National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for 1979-1985 estimated production

  1. State Energy Production Estimates

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2012 2012 Summary Tables Table P1. Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2012 Alabama 19,455 215,710 9,525 0 Alaska 2,052 351,259...

  2. Pennsylvania Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Production 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 View History Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 0 0 0 2 2 2 1979-1985 Estimated Production 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-1985

  3. Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology Step 1 (Estimate total amount of weekly U.S. coal production) U.S. coal production for the current week is estimated using a ratio ...

  4. State Energy Production Estimates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production Estimates 1960 Through 2014 2014 Summary Tables U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2014: Production 1 Table P1. Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2014 Alabama 16,377 181,054 9,828 0 Alaska 1,502 345,331 181,175 0 Arizona 8,051 106 56 1,044 Arkansas 94 1,123,678 6,845 0 California 0 252,718 204,269 4,462 Colorado 24,007 1,631,391 95,192 3,133 Connecticut 0 0 0 0 Delaware 0 0 0 0 District of Columbia 0 0 0 0 Florida 0 369 2,227 0 Georgia 0 0 0 2,517

  5. Adjusted Estimates of Texas Natural Gas Production

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is adjusting its estimates of natural gas production in Texas for 2004 and 2005 to correctly account for carbon dioxide (CO2) production.

  6. Methodology for Monthly Crude Oil Production Estimates

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    015 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Methodology for Monthly Crude Oil Production Estimates 1 Methodology for Monthly Crude Oil Production Estimates Executive summary The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) relies on data from state and other federal agencies and does not currently collect survey data directly from crude oil producers. Summarizing the estimation process in terms of percent of U.S. production: * 20% is based on state agency data, including North Dakota and

  7. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via ...

  8. New Methodology for Natural Gas Production Estimates

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    A new methodology is implemented with the monthly natural gas production estimates from the EIA-914 survey this month. The estimates, to be released April 29, 2010, include revisions for all of 2009. The fundamental changes in the new process include the timeliness of the historical data used for estimation and the frequency of sample updates, both of which are improved.

  9. How EIA Estimates Natural Gas Production

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes estimates monthly and annually of the production of natural gas in the United States. The estimates are based on data EIA collects from gas producing states and data collected by the U. S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) in the Department of Interior. The states and MMS collect this information from producers of natural gas for various reasons, most often for revenue purposes. Because the information is not sufficiently complete or timely for inclusion in EIA's Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), EIA has developed estimation methodologies to generate monthly production estimates that are described in this document.

  10. West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  11. Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production Virginia Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry ...

  12. New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production New York Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry ...

  13. New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves ...

  14. North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves ...

  15. ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate Data - A new data product...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate Data - A new data product for climate modelers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate Data - A new data ...

  16. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  17. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  18. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2012 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation ...

  19. ARM - PI Product - Climate Modeling Best Estimate (CMBE)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govDataPI Data ProductsClimate Modeling Best Estimate (CMBE) Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Climate...

  20. ARM - Evaluation Product - Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (RIPBE) ProductsRadiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) The Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP combines multiple input datastreams, each with their own temporal

  1. ARM - Evaluation Product - Climate Modeling Best Estimate (CMBE...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsClimate Modeling Best Estimate (CMBE) Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you...

  2. Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 48 52 49 1980's 60 52 44 38 54 53 56 58 60 65 1990's 62 78 61 66 64 67 58 79 63 59 2000's 67 73 79 78 83 85 66 80 93 108 2010's 96 101 83 81 70 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  3. Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 88 121 154 1980's 170 196 198 159 181 151 165 178 181 155 1990's 141 143 109 111 82 91 88 93 79 79 2000's 78 94 98 94 93 86 83 100 110 100 2010's 87 75 64 61 54 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  4. Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 49 44 47 1980's 61 86 45 49 46 49 42 42 60 43 1990's 48 48 52 50 49 51 52 55 51 41 2000's 67 73 77 86 95 100 117 112 114 113 2010's 93 75 65 62 58 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015

  5. Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 52 69 117 1980's 68 94 102 121 134 123 116 128 162 136 1990's 160 140 139 138 141 113 132 129 131 130 2000's 117 114 133 165 155 181 176 183 211 273 2010's 591 1,248 2,241 3,283 4,197 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  6. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  7. ARM - Evaluation Product - Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) from

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the CSAPR ProductsQuantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) from the CSAPR ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) from the CSAPR Precipitation rates from cloud systems can give a fundamental insight into the processes occurring in-cloud. While rain

  8. Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 24 42 46 1980's 64 85 1990's 104 146 256 281 391 360 373 376 394 376 2000's 359 345 365 350 327 300 287 274 257 254 2010's 223 218 214 175 176 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  9. Alaska Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Alaska Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 206 216 228 1980's 213 235 261 273 324 312 324 349 400 401 1990's 339 353 414 393 423 396 446 475 513 459 2000's 506 461 460 478 478 469 408 388 354 358 2010's 317 327 299 285 304 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company

  10. Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 109 120 100 1980's 117 121 158 206 188 175 123 129 159 166 1990's 164 173 204 188 186 182 200 189 170 163 2000's 154 160 157 166 170 174 188 269 456 698 2010's 951 1,079 1,151 1,140 1,142 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  11. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 301 313 347 1980's 294 372 345 335 306 1990's 293 308 285 252 244 216 217 212 246 266 2000's 282 336 291 265 247 268 255 253 237 239 2010's 243 311 200 188 176 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  12. Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 62 58 54 1980's 61 79 87 68 76 73 60 60 40 64 1990's 71 81 111 165 184 165 180 177 216 220 2000's 226 288 286 278 282 308 349 365 417 447 2010's 432 449 478 456 433 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  13. U.S. Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Estimated Production from Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production from Reserves (Million Barrels) U.S. Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Estimated Production from Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 ...

  14. Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water ...

  15. Cost estimate for muddy water palladium production facility at Mound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAdams, R.K.

    1988-11-30

    An economic feasibility study was performed on the ''Muddy Water'' low-chlorine content palladium powder production process developed by Mound. The total capital investment and total operating costs (dollars per gram) were determined for production batch sizes of 1--10 kg in 1-kg increments. The report includes a brief description of the Muddy Water process, the process flow diagram, and material balances for the various production batch sizes. Two types of facilities were evaluated--one for production of new, ''virgin'' palladium powder, and one for recycling existing material. The total capital investment for virgin facilities ranged from $600,000 --$1.3 million for production batch sizes of 1--10 kg, respectively. The range for recycle facilities was $1--$2.3 million. The total operating cost for 100% acceptable powder production in the virgin facilities ranged from $23 per gram for a 1-kg production batch size to $8 per gram for a 10-kg batch size. Similarly for recycle facilities, the total operating cost ranged from $34 per gram to $5 per gram. The total operating cost versus product acceptability (ranging from 50%--100% acceptability) was also evaluated for both virgin and recycle facilities. Because production sizes studied vary widely and because scale-up factors are unknown for batch sizes greater than 1 kg, all costs are ''order-of-magnitude'' estimates. All costs reported are in 1987 dollars.

  16. Louisiana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,482 1,741 1,625 1,691 1,687 1990's 1,596 1,527 1,494 1,457 1,453 1,403 1,521 1,496 1,403 1,421 2000's 1,443 1,479 1,338 1,280 1,322 1,206 1,309 1,257 1,319 1,544 2010's 2,189 2,985 3,057 2,344 1,960 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  17. Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 315 329 355 1980's 416 423 391 414 484 433 402 456 510 591 1990's 583 639 714 713 780 806 782 891 838 1,213 2000's 1,070 1,286 1,388 1,456 1,524 1,642 1,695 1,825 2,026 2,233 2010's 2,218 2,088 2,001 1,992 1,718 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  18. Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 174 167 156 1980's 163 165 196 156 171 166 188 159 188 220 1990's 229 282 320 387 447 514 540 562 676 719 2000's 759 882 964 1,142 1,050 1,104 1,174 1,326 1,441 1,524 2010's 1,590 1,694 1,681 1,527 1,561 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  19. Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 36 39 36 1980's 32 27 20 18 11 8 8 7 5 7 1990's 7 4 7 6 7 6 5 6 5 5 2000's 6 5 4 3 3 2 2 4 3 0 2010's 15 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016

  20. Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 5,567 5,151 4,620 4,517 4,590 4,568 1990's 4,478 4,480 4,545 4,645 4,775 4,724 4,889 4,942 4,855 4,897 2000's 5,072 5,138 5,038 5,166 5,318 5,424 5,608 6,263 7,009 7,017 2010's 6,974 7,139 7,570 7,607 7,877 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  1. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard * Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Independent Review Published for the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program NREL/BK-6A10-51726 October

  2. Oklahoma Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,691 1,667 1,592 1980's 1,526 1,700 1,636 1,544 1,778 1,686 1,658 1,813 1,896 1,983 1990's 2,058 1,983 1,895 1,770 1,721 1,562 1,580 1,555 1,544 1,308 2000's 1,473 1,481 1,518 1,554 1,563 1,587 1,601 1,659 1,775 1,790 2010's 1,703 1,697 1,763 1,890 2,123 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  3. ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate Data, A New Data Product for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate Data, A New Data Product for Climate Studies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate Data, ...

