3 wt % while pure halite salt lost less than 0.5 wt % water). Water released from salt at lower temperature was reversible and is attributed to clay hydration and dehydration processes. The analysis

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1988-2011 salt caverns" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Experiments were used to examine water content in Permian salt samples (Salado Formation) collected from the WIPP site. The profile of water release and movement is recognized as a function of temperature from 30 to 275 oC using classical gravimetric methods to measure weight loss as a result of heating. The amount of water released from heating the salt was found to be correlated with the salts accessory mineral content (clay, other secondary minerals lost up to 3 wt % while pure halite salt lost less than 0.5 wt % water). Water released from salt at lower temperature was reversible and is attributed to clay hydration and dehydration processes. The analysis

222

Sandia National Laboratories: New Liquid Salt Electrolytes Could...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ClimateECEnergyNew Liquid Salt Electrolytes Could Lead to Cost-Effective Flow Batteries New Liquid Salt Electrolytes Could Lead to Cost-Effective Flow Batteries Sandia Tool...

223

Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications - FY13 Q1 Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications - FY13 Q1...

224

Ketone Production from the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylate Salts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The MixAlco process uses an anaerobic, mixed-culture fermentation to convert lignocellulosic biomass to carboxylate salts. The fermentation broth must be clarified so that only carboxylate salts, water, and minimal impurities remain. Carboxylate...

Landoll, Michael 1984-

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

225

Energy Efficient Buildings, Salt Lake County, Utah  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Executive Summary Salt Lake County's Solar Photovoltaic Project - an unprecedented public/private partnership Salt Lake County is pleased to announce the completion of its unprecedented solar photovoltaic (PV) installation on the Calvin R. Rampton Salt Palace Convention Center. This 1.65 MW installation will be one the largest solar roof top installations in the country and will more than double the current installed solar capacity in the state of Utah. Construction is complete and the system will be operational in May 2012. The County has accomplished this project using a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) financing model. In a PPA model a third-party solar developer will finance, develop, own, operate, and maintain the solar array. Salt Lake County will lease its roof, and purchase the power from this third-party under a long-term Power Purchase Agreement contract. In fact, this will be one of the first projects in the state of Utah to take advantage of the recent (March 2010) legislation which makes PPA models possible for projects of this type. In addition to utilizing a PPA, this solar project will employ public and private capital, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants (EECBG), and public/private subsidized bonds that are able to work together efficiently because of the recent stimulus bill. The project also makes use of recent changes to federal tax rules, and the recent re-awakening of private capital markets that make a significant public-private partnership possible. This is an extremely innovative project, and will mark the first time that all of these incentives (EECBG grants, Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, New Markets tax credits, investment tax credits, public and private funds) have been packaged into one project. All of Salt Lake County's research documents and studies, agreements, and technical information is available to the public. In addition, the County has already shared a variety of information with the public through webinars, site tours, presentations, and written correspondence.

Barnett, Kimberly

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

226

The Salt or Sodium Chloride Content of Feeds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 EXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, Preeident BULLETIN NO. 271 OCTOBER, 1920 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEEDS B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOK COLLEGE.... ............... Salt content of feecls.. ......... Salt content of mixed feeds.. ................... Summary ancl conclusions. Page. l1 [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] BULLETIN XO. 271. OCTOBE- '"On THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEI The Texas feed...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Lomanitz, S. (Sebastian)

1920-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Interactions among Plant Species and Microorganisms in Salt Marsh Sediments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...a New England salt marsh. Ecology 72: 138-148...L. Melville, and R. L. Peterson. 1994...Broome, and S. R. Shafer. 1993...mycorrhizae in salt marshes in North Carolina...a New England salt marsh. J. Ecol. 86: 285-292. 30 Linderman, R. G. 1988. Mycorrhizal...

David J. Burke; Erik P. Hamerlynck; Dittmar Hahn

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Self-potential monitoring of a salt plume  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...salt-migration process. By this we...salt-migration process needs to be much...salt migration process is relatively...written as a MATLAB routine. The...The numerical simulation was used to compute...gradient in the chemical potential of...digitaledition.pdf .. Fournier...

P. Martínez-Pagán; A. Jardani; A. Revil; A. Haas

229

Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

230

Occurrence of gypsum in Gulf coast salt domes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Occurrence of gypsum in Gulf coast salt domes Barton Donald Clinton...OF GYPSUM IN THE GULF COAST SALT DOMES. Sir: On accountof thepaucityof...concerningtheoccurrenceof gypsumandanhydriteon the salt domes. The followingremarksmay...5o-footsill of saltat 3,350feetat Palangana,possiblyalsoStrattonRidge...

Donald Clinton Barton

231

Structural restoration of Louann Salt and overlying sediments, De Soto Canyon Salt Basin, northeastern Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The continental margin of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico is suited for seismic stratigraphic analysis and salt tectonism analysis. Jurassic strata include the Louann Salt on the continental shelf and upper slope of the Destin Dome OCS area...

Guo, Mengdong

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

232

Flow, Salts, and Trace Elements in the Rio Grande: A Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

must then focus on either in- creasing salt removal, minimizing salt inflow into the Rio Grande, or reducing evaporative losses of water, which concentrate salts. Although techniques to remove salts such as reverse os- mosis and electrodialysis exist...

Miyamoto, S.; Fenn, L. B.; Swietlik, D.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Seismic stratigraphy and salt tectonics of the Alaminos Canyon area, Gulf of Mexico.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

morphology, salt structure, and suprasalt sediments indicate the majority of the slope is covered by a shallow salt canopy. The salt structure map indicates that the Alaminos Canyon study area represents a transition from a semi-continuous salt sheet...

Mechler, Suzanne Marie

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

234

Enrichment and Association of Bacteria and Particulates in Salt Marsh Surface Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Sippewissett salt marsh, Falmouth, Massachusetts, and Palo Alto salt marsh...Sippewissett salt marsh, Falmouth, Massachusetts, and Palo Alto salt marsh...Sippewissett salt marsh, Falmouth, Massachusetts, and Palo Alto salt marsh...largely attributed to intense solar radiation. There have been...

R. W. Harvey; L. Y. Young

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Salt River Electric - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Salt River Electric - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Salt River Electric - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Salt River Electric - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Heating & Cooling Construction Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Other Ventilation Heat Pumps Program Info State Kentucky Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Varies by technology Provider Salt River Electric Cooperative Salt River Electric serves as the rural electric provider in Kentucky's Bullitt, Nelson, Spencer, and Washington counties. Residential customers are eligible for a variety of cash incentives for energy efficiency. The Touchstone Energy Home Program provides a rebate of up to $250 to customers

236

Salt River Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Project Project Jump to: navigation, search Name Salt River Project Place Tempe, Arizona Utility Id 16572 Utility Location Yes Ownership P NERC Location WECC NERC WECC Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] SGIC[2] Energy Information Administration Form 826[3] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Salt River Project Smart Grid Project was awarded $56,859,359 Recovery Act Funding with a total project value of $114,003,719.

237

Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular Salt Consolidation, Constitutive Model and Micromechanics Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular Salt Consolidation, Constitutive Model and Micromechanics The report addresses granular salt reconsolidation from three vantage points: laboratory testing, modeling, and petrofabrics. The experimental data 1) provide greater insight and understanding into the role of elevated temperature and pressure regimes on physical properties of reconsolidated crushed salt, 2) can supplement an existing database used to develop a reconsolidation constitutive model and 3) provide data for model evaluation. The constitutive model accounts for the effects of moisture through pressure solution and dislocation creep, with both terms dependent

238

Aksaray And Ecemis Faults - Diapiric Salt Relationships- Relevance To The  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Aksaray And Ecemis Faults - Diapiric Salt Relationships- Relevance To The Aksaray And Ecemis Faults - Diapiric Salt Relationships- Relevance To The Hydrocarbon Exploration In The Tuz Golu (Salt Lake) Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Aksaray And Ecemis Faults - Diapiric Salt Relationships- Relevance To The Hydrocarbon Exploration In The Tuz Golu (Salt Lake) Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: Due to activitiy of the Aksaray and Ecemis Faults, volcanic intrusion and westward movement of the Anatolian plate, diapiric salt structures were occurred in the Tuz Golu (Salt Lake) basin in central Anatolia, Turkey. With the collisions of the Arabian and Anatolian plates during the late Cretaceous and Miocene times, prominent ophiolitic

239

WIPP Shares Expertise with Salt Club Members | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Shares Expertise with Salt Club Members Shares Expertise with Salt Club Members WIPP Shares Expertise with Salt Club Members November 26, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Carlsbad Field Office’s Abe Van Luik, third from right, examines rock salt taken from the Morsleben mine in Germany. Carlsbad Field Office's Abe Van Luik, third from right, examines rock salt taken from the Morsleben mine in Germany. CARLSBAD, N.M. - EM's Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) participated in the second meeting of the Nuclear Energy Agency's (NEA) Salt Club and the 4th U.S.-German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design & Operation in Berlin. CBFO, which has responsibility for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the National Transuranic (TRU) Program, was represented by International Programs and Policy Advisor Dr. Abe Van Luik.

240

Salt Waste Contractor Reaches Contract Milestone | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Salt Waste Contractor Reaches Contract Milestone Salt Waste Contractor Reaches Contract Milestone Salt Waste Contractor Reaches Contract Milestone April 29, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Robert Brown, SRR tank farm operator, performs daily inspections of a salt disposition process facility. The inspections and improvement upgrades have resulted in continued successful operations. Robert Brown, SRR tank farm operator, performs daily inspections of a salt disposition process facility. The inspections and improvement upgrades have resulted in continued successful operations. AIKEN, S.C. - The liquid waste cleanup contractor for the EM program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) recently surpassed a 2013 contract milestone by processing more than 600,000 gallons of salt waste. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) salt disposition process facilities

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1988-2011 salt caverns" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular Salt Consolidation, Constitutive Model and Micromechanics Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular Salt Consolidation, Constitutive Model and Micromechanics The report addresses granular salt reconsolidation from three vantage points: laboratory testing, modeling, and petrofabrics. The experimental data 1) provide greater insight and understanding into the role of elevated temperature and pressure regimes on physical properties of reconsolidated crushed salt, 2) can supplement an existing database used to develop a reconsolidation constitutive model and 3) provide data for model evaluation. The constitutive model accounts for the effects of moisture through pressure solution and dislocation creep, with both terms dependent

242

Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF)  

Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

Sandia has developed a heat transfer fluid (HTF) for use at elevated temperatures that has a lower freezing point than any molten salt mixture available commercially. This allows the HTF to be used in applications in which the expensive parasitic energy costs necessary for freeze protection can be significantly reduced. The higher operating temperature limit significantly increases power cycle efficiency and overall power plan sun-to-net electric efficiency....

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

243

Unravelling the Structure of Magnus’ Pink Salt  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two classic examples of colorful Pt complexes featuring metallophilic interactions are Magnus’ salts, which have a long history of eluding structural characterization. ... The complete 14N WURST-CPMG and BRAIN-CP/WURST-CPMG NMR spectra were generated by mirroring the low-frequency (right) portion of the powder pattern about ? = 0 ppm, as described previously. ... The microscope was equipped with a 32× Schwarzschild objective and a liquid nitrogen cooled mercury cadmium telluride detector. ...

Bryan E. G. Lucier; Karen E. Johnston; Wenqian Xu; Jonathan C. Hanson; Sanjaya D. Senanayake; Siyu Yao; Megan W. Bourassa; Monika Srebro; Jochen Autschbach; Robert W. Schurko

2013-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

244

Stationary phase deposition based on onium salts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Onium salt chemistry can be used to deposit very uniform thickness stationary phases on the wall of a gas chromatography column. In particular, the stationary phase can be bonded to non-silicon based columns, especially microfabricated metal columns. Non-silicon microfabricated columns may be manufactured and processed at a fraction of the cost of silicon-based columns. In addition, the method can be used to phase-coat conventional capillary columns or silicon-based microfabricated columns.

Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM); Dirk, Shawn M. (Albuquerque, NM); Trudell, Daniel E. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Salt Lake County Residential Solar Financing Study  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

As part of our engagement with the National Renewable Energy Laboratories conducting the Salt Lake County Solar America Residential Finance Study, we have drafted this report summarizing the tools and mechanisms available for residential solar projects. These include the financial incentives available, possible financing models that could be used in the County, and a review of the community-scale solar project in St. George, Utah. We have also provided cost estimates for each system.

246

A hypothesis concerning the distribution of salt and salt structures in the Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A IIYPO'rklESIS CO/iCI, RI~ IG TktE DISTRIIoUTIO l OE SALT I'D cAET STRU TURES Rci TIIE GU:I 0= VEXICO A Thesis by JOIIN 'O'OODYJ ORTII A ?TOINE Subrnitte. ' to th, Graouate CoU~ Se Texas A i~. '4 University in partial fv~t'Ub~s "u o I... the reouirernent 'or th ~ cl . . gree o', ' i%I A S T E R 0 E S C IF. U C E ivla y 1 9 I 6 Mr jo? Subject: Geolnsical Oceanography A HYPOTHESIS CONCERNING THE DISTRIBUTION OF SALT AND SALT STRUCTURES IN THE GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis by JOHN WOODWORTH ANTOINE...

Antoine, John Woodworth

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

247

Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United States repository development, such as seal system design, coupled process simulation, and application of performance assessment methodology, helps define a clear strategy for a heat-generating nuclear waste repository in salt.

Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Independent Oversight Assessment, Salt Waste Processing Facility Project -  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Salt Waste Processing Facility Salt Waste Processing Facility Project - January 2013 Independent Oversight Assessment, Salt Waste Processing Facility Project - January 2013 January 2013 Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Salt Waste Processing Facility Project The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight (Independent Oversight), within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), conducted an independent assessment of nuclear safety culture at the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) Project. The primary objective of the evaluation was to provide information regarding the status of the safety culture at the SWPF Project. The data collection phase of the assessment occurred during August - September 2012. Independent Oversight Assessment, Salt Waste Processing Facility Project -

249

Disposing of nuclear waste in a salt bed  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Disposing of nuclear waste in a salt bed Disposing of nuclear waste in a salt bed 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:November 2013 All Issues » submit Disposing of nuclear waste in a salt bed Decades' worth of transuranic waste from Los Alamos is being laid to rest at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico March 25, 2013 Disposing of nuclear waste in a salt bed Depending on the impurities embedded within it, the salt from WIPP can be anything from a reddish, relatively opaque rock to a clear crystal like the one shown here. Ordinary salt effectively seals transuranic waste in a long-term repository Transuranic waste, made of items such as lab coats and equipment that have been contaminated by radioactive elements heavier than uranium, is being shipped from the Los Alamos National Laboratory to a long-term storage

250

Salt tectonics, patterns of basin fill, and reservoir distribution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Salt structures, which develop due to sediment loading, gravity creep, and/or buoyance, include boundary-fault grabens and half grabens, rollers, anticlines, domes and walls, diapirs, sills, massifs, and compressional toe structure. Associated features include fault systems and turtle structures. Of these, six directly relate to basin fill and all directly influence the distribution of reservoir facies. Salt structuring is initiated by sedimentation, which in turn is localized by salt withdrawal. Withdrawal produces individual salt structures, migrating sills, dissected massifs, and regional depocenters bordered by salt walls. Composite withdrawals dictate the patterns of basin fill. Relative rates of structural growth and sedimentation control the distribution of reservoir facies. When growth dominates, sands are channeled into lows. When sedimentation dominates and maintains flat surfaces, facies distribution is not impacted except where faulting develops. This paper presents techniques for using seismic data to determine the controls on salt structural growth and sedimentation and the patterns of basin fill and reservoir distribution.

Yorston, H.J.; Miles, A.E.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Consolidation and permeability of salt in brine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The consolidation and loss of permeability of salt crystal aggregates, important in assessing the effects of water in salt repositories, has been studied as a function of several variables. The kinetic behavior was similar to that often observed in sintering and suggested the following expression for the time dependence of the void fraction: phi(t) = phi(0) - (A/B)ln(1 + Bt/z(0)/sup 3/), where A and B are rate constants and z(0) is initial average particle size. With brine present, A and phi(0) varied linearly with stress. The initial void fraction was also dependent to some extent on the particle size distribution. The rate of consolidation was most rapid in brine and least rapid in the presence of only air as the fluid. A brine containing 5 m MgCl/sub 2/ showed an intermediate rate, presumably because of the greatly reduced solubility of NaCl. A substantial wall effect was indicated by an observed increase in the void fraction of consolidated columns with distance from the top where the stress was applied and by a dependence of consolidation rate on the column height and radius. The distance through which the stress fell by a factor of phi was estimated to change inversely as the fourth power of the column diameter. With increasing temperature (to 85/sup 0/C), consolidation proceeded somewhat more rapidly and the wall effect was reduced. The permeability of the columns dropped rapidly with consolidation, decreasing with about the sixth power of the void fraction. In general, extrapolation of the results to repository conditions confirms the self-sealing properties of bedded salt as a storage medium for radioactive waste.

Shor, A.J.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; Canonico, C.M.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

Reavis, J.G.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Salt River Project electric vehicle program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electric vehicles (EV) promise to be a driving force in the future of America. The quest for cleaner air and efforts to trim the nation's appetite for foreign oil are among the reasons why. America's EV future is rapidly approaching, with major automakers targeting EV mass production and sales before the end of the decade. This article describes the Salt River Project (SRP), a leader among electric utilities involved in EV research and development (R and D). R and D efforts are underway to plan and prepare for a significant number of EVs in SRP's service territory and to understand the associated recharging requirements for EVs.