  4. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications: 2007 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update This report estimates fuel cell system cost ...

  5. ARM CLIMATE MODELING BEST ESTIMATE DATA A New Data Product for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ARM CLIMATE MODELING BEST ESTIMATE DATA A New Data Product for Climate Studies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM CLIMATE MODELING BEST ESTIMATE DATA A New Data Product ...

  6. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    reports on the status of mass production cost estimation for direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell systems. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for ...

  7. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation reports on the status of mass production cost estimation for direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell systems.

  8. Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Electrolysis | Department of Energy Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis This is an independent review of the estimated 2009 state-of-the-art cost of producing hydrogen from both alkaline and PEM water electrolyzers for distributed and central production. Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water

  9. Estimation of net primary productivity using a process-based...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Net primary productivity (NPP) modeling can help to improve the understanding of the ecosystem, and therefore, improve ecological efficiency. The boreal ecosystem productivity ...

  10. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2006, 2010, and 2015, and is the ... Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for ...

  11. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation ... Jason Marcinkoski of DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Fuel ...

  12. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2013 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: ...

  13. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This independent review report assesses the 2009 state-of-the-art and 2020 projected capital cost, energy efficiency, and levelized cost for hydrogen production from biomass via gasification.

  14. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automotive Applications: 2007 Update | Department of Energy Applications: 2007 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2007, 2010, and 2015, and is the first annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update (3.19

  15. Estimating Production Potentials: Expert Bias in Applied Decision Making

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reece, Wendy Jane

    1998-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate how workers predict manufacturing production potentials given positively and negatively framed information. Findings indicate the existence of a bias toward positive information and suggest that this bias may be reduced with experience but is never the less maintained. Experts err in the same way non experts do in differentially processing negative and positive information. Additionally, both experts and non experts tend to overestimate production potentials in a positive direction. The authors propose that these biases should be addressed with further research including cross domain analyses and consideration in training, workplace design, and human performance modeling.

  16. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automotive Applications: 2010 Update | Department of Energy Applications: 2010 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update This report is the fourth annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing costs of complete 80 kWnet direct-hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems suitable for powering light-duty automobiles. Mass Production Cost

  17. Estimate of federal relighting potential and demand for efficient lighting products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shankle, S.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Elliott, D.B.; Richman, E.E.; Grover, S.E.

    1993-11-01

    The increasing level of electric utility rebates for energy-efficient lighting retrofits has recently prompted concern over the adequacy of the market supply of energy-efficient lighting products (Energy User News 1991). In support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Federal Energy Management Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has developed an estimate of the total potential for energy-efficient lighting retrofits in federally owned buildings. This estimate can be used to address the issue of the impact of federal relighting projects on the supply of energy-efficient lighting products. The estimate was developed in 1992, using 1991 data. Any investments in energy-efficient lighting products that occurred in 1992 will reduce the potential estimated here. This analysis proceeds by estimating the existing stock of lighting fixtures in federally owned buildings. The lighting technology screening matrix is then used to determine the minimum life-cycle cost retrofit for each type of existing lighting fixture. Estimates of the existing stock are developed for (1) four types of fluorescent lighting fixtures (2-, 3-, and 4-lamp, F40 4-foot fixtures, and 2-lamp, F96 8-foot fixtures, all with standard magnetic ballasts); (2) one type of incandescent fixture (a 75-watt single bulb fixture); and (3) one type of exit sign (containing two 20-watt incandescent bulbs). Estimates of the existing stock of lighting fixtures in federally owned buildings, estimates of the total potential demand for energy-efficient lighting products if all cost-effective retrofits were undertaken immediately, and total potential annual energy savings (in MWh and dollars), the total investment required to obtain the energy savings and the present value of the efficiency investment, are presented.

  18. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Z.; Guan, D.; Wei, W.; Davis, S.; Ciais, P.; Bai, J; Peng, S.; Zhang, Q.; Hubacek, K.; Marland, Gregg; et al

    2015-08-19

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China’s total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China’s carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption andmore » clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000–2012 than the value reported by China’s national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China’s cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China’s cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China’s emissions in 2000–2013 may be larger than China’s estimated total forest sink in 1990–2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China’s land carbon sink in 2000–2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).« less

  19. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Z.; Guan, D.; Wei, W.; Davis, S.; Ciais, P.; Bai, J; Peng, S.; Zhang, Q.; Hubacek, K.; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert Joseph; Crawford-Brown, D.; Lin, J.; Zhao, H.; Hong, C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Feng, K.; Peters, Glen P.; Xi, F.; Liu, J.; Li, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zeng, Ning; He, K.

    2015-08-19

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China’s total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China’s carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000–2012 than the value reported by China’s national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China’s cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China’s cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China’s emissions in 2000–2013 may be larger than China’s estimated total forest sink in 1990–2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China’s land carbon sink in 2000–2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).

  20. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-115 Aerosol Best Estimate (AEROSOLBE) Value-Added Product

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Aerosol Best Estimate (AEROSOLBE) Value-Added Product C Flynn D Turner A Koontz D Chand C Sivaraman July 2012 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Two Methods to Estimate Natural Gas Production in Texas

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    This report describes an evaluation conducted by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in August 2003 of two methods that estimate natural gas production in Texas. The first method (parametric method) was used by EIA from February through August 2003 and the second method (multinomial method) replaced it starting in September 2003, based on the results of this evaluation.

  2. Estimating coal production peak and trends of coal imports in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bo-qiang Lin; Jiang-hua Liu

    2010-01-15

    More than 20 countries in the world have already reached a maximum capacity in their coal production (peak coal production) such as Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany. China, home to the third largest coal reserves in the world, is the world's largest coal producer and consumer, making it part of the Big Six. At present, however, China's coal production has not yet reached its peak. In this article, logistic curves and Gaussian curves are used to predict China's coal peak and the results show that it will be between the late 2020s and the early 2030s. Based on the predictions of coal production and consumption, China's net coal import could be estimated for coming years. This article also analyzes the impact of China's net coal import on the international coal market, especially the Asian market, and on China's economic development and energy security. 16 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. U.S. Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 18,843 18,805 19,257 1980's 18,699 18,737 17,506 15,788 17,193 15,985 15,610 16,114 16,670 16,983 1990's 17,233 17,202 17,423 17,789 18,322 17,966 18,861 19,211 18,720 18,928 2000's 19,219 19,779 19,353 19,425 19,168 18,458 18,545 19,466 20,523 21,594 2010's 22,239 23,555 24,912 25,233 26,611 - = No

  4. U.S. Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Reserves Estimated Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 20,079 1980's 19,500 19,554 18,292 16,590 18,032 16,798 16,401 16,904 17,466 17,752 1990's 18,003 18,012 18,269 18,641 19,210 18,874 19,783 20,134 19,622 19,856 2000's 20,164 20,642 20,248 20,231 20,017 19,259 19,373 20,318 21,415 22,537 2010's 23,224

  5. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update March 26, 2009 v.30.2021.052209 Prepared by: Brian D. James & Jeffrey A. Kalinoski One Virginia Square 3601 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 650 Arlington, Virginia 22201 703-243-3383 Prepared for: Contract No. GS-10F-0099J to the U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Foreword Energy security is

  6. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2012 Update

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2012 Update October 18, 2012 Prepared By: Brian D. James Andrew B. Spisak Revision 4 2 Sponsorship and Acknowledgements This research was conducted under Award Number DE-EE0005236 to the US Department of Energy. The authors wish to thank Dr. Dimitrios Papageorgopoulos and Mr. Jason Marcinkoski of DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program

  7. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Delivered for the Account of Others

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History Delivered to Consumers 1,048 1,045 1,042 1,042 1,042 1,041 2013-2016 Production

    1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 View History Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 0 0 0 2 2 2 1979-1985 Estimated Production 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-1985

    Storage

    690 39 206 889 -82 -1,132 1980-2014 Additions 1,681 2,353 2,620 2,651 3,644 3,364 1980-2014 Withdrawals 2,371 2,314 2,415 1,763 3,726 4,496

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5

  8. Estimation and decomposition of productive efficiency in a panel data model: an application to electric utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melfi, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    New econometric methodology for modeling and estimating technical and allocative efficiency in production is proposed and applied. Translog cost frontier and share equations are presented in a panel data context, with the structure of the error terms representing noise and inefficiency. The use of panel data with this multivariate error components approach facilitates the separation of eficiency into its technical and allocative components, as well as the separation of noise from inefficiency. The model used is logically consistent in that the distributional assumptions concerning the disturbance vectors take into account the relationships among the disturbance terms in the cost and share equations. This method of efficiency measurement is applied to the electric utilities industry to obtain individual firm estimates of technical and allocative efficiency. The data consist of yearly cost, output, and input price information on 38 electric utility firms over a period of 18 years. Rate-of-return regulation in the electric utilities industry requires estimation of a regulated cost frontier and the associated share equations. Estimates of technical and allocative efficiency are obtained for each firm in every year. Comparisons are made with previous efficiency measurement studies. The measures of efficiency are analyzed in light of rate-of-return regulation.