Morrow, K.P.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a temperature below incineration temperature while entering the molten salt reactor.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Squire, Dwight V. (Livermore, CA); Robinson, Jeffrey A. (Manteca, CA); House, Palmer A. (Walnut Creek, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Integrated demonstration of molten salt oxidation with salt recycle for mixed waste treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal, nonflame process that has the inherent capability of completely destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility and constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO processor with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on laboratory experience with a smaller engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. In this paper we present design and engineering details of the system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is identification of the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

Hsu, P.C.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Columbus Salt Marsh Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Columbus Salt Marsh Geothermal Area Columbus Salt Marsh Geothermal Area (Redirected from Columbus Salt Marsh Area) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermal Resource Area: Columbus Salt Marsh Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory and Environmental Issues 4 Exploration History 5 Well Field Description 6 Geology of the Area 7 Geofluid Geochemistry 8 NEPA-Related Analyses (0) 9 Exploration Activities (3) 10 References Area Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: California Exploration Region: Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region GEA Development Phase: 2008 USGS Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: Click "Edit With Form" above to add content History and Infrastructure

257

salt-water pumped-storage hydroelectric plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

salt-water pumped-storage hydroelectric plant, saltwater pumped-storage hydroelectric station, seawater pumped-storage hydroelectric plant, seawater pumped-storage hydroelectric station ? Salzwasser-...

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Independent Oversight Review, Savannah River Site Salt Waste...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - May 2013 Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Project - February 2013 CRAD,...

259

Sedimentation and resuspension in a New England salt marsh  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Particulate matter in a salt marsh can undergo repeated sedimentation and resuspension. Sedimentation measured with sediment traps, increases ... suggests that sedimentation is more than offset by resuspension. Resuspension

Thomas E. Jordan; Ivan Valiela

1983-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

260

Method for the production of uranium chloride salt  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the production of UCl.sub.3 salt without the use of hazardous chemicals or multiple apparatuses for synthesis and purification is provided. Uranium metal is combined in a reaction vessel with a metal chloride and a eutectic salt- and heated to a first temperature under vacuum conditions to promote reaction of the uranium metal with the metal chloride for the production of a UCl.sub.3 salt. After the reaction has run substantially to completion, the furnace is heated to a second temperature under vacuum conditions. The second temperature is sufficiently high to selectively vaporize the chloride salts and distill them into a condenser region.

Westphal, Brian R.; Mariani, Robert D.

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1988-2011 salt caverns" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Project Profile: Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Storage  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES), under the Thermal Storage FOA, created a composite thermal energy storage material by embedding nanoparticles in a molten salt base material.

262

Notice of Availability of Section 3116 Determination for Salt...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

in the SPA SEIS, short- term impacts are incurred during operation of the salt waste processing facilities, and long-term impacts are those resulting from release of...

263

Fundamental Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications Savannah River National Laboratory April 15, 2013 | Garcia-Diaz * The overall project approach will combine...

264

Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications Savannah River National Laboratory Garcia-Diaz A 1152013:Garcia-Diaz * The overall project approach will...

265

Multispectral Imaging At Columbus Salt Marsh Area (Shevenell...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Columbus Salt Marsh Area Exploration Technique Multispectral Imaging Activity Date Usefulness useful...

266

Fundamental Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications - FY13 Q1 Advanced Ceramic Materials and Packaging Technologies for Realizing Sensors for Concentrating Solar Power Systems...

267

Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride. 4 figs.

Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.; Troup, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Hosler, R.B.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

268

THE PARTIAL EQUIVALENT VOLUMES OF SALTS IN SEAWATER  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

of the major salts in seawater have been mcasurcd over the salinity ... model of seawater by considering seawater .... mained essentially constant during storage.

269

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Excavated Salt Agreement Supports...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

result in large volumes of excavated salt. Seeking an innovative alternative to landfill disposal, EM's Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) reached an agreement with Magnum...

270

Sustainable Energy Source for Water Pumping at Puttalam Salt Limited.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The cost of grid based electrical and diesel sea water pumping to salt fields is one of the major cost components out of the… (more)

Kamaldeen, Mohammed Rizwan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR): Method and System to fully...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR): Method and System to fully fission actinides for electric power production without fuel enrichment, fabrication, or reprocessing A method for...

272

Excavation Damaged Zones In Rock Salt Formations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Salt formations have long been proposed as potential host rocks for nuclear waste disposal. After the operational phase of a repository the openings, e.g., boreholes, galleries, and chambers, have to be sealed in order to avoid the release of radionuclides into the biosphere. For optimising the sealing techniques knowledge about the excavation damaged zones (EDZ) around these openings is essential. In the frame of a project performed between 2004 and 2007, investigations of the EDZ evolution were performed in the Stassfurt halite of the Asse salt mine in northern Germany. Three test locations were prepared in the floor of an almost 20 year old gallery on the 800-m level of the Asse mine: (1) the drift floor as existing, (2) the new drift floor shortly after removing of a layer of about 1 m thickness of the floor with a continuous miner, (3) the new drift floor 2 years after cutting off the 1-m layer. Subject of investigation were the diffusive and advective gas transport and the advective brine transport very close to the opening. Spreading of the brine was tracked by geo-electric monitoring in order to gain information about permeability anisotropy. Results obtained showed that EDZ cut-off is a useful method to improve sealing effectiveness when constructing technical barriers. (authors)

Jockwer, N.; Wieczorek, K. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

MODELING OF A NOVEL SOLUTION POTASH MINING PROCESS Sergio Almada, Harvey Haugen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by drilling followed by a number of steps to develop a solution mining cavern. Water is injected to dissolve a sump area within the salt at the base of the solution mining cavern. The sump allows insoluble materials settle within the cavern to avoid affecting the solution mining process and the dissolved salt can

274

Savannah River Site- Salt Waste Processing Facility: Briefing on the Salt Waste Processing Facility Independent Technical Review  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This is a presentation outlining the Salt Waste Processing Facility process, major risks, approach for conducting reviews, discussion of the findings, and conclusions.

275

From pre-salt sources to post-salt traps: A specific petroleum system in Congo coastal basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bas Congo basin extends from Gabon to Angola and is a prolific oil province where both pre-salt and post salt sources and reservoirs have been found. In the northern part of the basin referred to as the Congo coastal basin, the proven petroleum system is more specific: mature source rocks are found only in pre-salt series whereas by contrast 99 % proven hydrocarbon reserves am located in post-salt traps. Such a system is controlled by the following factors: Source rocks are mostly organic rich shales deposited in a restricted environment developed in a rift prior to the Atlantic Ocean opening; Migration from pre-salt sources to post-salt traps is finalized by local discontinuities of the regional salt layer acting otherwise as a tight seal; Post-salt reservoirs are either carbonates or sands desposited in the evolutive shelf margin developped during Upper Cretaceous; Geometric traps are linked to salt tectonics (mostly turtle-shaped structures); Regional shaly seals are related to transgressive shales best developped during high rise sea level time interval. Stratigraphically, the age of hydrocarbon fields trends are younger and younger from West to East: lower Albian in Nkossa, Upper Albian and lower Cenomanian in Likouala, Yanga, Sendji, Upper Cenomanian in Tchibouela, Turonian in Tchendo, Turanian and Senonian in Emeraude.

Vernet, R.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Populations of Methanogenic Bacteria in a Georgia Salt Marsh  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...28. Oremland, R. S., L. M. Marsh, and S. Polcin...reduction in anoxic, salt marsh sediments. Nature...29. Oremland, R. S., and S. Polcin...Pomeroy, L. R., and R. G. Wiegert. 1981. The ecology of a salt marsh. Springer-Verlag...

Michael J. Franklin; William J. Wiebe; William B. Whitman

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Alternative Waste Forms for Electro-Chemical Salt Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was undertaken to examine alternate crystalline (ceramic/mineral) and glass waste forms for immobilizing spent salt from the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) electrochemical separations process. The AFCI is a program sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a process for recycling spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The electrochemical process is a molten salt process for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in an electrorefiner and generates spent salt that is contaminated with alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanide fission products (FP) that must either be cleaned of fission products or eventually replaced with new salt to maintain separations efficiency. Currently, these spent salts are mixed with zeolite to form sodalite in a glass-bonded waste form. The focus of this study was to investigate alternate waste forms to immobilize spent salt. On a mole basis, the spent salt is dominated by alkali and Cl with minor amounts of alkaline earth and lanthanides. In the study reported here, we made an effort to explore glass systems that are more compatible with Cl and have not been previously considered for use as waste forms. In addition, alternate methods were explored with the hope of finding a way to produce a sodalite that is more accepting of as many FP present in the spent salt as possible. This study was done to investigate two different options: (1) alternate glass families that incorporate increased concentrations of Cl; and (2) alternate methods to produce a mineral waste form.

Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Brian J.; Matyas, Josef; Arreguin, Shelly A.; Vienna, John D.

2009-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

278

Influence of Salt Purity on Na+ and Palmitic Acid Interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. Ultrapure (UP) and ACS grade NaCl salts are used for aqueous the interfacial water structure. These results suggest that the alkali salt grade even after pretreatment to many chemical, biochemical, and atmospheric processes.1-8 Particularly, Na+ and K+ , as the two most

279

Molten salts and nuclear energy production Christian Le Bruna*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molten salts and nuclear energy production Christian Le Bruna* a Laboratoire de Physique or chlorides) have been taken in consideration very soon in nuclear energy production researches with solid fuels, liquid fuel in molten salt reactor, solvents for spent nuclear solid fuel in the case

Boyer, Edmond

280

Detection and removal of molten salts from molten aluminum alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molten salts are one source of inclusions and defects in aluminum ingots and cast shapes. A selective adsorption media was used to remove these inclusions and a device for detection of molten salts was tested. This set of experiments is described and the results are presented and analyzed.

K. Butcher; D. Smith; C. L. Lin; L. Aubrey

1999-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1988-2011 salt caverns" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Brachybacterium squillarum sp. nov., isolated from salt-fermented seafood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Brachybacterium squillarum sp. nov., isolated from salt-fermented seafood Seong-Kyu Park, Min salt-fermented seafood in Korea. The organism grew in 0­10 % (w/v) NaCl and at 25­37 6C, with optimal

Bae, Jin-Woo

282

Kocuria salsicia sp. nov., isolated from salt-fermented seafood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kocuria salsicia sp. nov., isolated from salt- fermented seafood Ji-Hyun Yun,1 Seong Woon Roh,1 salt-fermented seafood in Korea. It was a Gram- positive, non-motile, coccus-shaped bacterium-fermented seafood (`gajami-sikhae') from Korea. Following isolation on marine agar 2216 (MA, BBL) at 30 uC, a pure

Bae, Jin-Woo

283

Salt tectonics, patterns of basin fill, and reservoir distribution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Salt structures, which develop due to sediment loading, gravity creep, and/or buoyancy, include boundary-fault grabens and half grabens, rollers, anticlines, domes and walls, diapirs, sills, massifs, and compressional toe structures. Associated features include fault systems and turtle structures. Of these, six directly relate to basin fill and all directly influence the distribution of reservoir facies. Salt structuring is initiated by sedimentation, which in turn is localized by salt withdrawal. Withdrawal produces individual salt structures, migrating sills, dissected massifs, and regional depocenters bordered by salt walls. Composite withdrawals dictate the patterns of basin fill. Relative rates of structural growth and sedimentation control the distribution of reservoir facies. When growth dominates, sands are channeled into lows. When sedimentation dominates and maintains flat surfaces, facies distribution is not impacted except where faulting develops. Turtle structures, developed by the inversion of peripheral synclines, can move sands into favorable structural position and/or serve as platforms for carbonate reservoir development. Salt growth varies with type structure, stage of development, and rate of sedimentation. Sedimentation at a specific location depends on basin position, sediment transport system, sea level stand, and rate of salt withdrawal. This paper presents techniques for using seismic data to determine the controls on salt structural growth and sedimentation and the patterns of basin fill and reservoir distribution.

Yorston, H.J.; Miles, A.E.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Independent Oversight Review, Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Savannah River Site Salt Waste Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility - August 2013 Independent Oversight Review, Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility - August 2013 August 2013 Review of the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Safety Basis and Design Development. This report documents the results of an independent oversight review of the safety basis and design development for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site. The review was performed February 12-14, 2013 by DOE's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations, which is within the DOE Office of Health, Safety and Security. The purpose of the review was to evaluate the safety basis, design, and the associated technical documents developed for

285

BLM Fact Sheet- Ormat Technologies Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Project |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BLM Fact Sheet- Ormat Technologies Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Project BLM Fact Sheet- Ormat Technologies Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Project Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: BLM Fact Sheet- Ormat Technologies Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Project Abstract No abstract available. Author Bureau of Land Management Organization Bureau of Land Management, Carson City Field Office, Nevada Published U.S. Department of the Interior, 2011 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org Online Internet link for BLM Fact Sheet- Ormat Technologies Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Project Citation Bureau of Land Management (Bureau of Land Management, Carson City Field Office, Nevada). 2011. BLM Fact Sheet- Ormat Technologies Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Project. Carson City, Nevada: U.S. Department of the

286

Independent Oversight Review, Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Savannah River Site Salt Waste Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility - August 2013 Independent Oversight Review, Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility - August 2013 August 2013 Review of the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Safety Basis and Design Development. This report documents the results of an independent oversight review of the safety basis and design development for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site. The review was performed February 12-14, 2013 by DOE's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations, which is within the DOE Office of Health, Safety and Security. The purpose of the review was to evaluate the safety basis, design, and the associated technical documents developed for

287

ENEL Salt Wells Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ENEL Salt Wells Geothermal Facility ENEL Salt Wells Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home ENEL Salt Wells Geothermal Facility General Information Name ENEL Salt Wells Geothermal Facility Facility Salt Wells Geothermal Facility Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Location Churchill, NV Coordinates 39.651603422063°, -118.49778413773° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.651603422063,"lon":-118.49778413773,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

288

Controlled Source Frequency-Domain Magnetics At Salt Wells Area  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Controlled Source Frequency-Domain Magnetics At Salt Wells Area Controlled Source Frequency-Domain Magnetics At Salt Wells Area (Montgomery, Et Al., 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Controlled Source Frequency-Domain Magnetics At Salt Wells Area (Montgomery, Et Al., 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Salt Wells Area Exploration Technique Controlled Source Frequency-Domain Magnetics Activity Date 2004 - 2004 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis AMP Resource contracted Willowstick Technologies, LLC to conduct a Controlled Source-Frequency Domain Magnetics (CS-FDM) geophysical investigation at Salt Wells in order to characterize and delineate areas showing the greatest concentrations and highest temperatures of geothermal groundwater. The investigation also sought to map blind faults beneath the

289

Salt River Project SRP | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SRP SRP Jump to: navigation, search Name Salt River Project (SRP) Place Tempe, Arizona Zip 85281-1298 Sector Biomass, Solar Product US utility which sources a percentage of its electricity from biomass plants. It is also involved in the solar power industry. Coordinates 33.42551°, -111.937419° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.42551,"lon":-111.937419,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

290

SUIVI EXPERIMENTAL MULTI-PARAMETRES DE L'EFFONDREMENT D'UNE CAVITE SALINE SITE DE CERVILLE-BUISSONCOURT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-BUISSONCOURT MULTI PARAMETER MONITORING OF A SALT CAVERN COLLAPSE (CERVILLE-BUISSONCOURT SITE, FRANCE) Xavier DAUPLEY cavern (Lorraine, France). Thereby, the opportunity offered by this collapse was taken to test various

Boyer, Edmond

291

E-Print Network 3.0 - australian sea salt Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Early salt tectonic processes and depositional systems in the Summary: -Permian Salt Basin, Southern North Sea Supervisors: Jrgen Adam (RHUL), Chris Elders (RHUL) Project...

292

Evolution in salt: Genomic and structural approaches to halophilic archaea and their viruses.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Extremely saline environments include salt lakes, evaporation ponds, and terrestrial environments, such as salt deserts and underground halite deposits. They are inhabited by halophilic microbes… (more)

Jaakkola, Salla

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

E-Print Network 3.0 - avoid salt induced Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with Salt Ions: An Electrostatic Theory for the Hofmeister Effect Summary: , an image charge is induced and a repulsive interaction between the salt ion and its image...

294

Elucidation of Mechanisms of Salinity Tolerance in Zoysia matrella Cultivars: A Study of Structure and Function of Salt Glands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Salt glands are important structural adaptations in some plant and animal species that are involved in the excretion of excess salts. Zoysia matrella is a highly salt tolerant turf grass that has salt glands. Two cultivars of Z. matrella, ‘Diamond...

Rao, Sheetal

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

295

Laboratory simulation of salt dissolution during waste removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory experiments were performed to support the field demonstration of improved techniques for salt dissolution in waste tanks at the Savannah River Site. The tests were designed to investigate three density driven techniques for salt dissolution: (1) Drain-Add-Sit-Remove, (2) Modified Density Gradient, and (3) Continuous Salt Mining. Salt dissolution was observed to be a very rapid process as salt solutions with densities between 1.38-1.4 were frequently removed. Slower addition and removal rates and locating the outlet line at deeper levels below the top of the saltcake provided the best contact between the dissolution water and the saltcake. It was observed that dissolution with 1 M sodium hydroxide solution resulted in salt solutions that were within the current inhibitor requirements for the prevention of stress corrosion cracking. This result was independent of the density driven technique. However, if inhibited water (0.01 M sodium hydroxide and 0.011 M sodium nitrite) was utilized, the salt solutions were frequently outside the inhibitor requirements. Corrosion testing at conditions similar to the environments expected during waste removal was recommended.

Wiersma, B.J.; Parish, W.R.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Mixed Waste Salt Encapsulation Using Polysiloxane - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A proof-of-concept experimental study was performed to investigate the use of Orbit Technologies polysiloxane grouting material for encapsulation of U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste salts leading to a final waste form for disposal. Evaporator pond salt residues and other salt-like material contaminated with both radioactive isotopes and hazardous components are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and may exceed 250,000,000 kg of material. Current treatment involves mixing low waste percentages (less than 10% by mass salt) with cement or costly thermal treatment followed by cementation to the ash residue. The proposed technology involves simple mixing of the granular salt material (with relatively high waste loadings-greater than 50%) in a polysiloxane-based system that polymerizes to form a silicon-based polymer material. This study involved a mixing study to determine optimum waste loadings and compressive strengths of the resultant monoliths. Following the mixing study, durability testing was performed on promising waste forms. Leaching studies including the accelerated leach test and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure were also performed on a high nitrate salt waste form. In addition to this testing, the waste form was examined by scanning electron microscope. Preliminary cost estimates for applying this technology to the DOE complex mixed waste salt problem is also given.

Miller, C.M.; Loomis, G.G.; Prewett, S.W.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Application of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metallothermic reductions have been extensively studied in the field of extractive metallurgy. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), we have developed a molten-salt based reduction process using lithium. This process was originally developed to reduce actinide oxides present in spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary thermodynamic considerations indicate that this process has the potential to be adapted for the extraction of other metals. The reduction is carried out at 650 C in a molten-salt (LiCl) medium. Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O), produced during the reduction of the actinide oxides, dissolves in the molten salt. At the end of the reduction step, the lithium is regenerated from the salt by an electrowinning process. The lithium and the salt from the electrowinning are then reused for reduction of the next batch of oxide fuel. The process cycle has been successfully demonstrated on an engineering scale in a specially designed pyroprocessing facility. This paper discusses the applicability of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes with specific reference to our process. Results are presented from our work on actinide oxides to highlight the role of lithium and its effect on process variables in these molten-salt based reduction processes.

Gourishankar, K. V.

1998-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

298

Using Encapsulated Phase Change Salts for Concentrated Solar Power Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Storing thermal energy as latent heat of fusion in phase change material (PCM), such as inorganic salt mixtures, can improve the energy density by as much as 50% while reducing the cost by over 40%. However, to discharge stored energy from PCMs, which has low thermal conductivity, requires a large heat transfer area which drives up the cost. Fortunately, salts encapsulated into small capsules can provide high specific surface area thus alleviating this problem. However, a technical barrier with encapsulating salts is that when it is produced, a void must be created inside the shell to allow for expansion of salt when it is heated above its melting point to 550 °C. Terrafore's method to economically create this void consists of using a sacrificial polymer which is coated as the middle layer between the salt prill and the shell material. The polymer is selected such that it decomposes much below the melting point of salt to gas leaving a void in the capsule. Salts with different melting points are encapsulated using the same recipe and contained in a packed bed consisting of salts with progressively higher melting points from bottom to top of the tank. This container serves as a cascaded energy storage medium to store heat transferred from the sensible heat energy collected in solar collectors. Mathematical models indicate that over 90% of salt in the capsules undergo phase change improving energy density by over 50% from a sensible-only thermal storage. Another advantage of this method is that it requires only a single tank as opposed to the two-tanks used in a sensible heat storage, thereby reducing the cost from a nominal $27 per kWht to $16 per kWht and coming close to the SunShot goal for thermal storage of $15 per kWht.

A. Mathur; R. Kasetty; J Oxley; J Mendez; K. Nithyanandam

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity.

Lee, Hung-Sui (East Setauket, NY); Geng, Lin (Coram, NY); Skotheim, Terje A. (Shoreham, NY)

1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

300

Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity. 2 figs.

Lee, H.S.; Geng, L.; Skotheim, T.A.

1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1988-2011 salt caverns" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Fracturing around excavations in salt at the WIPP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Salt is a plastic material when subjected to high confining pressures. However, salt can behave in a brittle manner with the development of fracturing when subject to deviatoric stresses and low confining pressures. Field data demonstrating brittle behavior have been collected and evaluated at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), in Carlsbad, New Mexico. This facility is being developed to prove technology for the safe emplacement and storage of transuranic nuclear wastes in deep excavations in salt. Studies using visual, instrumentation and geophysical techniques have been carried out in the underground facility to identify and characterize the types of fractures that develop around openings. 11 refs., 7 figs.

Cook, R.F. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (USA). Waste Isolation Div.); Roggenthen, W.M. (South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (USA). Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Molten salts in nuclear science and technology: a scientometric perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper attempts to highlight quantitatively and qualitatively the growth and development of world literature on molten salts in terms of publication output as per INIS database (1972-2011). The objective of the study was to perform a scientometric analysis of all research publications on molten salts in the world. The parameters studied include year-wise growth of publications, country-wise distribution of publications, activity index of top countries, highly productive institutes, language-wise distribution of publications, distribution of publications as per document type, highly preferred journals and identification of highly cited publications on molten salts.

Ganesh Surwase; Lalit Mohan; B. S. Kademani; K. Bhanumurthy

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Energy Department Completes Salt Coolant Material Transfer to Czech  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Completes Salt Coolant Material Transfer to Czech Completes Salt Coolant Material Transfer to Czech Republic for Advanced Reactor Research Energy Department Completes Salt Coolant Material Transfer to Czech Republic for Advanced Reactor Research May 20, 2013 - 12:52pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC - The U.S. Department of Energy recently joined with the U.S. Embassy in Prague and the Czech Republic's Ministry of Industry and Trade to complete the transfer of 75 kilograms of fluoride salt from the Department's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to the Czech Nuclear Research Institute Řež for experiments at Řež's critical test facility. This partnership builds on a strong history of U.S.-Czech energy collaboration and follows President Obama's speech in Prague in April 2009, where he laid out the importance of international

304

Surface Indicators of Geothermal Activity at Salt Wells, Nevada, USA,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Surface Indicators of Geothermal Activity at Salt Wells, Nevada, USA, Surface Indicators of Geothermal Activity at Salt Wells, Nevada, USA, Including Warm Ground, Borate Deposits, and Siliceous Alteration Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Surface Indicators of Geothermal Activity at Salt Wells, Nevada, USA, Including Warm Ground, Borate Deposits, and Siliceous Alteration Abstract Surface indicators of geothermal activity are often present above blind or concealed geothermal systems in the Great Basin, but their expressions are sometimes subtle. When mapped in detail, these indicators yield valuable information on the location, structural controls, and potential subsurface reservoir temperatures of geothermal fluids. An example is provided by the Salt Wells geothermal system in Churchill County, Nevada, USA, where

305

BLM Approves Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Projects | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy Projects Energy Projects Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: BLM Approves Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Projects Abstract Abstract unavailable. Author Colleen Sievers Published U.S. Department of the Interior- Bureau of Land Management, Carson City Field Office, Nevada, 09/28/2011 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org Online Internet link for BLM Approves Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Projects Citation Colleen Sievers. BLM Approves Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Projects [Internet]. 09/28/2011. Carson City, NV. U.S. Department of the Interior- Bureau of Land Management, Carson City Field Office, Nevada. [updated 2011/09/28;cited 2013/08/21]. Available from: http://www.blm.gov/nv/st/en/fo/carson_city_field/blm_information/newsroom/2011/september/blm_approves_salt.html

306

Magnetotellurics At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Magnetotellurics At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Exploration Activity Details Location Salt Wells Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Magnetotellurics Activity Date 2008 - 2008 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Vulcan increased exploration efforts in the summer and fall of 2008, during which time the company drilled two temperature gradient holes (86-15 O on Pad 1 and 17-16 O on Pad 3); conducted seismic, gravity and magnetotelluric surveys; and drilled deep exploration wells at Pads 6 and 8 and binary wells at Pads 1, 2, 4, and 7. Notes Data from these wells is proprietary, and so were unavailable for inclusion

307

Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Projects Environmental Impact Statement | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Projects Environmental Impact Statement Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Projects Environmental Impact Statement Abstract Abstract unavailable. Author Bureau of Land Management Published U.S. Department of the Interior- Bureau of Land Management, Carson City Field Office, Nevada, 07/22/2011 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org Online Internet link for Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Projects Environmental Impact Statement Citation Bureau of Land Management. Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Projects Environmental Impact Statement [Internet]. 07/22/2011. Carson City, NV. U.S. Department of the Interior- Bureau of Land Management, Carson City

308

DOE Issues Salt Waste Determination for the Savannah River Site |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Issues Salt Waste Determination for the Savannah River Site Issues Salt Waste Determination for the Savannah River Site DOE Issues Salt Waste Determination for the Savannah River Site January 18, 2006 - 10:49am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued the waste determination for the treatment and stabilization of low activity salt-waste at the Savannah River Site allowing for significant reductions in environmental and health risks posed by the material. Stored in forty-nine underground tanks, approximately 36 million gallons of radioactive waste is left over from plutonium production during the Cold War. In addition, the department issued an amended Record of Decision and Implementation Plan to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. "Today's announcement clears the way for the removal and treatment of this

309

Salt River Project Smart Grid Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Salt River Project Smart Grid Project Salt River Project Smart Grid Project Jump to: navigation, search Project Lead Salt River Project Country United States Headquarters Location Tempe, Arizona Recovery Act Funding $56,859,359.00 Total Project Value $114,003,719.00 Coverage Area Coverage Map: Salt River Project Smart Grid Project Coordinates 33.414768°, -111.9093095° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

310

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Penn Salt Manufacturing Co Whitemarsh  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Penn Salt Manufacturing Co Penn Salt Manufacturing Co Whitemarsh Research Laboratories - PA 20 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: PENN SALT MANUFACTURING CO., WHITEMARSH RESEARCH LABORATORIES (PA.20) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Penn Salt Company PA.20-1 Location: Philiadelphia , Pennsylvania PA.20-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 PA.20-1 Site Operations: Conducted process studies for recovery of uranium from fluoride scrap. PA.20-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - AEC licensed operation. Potential for residual radioactive contamination considered remote due to limited quantities and scope of operations. PA.20-2 PA.20-1 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium PA.20-1 Radiological Survey(s): None Indicated

311

Project Profile: Advanced Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Abengoa, under the Baseload CSP FOA, will demonstrate a 100-megawatt electrical (MWe) central receiver plant using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator.

312

Supramolecular structures and physicochemical properties of norfloxacin salts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Seven new molecular salts of norfloxacin were synthesized and structurally elucidated by single-crystal structure analysis. Physical and chemical properties were evaluated by a variety of analytical techniques.

Xu, Y.

2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

313

Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

- ranged from 450C to 585C M easurement frequency: salt chemistry - 200 hours off-gas composition - 12 hours Innovat ive Technology Solut ions f or Sustainability ABENGOA...

314

Conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive distillation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The purpose of this study is to convert carboxylate salts (e.g. calcium acetate, propionate, and butyrate) into carboxylic acids (e.g., acetic, propionic, and butyric acids).… (more)

Williamson, Shelly Ann

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Salt Tolerance of Landscape Plants Common to the Southwest  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With sharply increasing costs of providing potable water, many communities in the Southwest are attempting to utilize non-potable saline water for irrigating large landscapes. This publication provides the information related to salt effects...

Miyamoto, S.

316

Project Profile: Long-Shafted Molten Salt Pump | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

CSP R&D FOA, is validating the manufacturability of a large-scale molten salt receiver panel and then confirming its operation in prototypic solar flux. This work is an...

317

Liquid Salt Heat Exchanger Technology for VHTR Based Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to evaluate performance of liquid salt fluids for use as a heat carrier for transferring high-temperature process heat from the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) to chemical process plants. Currently, helium is being considered as the heat transfer fluid; however, the tube size requirements and the power associated with pumping helium may not be economical. Recent work on liquid salts has shown tremendous potential to transport high-temperature heat efficiently at low pressures over long distances. This project has two broad objectives: To investigate the compatibility of Incoloy 617 and coated and uncoated SiC ceramic composite with MgCl2-KCl molten salt to determine component lifetimes and aid in the design of heat exchangers and piping; and, To conduct the necessary research on the development of metallic and ceramic heat exchangers, which are needed for both the helium-to-salt side and salt-to-process side, with the goal of making these heat exchangers technologically viable. The research will consist of three separate tasks. The first task deals with material compatibility issues with liquid salt and the development of techniques for on-line measurement of corrosion products, which can be used to measure material loss in heat exchangers. Researchers will examine static corrosion of candidate materials in specific high-temperature heat transfer salt systems and develop an in situ electrochemical probe to measure metallic species concentrations dissolved in the liquid salt. The second task deals with the design of both the intermediate and process side heat exchanger systems. Researchers will optimize heat exchanger design and study issues related to corrosion, fabrication, and thermal stresses using commercial and in-house codes. The third task focuses integral testing of flowing liquid salts in a heat transfer/materials loop to determine potential issues of using the salts and to capture realistic behavior of the salts in a small scale prototype system. This includes investigations of plugging issues, heat transfer, pressure drop, and the corrosion and erosion of materials in the flowing system.

Mark Anderson; Kumar Sridhara; Todd Allen; Per Peterson

2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

318

Vertebrate survey of a dredge spoil salt marsh  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

]ect: Wildlife and Fisheries Science VERTEBRATE SURVEY OF A DREDGE SPOIL SALT MARSH A Thesis by BETTY JO LEE Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) (Member) December 1976 ABSTRACT Vertebrate Survey... of this ecotone are salinity, amount of fresh water, agitation by tides and currents, temperatut'e, wind, and industrial pollutants (Odum 1971). Clark (1974) points out the environmental importance of salt marshes to the waters of estuaries and bays by acting...

Lee, Betty Jo

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Analysis of salt concentrations in the Brazos River Basin, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ANALYSIS OF SALT CONCENTRATIONS IN THE BRAZOS RIVER BASIN, TEXAS A Thesis by CHARLES KEITH GANZE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major Subject: Civil Engineering Analysis of Salt Concentrations in the Brazos River Basin, Texas A Thesis by CHARLES KEITH GANZE Approved as to style and content by: Ralph A. Wurbs (Chair of Committee) James S. Bonner...

Ganze, Charles Keith

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

320

Comparison of linear and nonlinear acoustic probing of rock salt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COMPARISON OF LINEAR AND NONLINEAR ACOUSTIC PROBING OF ROCK SALT A Thesis by ALBERT MIN-HAO WANG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1980 Major Subject: Geophysics COMPARISON OF LINEAR AND NONLINEAR ACOUSTIC PROBING OF ROCK SALT A Thesis by ALBERT MIN-HAO 'RANG Approved as to style and content by: l('-/c~k~&(. Chairman o Comm ' ee Member) Member / I Member Head...

Wang, Albert Min-Hao

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1988-2011 salt caverns" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

A procedure to screen cucumber for salt tolerance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A PROCEDURE TO SCREEN CUCUMBER FOR SALT TOLERANCE A Thesis by LEONARD FRANK YOURMAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A1IM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1979 Major... Subject: Horticulture A PROCEDURE TO SCREEN CUCUMBER FOR SALT TOLERANCE A Thesis by LEONARD FRANK VOURMAN Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) (Member) 0ugust 1979 ABSTRACT A Procedure...

Yourman, Leonard Frank

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

322

A screening technique for salt tolerance in onion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A SCREENING TECHNIQUE FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN ONION A Thesis by MARY JORDAN WANNAMAKER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1985 Major... Subject: Horticulture A SCREENING TECHNIQUE FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN ONION A Thesis by NARY JORDAN WANNAMAKER Approved as to style and content by: Leonard M. Pike (Chairma f Cp 'ttee) 'eg C. Cobb (Member) Ron Newton (Member) . Grant Vest (Head...

Wannamaker, Mary Jordon

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

323

The Estimation of Salt and Molasses in Mixed Feeds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 425 MAY, 1931 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY The Estimation of Salt and Molasses in Mixed Feeds AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE....: ~gricultural Engineering J. IT. KNOX, M. S., Animal IIushandry A. K. MACKEY, M. S., Animnl Hrrshondry *Dean School of Veterinary Medicine. ?As of May 1. 1931. **In cooperation with U. S. Department of Agriculture. A statement of the percentage of salt...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1931-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Synthesis and analysis of streamflow and salt loads  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SYNTHESIS AND ANALYSIS OF STREAMFLOW AND SALT LOADS A Thesis ISHTIAQUE SALEH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August ] 993... Major Subject: Civil Engineering SYNTHESIS AND ANALYSIS OF STREAMFLOW AND SALT LOADS A Thesis by ISHTIAQUE SALEH Approved as to style and content by: Ralph A. Wurbs (Chair of Committee) 'Og Juan B. Valdes (Member) Tep Sastri (Member) ames T...

Saleh, Ishtiaque

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

325

Independent Oversight Review, Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility- August 2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Review of the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Safety Basis and Design Development.

326

Independent Oversight Review, Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility- April 2014  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Review of the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Quality and Fire Protection Systems

327

Selective Solid-Liquid Extraction of Lithium Halide Salts Using a Ditopic Macrobicyclic Receptor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pairs. The receptor can transport these salts from an aqueous phase through a liquid organic membrane and membrane transport, almost all reported efforts have focused on the transfer of lithium salts from this by binding the salts as contact ion pairs. Receptor 1 can also transport alkali metal halide salts out

Smith, Bradley D.

328

Paleoarchaic Surface Assemblages in the Great Salt Lake Desert, Northwestern Utah  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

desert scrubs, such as sagebrush, shadscale, horsebrush, snake- PALEOARCHAIC ASSEMBLAGES IN THE GREAT SALT

Arkush, Brooke S; Pitblado, Bonnie L

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Technology Readiness Assessment Report  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Salt Waste Processing Facility Salt Waste Processing Facility Technology Readiness Assessment Report Kurt D. Gerdes Harry D. Harmon Herbert G. Sutter Major C. Thompson John R. Shultz Sahid C. Smith July 13, 2009 Prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility Technology Readiness Assessment July 13, 2009 ii This page intentionally left blank SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility Technology Readiness Assessment July 13, 2009 iii SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility Technology Readiness Assessment July 13, 2009 iii Signatures SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility Technology Readiness Assessment July 13, 2009 iv This page intentionally left blank SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility

330

Small Ubiquitin-Like Modifier Proteases OVERLY TOLERANT TO SALT1 and -2 Regulate Salt Stress Responses in Arabidopsis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Salt Stress Responses in Arabidopsis [W] Lucio Conti Gillian Price Elizabeth ODonnell Benjamin Schwessinger 1 Peter Dominy Ari...reveals a requirement for RUB modification for control of ethylene biosynthesis and proper induction of basic chitinase and PDF1...