  9. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudinov, K. G.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Sorokin, Yu. P.; Bondin, V. V.; Manakova, L. F.; Jardine, L. J.

    2002-02-26

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on a production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration in Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment of MOX-fuel production waste is

  10. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudinov, K.G.; Tretyakov, A.A.; Sorokin, Y.P.; Bondin, V.V.; Manakova, L.F.; Jardine, L.J.

    2001-12-01

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment of MOX-fuel production waste is incineration

  11. Worldwide estimates and bibliography of net primary productivity derived from pre-1982 publications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esser, G.; Lieth, H.F.H.; Scurlock, J.M.O.; Olson, R.J.

    1997-10-01

    An extensive compilation of more than 700 field estimates of net primary productivity of natural and agricultural ecosystems worldwide was synthesized in Germany in the 1970s and early 1980s. Although the Osnabrueck data set has not been updated since the 1980s, it represents a wealth of information for use in model development and validation. This report documents the development of this data set, its contents, and its recent availability on the Internet from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center for Biogeochemical Dynamics. Caution is advised in using these data, which necessarily include assumptions and conversions that may not be universally applicable to all sites.

  12. Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard * Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Independent Review Published for the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program

  13. Modelling estimation on the impacts of global warming on rice production in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Futang

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, based on the validation and sensitivity analyses of two rice growth models (ORYZA1 and DRISIC--Double Rice Cropping Simulation Model for China), and their joining with global warming scenarios projected by GCMs (GFDL, UKMO-H, MPI and DKRZ OPYC, DKRZ LSG, respectively), the modelling experiments were carried out on the potential impacts of global warming on rice production in China. The results show that although there are the some features for each rice cropping patterns because of different models and estimated methods, the rice production for all cropping patterns in China will trend to decrease with different degrees. In average, early, middle and later rice production, as well as, double-early and double-later rice production in different areas of China will decrease 3.7%, 10.5% and 10.4%, as well as, 15.9% and 14.4%, respectively. It do illustrates that the advantage effects induced by elevated CO{sub 2} concentration on photosynthesis does not compensate the adverse effects of temperature increase. Thus, it is necessary to adjusting rice cropping patterns, cultivars and farming techniques to the global warming timely.

  14. Estimates of Radioxenon Released from Southern Hemisphere Medical isotope Production Facilities Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and Xe-133 data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of Xe-133 from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.8×1014 Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 1.2×1016 to 2.5×1016 Bq and estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 6.1×1013 to 3.6×1014 Bq. Although some releases from the facility in Argentina may reach these IMS sampling locations, the solution to the objective function is insensitive to the magnitude of those releases.

  15. SU-E-I-27: Estimating KERMA Area Product for CT Localizer Images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogden, K; Greene-Donnelly, K; Bennett, R; Thorpe, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To estimate the free-in-air KERMA-Area Product (KAP) incident on patients due to CT localizer scans for common CT exams. Methods: In-plane beam intensity profiles were measured in localizer acquisition mode using OSLs for a 64 slice MDCT scanner (Lightspeed VCT, GE Medical Systems, Waukesha WI). The z-axis beam width was measured as a function of distance from isocenter. The beam profile and width were used to calculate a weighted average air KERMA per unit mAs as a function of intercepted x-axis beam width for objects symmetric about the localizer centerline.Patient areas were measured using manually drawn regions and divided by localizer length to determine average width. Data were collected for 50 head exams (lateral localizer only), 15 head/neck exams, 50 chest exams, and 50 abdomen/pelvis exams. Mean patient widths and acquisition techniques were used to calculate the weighted average free-in-air KERMA, which was multiplied by the patient area to estimate KAP. Results: Scan technique was 120 kV tube voltage, 10 mA current, and table speed of 10 cm/s. The mean ± standard deviation values of KAP were 120 ± 11.6, 469 ± 62.6, 518 ± 45, and 763 ± 93 mGycm{sup 2} for head, head/neck, chest, and abdomen/pelvis exams, respectively. For studies with AP and lateral localizers, the AP/lateral area ratio was 1.20, 1.33, and 1.24 for the head/neck, chest, and abdomen/pelvis exams, respectively. However, the AP/lateral KAP ratios were 1.12, 1.08, and 1.07, respectively. Conclusion: Calculation of KAP in CT localizers is complicated by the non-uniform intensity profile and z-axis beam width. KAP values are similar to those for simple radiographic exams such as a chest radiograph and represent a small fraction of the x-ray exposure at CT. However, as CT doses are reduced the localizer contribution will be a more significant fraction of the total exposure.

  16. Source Term Estimates of Radioxenon Released from the BaTek Medical Isotope Production Facility Using External Measured Air Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Cameron, Ian M.; Dumais, Johannes R.; Imardjoko, Yudi; Marsoem, Pujadi; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Stoehlker, Ulrich; Widodo, Susilo; Woods, Vincent T.

    2015-10-01

    Abstract Batan Teknologi (BaTek) operates an isotope production facility in Serpong, Indonesia that supplies 99mTc for use in medical procedures. Atmospheric releases of Xe-133 in the production process at BaTek are known to influence the measurements taken at the closest stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). The purpose of the IMS is to detect evidence of nuclear explosions, including atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The xenon isotopes released from BaTek are the same as those produced in a nuclear explosion, but the isotopic ratios are different. Knowledge of the magnitude of releases from the isotope production facility helps inform analysts trying to decide whether a specific measurement result came from a nuclear explosion. A stack monitor deployed at BaTek in 2013 measured releases to the atmosphere for several isotopes. The facility operates on a weekly cycle, and the stack data for June 15-21, 2013 show a release of 1.84E13 Bq of Xe-133. Concentrations of Xe-133 in the air are available at the same time from a xenon sampler located 14 km from BaTek. An optimization process using atmospheric transport modeling and the sampler air concentrations produced a release estimate of 1.88E13 Bq. The same optimization process yielded a release estimate of 1.70E13 Bq for a different week in 2012. The stack release value and the two optimized estimates are all within 10 percent of each other. Weekly release estimates of 1.8E13 Bq and a 40 percent facility operation rate yields a rough annual release estimate of 3.7E13 Bq of Xe-133. This value is consistent with previously published estimates of annual releases for this facility, which are based on measurements at three IMS stations. These multiple lines of evidence cross-validate the stack release estimates and the release estimates from atmospheric samplers.

  17. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    It contains estimates for material and manufacturing cost of complete 80 kWnet direct hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems suitable for powering light duty ...

  18. ARM Best Estimate Data (ARMBE) Products for Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Riihimaki, Laura; Gaustad, Krista; McFarlane, Sally

    2014-06-12

    This data set was created for the Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF) model testbed project and is an extension of the hourly average ARMBE dataset to other extended facility sites and to include uncertainty estimates. Uncertainty estimates were needed in order to use uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques with the data.

  19. ARM Best Estimate Data (ARMBE) Products for Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Riihimaki, Laura; Gaustad, Krista; McFarlane, Sally

    This data set was created for the Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF) model testbed project and is an extension of the hourly average ARMBE dataset to other extended facility sites and to include uncertainty estimates. Uncertainty estimates were needed in order to use uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques with the data.

  20. Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This independent review examines DOE cost targets for state-of-the art hydrogen production using water electrolysis.

  1. Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-09-01

    This independent review examines DOE cost targets for state-of-the art hydrogen production using water electrolysis.

  2. Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-09-01

    This independent review examines DOE cost targets for state-of-the art hydrogen production using water electrolysis.

  3. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    It contains estimates for material and manufacturing costs of complete 80 kWnet direct-hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems suitable for powering light-duty ...

  4. Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE): An ARM Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, S; Shippert, T; Mather, J

    2011-06-30

    The Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to create a complete set of clearly identified set of parameters on a uniform vertical and temporal grid to use as input to a radiative transfer model. One of the main drivers for RIPBE was as input to the Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP, but we also envision using RIPBE files for user-run radiative transfer codes, as part of cloud/aerosol retrieval testbeds, and as input to averaged datastreams for model evaluation.