Lucio Conti; Gillian Price; Elizabeth O'Donnell; Benjamin Schwessinger; Peter Dominy; Ari Sadanandom

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

331

EIS-0099: Remedial Actions at the Former Vitro Chemical Company Site, South Salt Lake, Salt Lake County, Utah  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to evaluate the environmental impacts of various scenarios associated with the cleanup of those residues remaining at the abandoned uranium mill tailings site located in South Salt Lake, Utah.

332

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Salt Lake City Fuels Vehicles With Natural  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Salt Lake City Fuels Salt Lake City Fuels Vehicles With Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Salt Lake City Fuels Vehicles With Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Salt Lake City Fuels Vehicles With Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Salt Lake City Fuels Vehicles With Natural Gas on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Salt Lake City Fuels Vehicles With Natural Gas on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Salt Lake City Fuels Vehicles With Natural Gas on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Salt Lake City Fuels Vehicles With Natural Gas on AddThis.com... May 14, 2011 Salt Lake City Fuels Vehicles With Natural Gas W atch how Salt Lake City fuels vehicles with liquefied and compressed

333

LIFE Materails: Molten-Salt Fuels Volume 8  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goals of the Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) is to use fusion neutrons to fission materials with no enrichment and minimum processing and have greatly reduced wastes that are not of interest to making weapons. Fusion yields expected to be achieved in NIF a few times per day are called for with a high reliable shot rate of about 15 per second. We have found that the version of LIFE using TRISO fuel discussed in other volumes of this series can be modified by replacing the molten-flibe-cooled TRISO fuel zone with a molten salt in which the same actinides present in the TRISO particles are dissolved in the molten salt. Molten salts have the advantage that they are not subject to radiation damage, and hence overcome the radiation damage effects that may limit the lifetime of solid fuels such as TRISO-containing pebbles. This molten salt is pumped through the LIFE blanket, out to a heat exchanger and back into the blanket. To mitigate corrosion, steel structures in contact with the molten salt would be plated with tungsten or nickel. The salt will be processed during operation to remove certain fission products (volatile and noble and semi-noble fission products), impurities and corrosion products. In this way neutron absorbers (fission products) are removed and neutronics performance of the molten salt is somewhat better than that of the TRISO fuel case owing to the reduced parasitic absorption. In addition, the production of Pu and rare-earth elements (REE) causes these elements to build up in the salt, and leads to a requirement for a process to remove the REE during operation to insure that the solubility of a mixed (Pu,REE)F3 solid solution is not exceeded anywhere in the molten salt system. Removal of the REE will further enhance the neutronics performance. With molten salt fuels, the plant would need to be safeguarded because materials of interest for weapons are produced and could potentially be removed.

Moir, R; Brown, N; Caro, A; Farmer, J; Halsey, W; Kaufman, L; Kramer, K; Latkowski, J; Powers, J; Shaw, H; Turchi, P

2008-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

334

Assessment of the Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Purifying Coolant and Heat Transfer Salts in the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor.

Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

335

In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As directed by ''Technical Work Plan For: Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY03 Work Activities'' (BSC 2003 [165601]), the In-Drift Precipitates/Salts (IDPS) model is developed and refined to predict the aqueous geochemical effects of evaporation in the proposed repository. The purpose of this work is to provide a model for describing and predicting the postclosure effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the chemical composition of water within the proposed Engineered Barrier System (EBS). Application of this model is to be documented elsewhere for the Total System Performance Assessment License Application (TSPA-LA). The principal application of this model is to be documented in REV 02 of ''Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model'' (BSC 2003 [165601]). The scope of this document is to develop, describe, and validate the IDPS model. This model is a quasi-equilibrium model. All reactions proceed to equilibrium except for several suppressed minerals in the thermodynamic database not expected to form under the proposed repository conditions within the modeling timeframe. In this revision, upgrades to the EQ3/6 code (Version 8.0) and Pitzer thermodynamic database improve the applicable range of the model. These new additions allow equilibrium and reaction-path modeling of evaporation to highly concentrated brines for potential water compositions of the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO{sub 3}-SO{sub 4}-Br-CO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O at temperatures in the range of 0 C to 125 C, pressures in the atmospheric range, and relative humidity in the range of 0 to 100 percent. This system applies to oxidizing conditions only, and therefore limits the model to applications involving oxidizing conditions. A number of thermodynamic parameters in the Pitzer database have values that have not been determined or verified for the entire temperature range. In these cases, the known values are used to approximate the values for the rest of the temperature range. Although such treatment contributes to uncertainty in model outputs, the model validation test cases indicate that the model, with its associated uncertainty, is valid for its intended use. The intended use of this model is to estimate and tabulate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation, deliquescence, and potential environmental conditions on the pH, ionic strength, and chemical compositions of water and minerals on the drip shield or other location within the drift during the postclosure period.

P. Mariner

2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

336

Molten Salts for High Temperature Reactors: University of Wisconsin Molten Salt Corrosion and Flow Loop Experiments -- Issues Identified and Path Forward  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Considerable amount of work is going on regarding the development of high temperature liquid salts technology to meet future process needs of Next Generation Nuclear Plant. This report identifies the important characteristics and concerns of high temperature molten salts (with lesson learned at University of Wisconsin-Madison, Molten Salt Program) and provides some possible recommendation for future work

Piyush Sabharwall; Matt Ebner; Manohar Sohal; Phil Sharpe; Thermal Hydraulics Group

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

3-D physical modeling of a complex salt canopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent drilling has confirmed both significant reservoir potential and the presence of commercial hydrocarbons below salt structures in the Gulf of Mexico. Obtaining definitive seismic images with standard processing schemes beneath these salt structures is very difficult if not impossible. Because of the complicated seismic behavior of these structures, full volume 3-D prestack depth migration is required. Unfortunately, carrying out the multitude of calculations needed to create a proper image requires the largest and fastest supercomputers and rather complex numerical algorithms. Furthermore, developing and testing the imaging algorithms is quite involved and requires appropriate test data sets. To better understand the problems and issues of subsalt imaging, Marathon Oil Company and Louisiana Land and Exploration Company contracted with the University of Houston`s Allied Geophysical Laboratories (AGL) to construct a salt canopy physical model. The model is patterned after the SEG/EAEG Salt Model and is made from synthetic materials. It is a full three-dimensional model with an irregularly shaped, lateral salt structure embedded in five distinct sedimentary layers. The model was used to acquire a multi-offset 3-D marine-style survey. These data are being used to address problems of subsalt imaging. In addition to standard processing techniques, the authors investigate algorithms for multiple removal and prestack depth migration.

Wiley, R.W. [Marathon Oil Co., Littleton, CO (United States); Sekharan, K.K. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Allied Geophysical Labs.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

338

Disposal of soluble salt waste from coal gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper addresses pollutants in the form of soluble salts and resource recovery in the form of water and land. A design for disposal of soluble salts has been produced. The interactions of its parameters have been shown by a process design study. The design will enable harmonious compliance with United States Public Laws 92-500 and 94-580, relating to water pollution and resource recovery. In the disposal of waste salt solutions, natural water resources need not be contaminated, because an encapsulation technique is available which will immobilize the salts. At the same time it will make useful landforms available, and water as a resource can be recovered. There is a cost minimum when electrodialysis and evaporation are combined, which is not realizable with evaporation alone, unless very low-cost thermal energy is available or unless very high-cost pretreatment for electrodialysis is required. All the processes making up the proposed disposal process are commercially available, although they are nowhere operating commercially as one process. Because of the commercial availability of the processes, the proposed process may be a candidate 'best commercially available treatment' for soluble salt disposal.

McKnight, C.E.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Vitrification of IFR and MSBR halide salt reprocessing wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Both of the genuinely sustainable (breeder) nuclear fuel cycles (IFR - Integral Fast Reactor - and MSBR - Molten Salt Breeder Reactor -) studied by the USA's national laboratories would generate high level reprocessing waste (HLRW) streams consisting of a relatively small amount ( about 4 mole %) of fission product halide (chloride or fluoride) salts in a matrix comprised primarily (about 95 mole %) of non radioactive alkali metal halide salts. Because leach resistant glasses cannot accommodate much of any of the halides, most of the treatment scenarios previously envisioned for such HLRW have assumed a monolithic waste form comprised of a synthetic analog of an insoluble crystalline halide mineral. In practice, this translates to making a 'substituted' sodalite ('Ceramic Waste Form') of the IFR's chloride salt-based wastes and fluoroapatite of the MSBR's fluoride salt-based wastes. This paper discusses my experimental studies of an alternative waste management scenario for both fuel cycles that would separate/recycle the waste's halide and immobilize everything else in iron phosphate (Fe-P) glass. It will describe both how the work was done and what its results indicate about how a treatment process for both of those wastes should be implemented (fluoride and chloride behave differently). In either case, this scenario's primary advantages include much higher waste loadings, much lower overall cost, and the generation of a product (glass) that is more consistent with current waste management practices. (author)

Siemer, D.D. [Idaho National Laboratory, 12N 3167E, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Method for making a uranium chloride salt product  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The subject apparatus provides a means to produce UCl.sub.3 in large quantities without incurring corrosion of the containment vessel or associated apparatus. Gaseous Cl is injected into a lower layer of Cd where CdCl.sub.2 is formed. Due to is lower density, the CdCl.sub.2 rises through the Cd layer into a layer of molten LiCl--KCL salt where a rotatable basket containing uranium ingots is suspended. The CdCl.sub.2 reacts with the uranium to form UCl.sub.3 and Cd. Due to density differences, the Cd sinks down to the liquid Cd layer and is reused. The UCl.sub.3 combines with the molten salt. During production the temperature is maintained at about 600.degree. C. while after the uranium has been depleted the salt temperature is lowered, the molten salt is pressure siphoned from the vessel, and the salt product LiCl--KCl-30 mol % UCl.sub.3 is solidified.

Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Lockport, IL)

2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1988-2011 salt caverns" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma ..delta..P rather than sigma ..delta..P/sup 2/ (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and ..delta..P is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model.

Baes, C.F. Jr.; Gilpatrick, L.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Bronstein, H.R.; Shor, A.J.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Development of high temperature transport technology for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in pyroprocessing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of high-temperature transport technologies for molten salt is a prerequisite and a key issue in the industrialization of pyro-reprocessing for advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The solution of a molten salt centrifugal pump was discarded because of the high corrosion power of a high temperature molten salt, so the suction pump solution was selected. An apparatus for salt transport experiments by suction was designed and tested using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The experimental results of lab-scale molten salt transport by suction showed a 99.5% transport rate (ratio of transported salt to total salt) under a vacuum range of 100 mtorr - 10 torr at 500 Celsius degrees. The suction system has been integrated to the PRIDE (pyroprocessing integrated inactive demonstration) facility that is a demonstrator using non-irradiated materials (natural uranium and surrogate materials). The performance of the suction pump for the transport of molten salts has been confirmed.

Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Hansoo; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Jeong-Guk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daaro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Salt Waste Processing Facility Fact Sheet | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Services » Waste Management » Tank Waste and Waste Processing » Services » Waste Management » Tank Waste and Waste Processing » Salt Waste Processing Facility Fact Sheet Salt Waste Processing Facility Fact Sheet Nuclear material production operations at SRS resulted in the generation of liquid radioactive waste that is being stored, on an interim basis, in 49 underground waste storage tanks in the F- and H-Area Tank Farms. SWPF Fact Sheet More Documents & Publications EIS-0082-S2: Amended Record of Decision Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Technology Readiness Assessment Report EIS-0082-S2: Record of Decision Waste Management Nuclear Materials & Waste Tank Waste and Waste Processing Waste Disposition Packaging and Transportation Site & Facility Restoration Deactivation & Decommissioning (D&D)

344

Savannah River Site - Salt Waste Processing Facility Independent Technical Review  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY INDEPENDENT TECHNICAL REVIEW November 22, 2006 Conducted by: Harry Harmon, Team Lead Civil/Structural Sub Team Facility Safety Sub Team Engineering Sub Team Peter Lowry, Lead James Langsted, Lead George Krauter, Lead Robert Kennedy Chuck Negin Art Etchells Les Youd Jerry Evatt Oliver Block Loring Wyllie Richard Stark Tim Adams Tom Anderson Todd LaPointe Stephen Gosselin Carl Costantino Norman Moreau Patrick Corcoran John Christian Ken Cooper Kari McDaniel _____________________________ Harry D. Harmon ITR Team Leader SPD-SWPF-217 SPD-SWPF-217: Salt Waste Processing Facility Independent Technical Review 11/22/2006 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The ITR Team wishes to thank Shari Clifford of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for

345

Electrodialysis-ion exchange for the separation of dissolved salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy generates and stores a significant quantity of low level, high level, and mixed wastes. As some of the DOE facilities are decontaminated and decommissioned, additional and possibly different forms of wastes will be generated. A significant portion of these wastes are aqueous streams containing acids, bases, and salts, or are wet solids containing inorganic salts. Some of these wastes are quite dilute solutions, whereas others contain large quantities of nitrates either in the form of dissolved salts or acids. Many of the wastes are also contaminated with heavy metals, radioactive products, or organics. Some of these wastes are in storage because a satisfactory treatment and disposal processes have not been developed. This report describes the process of electrodialysis-ion exchange (EDIX) for treating aqueous wastes streams consisting of nitrates, sodium, organics, heavy metals, and radioactive species.

Baroch, C.J.; Grant, P.J.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

346

Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Analytical methods for determining the reactivity of pyrochemical salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pyrochemical processes used for the purification of plutonium have generated quantities of residue that contain varying amounts of reactive metals such as potassium, sodium, calcium, and magnesium. These residues are currently considered hazardous and are being managed under RCRA because of the reactivity characteristic. This designation is based solely on process knowledge. Currently there is no approved procedure for determining the reactivity of a solid with water. A method is being developed to rapidly evaluate the reactivity of pyrochemical salts with water by measuring the rate of hydrogen generation. The method was initially tested with a magnesium containing pyrochemical salt. A detection limit of approximately 0.004 g of magnesium was established. A surrogate molten salt extraction residue was also tested. Extrapolation of test data resulted in a hydrogen generation rate of 4.4 mg/(g min).

Phillips, A.G.; Stakebake, J.L.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Columbus Salt Marsh Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Columbus Salt Marsh Geothermal Area Columbus Salt Marsh Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermal Resource Area: Columbus Salt Marsh Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory and Environmental Issues 4 Exploration History 5 Well Field Description 6 Geology of the Area 7 Geofluid Geochemistry 8 NEPA-Related Analyses (0) 9 Exploration Activities (3) 10 References Area Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: California Exploration Region: Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region GEA Development Phase: 2008 USGS Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: Click "Edit With Form" above to add content History and Infrastructure Operating Power Plants: 0 No geothermal plants listed.

349

Salt transport extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels which contain rare earth and noble metal fission products. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of CaCl[sub 2] and a Cu--Mg alloy containing not less than about 25% by weight Mg at a temperature in the range of from about 750 C to about 850 C to precipitate uranium metal and some of the noble metal fission products leaving the Cu--Mg alloy having transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals and some of the noble metal fission products dissolved therein. The CaCl[sub 2] having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein is separated and electrolytically treated with a carbon electrode to reduce the CaO to Ca metal while converting the carbon electrode to CO and CO[sub 2]. The Ca metal and CaCl[sub 2] is recycled to reduce additional oxide fuel. The Cu--Mg alloy having transuranium metals and rare earth fission product metals and the noble metal fission products dissolved therein is contacted with a transport salt including MgCl[sub 2] to transfer Mg values from the transport salt to the Cu--Mg alloy while transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product metals transfer from the Cu--Mg alloy to the transport salt. Then the transport salt is mixed with a Mg--Zn alloy to transfer Mg values from the alloy to the transport salt while the transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product values dissolved in the salt are reduced and transferred to the Mg--Zn alloy. 2 figs.

Pierce, R.D.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Miller, W.E.

1992-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

350

Nuclear Waste Disposal: Two Social Criteria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1974). 51. Accidents in North American...short-term storage, (ii) long-term...underground caverns mined in salt (7, section...Retrievable surface storage Very low for...low Mined caverns in salt Moderately...removing the salt cake from the storage tanks will...

Gene I. Rochlin

1977-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

351

Heat driven heat pump using paired ammoniated salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cycle for a heat driven heat pump using two salts CaCl/sup 2/.8NH/sup 3/, and ZnCl/sup 2/.4NH3 which may reversibly react with ammonia with the addition or evolution of heat. These salts were chosen so that both ammoniation processes occur at the same temperature so that the heat evolved may be used for comfort heating. The heat to drive the system need only be slightly hotter than 122 C. The low temperature source need only be slightly warmer than 0 C.

Dunlap, R.M.

1980-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

352

Geology of the Salt Creek area, Mason County, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and to the entrapment of. surface water in the fractures. GEOLXiBPBOLOGY The Salt Creek area in @aeon County, Texas is located on the southwestern flank of the Llano Uplift, a structural dome which has been reduced to a topographic basin by erosional processes.... STSUCT "SALCEOL00Y IIegional Structure The Llano region, which includes the Salt Creek area, is a structural dome which has been reduced to a topographic basin by erosional processes. The dose is roughly elliptical with a maximum diameter...

Harwood, William Eugene

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Radar investigation of the Cote Blanche salt dome  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PADAR IiVVESTICATIOH CF THE COZE ELANCHR SALT DO&: A Thests EOHEET DOSAED SZEVAET Subm-'tt. ii' to the Crsduete Coilege of Ter: s AVi', i;nlu xsity in partfal fulfi' line?t of th ': quiremen fc z' tht degree o %P t S "t Clt. 'iCE iugust. l...HIC major Sub jest: Ceoohysfes RADAR INVESTIGATION OP THE COTE BLANCHE SALT DOME A Thesis by ROBERT DONALD STEWART Approved as to style and nor. tent by: (Chairman of Comml ee) ( Ir~c" (Head of De rtment ? Member) (Member) August 1974 ABSTRACT...

Stewart, Robert Donald

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

354

A mechanical model of early salt dome growth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A MECHANICAL MODEL OF EARLY SALT DOME GROWTH A Thesis by FRANK ALBERT IRWIN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1988... Major Subject: Geology A MECHANICAL MODEL OF EARLY SALT DOME GROWTH A Thesis by FRANK ALBERT IRWIN Approved as to style and content by: aymond C. Fletcher (Chair of Committee) John H. Spang (Member) Wi tamR. B ant (Mem ) John H. Sp g (Head...

Irwin, Frank Albert

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

355

Study of maximizing acoustic energy coupling to salt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STUDY OF MAXIMIZING ACOUSTIC ENERGY COUPLING TO SALT A Thesis by YNG-JOV HNANG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major... Subject: Geophysics STUDY OF &MAXIMIZING ACOUSTIC ENERGY COUPLING TO SALT A Thesis by YNG-JOU HWANG Approved as to style and content by: C arrman o ommit e em er em e er Hea o epartment December 1979 ABSTRACT Study of Haximizing Acoustic Energy...

Hwang, Yng-Jou

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

356

Pierre Brest, Jean-Franois Beraud, Vincent de Greef LMS, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Technical Conference Galveston, Texas, USA, 18 ­ 19 April 2011 CREEP CLOSURE RATE OF A SHALLOW CAVERN Pierre de l'Est, Levallois-Perret, France Abstract Cavern creep closure rate was recorded in the SG13-SG14 salt cavern of the Gellenoncourt brine field operated by CSME at Gellenoncourt in Lorraine, France

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

357

Geology as an Agent in Human Welfare  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...on the walls of caverns, as well as ivory...frequently to great caverns. They are common...caves and great caverns occur in many places...there as a result of accident or temporary neces...but also for the storage of corn and other...and vari ous other salts of calcium, sodium...

R. A. F. PENROSE; JR.

358

,"Underground Natural Gas Storage - Storage Fields Other than...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Underground Natural Gas Storage - Storage Fields Other than Salt Caverns",8,"Monthly","102014","115...

359

New York State Electric & Gas Corporation Smart Grid Demonstration...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

in Binghamton, New York. Overview Demonstrate an advanced, less costly 150 MW Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) technology plant using an existing salt cavern. The project will...

360

Microbiological and Physical Properties of Salt Marsh and Microecosystem Sediments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...MES. ATP in the high marsh was found to be significantly...sediment properties (r = 0.539, s = 0...sampled in the high marsh. r witha: Variable Ma...PROPERTIES OF SALT MARSH AND MES SEDIMENTS 667 9. Fallon, R. D., and F. K...

Michael Reichgott; L. Harold Stevenson

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1988-2011 salt caverns" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

A Study on Natural Radioactivity in Khewra Salt Mines, Pakistan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......The excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) was calculated...salt mines (Excluding Uranium) of some other countries...and Excess Life Time Cancer Risk (%) in the Khewra...than the other non-uranium mines.5) The average...and Excess Life Time Cancer Risk (100%) are calculated......

Muzahir Ali Baloch; Aziz Ahmed Qureshi; Abdul Waheed; Muhammad Ali; Nawab Ali; Muhammad Tufail; Saima Batool; Muhammad Akram; Poonam Iftikhar; Hamza Qayyum; Shahid Manzoor; Hameed Ahmed Khan

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Acoustic propagation characteristics of the estuarine salt wedge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The estuarine environment often hosts a salt wedge—a layer of denser seawater advected by the rising tide under fresh water discharged by the river. The nature of the stratification is a function of the tide's range and speed of advance river discharge volumetric flow rate and river mouth morphology. The competing effects of temperature and salinity on sound speed present the question: Is the salt wedge acoustically observable? Using temperature and salinity profiles collected in situ numerical results show that the salt wedge can impact acoustic propagation. Acoustically this environment consists of two isospeed layers separated by a thin gradient. While this three-layer very shallow water acoustic waveguide is typically dominated by high angle multipath propagation refraction occurring in the gradient layer allows some low-angle energy from near-surface sources to be trapped in the upper layer. Acoustic fluctuations observed at an upstream or downstream receiver depend upon the interaction between the advancing and receding tide and the river discharge which can include the presence of internal waves propagating along the top of the salt wedge.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Acoustic propagation characteristics of the estuarine salt wedge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The estuarine environment often hosts a salt wedge-a layer of denser seawater advected by the rising tide under fresh water discharged by the river. The nature of the stratification is a function of the tide's range and speed of advance river discharge volumetric flow rate and river mouth morphology. The competing effects of temperature and salinity on sound speed present the question: Is the salt wedge acoustically observable? Using temperature and salinity profiles collected in situ numerical results show that the salt wedge can impact acoustic propagation. Acoustically this environment can be approximated by two isospeed layers separated by a thin gradient. While this three-layer very shallow water acoustic waveguide is typically dominated by high angle multipath propagation refraction occurring in the gradient layer allows low-angle energy from near-surface sources to be trapped above the gradient and creates a shadow zone below the gradient. Energy from near-bottom sources is refracted to higher angles and attenuated more quickly. Acoustic fluctuations observed at an upstream/downstream receiver depend upon the presence/absence of bedforms and the interaction between the advancing/receding tide and the river discharge which can include the presence of internal waves propagating along the top of the salt wedge.

D. B. Reeder

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Supporting Information for: Salt concentration differences alter membrane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). The membrane area available for ion transport was 11.4 cm2 . Platinum mesh electrodes that spanned the crossS1 Supporting Information for: Salt concentration differences alter membrane resistance in reverse-814-867-1847 #12;S2 Membrane resistance measurement Without a concentration difference Membrane resistance

365

Continuous Commissioning of Salt Lake Community College South City Campus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

], and a very old building, the South City campus of Salt Lake Community College. This paper describes the measures and savings results from the CC® process at the Community College. The energy savings amounted to 15% of the annual utility bill. While most...

Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Hood, J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Thermohaline convection with nonlinear salt profiles N. J. Balmfortha)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of tem- perature and salinity; the background temperature gradient is constant, while the salt profile tangent profile is presented. It is shown that nonlinearity in the background salinity profile leads of temperature and salinity. Hence we need to jus- tify our study of the stability of this background

Julien, Keith

367

Salt Lake City, Utah: Solar in Action (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Salt Lake City, UT, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

Not Available

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HEPA filtration. On April 11, 2014, in anticipation of investigation of the source of a radiological on the possibility that a container of inadequately remediated nitrate salt bearing waste had caused the release and is the most Page 1 of 17 #12;likely source of the release. Further investigation is underway to determine

Napp, Nils

369

Salt structures and hydrocarbons in the Pricaspian basin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...could be used unrefined to fuel diesel-engine Russian armored vehicles during...4a). This folding and the more general Early Jurassic (Cimmerian) uplift...Figure 4b) and so is found in the general region of salt overhangs (Figure...

Yuri Volozh; Christopher Talbot; Alik Ismail-Zadeh

370

Water, Vapor, and Salt Dynamics in a Hot Repository  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a new model study examining the high temperature nuclear waste disposal concept at Yucca Mountain using MULTIFLUX, an integrated in-drift- and mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model. The results show that a large amount of vapor flow into the drift is expected during the period of above-boiling temperatures. This phenomenon makes the emplacement drift a water/moisture attractor during the above-boiling temperature operation. The evaporation of the percolation water into the drift gives rise to salt accumulation in the rock wall, especially in the crown of the drift for about 1500 years in the example. The deposited salts over the drift footprint, almost entirely present in the fractures, may enter the drift either by rock fall or by water drippage. During the high temperature operation mode, the barometric pressure variation creates fluctuating relative humidity in the emplacement drift with a time period of approximately 10 days. Potentially wet and dry conditions and condensation on salt-laden drift wall sections may adversely affect the storage environment. Salt accumulations during the above-boiling temperature operation must be sufficiently addressed to fully understand the waste package environment during the thermal period. Until the questions are resolved, a below-boiling repository design is favored where the Alloy-22 will be less susceptible to localized corrosion. (authors)

Bahrami, Davood; Danko, George [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, NV, 89557 (United States); Walton, John [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University, El Paso, TX, 79968 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Bile Salts and Nuclear Receptors in Biliary Epithelial Cell Pathophysiology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Michigan. This opportunity to complete a research program allowed me to pursue my career as an associate receptors 17 3. Research program 19 3.1. VDR in biliary-type liver diseases 20 3.2. VDR in fatty liverBile Salts and Nuclear Receptors in Biliary Epithelial Cell Pathophysiology by Dr. Nicolas Chignard

Boyer, Edmond

372

Anionic Salt Programs for Close-Up Dry Cows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dairy farmers can improve long-term milk production by having a well-managed program for dry cows during the last 3 weeks before calving. This publication explains how an anionic salt program can help control subclinical hypocalcemia and "droopy cow...

Stokes, Sandra R.

1998-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

373

TGS measurements of pyrochemical salts at Rocky Flats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new skid-mounted tomographic gamma scanner (TGS) was designed to assist in the decommissioning of Rocky Flats Building 37 1, This instrument was used to assay pyrochemical salts as a prerequisite for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The following paper discusses measurement challenges and results from the first year of operation of the instrument.

Mercer, D. J. (David J.); Hansen, J. S. (J. Steven); Lestone, J. P. (John P.); Prettyman, T. H. (Thomas H.)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Molten-Salt-Based Growth of Group III Nitrides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for growing Group III nitride materials using a molten halide salt as a solvent to solubilize the Group-III ions and nitride ions that react to form the Group III nitride material. The concentration of at least one of the nitride ion or Group III cation is determined by electrochemical generation of the ions.

Waldrip, Karen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Tsao, Jeffrey Y. (Albuquerque, NM); Kerley, Thomas M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

375

Proceedings of 3rd US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design,  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Proceedings of 3rd US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Proceedings of 3rd US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation Proceedings of 3rd US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation The 3rd U.S./German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design and Operation was held in Albuquerque and Carlsbad, New Mexico on October 8-11, 2012. Approximately 60 salt research scientists from Germany and the United States met to discuss repository science state of the art. Workshop topics included: 1) Safety case for heat-generating waste disposal in salt; 2) Benchmark modeling in preparation for thermomechanical field-scale tests; and 3) Reconsolidation of granular salt. Collaboration being pursued by U.S. and German salt repository researchers is presented in the report.

376

Vegetation Change in Salt Marshes of Cape Cod National Seashore (Massachusetts, USA) Between 1984 and 2013  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Vegetation patterns in salt marshes are largely based on elevation in relation to tidal flooding. In New England salt marshes, vegetation is distinctly zoned into species that occur in the high marsh (elevatio...

Stephen M. Smith

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Physiological Diversity of the Rhizosphere Diazotroph Assemblages of Selected Salt Marsh Grasses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...from the rhizosphere of salt marsh grasses, abstr. N-208 . Bally R. Thomas-Bauzon D. Heulin...W. Gas transport in the marsh grass, Spartina alterniflora. . Turner R. E. Geographic variations in salt marsh macrophyte production: a...

Christopher E. Bagwell; Yvette M. Piceno; Amy Ashburne-Lucas; Charles R. Lovell

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Effects of electrolyte salts on the performance of Li-O2 batteries...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

electrolyte salts on the performance of Li-O2 batteries. Effects of electrolyte salts on the performance of Li-O2 batteries. Abstract: It is well known that the stability of...

379

Effects of Nutrient Additions on Three Coastal Salt Marsh Plants Found in Sunset Cove, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Eutrophication, particularly due to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) input, has been massively altered by anthropogenic activities. Thus it is important to understand the impact on salt marsh plants; however studies on salt marsh plants within...

Rulon, Leslie

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

380

Increment of specific heat capacity of solar salt with SiO2 nanoparticles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, salt-based nanofluid based on solar salt and SiO2...nanoparticles prepared by the Shin and Banerjee method was investigated. The optimal nanoparticle concentration was found and the stability of the...

Patricia Andreu-Cabedo; Rosa Mondragon; Leonor Hernandez…

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1988-2011 salt caverns" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Salt deformation history and postsalt structural trends, offshore southern Gabon, West Africa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Salt deformation in offshore southern Gabon is represented by mobilization of an Aptian salt layer in reaction to Tertiary clastic progradation. Seismic mapping of salt bodies and associated faulting has resulted in increased understanding of the types and distribution of these salt bodies, their associated faulting patterns, and some aspects of their origin. Away from the Tertiary depocenter, the growth history of salt swells or pillows can be determined by examining onlapping and draping seismic reflectors. Significant Tertiary clastic progradation into the area mobilized the salt and resulted in a series of linear, deep salt walls and asymmetric, basinward-dipping salt rollers, commonly associated with significant up-to-basin faulting dominates the southern Gabon subbasin. The expansion history of associated sediments suggests that these faults expanded episodically throughout the Tertiary, continuing to present-day bathymetric fault scarps. The bias toward up-to-basin faults, to the apparent exclusion of down-to-basin expansion faults, remains enigmatic.

Liro, L.M. [Texaco Exploration and Production Technology Dept., Houston, TX (United States); Coen, R. [British Gas, Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

382

Molten Salt Nanomaterials for Thermal Energy Storage and Concentrated Solar Power Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thermal efficiency from 54 percent to 63 percent. However, very few thermal storage materials are compatible for these high temperatures. Molten salts are thermally stable up to 600 degrees C and beyond. Using the molten salts as the TES materials...

Shin, Donghyun

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

383

Examination of the Effects of Sea Salt Aerosols on Southeast Texas Ozone and Secondary Organic Aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of this research is to examine sea salt aerosols and their impact on polluted environments. Sea salt aerosols act as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) as well as providing a surface for heterogeneous reactions. Such reactions have implications for trace gases...

Benoit, Mark David

2013-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

384

E-Print Network 3.0 - air pollution salt Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

salt Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: air pollution salt Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Contact: Lori M. Quillen, Director of...

385

Refueling Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The liquid-salt-cooled very high-temperature reactor (LS-VHTR), also called the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR), is a new reactor concept that combines in a novel way four established technologies: (1) coated-particle graphite-matrix nuclear fuels, (2) Brayton power cycles, (3) passive safety systems and plant designs previously developed for liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors, and (4) low-pressure liquid-salt coolants. Depending upon goals, the peak coolant operating temperatures are between 700 and 1000 deg. C, with reactor outputs between 2400 and 4000 MW(t). Several fluoride salt coolants that are being evaluated have melting points between 350 and 500 deg. C, values that imply minimum refueling temperatures between 400 and 550 deg. C. At operating conditions, the liquid salts are transparent and have physical properties similar to those of water. A series of refueling studies have been initiated to (1) confirm the viability of refueling, (2) define methods for safe rapid refueling, and (3) aid the selection of the preferred AHTR design. Three reactor cores with different fuel element designs (prismatic, pebble bed, and pin-type fuel assembly) are being evaluated. Each is a liquid-salt-cooled variant of a graphite-moderated high-temperature reactor. The refueling studies examined applicable refueling experience from high-temperature reactors (similar fuel element designs) and sodium-cooled fast reactors (similar plant design with liquid coolant, high temperatures, and low pressures). The findings indicate that refueling is viable, and several approaches have been identified. The study results are described in this paper. (authors)

Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Peterson, Per F. [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California at Berkeley, 6124a Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cahalan, James E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Enneking, Jeffrey A. [Areva NP (United States); Phil MacDonald [Consultant, Cedar Hill, TX (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are comprised of many miles of fluid-filled pipes arranged in large grids with reflective mirrors used to capture radiation from the sun. Solar radiation heats the fluid which is used to produce steam necessary to power large electricity generation turbines. Currently, organic, oil-based fluid in the pipes has a maximum temperature threshold of 400 °C, allowing for the production of electricity at approximately 15 cents per kilowatt hour. The DOE hopes to foster the development of an advanced heat transfer fluid that can operate within higher temperature ranges. The new heat transfer fluid, when used with other advanced technologies, could significantly decrease solar electricity cost. Lower costs would make solar thermal electricity competitive with gas and coal and would offer a clean, renewable source of energy. Molten salts exhibit many desirable heat transfer qualities within the range of the project objectives. Halotechnics developed advanced heat transfer fluids (HTFs) for application in solar thermal power generation. This project focused on complex mixtures of inorganic salts that exhibited a high thermal stability, a low melting point, and other favorable characteristics. A high-throughput combinatorial research and development program was conducted in order to achieve the project objective. Over 19,000 candidate formulations were screened. The workflow developed to screen various chemical systems to discover salt formulations led to mixtures suitable for use as HTFs in both parabolic trough and heliostat CSP plants. Furthermore, salt mixtures which will not interfere with fertilizer based nitrates were discovered. In addition for use in CSP, the discovered salt mixtures can be applied to electricity storage, heat treatment of alloys and other industrial processes.

Raade, Justin; Roark, Thomas; Vaughn, John; Bradshaw, Robert

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

387

Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system customer interface document.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories has a unique test capability called the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system. MSTL is a test capability that allows customers and researchers to test components in flowing, molten nitrate salt. The components tested can range from materials samples, to individual components such as flex hoses, ball joints, and valves, up to full solar collecting systems such as central receiver panels, parabolic troughs, or linear Fresnel systems. MSTL provides realistic conditions similar to a portion of a concentrating solar power facility. The facility currently uses 60/40 nitrate %E2%80%9Csolar salt%E2%80%9D and can circulate the salt at pressure up to 40 bar (600psi), temperature to 585%C2%B0C, and flow rate of 44-50kg/s(400-600GPM) depending on temperature. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for customers to evaluate the applicability to their testing needs, and to provide an outline of expectations for conducting testing on MSTL. The document can serve as the basis for testing agreements including Work for Others (WFO) and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA). While this document provides the basis for these agreements and describes some of the requirements for testing using MSTL and on the site at Sandia, the document is not sufficient by itself as a test agreement. The document, however, does provide customers with a uniform set of information to begin the test planning process.

Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.; Briggs, Ronald D.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

389

Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants-containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid. 6 figs.