  5. Reference air kerma and kerma-area product as estimators of peak skin dose for fluoroscopically guided interventions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Deukwoo; Little, Mark P.; Miller, Donald L.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To determine more accurate regression formulas for estimating peak skin dose (PSD) from reference air kerma (RAK) or kerma-area product (KAP). Methods: After grouping of the data from 21 procedures into 13 clinically similar groups, assessments were made of optimal clustering using the Bayesian information criterion to obtain the optimal linear regressions of (log-transformed) PSD vs RAK, PSD vs KAP, and PSD vs RAK and KAP. Results: Three clusters of clinical groups were optimal in regression of PSD vs RAK, seven clusters of clinical groups were optimal in regression of PSD vs KAP, and six clusters of clinical groups were optimal in regression of PSD vs RAK and KAP. Prediction of PSD using both RAK and KAP is significantly better than prediction of PSD with either RAK or KAP alone. The regression of PSD vs RAK provided better predictions of PSD than the regression of PSD vs KAP. The partial-pooling (clustered) method yields smaller mean squared errors compared with the complete-pooling method.Conclusion: PSD distributions for interventional radiology procedures are log-normal. Estimates of PSD derived from RAK and KAP jointly are most accurate, followed closely by estimates derived from RAK alone. Estimates of PSD derived from KAP alone are the least accurate. Using a stochastic search approach, it is possible to cluster together certain dissimilar types of procedures to minimize the total error sum of squares.

  6. Validation of the materials-process-product model (coal SNG). [Estimating method for comparing processes, changing assumptions and technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albanese, A.; Bhagat, N.; Friend, L.; Lamontagne, J.; Pouder, R.; Vinjamuri, G.

    1980-03-01

    The use of coal as a source of high Btu gas is currently viewed as one possible means of supplementing dwindling natural gas supplies. While certain coal gasification processes have demonstrated technical feasibility, much uncertainty and inconsistency remains regarding the capital and operating costs of large scale coal conversion facilities; cost estimates may vary by as much as 50%. Studies conducted for the American Gas Association (AGA) and US Energy Research and Development Administration by C.F. Braun and Co. have defined technical specifications and cost guidelines for estimating costs of coal gasification technologies (AGA Guidelines). Based on the AGA Guidelines, Braun has also prepared cost estimates for selected coal gasification processes. Recent efforts by International Research and Technology Inc. (IR and T) have led to development of the Materials-Process-Product Model (MPPM), a comprehensive anaytic tool for evaluation of processes and costs for coal gasification and other coal conversion technologies. This validation of the MPPM presents a comparison of engineering and cost computation methodologies employed in the MPPM to those employed by Braun and comparison of MPPM results to Braun cost estimates. These comparisons indicate that the MPPM has the potential to be a valuable tool for assisting in the evaluation of coal gasification technologies.

  7. Integrating Ontological Knowledge and Textual Evidence in Estimating Gene and Gene Product Similarity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Posse, Christian; Gopalan, Banu; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-08

    With the rising influence of the Gene On-tology, new approaches have emerged where the similarity between genes or gene products is obtained by comparing Gene Ontology code annotations associ-ated with them. So far, these approaches have solely relied on the knowledge en-coded in the Gene Ontology and the gene annotations associated with the Gene On-tology database. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that improvements to these approaches can be obtained by integrating textual evidence extracted from relevant biomedical literature.

  8. Estimation of net primary productivity using a process-based model in Gansu Province, Northwest China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Peijuan; Xie, Donghui; Zhou, Yuyu; E, Youhao; Zhu, Qijiang

    2014-01-16

    The ecological structure in the arid and semi-arid region of Northwest China with forest, grassland, agriculture, Gobi, and desert, is complex, vulnerable, and unstable. It is a challenging and sustaining job to keep the ecological structure and improve its ecological function. Net primary productivity (NPP) modeling can help to improve the understanding of the ecosystem, and therefore, improve ecological efficiency. The boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) model provides the possibility of NPP modeling in terrestrial ecosystem, but it has some limitations for application in arid and semi-arid regions. In this paper we improve the BEPS model, in terms of its water cycle by adding the processes of infiltration and surface runoff, to be applicable in arid and semi-arid regions. We model the NPP of forest, grass, and crop in Gansu Province as an experimental area in Northwest China in 2003 using the improved BEPS model, parameterized with moderate resolution remote sensing imageries and meteorological data. The modeled NPP using improved BEPS agrees better with the ground measurements in Qilian Mountain than that with original BEPS, with a higher R2 of 0.746 and lower root mean square error (RMSE) of 46.53 gC/m2 compared to R2 of 0.662 and RMSE of 60.19 gC/m2 from original BEPS. The modeled NPP of three vegetation types using improved BEPS show evident differences compared to that using original BEPS, with the highest difference ratio of 9.21% in forest and the lowest value of 4.29% in crop. The difference ratios between different vegetation types lie on the dependence on natural water sources. The modeled NPP in five geographic zones using improved BEPS are higher than those with original BEPS, with higher difference ratio in dry zones and lower value in wet zones.

  9. Rapid estimation of sugar release from winter wheat straw during bioethanol production using FTIR-photoacoustic spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bekiaris, Georgios; Lindedam, Jane; Peltre, Clément; Decker, Stephen R.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Magid, Jakob; Bruun, Sander

    2015-06-18

    Complexity and high cost are the main limitations for high-throughput screening methods for the estimation of the sugar release from plant materials during bioethanol production. In addition, it is important that we improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which different chemical components are affecting the degradability of plant material. In this study, Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) was combined with advanced chemometrics to develop calibration models predicting the amount of sugars released after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw during bioethanol production, and the spectra were analysed to identify components associated with recalcitrance. A total of 1122more » wheat straw samples from nine different locations in Denmark and one location in the United Kingdom, spanning a large variation in genetic material and environmental conditions during growth, were analysed. The FTIR-PAS spectra of non-pretreated wheat straw were correlated with the measured sugar release, determined by a high-throughput pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis (HTPH) assay. A partial least square regression (PLSR) calibration model predicting the glucose and xylose release was developed. The interpretation of the regression coefficients revealed a positive correlation between the released glucose and xylose with easily hydrolysable compounds, such as amorphous cellulose and hemicellulose. Additionally, we observed a negative correlation with crystalline cellulose and lignin, which inhibits cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis. FTIR-PAS was used as a reliable method for the rapid estimation of sugar release during bioethanol production. The spectra revealed that lignin inhibited the hydrolysis of polysaccharides into monomers, while the crystallinity of cellulose retarded its hydrolysis into glucose. Amorphous cellulose and xylans were found to contribute significantly to the released amounts of glucose and xylose

  10. Rapid estimation of sugar release from winter wheat straw during bioethanol production using FTIR-photoacoustic spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bekiaris, Georgios; Lindedam, Jane; Peltre, Clément; Decker, Stephen R.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Magid, Jakob; Bruun, Sander

    2015-06-18

    Complexity and high cost are the main limitations for high-throughput screening methods for the estimation of the sugar release from plant materials during bioethanol production. In addition, it is important that we improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which different chemical components are affecting the degradability of plant material. In this study, Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) was combined with advanced chemometrics to develop calibration models predicting the amount of sugars released after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw during bioethanol production, and the spectra were analysed to identify components associated with recalcitrance. A total of 1122 wheat straw samples from nine different locations in Denmark and one location in the United Kingdom, spanning a large variation in genetic material and environmental conditions during growth, were analysed. The FTIR-PAS spectra of non-pretreated wheat straw were correlated with the measured sugar release, determined by a high-throughput pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis (HTPH) assay. A partial least square regression (PLSR) calibration model predicting the glucose and xylose release was developed. The interpretation of the regression coefficients revealed a positive correlation between the released glucose and xylose with easily hydrolysable compounds, such as amorphous cellulose and hemicellulose. Additionally, we observed a negative correlation with crystalline cellulose and lignin, which inhibits cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis. FTIR-PAS was used as a reliable method for the rapid estimation of sugar release during bioethanol production. The spectra revealed that lignin inhibited the hydrolysis of polysaccharides into monomers, while the crystallinity of cellulose retarded its hydrolysis into glucose. Amorphous cellulose and xylans were found to contribute significantly to the released amounts of glucose and xylose, respectively.

  11. Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory; Webber, Carrie

    2008-06-03

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2006, US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products saved 4.8 EJ of primary energy and avoided 82 Tg C equivalent. We project that US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products will save 12.8 EJ and avoid 203 Tg C equivalent over the period 2007-2015. A sensitivity analysis examining two key inputs (carbon factor and ENERGY STAR unit sales) bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 54 Tg C and 107 Tg C (1993 to 2006) and between 132 Tg C and 278 Tg C (2007 to 2015).

  12. Coalbed Methane Estimated Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1,966 1,914 1,886 1,763 1,655 1,466 1989-2013 Federal Offshore U.S. 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005-2013 Pacific (California) 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005-2013 Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana & Alabama) 0 0 0 0 0...