Tsai, S.P.

1997-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

390

Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid.

Tsai, Shih-Perng (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

E-Print Network 3.0 - acids lead salts Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

-Partial list Chemical Incompatibilities Summary: hypochlorite, all oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium Chlorates Ammonium salts, acids, powdered metals... ammonium...

392

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid ammonium salt Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

-Partial list Chemical Incompatibilities Summary: hypochlorite, all oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium Chlorates Ammonium salts, acids, powdered metals... ammonium...

393

Acemetacin cocrystals and salts: structure solution from powder X-ray data and form selection of the piperazine salt  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Multi-component crystals of the anti-inflammatory drug acemetacin were prepared by melt crystallization and their X-ray crystal structures solved using single-crystal and high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) data. The acemetacin-para-aminobenzoic acid adduct and the acemetacin piperazine salt are stable to hydration in the aqueous medium (up to 24 h).

Sanphui, P.

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

394

The Arabidopsis salt overly sensitive 4 Mutants Uncover a Critical Role for Vitamin B6 in Plant Salt Tolerance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and development in many different ways. Excess salt causes ion toxicity inside the cell...Phosphate 69-65-8 Mannitol 7439-93-2 Lithium 7440-09-7 Potassium 7440-23-5...Regulation, Plant Genetic Complementation Test Lithium metabolism pharmacology Mannitol pharmacology...

Huazhong Shi; Liming Xiong; Becky Stevenson; Tiegang Lu; Jian-Kang Zhu

2002-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

395

Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The HLW salt waste (salt cake and supernate) now stored at the SRS must be treated to remove insoluble sludge solids and reduce the soluble concentration of radioactive cesium radioactive strontium and transuranic contaminants (principally Pu and Np). These treatments will enable the salt solution to be processed for disposal as saltstone, a solid low-level waste.

Elder, H.H.

2001-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

396

Comparison of Nitrogen Fixation Activity in Tall and Short Spartina alterniflora Salt Marsh Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...North Carolina salt marshes. Ecology 44:445-456. 2. Brooks, R. H., P. L. Brezonik...of a Virginia salt marsh. Chesapeake Sci...Marsho, T. V., R. P. Burchard, and...limitation in salt marsh vegetation, p. 547-563. In R. J. Reimold and...

Roger B. Hanson

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Enumeration of Particle-Bound and Unattached Respiring Bacteria in the Salt Marsh Environment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Respiring Bacteria in the Salt Marsh Environment R. W. Harvey L. Y. Young...Respiring Bacteria in the Salt Marsh Environment R. W. HARVEY AND L. Y...and particulates in salt marsh surface water. Appl...6. Hobbie, J. E., R. J. Daley, and S...

R. W. Harvey; L. Y. Young

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Molten salt as heat transfer fluid for a 500 m2 dish concentrator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molten salt as heat transfer fluid for a 500 m2 dish concentrator Nicolás del Pozo 1 , Rebecca Dunn. Specifically, the objective was to research the behaviour of molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for the SG4, this initial investigation suggests that the use of molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for the ANU 500 m2

399

Genome Sequence of Lentibacillus jeotgali GrbiT, Isolated from Traditional Korean Salt-Fermented Seafood  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...from Traditional Korean Salt-Fermented Seafood Mi-Ja Jung Seong Woon Roh Min-Soo...a traditional Korean salt-fermented seafood, is a strictly aerobic, Gram-positive...Jeotgal is a traditional Korean fermented seafood made from salted marine organisms, including...

Mi-Ja Jung; Seong Woon Roh; Min-Soo Kim; Tae Woong Whon; Jin-Woo Bae

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Genome Sequence of Brachybacterium squillarum M-6-3T, Isolated from Salt-Fermented Seafood  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...M-6-3T, Isolated from Salt-Fermented Seafood Seong-Kyu Park Seong Woon Roh Tae Woong...M-6-3T was isolated from salt-fermented seafood in Korea and belongs to the Dermabacteraceae...nov., isolated from salt-fermented seafood. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol...

Seong-Kyu Park; Seong Woon Roh; Tae Woong Whon; Jin-Woo Bae

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1988-2011 salt caverns" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

On the biogeography of salt limitation: A study of ant communities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Taxonomic decomposition of salt use across 17 ant communities...trophic level decreases salt recruitment. We did so...Arizona 4 Stateline 9 Warm desert 389 4 31.95 N 109...Green 32.5 Florida 6 Scrub 11 Pine scrub 4 4 27.59...the same way that “salt licks” increase the...

Michael Kaspari; Stephen P. Yanoviak; Robert Dudley

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Salt Disposal Investigations to Study Thermally Hot Radioactive Waste In A Deep Geologic Repository in Bedded Rock Salt - 12488  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A research program is proposed to investigate the behavior of salt when subjected to thermal loads like those that would be present in a high-level waste repository. This research would build upon results of decades of previous salt repository program efforts in the US and Germany and the successful licensing and operation of a repository in salt for disposal of defense transuranic waste. The proposal includes a combination of laboratory-scale investigations, numerical simulations conducted to develop validated models that could be used for future repository design and safety case development, and a thermal field test in an underground salt formation with a configuration that replicates a small portion of a conceptual repository design. Laboratory tests are proposed to measure salt and brine properties across and beyond the range of possible repository conditions. Coupled numerical models will seek to describe phenomenology (thermal, mechanical, and hydrological) observed in the laboratory tests. Finally, the field test will investigate many phenomena that have been variously cited as potential issues for disposal of thermally hot waste in salt, including buoyancy effects and migration of pre-existing trapped brine up the thermal gradient (including vapor phase migration). These studies are proposed to be coordinated and managed by the Carlsbad Field Office of DOE, which is also responsible for the operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) within the Office of Environmental Management. The field test portion of the proposed research would be conducted in experimental areas of the WIPP underground, far from disposal operations. It is believed that such tests may be accomplished using the existing infrastructure of the WIPP repository at a lower cost than if such research were conducted at a commercial salt mine at another location. The phased field test is proposed to be performed over almost a decade, including instrumentation development, several years of measurements during heating and then subsequent cooling periods, and the eventual forensic mining back of the test bed to determine the multi-year behavior of the simulated waste/rock environment. Funding possibilities are described, and prospects for near term start-up are discussed. Mining of the access drifts required to create the test area in the WIPP underground began in November 2011. Because this mining uses existing WIPP infrastructure and labor, it is estimated to take about two years to complete the access drifts. WIPP disposal operations and facility maintenance activities will take priority over the SDI field test area mining. Funding of the SDI proposal was still being considered by DOE's Offices of Environmental Management and Nuclear Energy at the time this paper was written, so no specific estimates of the progress in 2012 have been included. (authors)

Nelson, Roger A. [DOE, Carlsbad Field Office, Carlsbad NM (United States); Buschman, Nancy [DOE, Office of Environmental Management, Washington DC (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Influences of salt structures on reservoir rocks in block L-2, Dutch continental shelf  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the subsurface of the Netherlands Continental Shelf, thick layers of Zechstein salt have developed into salt domes and ridges that pierce through the overlying formations. To measure the range of lateral influence of the salt in these structures on the sandstone reservoir rocks of the Mesozoic sequence, a cementation model was developed. The target area, Block L-2, was chosen for the presence of salt domes, wells, and reservoir rocks. The L-2 case study has been performed on two Triassic sandstone intervals. The lower, Volpriehausen, sandstone showed halite cementation in one well, located within several 100 m from a salt dome. Four other wells, located more than 1.5 km from a salt structure, did not show any signs of halite cementation. Therefore, the lateral influence of salt domes on the surrounding reservoir rock is, in this case, limited to less than 1.5 km at 3-4 km depth. A slightly shallower Triassic sandstone (Detfurth) shows more frequent halite cementation. This cementation can be attributed to early seepage from overlying Rot salt brines.Triassic Rot salt is present above depletion areas of the Zechstein salt structures, and in such a way the seepage can be seen as an indirect influence of the salt structures.

Dronkert, H. (Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)); Remmelts, G. (Geological Survey of the Netherlands, Haarlem (Netherlands))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Salt Lake City, Utah: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

(Redirected from Salt Lake City, UT) (Redirected from Salt Lake City, UT) Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 40.7607793°, -111.8910474° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.7607793,"lon":-111.8910474,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

405

Salt River Electric Coop Corp | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Salt River Electric Coop Corp Salt River Electric Coop Corp Place Kentucky Utility Id 16587 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location RFC NERC SERC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png 100 (Decorative Underground) HPS 48 kWh Outdoor Lighting Lighting 100 Watt HPS 48 kWh Outdoor Lighting Lighting 175 Watt MV 75 kWh Outdoor Lighting Lighting 175 Wattage (Underground) MV 75 kWh (without pole) Lighting 250 Watt HPS 104 kWh Outdoor Lighting Lighting 400 Watt HPS 165 kWh Outdoor Lighting Lighting Cogeneration and small power production power purchase rate schedule less

406

Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor Development Roadmap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs) are an emerging reactor class with potentially advantageous performance characteristics and fully passive safety. This paper provides an overview of a technology development pathway for expeditious commercial deployment of first-generation FHRs. The paper describes the principal remaining FHR technology challenges and the development path needed to address the challenges. First-generation FHRs do not appear to require any technology breakthroughs, but will require significant technology development and demonstration. FHRs are currently entering early phase engineering development. As such, the development roadmap is not as technically detailed or specific as would be the case for a more mature reactor class. The higher cost of fuel and coolant; the lack of an approved licensing framework; the lack of qualified, salt-compatible structural materials; and the potential for tritium release into the environment are the most obvious issues that remain to be resolved.

Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL] [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL] [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL] [ORNL; Pointer, William David [ORNL] [ORNL; Robb, Kevin R [ORNL] [ORNL; Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Separation of actinides from lanthanides utilizing molten salt electrorefining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

TRUMP-S (TRansUranic Management through Pyropartitioning Separation) is a pyrochemical process being developed to separate actinides form fission products in nuclear waste. A key process step involving molten salt electrorefining to separate actinides from lanthanides has been studied on a laboratory scale. Electrorefining of U, Np, Pu, Am, and lanthanide mixtures from molten cadmium at 450 C to a solid cathode utilizing a molten chloride electrolyte resulted in > 99% removal of actinides from the molten cadmium and salt phases. Removal of the last few percent of actinides is accompanied by lowered cathodic current efficiency and some lanthanide codeposition. Actinide/lanthanide separation ratios on the cathode are ordered U > Np > Pu > Am and are consistent with predictions based on equilibrium potentials.

Grimmett, D.L.; Fusselman, S.P.; Roy, J.J.; Gay, R.L. [Rockwell International, Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.; Krueger, C.L.; Storvick, T.S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Research Reactor Facility; Inoue, T.; Hijikata, T. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.; Takahashi, N. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Nuclear Systems Div.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With growing concerns in the production of reliable energy sources, the next generation in reliable power generation, hybrid energy systems, are being developed to stabilize these growing energy needs. The hybrid energy system incorporates multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilizing and storing the overproduction of energy to meet peak demands of energy at the time of need. With high thermal energy production of the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct properties. This paper will discuss the different energy storage options with the criteria for efficient energy storage set forth, and will primarily focus on different molten salt energy storage system options through a thermodynamic analysis

P. Sabharwall; M. Green; S.J. Yoon; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; C. Stoots

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs.

Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Generic effluent monitoring system certification for salt well portable exhauster  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tests were conducted to verify that the Generic Effluent Monitoring System (GEMS), as it is applied to the Salt Well Portable Exhauster, meets all applicable regulatory performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. These performance criteria address both the suitability of the air sampling probe location and the transport of the sample to the collection devices. The criteria covering air sampling probe location ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the probe location such that the extracted sample represents the whole. The sample transport criteria ensure that the sampled contaminants are quantitatively delivered to the collection device. The specific performance criteria are described in detail in the report. The tests demonstrated that the GEMS/Salt Well Exhauster system meets all applicable performance criteria. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted the testing using a mockup of the Salt Well Portable Exhauster stack at the Numatec Hanford Company`s 305 Building. The stack/sampling system configuration tested was designed to provide airborne effluent control for the Salt Well pumping operation at some U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, Washington. The portable design of the exhauster allows it to be used in other applications and over a range of exhaust air flowrates (approximately 200 - 1100 cubic feet per minute). The unit includes a stack section containing the sampling probe and another stack section containing the airflow, temperature and humidity sensors. The GEMS design features a probe with a single shrouded sampling nozzle, a sample delivery line, and sample collection system. The collection system includes a filter holder to collect the sample of record and an in-line detector head and filter for monitoring beta radiation-emitting particles.

Glissmeyer, J.A.; Maughan, A.D.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Preliminary siting characterization Salt Disposition Facility - Site B  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A siting and reconnaissance geotechnical program has been completed in S-Area at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This program investigated the subsurface conditions for the area known as ``Salt Disposition Facility (SDF), Site B'' located northeast of H-Area and within the S-Area. Data acquired from the Site B investigation includes both field exploration and laboratory test data.

Wyatt, D.

2000-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

413

Engineering Database of Liquid Salt Thermophysical and Thermochemical Properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to provide a review of thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of candidate molten salt coolants, which may be used as a primary coolant within a nuclear reactor or heat transport medium from the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to a processing plant, for example, a hydrogen-production plant. Thermodynamic properties of four types of molten salts, including LiF-BeF2 (67 and 33 mol%, respectively; also known as FLiBe), LiF-NaF-KF (46.5, 11.5, and 52 mol%, also known as FLiNaK), and KCl-MgCl2 (67 and 33 mol%), and sodium nitrate-sodium nitrite-potassium nitrate (NaNO3–NaNO2–KNO3, (7-49-44 or 7-40-53 mol%) have been investigated. Limitations of existing correlations to predict density, viscosity, specific heat capacity, surface tension, and thermal conductivity, were identified. The impact of thermodynamic properties on the heat transfer, especially Nusselt number was also discussed. Stability of the molten salts with structural alloys and their compatibility with the structural alloys was studied. Nickel and alloys with dense Ni coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides but not so in chlorides. Of the chromium containing alloys, Hastelloy N appears to have the best corrosion resistance in fluorides, while Haynes 230 was most resistant in chloride. In general, alloys with increasing carbon and chromium content are increasingly subject to corrosion by the fluoride salts FLiBe and FLiNaK, due to attack and dissolution of the intergranular chromium carbide. Future research to obtain needed information was identified.

Manohar S. Sohal; Matthias A. Ebner; Piyush Sabharwall; Phil Sharpe

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Salt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Salt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Salt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Salt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 2006-Dec 12/29 101 2007-Jan 01/05 109 01/12 107 01/19 96 01/26 91 2007-Feb 02/02 78 02/09 63 02/16 52 02/23 54 2007-Mar 03/02 59 03/09 58 03/16 64 03/23 70 03/30 78 2007-Apr 04/06 81 04/13 80 04/20 80 04/27 83 2007-May 05/04 85 05/11 88 05/18 92 05/25 97 2007-Jun 06/01 100 06/08 101 06/15 102 06/22 102 06/29 102

415

Transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation reactor salt deposition studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories has teamed with Foster Wheeler Development Corp. and GenCorp, Aerojet to develop and evaluate a new supercritical water oxidation reactor design using a transpiring wall liner. In the design, pure water is injected through small pores in the liner wall to form a protective boundary layer that inhibits salt deposition and corrosion, effects that interfere with system performance. The concept was tested at Sandia on a laboratory-scale transpiring wall reactor that is a 1/4 scale model of a prototype plant being designed for the Army to destroy colored smoke and dye at Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas. During the tests, a single-phase pressurized solution of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) was heated to supercritical conditions, causing the salt to precipitate out as a fine solid. On-line diagnostics and post-test observation allowed us to characterize reactor performance at different flow and temperature conditions. Tests with and without the protective boundary layer demonstrated that wall transpiration provides significant protection against salt deposition. Confirmation tests were run with one of the dyes that will be processed in the Pine Bluff facility. The experimental techniques, results, and conclusions are discussed.

Haroldsen, B.L.; Mills, B.E.; Ariizumi, D.Y.; Brown, B.G. [and others

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Calculations on seismic coupling of underground explosions in salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report details the results of a theoretical study of seismic coupling and decoupling of underground explosions in a salt medium. A series of chemical and nuclear explosions was carried out years ago in salt domes for the Cowboy and the Dribble programs to provide experimental data on seismic coupling for both tamped explosions and explosions in cavities. The Cowboy program consisted of a series of chemical explosions, and the Dribble program consisted of the tamped nuclear Salmon event, the Sterling nuclear event in the Salmon cavity, and an associated site calibration effort. This report presents the results of extensive computer calculations, which are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. The calculations were extended to give general results on seismic coupling in salt. The measure of seismic coupling for most of this work was the residual reduced displacement potential (residual RDP). The decoupling associated with a shot in a cavity was expressed as the ratio of the resulting residual RDP to that of an equal-sized tamped shot.

Heusinkveld, M.E.

1981-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

417

Preliminary study on high temperature transport technology for molten salt in pyroprocessing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pyroprocessing technology is one of the most promising technologies for an advanced fuel cycle with favorable economic potential and intrinsic proliferation-resistance. In pyroprocessing technology, the development of high-temperature transport technologies for molten salt is a crucial prerequisite and a key issue in the industrialization of pyro-reprocessing. However, there have been a few transport studies on high-temperature molten salt. Three different salt transport technologies (gravity, suction pump, and centrifugal pump) were investigated, a suction pump transport method was selected for molten salt transport owing to its flexibility. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and installed for the development of high temperature molten salt transport technology. About 2 kg of LiCl–KCl eutectic salt was prepared by mixing 99.0%, LiCl and \\{KCl\\} and drying in a convection dry oven at 200 °C for 1 h. Predissolution tests of the prepared LiCl–KCl eutectic salt using the melting reactor of the experimental apparatus was carried out to investigate the dissolution behavior of the prepared LiCl–KCl eutectic salt. From the results of the pre-dissolution test, it was found that prepared LiCl–KCl eutectic salt was well dissolved at 500 °C. High temperature molten salt transport experiments by suction are currently being performed using the prepared LiC–KCl eutectic salt. The preliminary experimental results of lab-scale molten salt transport showed a 99.5% transport rate (ratio of transported salt to total salt) under a vacuum range of 100 m torr–10 torr at 500 °C.