  13. Coalbed Methane Estimated Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System Model Documentation 2013 June 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Model Documentation: Coal Market Module 2013 i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of

  14. Lease Condensate Estimated Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    per Thousand Cubic Feet) Lake Charles, LA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Equatorial Guinea (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Lake Charles, LA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Equatorial Guinea (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- 6.75 -- -- 2010's -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date:

  15. VirtualToxLab A platform for estimating the toxic potential of drugs, chemicals and natural products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vedani, Angelo; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 50, 4056 Basel ; Dobler, Max; Smieko, Martin

    2012-06-01

    The VirtualToxLab is an in silico technology for estimating the toxic potential (endocrine and metabolic disruption, some aspects of carcinogenicity and cardiotoxicity) of drugs, chemicals and natural products. The technology is based on an automated protocol that simulates and quantifies the binding of small molecules towards a series of proteins, known or suspected to trigger adverse effects. The toxic potential, a non-linear function ranging from 0.0 (none) to 1.0 (extreme), is derived from the individual binding affinities of a compound towards currently 16 target proteins: 10 nuclear receptors (androgen, estrogen ?, estrogen ?, glucocorticoid, liver X, mineralocorticoid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, progesterone, thyroid ?, and thyroid ?), four members of the cytochrome P450 enzyme family (1A2, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4), a cytosolic transcription factor (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) and a potassium ion channel (hERG). The interface to the technology allows building and uploading molecular structures, viewing and downloading results and, most importantly, rationalizing any prediction at the atomic level by interactively analyzing the binding mode of a compound with its target protein(s) in real-time 3D. The VirtualToxLab has been used to predict the toxic potential for over 2500 compounds: the results are posted on (http://www.virtualtoxlab.org). The free platform the OpenVirtualToxLab is accessible (in clientserver mode) over the Internet. It is free of charge for universities, governmental agencies, regulatory bodies and non-profit organizations. -- Highlights: ? In silico technology for estimating the toxic potential of drugs and chemicals. ? Simulation of binding towards 16 proteins suspected to trigger adverse effects. ? Mechanistic interpretation and real-time 3D visualization. ? Accessible over the Internet. ? Free of charge for universities, governmental agencies, regulatory bodies and NPOs.

  16. Estimates of global, regional, and national annual CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national annual estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.

  17. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2009 Update

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report is the third annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing cost of complete 80 kWnet direct hydrogen proton exch

  18. Mass Production Cost Estimation For Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systesm for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report is the fourth annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing costs of complete 80 kWnet direct‐hydrogen proton ex

  19. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2006, 2010, and 2015, and is the second annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis.

  20. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2007, 2010, and 2015, and is the first annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis.

  1. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications. 2008 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, Brian D.; Kalinoski, Jeffrey A.

    2009-03-26

    This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2006, 2010, and 2015, and is the second annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis.

  2. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2006, 2010, and 2015, and is the second annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis.

  3. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, Brian D.; Kalinoski, Jeffrey A.

    2008-02-29

    This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2007, 2010, and 2015, and is the first annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis.

  4. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications. 2009 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, Brian D.; Kalinoski, Jeffrey A.; Baum, Kevin N.

    2010-01-01

    This report is the third annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing cost of complete 80 kWnet direct hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems suitable for powering light duty automobiles.

  5. Mass Production Cost Estimation For Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systesm for Automotive Applications. 2010 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, Brian D.; Kalinoski, Jeffrey A.; Baum, Kevin N.

    2010-09-30

    This report is the fourth annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing costs of complete 80 kWnet direct-hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems suitable for powering light-duty automobiles.

  6. Commissioning the neutron production of a Linac: Development of a simple tool for second cancer risk estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero-Expsito, M.; Snchez-Nieto, B.; Terrn, J. A.; Lopes, M. C.; Ferreira, B. C.; Grishchuk, D.; Sandn, C.; Moral-Snchez, S.; Melchor, M.; Domingo, C.; and others

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Knowing the contribution of neutron to collateral effects in treatments is both a complex and a mandatory task. This work aims to present an operative procedure for neutron estimates in any facility using a neutron digital detector. Methods: The authors previous work established a linear relationship between the total second cancer risk due to neutrons (TR{sup n}) and the number of MU of the treatment. Given that the digital detector also presents linearity with MU, its response can be used to determine the TR{sup n} per unit MU, denoted as m, normally associated to a generic Linac model and radiotherapy facility. Thus, from the number of MU of each patient treatment, the associated risk can be estimated. The feasibility of the procedure was tested by applying it in eight facilities; patients were evaluated as well. Results: From the reading of the detector under selected irradiation conditions, m values were obtained for different machines, ranging from 0.25 10{sup ?4}% per MU for an Elekta Axesse at 10 MV to 6.5 10{sup ?4}% per MU for a Varian Clinac at 18 MV. Using these values, TR{sup n} of patients was estimated in each facility and compared to that from the individual evaluation. Differences were within the range of uncertainty of the authors methodology of equivalent dose and risk estimations. Conclusions: The procedure presented here allows an easy estimation of the second cancer risk due to neutrons for any patient, given the number of MU of the treatment. It will enable the consideration of this information when selecting the optimal treatment for a patient by its implementation in the treatment planning system.

  7. Combining Hierarchical and Associative Gene Ontology Relations with Textual Evidence in Estimating Gene and Gene Product Similarity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Posse, Christian; Gopalan, Banu; Riensche, Roderick M.; Beagley, Nathaniel; Baddeley, Bob L.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2007-03-01

    Gene and gene product similarity is a fundamental diagnostic measure in analyzing biological data and constructing predictive models for functional genomics. With the rising influence of the Gene Ontology, two complementary approaches have emerged where the similarity between two genes or gene products is obtained by comparing Gene Ontology (GO) annotations associated with the genes or gene products. One approach captures GO-based similarity in terms of hierarchical relations within each gene subontology. The other approach identifies GO-based similarity in terms of associative relations across the three gene subontologies. We propose a novel methodology where the two approaches can be merged with ensuing benefits in coverage and accuracy, and demonstrate that further improvements can be obtained by integrating textual evidence extracted from relevant biomedical literature.

  8. Estimating the Performance and Economic Value of Multiple Concentrating Solar Power Technologies in a Production Cost Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgenson, Jennie; Denholm, Paul; Mehos, Mark; Turchi, Craig

    2013-12-01

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) is a unique source of renewable energy in that the solar thermal energy can be dispatched similarly to conventional thermal generation. However, CSP-TES plants are energy-limited, meaning that their response might be restricted by solar availability. Therefore, the use of this limited solar energy must be optimally scheduled toprovide the greatest value to the system. The timing of CSP-TES dispatch depends on a variety of factors, including electricity demand patterns, the penetration of variable generation sources, and the configuration of the CSP-TES plant itself. We use an established CSP-TES modeling framework in a commercially available production cost model to compare the dispatch and value of two CSP-TEStechnologies (molten salt towers and parabolic troughs) in a Colorado test system. In addition, we consider a range of configuration parameters, such as the solar multiple and thermal energy storage limit, to evaluate how the operational and capacity value varies with plant configuration.

  9. Effects of in-situ and reanalysis climate data on estimation of cropland gross primary production using the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Cui; Xiao, Xiangming; Wagle, Pradeep; Griffis, Timothy; Dong, Jinwei; Wu, Chaoyang; Qin, Yuanwei; Cook, David R.

    2015-11-01

    Satellite-based Production Efficiency Models (PEMs) often require meteorological reanalysis data such as the North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) as model inputs to simulate Gross Primary Production (GPP) at regional and global scales. This study first evaluated the accuracies of air temperature (TNARR) and downward shortwave radiation (RNARR) of the NARR by comparing with in-situ meteorological measurements at 37 AmeriFlux non-crop eddy flux sites, then used one PEM – the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM) to simulate 8-day mean GPP (GPPVPM) at seven AmeriFlux crop sites, and investigated the uncertainties in GPPVPM from climate inputs as compared with eddy covariance-based GPP (GPPEC). Results showed that TNARR agreed well with in-situ measurements; RNARR, however, was positively biased. An empirical linear correction was applied to RNARR, and significantly reduced the relative error of RNARR by ~25% for crop site-years. Overall, GPPVPM calculated from the in-situ (GPPVPM(EC)), original (GPPVPM(NARR)) and adjusted NARR (GPPVPM(adjNARR)) climate data tracked the seasonality of GPPEC well, albeit with different degrees of biases. GPPVPM(EC) showed a good match with GPPEC for maize (Zea mays L.), but was slightly underestimated for soybean (Glycine max L.). Replacing the in-situ climate data with the NARR resulted in a significant overestimation of GPPVPM(NARR) (18.4/29.6% for irrigated/rainfed maize and 12.7/12.5% for irrigated/rainfed soybean). GPPVPM(adjNARR) showed a good agreement with GPPVPM(EC) for both crops due to the reduction in the bias of RNARR. The results imply that the bias of RNARR introduced significant uncertainties into the PEM-based GPP estimates, suggesting that more accurate surface radiation datasets are needed to estimate primary production of terrestrial ecosystems at regional and global scales.

  10. Estimating Methods

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Based on the project's scope, the purpose of the estimate, and the availability of estimating resources, the estimator can choose one or a combination of techniques when estimating an activity or project. Estimating methods, estimating indirect and direct costs, and other estimating considerations are discussed in this chapter.

  11. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems.

  12. Shale Natural Gas Estimated Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2,116 3,110 5,336 7,994 10,371 11,415 2007-2013 Alaska 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2013 Lower 48 States 2,116 3,110 5,336 7,994 10,371 11,415 2007-2013 Alabama 0 0 0 2007-2010 Arkansas 279...

  13. Shale Natural Gas Estimated Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5: "Renewable Energy in the Transportation and Power Sectors" Mr. Michael Schaal: Well, let's get started and we'll have people come in as we move along. Welcome to the session which addresses the topic of renewable energy and the transportation and power sectors, a topic that is very much on the minds of the public at large, policymakers who are pondering the cost benefits and preferred outcomes of a variety of current and potential future laws and regulations, and also researchers

  14. Natural Gas Liquids Estimated Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Monthly Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History U.S. 7,310,528 6,906,936 6,847,908 7,009,991 7,333,265 7,556,566 1973-2016 Alabama 29,595 30,309 30,632 34,015 35,551 34,065 1995-2016 Alaska 38,492 38,987 39,438 40,879 42,836 44,158 2013-2016 Arkansas 13,037 12,709 12,271 12,715 13,517 14,240 1990-2016 California 473,606 466,313 471,118

  15. Application of high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry measurements to estimate volatility distributions of α-pinene and naphthalene oxidation products

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chhabra, P. S.; Lambe, A. T.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Stark, H.; Jayne, J. T.; Onasch, T. B.; Davidovits, P.; Kimmel, J. R.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-01-05

    Recent developments in high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-CIMS) have made it possible to directly detect atmospheric organic compounds in real time with high sensitivity and with little or no fragmentation, including low-volatility, highly oxygenated organic vapors that are precursors to secondary organic aerosol formation. Here, using ions identified by high-resolution spectra from an HR-ToF-CIMS with acetate reagent ion chemistry, we develop an algorithm to estimate the vapor pressures of measured organic acids. The algorithm uses identified ion formulas and calculated double bond equivalencies, information unavailable in quadrupole CIMS technology, as constraints for the number of possible oxygen-containing functionalmore » groups. The algorithm is tested with acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometry (acetate-CIMS) spectra of O3 and OH oxidation products of α-pinene and naphthalene formed in a flow reactor with integrated OH exposures ranged from 1.2 × 1011 to 9.7 × 1011 molec s cm−3, corresponding to approximately 1.0 to 7.5 days of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. Measured gas-phase organic acids are similar to those previously observed in environmental chamber studies. For both precursors, we find that acetate-CIMS spectra capture both functionalization (oxygen addition) and fragmentation (carbon loss) as a function of OH exposure. The level of fragmentation is observed to increase with increased oxidation. The predicted condensed-phase secondary organic aerosol (SOA) average acid yields and O/C and H/C ratios agree within uncertainties with previous chamber and flow reactor measurements and ambient CIMS results. While acetate reagent ion chemistry is used to selectively measure organic acids, in principle this method can be applied to additional reagent ion chemistries depending on the application.« less

  16. ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate from Nauru with additional satellite product (ARMBE-CLDRAD TWPC2 V2.1a)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    McCoy, Renata; Xie, Shaocheng

    2011-02-07

    The ARM CMBE-ATM [Xie, McCoy, Klein et al.] data file contains a best estimate of several selected atmospheric quantities from ACRF observations and NWP analysis data.

  17. ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate from Darwin, AU with additional satellite product (ARMBE-CLDRAD TWPC3 V2.1a)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    McCoy, Renata; Xie, Shaocheng

    2011-02-07

    The ARM CMBE-ATM [Xie, McCoy, Klein et al.] data file contains a best estimate of several selected atmospheric quantities from ACRF observations and NWP analysis data.

  18. ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate from Manus Island, PNG with additional satellite product (ARMBE-CLDRAD TWPC1 V2.1a)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    McCoy, Renata; Xie, Shaocheng

    2011-02-07

    The ARM CMBE-ATM [Xie, McCoy, Klein et al.] data file contains a best estimate of several selected atmospheric quantities from ACRF observations and NWP analysis data.

  19. ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate Barrow, AK with additional satellite product (ARMBE-CLDRAD NSAC1 V2.1a)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    McCoy, Renata; Xie, Shaocheng

    2011-02-07

    The ARM CMBE-ATM [Xie, McCoy, Klein et al.] data file contains a best estimate of several selected atmospheric quantities from ACRF observations and NWP analysis data.

  20. ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate from Darwin, AU with additional satellite product (ARMBE-CLDRAD TWPC3 V2.1a)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    McCoy, Renata; Xie, Shaocheng

    The ARM CMBE-ATM [Xie, McCoy, Klein et al.] data file contains a best estimate of several selected atmospheric quantities from ACRF observations and NWP analysis data.

  1. ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate from Manus Island, PNG with additional satellite product (ARMBE-CLDRAD TWPC1 V2.1a)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    McCoy, Renata; Xie, Shaocheng

    The ARM CMBE-ATM [Xie, McCoy, Klein et al.] data file contains a best estimate of several selected atmospheric quantities from ACRF observations and NWP analysis data.

  2. ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate from Nauru with additional satellite product (ARMBE-CLDRAD TWPC2 V2.1a)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    McCoy, Renata; Xie, Shaocheng

    The ARM CMBE-ATM [Xie, McCoy, Klein et al.] data file contains a best estimate of several selected atmospheric quantities from ACRF observations and NWP analysis data.

  3. ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate Barrow, AK with additional satellite product (ARMBE-CLDRAD NSAC1 V2.1a)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    McCoy, Renata; Xie, Shaocheng

    The ARM CMBE-ATM [Xie, McCoy, Klein et al.] data file contains a best estimate of several selected atmospheric quantities from ACRF observations and NWP analysis data.

  4. Estimating the upper limit of gas production from Class 2 hydrate accumulations in the permafrost: 2. Alternative well designs and sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moridis, G.; Reagan, M.T.

    2011-01-15

    In the second paper of this series, we evaluate two additional well designs for production from permafrost-associated (PA) hydrate deposits. Both designs are within the capabilities of conventional technology. We determine that large volumes of gas can be produced at high rates (several MMSCFD) for long times using either well design. The production approach involves initial fluid withdrawal from the water zone underneath the hydrate-bearing layer (HBL). The production process follows a cyclical pattern, with each cycle composed of two stages: a long stage (months to years) of increasing gas production and decreasing water production, and a short stage (days to weeks) that involves destruction of the secondary hydrate (mainly through warm water injection) that evolves during the first stage, and is followed by a reduction in the fluid withdrawal rate. A well configuration with completion throughout the HBL leads to high production rates, but also the creation of a secondary hydrate barrier around the well that needs to be destroyed regularly by water injection. However, a configuration that initially involves heating of the outer surface of the wellbore and later continuous injection of warm water at low rates (Case C) appears to deliver optimum performance over the period it takes for the exhaustion of the hydrate deposit. Using Case C as the standard, we determine that gas production from PA hydrate deposits increases with the fluid withdrawal rate, the initial hydrate saturation and temperature, and with the formation permeability.

  5. Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-05-04

    The Cloud Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool (SEET) is a user driven Graphical User Interface (GUI) that estimates cloud supercooled liquid water (SLW) content in terms of vertical column and total mass from Moderate resolution Imaging Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spatially derived cloud products and realistic vertical cloud parameterizations that are user defined. It also contains functions for post-processing of the resulting data in tabular and graphical form.

  6. Bias estimates used in lieu of validation of fission products and minor actinides in MCNP Keff calculations for PWR burnup credit casks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, Don E.; Marshall, William J.; Wagner, John C.; Bowen, Douglas G.