Sung Ho Lee; Hansoo Lee; Jeong-Guk Kim

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Savannah River Site - Salt Waste Processing Facility: Briefing on the Salt Waste Processing Facility Independent Technical Review  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Salt Waste Processing Facility Independent Technical Review Harry Harmon January 9, 2007 2 U.S. Department of Energy Outline * SWPF Process Overview * Major Risks * Approach for Conducting Review * Discussion of Findings * Conclusions 3 U.S. Department of Energy Salt Waste Processing Facility 4 U.S. Department of Energy SWPF Process Overview Alpha Finishing Process CSSX Alpha Strike Process MST/ Sludge Cs Strip Effluent DSS 5 U.S. Department of Energy BOTTOM LINE The SWPF Project is ready to move into final design. 6 U.S. Department of Energy Major Risks * Final geotechnical data potentially could result in redesign of the PC-3 CPA base mat and structure. * Cost and schedule impacts arising from the change from ISO-9001 to NQA-1 quality assurance requirements. * The "de-inventory, flush, and then hands-on

419

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: geochemistry of brine in rock salt in temperature gradients and gamma-radiation fields - a selective annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Evaluation of the extensive research concerning brine geochemistry and transport is critically important to successful exploitation of a salt formation for isolating high-level radioactive waste. This annotated bibliography has been compiled from documents considered to provide classic background material on the interactions between brine and rock salt, as well as the most important results from more recent research. Each summary elucidates the information or data most pertinent to situations encountered in siting, constructing, and operating a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste. The research topics covered include the basic geology, depositional environment, mineralogy, and structure of evaporite and domal salts, as well as fluid inclusions, brine chemistry, thermal and gamma-radiation effects, radionuclide migration, and thermodynamic properties of salts and brines. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Hull, A.B.; Williams, L.B.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Large-scale dynamic compaction demonstration using WIPP salt: Fielding and preliminary results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reconsolidation of crushed rock salt is a phenomenon of great interest to programs studying isolation of hazardous materials in natural salt geologic settings. Of particular interest is the potential for disaggregated salt to be restored to nearly an impermeable state. For example, reconsolidated crushed salt is proposed as a major shaft seal component for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project. The concept for a permanent shaft seal component of the WIPP repository is to densely compact crushed salt in the four shafts; an effective seal will then be developed as the surrounding salt creeps into the shafts, further consolidating the crushed salt. Fundamental information on placement density and permeability is required to ensure attainment of the design function. The work reported here is the first large-scale compaction demonstration to provide information on initial salt properties applicable to design, construction, and performance expectations. The shaft seals must function for 10,000 years. Over this period a crushed salt mass will become less permeable as it is compressed by creep closure of salt surrounding the shaft. These facts preclude the possibility of conducting a full-scale, real-time field test. Because permanent seals taking advantage of salt reconsolidation have never been constructed, performance measurements have not been made on an appropriately large scale. An understanding of potential construction methods, achievable initial density and permeability, and performance of reconsolidated salt over time is required for seal design and performance assessment. This report discusses fielding and operations of a nearly full-scale dynamic compaction of mine-run WIPP salt, and presents preliminary density and in situ (in place) gas permeability results.

Ahrens, E.H.; Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nuclear Waste Technology Repository Isolation Systems

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1988-2011 salt caverns" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Growth faults and salt tectonics in Houston diapir province: relative timing and exploration significance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oil and gas accumulation in Gulf Coast Tertiary strata is contolled mainly by regional growth faults and by salt-related structures. Salt forms the most prominent set of structures in the Houston diapir province of southeast Texas. Recent work in three study areas shows that the Tertiary growth-fault trends, so well displayed along strike to the south-west, continue through this salt basin as well, but they have been deformed by later salt movement. In the Katy area, seismic data disclose early (pre-Wilcox) salt pillows downdip of the Cretaceous reef trend. Salt stocks were injected upward from the pillows during Clayborne deposition, and were flanked by deep withdrawal basins and turtle structures. In Brazoria County, a major lower Frio growth-fault trend affecting the Houston delta system, was deformed by later salt domes, by a salt-withdrawal basin, and by a possible turtle structure at Chocolate Bayou. A productive geopressured aquifer exists in the salt-withdrawal basin bounded by the previously formed growth faults. In Jefferson County, in contrast, salt-tectonic activity and growth faulting appear to have been coeval. Early salt-cored ridges continued to rise throughout Frio deposition; growth faults occur both updip and downdip. Hydrocarbons accumulated over the salt domes in growth-fault anticlines and in stratigraphic traps. Recognition that shelf-margin growth faulting preceded the development of the present pattern of domes and basins has important implications for hydrocarbon exploration. Growth faults may be migration paths for hydrocarbons; furthermore, early formed traps, distorted by salt movement, may still be found to contain hydrocarbons.

Ewing, T.E.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Salt Waste Disposal at the  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Salt Waste Disposal at the Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site The Secretary of Energy is making this 3116 Determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA) [1]. This 3116 Determination concerns the disposal of separated, solidified low-activity radioactive salt waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site More Documents & Publications EIS-0082-S2: Amended Record of Decision Notice of Availability of Section 3116 Determination for Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site

423

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Salt Lake City Vitro Chemical - UT  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Vitro Chemical - UT Vitro Chemical - UT 0-04 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Salt Lake City Vitro Chemical (UT.0-04 ) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radiological Survey(s): Site Status: Also see Salt Lake City, Utah, Processing Site Documents Related to Salt Lake City Vitro Chemical 2012 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title I Disposal Sites-Salt Lake City, Utah, Disposal Site. LMS/S09461. February 2013 Annual Inspection Report - U.S. Department of Energy 2008 UMTRCA Title I Annual Report January 2009 Salt Lake City, Utah 2006 Annual Status Report for the Salt Lake City, Utah, UMTRCA Title

424

Summary - Salt Waste Processing Facility Design at the Savannah River Site  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Salt Waste Processing Facility Salt Waste Processing Facility ETR Report Date: November 2006 ETR-4 United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of the Salt Waste Processing Facility Design at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Why DOE-EM Did This Review The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is intended to remove and concentrate the radioactive strontium (Sr), actinides, and cesium (Cs) from the bulk salt waste solutions in the SRS high-level waste tanks. The sludge and strip effluent from the SWPF that contain concentrated Sr, actinide, and Cs wastes will be sent to the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), where they will be vitrified. The decontaminated salt solution (DSS) that is left after removal of the highly

425

Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Salt Waste Disposal at the  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Salt Waste Disposal at the Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site The Secretary of Energy is making this 3116 Determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA) [1]. This 3116 Determination concerns the disposal of separated, solidified low-activity radioactive salt waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site More Documents & Publications EIS-0082-S2: Amended Record of Decision Notice of Availability of Section 3116 Determination for Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site

426

Concentration and precipitation of NaCl and KCl from salt cake leach solutions by electrodialysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrodialysis was investigated for cost-effective recovery of salt from salt cake leach solutions. (Salt cake is a waste stream generated by the aluminum industry during treatment of aluminum drosses and scrap.) We used a pilot-scale electrodialysis stack of 5 membrane pairs, each with an effective area of 0.02 m{sup 2}. The diluate stream contained synthetic NaCl, KCl,mixtures of NaCl and KCl, and actual salt cake leach solutions (mainly NaCl and KCl, with small amounts of MgCl{sub 2}). We concentrated and precipitated NaCl and KCl salts from the concentrate steam when the initial diluate stream concentration was 21.5 to 28.8 wt% NaCl and KCl. We found that water transferring through the membranes was a significant factor in overall efficiency of salt recovery by electrodialysis.

Sreenivasarao, K; Patsiogiannis, F.; Hryn, J.N.

1997-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

427

SunShot Initiative: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Modular and Scalable Baseload Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant Conceptual Design and Feasibility to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant Conceptual Design and Feasibility on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant Conceptual Design and Feasibility on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant Conceptual Design and Feasibility on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant Conceptual Design and Feasibility on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant Conceptual Design and Feasibility on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Modular and Scalable

428

Transportation of pyrochemical salts from Rocky Flats to Los Alamos  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radioactive legacy wastes or residues are currently being stored on numerous Sites around the former Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nuclear Weapons Complex. Since most of the operating facilities were shut down and have not operated since before the declared end to the Cold War in 1993, the historical method for treating these residues no longer exists. The risk associated with continued storage of these residues will dramatically increase with time. Thus, the DOE was directed by the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board in its Recommendation 94-1 to address and stabilize these residues and established an eight year time frame for doing so. There are only two options available to respond to this requirement: (1) restart existing facilities to treat and package the residues for disposal or (2) transport the residues to another operating facility within the Complex where they can be treated and packaged for disposal. This paper focuses on one such residue type, pyrochemical salts, produced at one Complex site, the Rocky Flats Plant located northwest of Denver, Colorado. One option for treating the salts is their shipment to Los Alamos, New Mexico, for handling at the Plutonium Facility. The safe transportation of these salts can be accomplished at present with several shipping containers including a DOT 6M, a DOE 9968, Type A or Type B quantity 55-gallon drum overpacks, or even the TRUPACT II. The tradeoffs between each container is examined with the conclusion that none of the available shipping containers is fully satisfactory. Thus, the advantageous aspects of each container must be utilized in an integrated and efficient way to effectively manage the risk involved. 1 fig.

Schreiber, S.B.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Blending of Radioactive Salt Solutions in Million Gallon Tanks - 13002  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 - 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, 'One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory'. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks. (authors)

Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

431

Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000 K to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

Lewis, M.A.; Pereira, C.

1997-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

432

Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000.degree. K. to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

Lewis, Michele A. (Naperville, IL); Pereira, Candido (Lisle, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Corrosion of Iron Stainless Steels in Molten Nitrate Salt  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Energy storage for concentrating solar power (CSP) is a major area of research that seeks to lower the levelized cost of electricity within the aggressive SunShot goals of 6¢/kW-hrth[1–3]. One viable approach is sensible thermal energy storage (TES), which currently utilizes molten nitrate binary salt, stored at 575 °C in the hot tank of a two tank system [4,5]. Increasing the temperature limit within the hot tank requires a detailed understanding of materials corrosion behavior, in addition to salt thermal stability properties. High temperature nickel based alloys are the logical choice for strength and corrosion resistance as elevated temperatures will increase corrosion kinetics, however, the cost of nickel based alloys are nearly four times more expensive than iron based steels [6]. For this reason iron based stainless steels, specifically 321SS and 347SS (nominally Fe-17Cr-9Ni), were chosen for investigation at several temperatures in nitrate salt. 316SS, an elementally similar alloy, was susceptible to stress corrosion cracking while tested at Solar Two [4]. It was suggested that alloys with stabilizing additions of niobium (347SS) or titanium (321SS) would mitigate this deleterious behavior. Flat coupon samples were immersed in binary nitrate salts at temperatures of 400, 500, 600, and 680 °C, with air sparging on all tests. Samples were nominally removed at intervals of 500, 1000, 2000, and 3000 hours to acquire data on time varying weight gain information while simultaneously employing metallography to identify corrosion mechanisms occurring within the melt. Corrosion rates varied dramatically with temperature according to an Arrhenius-type behavior. 347SS and 321SS had very little oxidation for 400 and 500 °C, indicative of a protective corrosion scale and low corrosion kinetics. Data at 600 °C showed that 321SS tended toward linear oxidation behavior based on oxide spallation which was observed on the samples upon removal. Corrosion products at 500 °C had phases of iron oxide, with obvious chromium depletion as observed in energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) scans. 600 °C corrosion layers were primarily iron oxide with obvious phases of sodium ferrite on the outer surface. 680 °C marked an excessive rate of corrosion with metal loss in both alloys.

Alan Kruizenga; David Gill

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Electric Polarizability of DNA in Aqueous Salt Solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electric Polarizability of DNA in Aqueous Salt Solution ... At each simulation step, we calculate the contribution to the dipole moment from the first n counterions in the list, constituting the net charge (?x(n), ?y(n), ?z(n)) as follows, where e is the elementary charge and xi, yi, zi are the coordinates of the ith counterion in the list. ... Manning32 has already explained this effect in his two-phase model of polarizability, as reflecting the decreased resistance to distortion of the condensation layer. ...

Hitoshi Washizu; Kazuo Kikuchi

2006-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

435

Advanced Thermal Storage System with Novel Molten Salt: December 8, 2011 - April 30, 2013  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Final technical progress report of Halotechnics Subcontract No. NEU-2-11979-01. Halotechnics has demonstrated an advanced thermal energy storage system with a novel molten salt operating at 700 degrees C. The molten salt and storage system will enable the use of advanced power cycles such as supercritical steam and supercritical carbon dioxide in next generation CSP plants. The salt consists of low cost, earth abundant materials.

Jonemann, M.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

Lewis, Michele A. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Lithium borate cluster salts as novel redox shuttles for overcharge protection of lithium-ion cells.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Redox shuttle is a promising mechanism for intrinsic overcharge protection in lithium-ion cells and batteries. Two lithium borate cluster salts are reported to function as both the main salt for a nonaqueous electrolyte and the redox shuttle for overcharge protection. Lithium borate cluster salts with a tunable redox potential are promising candidates for overcharge protection for most positive electrodes in state-of-the-art lithium-ion cells.

Chen, Z.; Liu, J.; Jansen, A. N.; Casteel, B.; Amine, K.; GirishKumar, G.; Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed. The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts. For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates. 54 figs.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

439

Evolution of stocks and massifs from burial of salt sheets, continental slope, northern Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Salt structures in a 4000-km{sup 2} region of the continental slope, the northeast Green Canyon area, include stocks, massifs, remnant structures, and an allochthonous sheet. Salt-withdrawal basins include typical semicircular basins and an extensive linear trough that is largely salt-free. Counterregional growth faults truncate the landward margin of salt sheets that extend 30-50 km to the Sigsbee Escarpment. The withdrawal basins, stocks, and massifs occur within a large graben between an east-northeast-trending landward zone of shelf-margin growth faults and a parallel trend of counterregional growth faults located 48-64 km basinward. The graben formed by extension and subsidence as burial of the updip portion of a thick salt sheet produced massifs and stocks by downbuilding. Differential loading segmented the updip margin of the salt sheet into stocks and massifs separated by salt-withdrawal basins. Initially, low-relief structures evolved by trap-door growth as half-graben basins buried the salt sheet. Remnant-salt structures and a turtle-structure anticline overlay a salt-weld disconformity in sediments formerly separated by a salt sheet. Age of sediments below the weld is inferred to be be late Miocene to early Pliocene (4.6-5.3 Ma); age of sediments above the weld is late Pliocene (2.8-3.5 Ma). The missing interval of time (1-2.5 Ma) is the duration between emplacement of the salt sheet and burial of the sheet. Sheet extrusion began in the late Miocene to early Pliocene, and sheet burial began in the late Pliocene in the area of the submarine trough to early Pleistocene in the area of the massifs.

Seni, S.J. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Method for removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report details the pyrometallurgical process for recycling spent metal fuels from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) which involves electrorefining spent fuel in a molten salt electrolyte (LiCl-KCI-U/PuCl{sub 3}) at 500{degree}C. The total heavy metal chloride concentration in the salt will be about 2 mol %. At some point, the concentrations of alkali, alkaline earth, and rare earth fission products in the salt must be reduced to lower the amount of heat generated in the electrorefiner. The heavy metal concentration in the salt must be reduced before removing the fission products from the salt. The operation uses a lithium-cadmium alloy anode that is solid at 500{degree}C, a solid mandrel cathode with a ceramic catch crucible below to collect heavy metal that falls off it, and a liquid cadmium cathode. The design criteria that had to be met by this equipment included the following: (1) control of the reduction rate by lithium, (2) good separation between heavy metal and rare earths, and (3) the capability to collect heavy metal and rare earths over a wide range of salt compositions. In tests conducted in an engineering-scale electrorefiner (10 kg uranium per cathode), good separation was achieved while removing uranium and rare earths from the salt. Only 13% of the rare earths was removed, while 99.9% of the uranium in the salt was removed; subsequently, the rare earths were also reduced to low concentrations. The uranium concentration in the salt was reduced to 0.05 ppm after uranium and rare earths were transferred from the salt to a solid mandrel cathode with a catch crucible. Rare earth concentrations in the salt were reduced to less than 0.01 wt % in these operations. Similar tests are planned to remove plutonium from the salt in a laboratory-scale (100--300 g heavy metal) electrorefiner.

Gay, E.C.; Miller, W.E.; Laidler, J.J.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1988-2011 salt caverns" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Preparation of binderless nanopore-isotropic graphite for inhibiting the liquid fluoride salt and Xe135 penetration for molten salt nuclear reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Mesocarbon microbeads and the isostatic pressing method were used to prepare binderless nanopore-isotropic graphite (NPIG) as a neutron moderator and reflector, to inhibit liquid fluoride salt and Xe135 penetration during use in a molten salt nuclear reactor. The microstructure, thermophysical, and other properties of the NPIG were studied and compared with isostatic graphite (IG-110, TOYO TANSO CO., Ltd., Japan). A high-pressure reactor and a vacuum device were constructed to evaluate the molten salt and Xe135 penetration in the graphite, respectively. The results indicated that NPIG possessed a graphitization degree of 74% and excellent properties such as a high bending strength of 94.1 ± 2.5 MPa, a high compressive strength of 230 ± 3 MPa, a low porosity of 8.7%, and an average pore diameter of 69 nm. The fluoride salt occupation of IG-110 was 13.5 wt% under 1.5 atm, whereas the salt gain in NPIG remained steady even up to 10 atm with an increase of <0.06 wt%, demonstrating that the graphite could inhibit the liquid fluoride salt infiltration effectively. The helium diffusion coefficient for NPIG was 8.76 × 10?5 cm2/s, much less than 1.21 × 10?2 cm2/s for IG-110. The NPIG could effectively inhibit liquid fluoride salt and Xe135 penetration.