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation recently issued Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) 8, Revision 3. This ISG provides guidance for burnup credit (BUC) analyses supporting transport and storage of PWR pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel in casks. Revision 3 includes guidance for addressing validation of criticality (keff) calculations crediting the presence of a limited set of fission products and minor actinides (FP&MA). Based on previous work documented in NUREG/CR-7109, recommendation 4 of ISG-8, Rev. 3, includes a recommendation to use 1.5 or 3% of the FP&MA worth to conservatively cover the bias due to the specified FP&MAs. This bias is supplementary to the bias and bias uncertainty resulting from validation of keff calculations for the major actinides in SNF and does not address extension to actinides and fission products beyond those identified herein. The work described in this report involves comparison of FP&MA worths calculated using SCALE and MCNP with ENDF/B-V, -VI, and -VII based nuclear data and supports use of the 1.5% FP&MA worth bias when either SCALE or MCNP codes are used for criticality calculations, provided the other conditions of the recommendation 4 are met. The method used in this report may also be applied to demonstrate the applicability of the 1.5% FP&MA worth bias to other codes using ENDF/B V, VI or VII based nuclear data. The method involves use of the applicant s computational method to generate FP&MA worths for a reference SNF cask model using specified spent fuel compositions. The applicant s FP&MA worths are then compared to reference values provided in this report. The applicants FP&MA worths should not exceed the reference results by more than 1.5% of the reference FP&MA worths.

  7. Contribution to the development of DOE ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate Data (CMBE) products: Satellite data over the ARM permanent and AMF sites: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, B; Dong, X; Xie, S

    2012-05-18

    To support the LLNL ARM infrastructure team Climate Modeling Best Estimate (CMBE) data development, the University of North Dakota (UND)'s group will provide the LLNL team the NASA CERES and ISCCP satellite retrieved cloud and radiative properties for the periods when they are available over the ARM permanent research sites. The current available datasets, to date, are as follows: the CERES/TERRA during 200003-200812; the CERES/AQUA during 200207-200712; and the ISCCP during 199601-200806. The detailed parameters list below: (1) CERES Shortwave radiative fluxes (net and downwelling); (2) CERES Longwave radiative fluxes (upwelling) - (items 1 & 2 include both all-sky and clear-sky fluxes); (3) CERES Layered clouds (total, high, middle, and low); (4) CERES Cloud thickness; (5) CERES Effective cloud height; (6) CERES cloud microphysical/optical properties; (7) ISCCP optical depth cloud top pressure matrix; (8) ISCCP derived cloud types (r.g., cirrus, stratus, etc.); and (9) ISCCP infrared derived cloud top pressures. (10) The UND group shall apply necessary quality checks to the original CERES and ISCCP data to remove suspicious data points. The temporal resolution for CERES data should be all available satellite overpasses over the ARM sites; for ISCCP data, it should be 3-hourly. The spatial resolution is the closest satellite field of view observations to the ARM surface sites. All the provided satellite data should be in a format that is consistent with the current ARM CMBE dataset so that the satellite data can be easily merged into the CMBE dataset.

  8. Contribution to the development of DOE ARM Climate Best Estimate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Contribution to the development of DOE ARM Climate Best Estimate Data (ARMBE) products: ... Title: Contribution to the development of DOE ARM Climate Best Estimate Data (ARMBE) ...

  9. Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van't Hof, Jack (Brookhaven, NY)

    1998-09-01

    The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means.

  10. Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van`t Hof, J.

    1998-09-01

    The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means. 4 figs.

  11. Dry Natural Gas Estimated Production (Summary)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1,594 22,239 23,555 24,912 25,233 26,611 1977-2014 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico 1992-2007 Alabama 254 223 218 214 175 176 1977-2014 Alaska 358 317 327 299 285 304 1977-2014 Arkansas 698 951 1,079 1,151 1,140 1,142 1977-2014 California 239 243 311 200 188 176 1977-2014 Colorado 1,524 1,590 1,694 1,681 1,527 1,561 1977-2014 Florida 0 15 0 0 0 0 1977-2014 Kansas 334 305 285 281 283 272 1977-2014 Kentucky 108 96 101 83 81 70 1977-2014 Louisiana 1,544 2,189 2,985 3,057 2,344 1,960 1981-2014

  12. Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1,594 22,239 23,555 24,912 25,233 26,611 1977-2014 Federal Offshore U.S. 2,377 2,154 1,660 1,360 1,198 1,148 1990-2014 Pacific (California) 37 28 31 22 21 20 1977-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana & Alabama) 1,886 1,717 1,311 1,061 941 882 1981-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Texas) 454 409 318 277 236 246 1981-2014 Alaska 358 317 327 299 285 304 1977-2014 Lower 48 States 21,236 21,922 23,228 24,613 24,948 26,307 1977-2014 Alabama 254 223 218 214 175 176 1977-2014 Arkansas 698 951 1,079 1,151 1,140 1,142

  13. Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity & Fuel » Appliances & Electronics » Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use Our appliance and electronic energy use calculator allows you to estimate your annual energy use and cost to operate specific products. The wattage values provided are samples only; actual wattage of products varies depending on product age and features. Enter a wattage value for your own product for the most accurate estimate. Wattage

  14. New Mexico Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) ... Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Estimated Production New Mexico Shale Gas Proved ...

  15. Cost Estimation Package

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.

  16. Check Estimates and Independent Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Check estimates and independent cost estimates (ICEs) are tools that can be used to validate a cost estimate. Estimate validation entails an objective review of the estimate to ensure that estimate criteria and requirements have been met and well documented, defensible estimate has been developed. This chapter describes check estimates and their procedures and various types of independent cost estimates.

  17. Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner ...

  18. Types of Cost Estimates

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    The chapter describes the estimates required on government-managed projects for both general construction and environmental management.

  19. Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use | Department...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and electronic energy use calculator allows you to estimate your annual energy use and cost to operate specific products. The wattage values provided are samples only; actual...

  20. Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Fuel Cells Program Record 14014: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2014 Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2013 Update

  1. A Protocol for Estimating and Mapping Global EGS Potential |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with public Reporting Codes * Present results using common visualization and data architecture The goal of the Protocol is the production of regional estimates and maps of EGS...

  2. New Mexico Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) ... Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production New Mexico Coalbed Methane Proved ...

  3. Reservoir Temperature Estimator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-12-08

    The Reservoir Temperature Estimator (RTEst) is a program that can be used to estimate deep geothermal reservoir temperature and chemical parameters such as CO2 fugacity based on the water chemistry of shallower, cooler reservoir fluids. This code uses the plugin features provided in The Geochemist’s Workbench (Bethke and Yeakel, 2011) and interfaces with the model-independent parameter estimation code Pest (Doherty, 2005) to provide for optimization of the estimated parameters based on the minimization of themore » weighted sum of squares of a set of saturation indexes from a user-provided mineral assemblage.« less

  4. Estimating Specialty Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Specialty costs are those nonstandard, unusual costs that are not typically estimated. Costs for research and development (R&D) projects involving new technologies, costs associated with future regulations, and specialty equipment costs are examples of specialty costs. This chapter discusses those factors that are significant contributors to project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects.

  5. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates. No cancellations.

  6. Derived Annual Estimates

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    74-1988 For Methodology Concerning the Derived Estimates Total Consumption of Offsite-Produced Energy for Heat and Power by Industry Group, 1974-1988 Total Energy *** Electricity...

  7. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates.

  8. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    The objective of this Guide is to improve the quality of cost estimates and further strengthen the DOE program/project management system. The original 25 separate chapters and three appendices have been combined to create a single document.

  9. Independent Cost Estimate (ICE)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Independent Cost Estimate (ICE). On August 8-12, the Office of Project Management Oversight and Assessments (PM) will conduct an ICE on the NNSA Albuquerque Complex Project (NACP) at Albuquerque, NM. This estimate will support the Critical Decision (CD) for establishing the performance baseline and approval to start construction (CD-2/3). This project is at CD-1, with a total project cost range of $183M to $251M.

  10. Parametric Hazard Function Estimation.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-09-13

    Version 00 Phaze performs statistical inference calculations on a hazard function (also called a failure rate or intensity function) based on reported failure times of components that are repaired and restored to service. Three parametric models are allowed: the exponential, linear, and Weibull hazard models. The inference includes estimation (maximum likelihood estimators and confidence regions) of the parameters and of the hazard function itself, testing of hypotheses such as increasing failure rate, and checking ofmore » the model assumptions.« less

  11. REQUESTS FOR RETIREMENT ESTIMATE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    REQUEST FOR RETIREMENT ANNUITY ESTIMATE Instructions: Please read and answer the following questions thoroughly to include checking all applicable boxes. Unanswered questions may delay processing. Print and Fax back your request form to 202.586.6395 or drop request to GM-169. The request will be assigned to your servicing retirement specialist. They will confirm receipt of your request. SECTION A Request Submitted _____________________ ______________________ ________________________

  12. Microsoft PowerPoint - SEDS Production cover.pptx

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2010 2010 Summary Tables 2010 Summary Tables Table P1. Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2010 Alabama 20,396 222,932 7,102 0...

  13. Magnetic nanoparticle temperature estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, John B.; Rauwerdink, Adam M.; Hansen, Eric W.