Jinliang Song; Yanling Zhao; Junpeng Zhang; Xiujie He; Baoliang Zhang; Pengfei Lian; Zhanjun Liu; Dongsheng Zhang; Zhoutong He; Lina Gao; Huihao Xia; Xingtai Zhou; Ping Huai; Quangui Guo; Lang Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

E-Print Network 3.0 - asymmetric salt ion Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in multilayers of weak polyelectrolytes: A neutron reflectometry study Summary: of salt ions and water in thin poly acrylic acid and poly allylamine hydrochloride...

443

Project Profile: Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Halotechnics, under the Thermal Storage FOA, is conducting high-throughput, combinatorial research and development of salt formulations for use as highly efficient heat transfer fluids (HTFs).

444

Levels of metals from salt marsh plants from Southern California, USA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sedimentary record of heavy metal pollution in the lagoon ofcapacity for heavy metals. Environmental Pollution, 146,heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,

Hoyt, Kimberly Ann

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

A Study of Novel Hexavalent Phosphazene Salts as Draw Solutes in Forward Osmosis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two novel multi-valent salts based on phosphazene chemistry have been synthesized and characterized as forward osmosis (FO) draw solutes. Commercially obtained hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene was reacted with the sodium salt of 4-ethylhydroxybenzoate to yield hexa(4-ethylcarboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene. Hydrolysis, followed by and neutralization with NaOH or LiOH, of the resulting acidic moieties yielded water soluble sodium and lithium phosphazene salts, respectively. Degrees of dissociation were determined through osmometry over the range of 0.05-0.5 m, giving degrees of 3.08-4.95 per mole, suggesting a high osmotic potential. The Li salt was found to be more ionized in solution than the sodium salt, and this was reflected in FO experiments where the Li salt gave higher initial fluxes (~ 7 L/m2h) as compared to the sodium salt (~6 L/m2h) at identical 0.07 m draw solution concentrations at 30 °C. Longer term experiments revealed no detectable degradation of the salts; however some hydrolysis of the cellulose acetate membrane was observed, presumably due to the pH of the phosphazene salt draw solution (pH = ~8).

Mark L. Stone; Aaron D. Wilson; Mason K. Harrup; Frederick F. Stewart

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Profile of teen mothers in a Salt Lake County school district;.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The purpose of this descriptive study was to profile young women currently enrolled in a Salt Lake Count school district Young Parent Program. This profile… (more)

Wanlass, Bonnie J.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Three-dimensional visualization of salt walls and associated fault systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abundant three-dimensional (3-D) seismic data from salt provinces have been acquired over the past two decades. These data have been interpreted partly using concepts based on analysis of two-dimensional (2-D) sections through physical and numerical models. Three-dimensional computer visualization of physical models is a recent development that exploits the full potential of model data by displaying even highly irregular geological structures such as convolute salt contacts, strata disrupted by salt tectonics, discontinuous faults, and bedding traces on fault surfaces. We used computer visualization techniques to display and analyze a physical model simulating salt-related structures produced during gravity spreading and gliding. The visualization shows, in realistic 3-D detail, that (1) structures change seaward form tall steep-sided diapirs to squat salt rollers; (2) salt walls change markedly along strike and form branches and relays; (3) subsidence of underlying salt ridges produces irregular turtle-structure closures that tend to have multiple seals; (4) links that laterally connect reservoirs in adjacent rafts are most common in upper stratigraphic levels and seaward positions; and (5) traps adjacent to curved salt walls in map view become increasingly asymmetric with depth, and inner arc traps tend to have smaller area but larger closure compared to outer arc traps. These observations can be applied to exploration of salt-related structural traps on the shelf and slope of divergent continental margins.

Guglielmo, G. Jr.; Jackson, M.P.A.; Vendeville, B.C. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Diagenetic effects of salt intrusions - an alternate model of caprock development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic changes were found as depth increased in texturally homogeneous sediment recovered from six 300-m (985-ft) boreholes on the outer shelf and slope of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. In 2 of the 3 boreholes on the shelf and in all 3 boreholes on the slope, sediments of late Pleistocene age were found to be directly in contact with salt at the top of piercement structures. The other borehole was drilled on the flank of a salt intrusion also penetrating late Pleistocene sediment. In sediments over the top of the salt, the abundance of expandable clays (smectite) compared with nonexpandable clays (illite) decreases with depth. Within the carbonate fraction, delta/sup 13/C values range from -2% near the salt-sediment interface to 1% at the surface. This deviation is apparently a response to reprecipitation adjacent to the salt-sediment interface, with lighter isotopes derived from oxidation of the isotopically light organic matter. No mineralogical, chemical, or isotopic trends were found in sediments on the flank of the salt intrusion. The most commonly accepted model of cap rock formation requires the intrusion of a salt stock into a flowing aquifer, a unit which supplies water needed to dissolve salt concentrate, the anhydrite, and provide the subsequent chemical environment for gypsum and calcite formation. In the proposed model, water is the result of diagenesis caused by sediment-salt interaction. Cap rock formation then may occur well below base level and well out on the continental slope.

Holmes, C.W.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Williston Basin: An analysis of salt drilling techniques for brine-based drilling-fluid systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Williston Basin salt intervals, ranging in depth from 5,000 to 12,500 ft (1525 to 3810 m), have been responsible for widespread casing collapse because of the plastic movement of evaporites and the subsequent point loading of casing. This phenomenon is attributable to poor cement jobs across excessively eroded salt sections. A 2-year study led to the realization that this erosion is a function of not only salt dissolution but also the mechanical action of turbulent flow in the wellbore. A laminar flow regime can be realized and salt enlargement limited by careful control of annular flow rate, jet velocity, and drilling-fluid rheology.

Stash, S.M.; Jones, M.E.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An electrochemical method of separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500{degree}C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li-Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode.

Gay, E.C.

1993-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

451

Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical method of separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500.degree. C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li--Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode.

Gay, Eddie C. (Park Forest, IL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Project- February 2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Evaluation to determine whether Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Project is continuing to perform at a level deserving DOE-VPP Star recognition.

453

Microsoft PowerPoint - S08-02_Rios-Armstrong_SRS Experience Preparing Salt Batches.ppt  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Savannah River Site (SRS) Experience Savannah River Site (SRS) Experience with Preparing Salt Batches Presentation to: EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange Date: November 17 th , 2010 Author: Maria A. Rios-Armstrong Position: Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) Process Engineering Lead Savannah River Remediation SRR-SPT-2010-00222 Print Close 2 Agenda * SRS Composite Inventory * Salt Processing * SRS Liquid Waste System * Background * Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batches - ISDP Salt Batch 1 - ISDP Salt Batch 2 - ISDP Salt Batch 3 - ISDP Salt Batch 4 * Future Salt Batches * Summary * Questions Print Close 3 SRS Composite Inventory Saltcake Sludge Volume 37.1 Million Gallons (Mgal) Curies 183 MCi (52%) 169 MCi (48%) 352 Million Curies (MCi) 171 MCi (49%) Sludge 34.2 Mgal (92%) 2.9 Mgal (8%) 18.4 Mgal (49%) Inventory values as of 2010-06-30

454

Viscosity and Diffusion: Crowding and Salt Effects in Protein Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on a joint experimental-theoretical study of collective diffusion in, and static shear viscosity of solutions of bovine serum albumin (BSA) proteins, focusing on the dependence on protein and salt concentration. Data obtained from dynamic light scattering and rheometric measurements are compared to theoretical calculations based on an analytically treatable spheroid model of BSA with isotropic screened Coulomb plus hard-sphere interactions. The only input to the dynamics calculations is the static structure factor obtained from a consistent theoretical fit to a concentration series of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data. This fit is based on an integral equation scheme that combines high accuracy with low computational cost. All experimentally probed dynamic and static properties are reproduced theoretically with an at least semi-quantitative accuracy. For lower protein concentration and low salinity, both theory and experiment show a maximum in the reduced viscosity, caused by the electrostatic repulsion of proteins. The validity range of a generalized Stokes-Einstein (GSE) relation connecting viscosity, collective diffusion coefficient, and osmotic compressibility, proposed by Kholodenko and Douglas [PRE 51, 1081 (1995)] is examined. Significant violation of the GSE relation is found, both in experimental data and in theoretical models, in semi-dilute systems at physiological salinity, and under low-salt conditions for arbitrary protein concentrations.

Marco Heinen; Fabio Zanini; Felix Roosen-Runge; Diana Fedunová; Fajun Zhang; Marcus Hennig; Tilo Seydel; Ralf Schweins; Michael Sztucki; Marián Antalík; Frank Schreiber; Gerhard Nägele

2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

455

Dynamics of Confined Water Molecules in Aqueous Salt Hydrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The unusual properties of water are largely dictated by the dynamics of the H bond network. A single water molecule has more H bonding sites than atoms, hence new experimental and theoretical investigations about this peculiar liquid have not ceased to appear. Confinement of water to nanodroplets or small molecular clusters drastically changes many of the liquid’s properties. Such confined water plays a major role in the solvation of macro molecules such as proteins and can even be essential to their properties. Despite the vast results available on bulk and confined water, discussions about the correlation between spectral and structural properties continue to this day. The fast relaxation of the OH stretching vibration in bulk water, and the variance of sample geometries in the experiments on confined water obfuscate definite interpretation of the spectroscopic results in terms of structural parameters. We present first time-resolved investigations on a new model system that is ideally suited to overcome many of the problems faced in spectroscopical investigation of the H bond network of water. Aqueous hydrates of inorganic salts provide water molecules in a crystal grid, that enables unambiguous correlations of spectroscopic and structural features. Furthermore, the confined water clusters are well isolated from each other in the crystal matrix, so different degrees of confinement can be achieved by selection of the appropriate salt.

Werhahn, Jasper C.; Pandelov, S.; Yoo, Soohaeng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Iglev, H.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Salt Repository Project waste emplacement mode decision paper: Revison 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper provides a recommendation as to the mode of waste emplacement to be used as the current basis for site characterization activity for the Deaf Smith County, Texas, high level nuclear waste repository site. It also presents a plan for implementing the recommendation so as to provide a high level of confidence in the project's success. Since evaluations of high-level waste disposal in geologic repositories began in the 1950s, most studies emplacement in salt formations employed the vertical orientation for emplacing waste packages in boreholes in the floor of the underground facility. This orientation was used in trials at Project Salt Vault in the 1960s. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has recently settled on a combination of vertical and horizontal modes for various waste types. This paper analyzes the information available and develops a project position upon which to base current site characterization activities. The position recommended is that the SRP should continue to use the vertical waste emplacement mode as the reference design and to carry the horizontal mode as a ''passive'' alternative. This position was developed based upon the conclusions of a decision analysis, risk assessment, and cost/schedule impact assessment. 52 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

SALTS AND RADIATION PRODUCTS ON THE SURFACE OF EUROPA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The surface of Europa could contain the compositional imprint of an underlying interior ocean, but competing hypotheses differ over whether spectral observations from the Galileo spacecraft show the signature of ocean evaporates or simply surface radiation products unrelated to the interior. Using adaptive optics at the W. M. Keck Observatory, we have obtained spatially resolved spectra of most of the disk of Europa at a spectral resolution {approx}40 times higher than seen by the Galileo spacecraft. These spectra show a previously undetected distinct signature of magnesium sulfate salts on Europa, but the magnesium sulfate is confined to the trailing hemisphere and spatially correlated with the presence of radiation products like sulfuric acid and SO{sub 2}. On the leading, less irradiated, hemisphere, our observations rule out the presence of many of the proposed sulfate salts, but do show the presence of distorted water ice bands. Based on the association of the potential MgSO{sub 4} detection on the trailing side with other radiation products, we conclude that MgSO{sub 4} is also a radiation product, rather than a constituent of a Europa ocean brine. Based on ocean chemistry models, we hypothesize that, prior to irradiation, magnesium is primarily in the form of MgCl{sub 2}, and we predict that NaCl and KCl are even more abundant, and, in fact, dominate the non-ice component of the leading hemisphere. We propose observational tests of this new hypothesis.

Brown, M. E. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hand, K. P., E-mail: mbrown@caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

458

A user`s manual for the computer code HORSMIC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The code HORSMIC was written to solve the problem of calculating the shape of hydrocarbon (gas or liquid) storage caverns formed by solution mining in bedded salt formations. In the past many storage cavems have been formed by vertically drilling into salt dome formations and solution mining large-aspect-ratio, vertically-axisymmetric caverns. This approach is generally not satisfactory for shallow salt beds because it would result in geomechanically-unstable, pancake-shaped caverns. In order to produce a high aspect ratio cavern in the horizontal direction a more complicated strategy must be employed. This report describes one such strategy, and documents the use of the computer model HORSMIC which can be used to estimate the shape of the cavern produced by a prescribed leaching schedule. Multiple trials can then be used to investigate the effects of various pipe hole configurations in order to optimize over the cavern shape.

Russo, A.J.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Molten Metal Treatment by Salt Fluxing with Low Environmental Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract: Chlorine gas is traditionally used for fluxing of aluminum melt for removal of alkali and alkaline earth elements. However this results in undesirable emissions of particulate matter and gases such as HCl and chlorine, which are often at unacceptable levels. Additionally, chlorine gas is highly toxic and its handling, storage, and use pose risks to employees and the local community. Holding of even minimal amounts of chlorine necessitates extensive training for all plant employees. Fugitive emissions from chlorine usage within the plant cause accelerated corrosion of plant equipment. The Secondary Aluminum Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) under the Clean Air Act, finalized in March 2000 has set very tough new limits on particulate matter (PM) and total hydrogen chloride emissions from aluminum melting and holding furnaces. These limits are 0.4 and 0.1 lbs per ton of aluminum for hydrogen chloride and particulate emissions, respectively. Assuming new technologies for meeting these limits can be found, additional requirements under the Clean Air Act (Prevention of Significant Deterioration and New Source Review) trigger Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for new sources with annual emissions (net emissions not expressed per ton of production) over specified amounts. BACT currently is lime coated bag-houses for control of particulate and HCl emissions. These controls are expensive, difficult to operate and maintain, and result in reduced American competitiveness in the global economy. Solid salt fluxing is emerging as a viable option for the replacement of chlorine gas fluxing, provided emissions can be consistently maintained below the required levels. This project was a cooperative effort between the Ohio State University and Alcoa to investigate and optimize the effects of solid chloride flux addition in molten metal for alkali impurity and non-metallic inclusion removal minimizing dust and toxic emissions and maximizing energy conservation. In this program, the salt metal interactions were studies and the emissions at laboratory scale at OSU were monitored. The goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding, based on first principles, of the pollutant formation that occurs when the salts are used in furnaces. This information will be used to control process parameters so that emissions are consistently below the required levels. The information obtained in these experiments will be used in industrial furnaces at aluminum plants and which will help in optimizing the process.

Yogeshwar Sahai

2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

460

Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Salt Waste Processing Facility Project  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oversight Assessment of Oversight Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Salt Waste Processing Facility Project May 2011 January 2013 Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Office of Enforcement and Oversight Office of Health, Safety and Security U.S. Department of Energy Independent Oversight Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Salt Waste Processing Facility Project

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1988-2011 salt caverns" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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461

Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Salt Waste Processing Facility Project  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Oversight Assessment of Oversight Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Salt Waste Processing Facility Project May 2011 January 2013 Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Office of Enforcement and Oversight Office of Health, Safety and Security U.S. Department of Energy Independent Oversight Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Salt Waste Processing Facility Project

462

[The Carhart Memorial Lecture, American Auditory Society, Salt Lake City, Utah 1996] Ear & Hearing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

[The Carhart Memorial Lecture, American Auditory Society, Salt Lake City, Utah 1996] Ear & Hearing. Publication Type: [The Carhart Memorial Lecture, American Auditory Society, Salt Lake City, Utah 1996] ISSN and in Sentences Olsen, Wayne O.; Van Tasell, Dianne J.; Speaks, Charles E. Author Information Section of Audiology

Allen, Jont

463

Composition and stability of salts on the surface of Europa and their oceanic origin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperatures and variable partial pressures of water vapor, and (3) changes in aquatic chemistry and sequences. For hypothetical surface salt lag deposits, formed through sublimation/sputtering of ice and dehydration of salts uniform spectrum of that material have been interpreted in terms of sublimation/sputtering of salty ice

Rhoads, James

464

Quantification of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria and Factors Controlling Nitrification in Salt Marsh Sediments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...609-619. 20a Johnson, R., M. LaMontagne, and...denitrification in submerged salt marsh sediments. Biol . Bull...natural and a restored salt marsh. Estuaries 18: 399-408. 43 Tobias, C. R., I. C. Anderson...cycling through a fringing marsh-aquifer ecotone. Mar...

Sherry L. Dollhopf; Jung-Ho Hyun; April C. Smith; Harold J. Adams; Sean O'Brien; Joel E. Kostka

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Carbon metabolism in model microbial systems from a temperate salt marsh.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...from a temperate salt marsh. R D Fallon F K Pfaender...Burkholder, P. R., and G. H. Bornside...Decompo- sition of marsh grass by aerobic marine...W. G. Smith, P. R. Wagner, and W...carbon budget of a salt marsh and shallow bay estuarine...

R D Fallon; F K Pfaender

1976-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Production and Fate of Methylated Sulfur Compounds from Methionine and Dimethylsulfoniopropionate in Anoxic Salt Marsh Sediments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...2374-2377. 15. Howarth, R. W., and J. M...a New England salt marsh. Limnol. Oceanogr...reduction pathways in salt marsh sediments. Limnol...1037-1051. 18. Kiene, R. P., R. S. Oremland...26. Oremland, R. S., L. Marsh, and D. J. DesMarais...