    2009-05-15

    The authors present a method of measuring the temperature of magnetic nanoparticles that can be adapted to provide in vivo temperature maps. Many of the minimally invasive therapies that promise to reduce health care costs and improve patient outcomes heat tissue to very specific temperatures to be effective. Measurements are required because physiological cooling, primarily blood flow, makes the temperature difficult to predict a priori. The ratio of the fifth and third harmonics of the magnetization generated by magnetic nanoparticles in a sinusoidal field is used to generate a calibration curve and to subsequently estimate the temperature. The calibration curve is obtained by varying the amplitude of the sinusoidal field. The temperature can then be estimated from any subsequent measurement of the ratio. The accuracy was 0.3 deg. K between 20 and 50 deg. C using the current apparatus and half-second measurements. The method is independent of nanoparticle concentration and nanoparticle size distribution.

  14. Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Estimate the energy consumption and cost to operate an appliance when making a purchase. Investing in an energy-efficient product may save you money in the long run. | Photo...

  15. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    mines and sources, 2003-15" "Production Mining Method",2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,200... "Total Mines and Sources",4,6,10,11,12,17,20,9,11,12,12,11,9 "E Estimated data. ...

  16. Use of Cost Estimating Relationships

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) are an important tool in an estimator's kit, and in many cases, they are the only tool. Thus, it is important to understand their limitations and characteristics. This chapter discusses considerations of which the estimator must be aware so the Cost Estimating Relationships can be properly used.

  17. EIA-914 Monthly Gas Production Report Methodology

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... T T T m A test close to the actual task of estimating monthly 2005 production calibrated ... For a test month, the prior 6 months of production data were linearly fit and the linear ...

  18. U. S. Energy Information Administration | Drilling Productivity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    August 2016 Explanatory notes Drilling Productivity Report The Drilling Productivity Report uses recent data on the total number of drilling rigs in operation along with estimates of drilling productivity and estimated changes in production from existing oil and natural gas wells to provide estimated changes in oil 1 and natural gas 2 production for seven key regions. EIA's approach does not distinguish between oil-directed rigs and gas-directed rigs because once a well is completed it may

  19. Automated Estimating System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-04-15

    AES6.1 is a PC software package developed to aid in the preparation and reporting of cost estimates. AES6.1 provides an easy means for entering and updating the detailed cost, schedule information, project work breakdown structure, and escalation information contained in a typical project cost estimate through the use of menus and formatted input screens. AES6.1 combines this information to calculate both unescalated and escalated cost for a project which can be reported at varying levelsmore » of detail. Following are the major modifications to AES6.0f: Contingency update was modified to provide greater flexibility for user updates, Schedule Update was modified to provide user ability to schedule Bills of Material at the WBS/Participant/Cost Code level, Schedule Plot was modified to graphically show schedule by WBS/Participant/Cost Code, All Fiscal Year reporting has been modified to use the new schedule format, The Schedule 1-B-7, Cost Schedule, and the WBS/Participant reprorts were modified to determine Phase of Work from the B/M Cost Code, Utility program was modified to allow selection by cost code and update cost code in the Global Schedule update, Generic summary and line item download were added to the utility program, and an option was added to all reports which allows the user to indicate where overhead is to be reported (bottom line or in body of report)« less

  20. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2. U.S. uranium mine production and number of mines and sources, 2003-15 Production / Mining method 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Underground (estimated contained thousand pounds U3O8) W W W W W W W W W W W W W Open Pit (estimated contained thousand pounds U3O8) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 In-Situ Leaching (thousand pounds U3O8) W W 2,681 4,259 W W W W W W W W W Other1 (thousand pounds U3O8) W W W W W W W W W W W W W Total Mine Production (thousand pounds U3O8)

  1. Question/comment: An estimate of the direct productive labor...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... QuestionComment: "NETL has determined that this procurement is governed by the EPACT, ... QuestionComment: Will subcontractors be bound by indirect rate ceilings? If so and given ...

  2. Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    447 503 461 437 546 549 1990's 523 580 590 657 671 673 702 629 548 486 2000's 491 438 471 426 376 380 350 361 357 334 2010's 305 285 281 283 272 - No Data Reported; -- Not ...

  3. ARM Best Estimate Data (ARMBE) Products for Climate Science for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 54 Environmental Sciences ARM; ARMBE; CSSEF; precipitation rate; Horizontal wind; Air Temperature; Relative Humidity; Surface Air Pressure Dataset File ...

  4. ARM - Evaluation Product - ARM Navigation Best Estimate 10 Hz...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Factor Affecting the Research Data will be unavailable for certain periods of time due to instrument failure and power outage, however every effort is made to provide a complete ...

  5. Ohio Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 60 65 105 1980's 137 85 99 179 169 140 149 117 132 130 1990's 127 132 117 121 119 115 121 105 94 ...

  6. Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 135 149 134 1980's 160 139 133 125 138 132 128 130 126 129 1990's 120 155 145 141 150 163 208 ...

  7. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Estimated Production, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation 2,556 2,445 2,722 3,393 4,114 5,277 1979-2014 Federal Offshore U.S. 659 564 514 535 562 615 1990-2014 Pacific (California) 36 28 31 22 21 21 1979-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana & Alabama) 522 468 415 411 435 464 1981-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Texas) 101 68 68 102 106 130 1981-2014 Alaska 225 174 176 172 181 204 1979-2014 Lower 48 States 2,331 2,271 2,546 3,221 3,933 5,073 1979-2014 Alabama 5 6 8 17 9 17 1979-2014 Arkansas 4 4 6 9 9 10 1979-2014 California 171 186 260 155 157 147

  8. Estimated Production of Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2,537 23,224 24,621 26,097 26,467 28,094 1979-2014 Federal Offshore U.S. 2,438 2,224 1,724 1,429 1,253 1,207 1990-2014 Pacific (California) 37 29 31 22 21 21 1979-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana & Alabama) 1,947 1,786 1,375 1,121 986 932 1981-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Texas) 454 409 318 286 246 254 1981-2014 Alaska 361 319 328 301 289 305 1979-2014 Lower 48 States 22,176 22,905 24,293 25,796 26,178 27,789 1979-2014 Alabama 261 231 226 221 183 184 1979-2014 Arkansas 698 952 1,080 1,152 1,141 1,143

  9. Nonassociated Natural Gas Estimated Production, Wet After Lease Separation

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    19,981 20,779 21,899 22,704 22,353 22,817 1979-2014 Federal Offshore U.S. 1,779 1,660 1,210 894 691 592 1990-2014 Pacific (California) 1 1 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana & Alabama) 1,425 1,318 960 710 551 468 1981-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Texas) 353 341 250 184 140 124 1981-2014 Alaska 136 145 152 129 108 101 1979-2014 Lower 48 States 19,845 20,634 21,747 22,575 22,245 22,716 1979-2014 Alabama 256 225 218 204 174 167 1979-2014 Arkansas 694 948 1,074 1,143 1,132 1,133 1979-2014

  10. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    10. Uranium reserve estimates at the end of 2014 and 2015 million pounds U3O8 End of 2014 End of 2015 Forward Cost2 Uranium Reserve Estimates1 by Mine and Property Status, Mining Method, and State(s) $0 to $30 per pound $0 to $50 per pound $0 to $100 per pound $0 to $30 per pound $0 to $50 per pound $0 to $100 per pound Properties with Exploration Completed, Exploration Continuing, and Only Assessment Work W W 154.6 24.3 W 151.6 Properties Under Development for Production and Development

  11. Cost Estimating, Analysis, and Standardization

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1984-11-02

    To establish policy and responsibilities for: (a) developing and reviewing project cost estimates; (b) preparing independent cost estimates and analysis; (c) standardizing cost estimating procedures; and (d) improving overall cost estimating and analytical techniques, cost data bases, cost and economic escalation models, and cost estimating systems. Cancels DOE O 5700.2B, dated 8-5-1983; DOE O 5700.8, dated 5-27-1981; and HQ 1130.1A, dated 12-30-1981. Canceled by DOE O 5700.2D, dated 6-12-1992

  12. AN OVERVIEW OF TOOL FOR RESPONSE ACTION COST ESTIMATING (TRACE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FERRIES SR; KLINK KL; OSTAPKOWICZ B

    2012-01-30

    Tools and techniques that provide improved performance and reduced costs are important to government programs, particularly in current times. An opportunity for improvement was identified for preparation of cost estimates used to support the evaluation of response action alternatives. As a result, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company has developed Tool for Response Action Cost Estimating (TRACE). TRACE is a multi-page Microsoft Excel{reg_sign} workbook developed to introduce efficiencies into the timely and consistent production of cost estimates for response action alternatives. This tool combines costs derived from extensive site-specific runs of commercially available remediation cost models with site-specific and estimator-researched and derived costs, providing the best estimating sources available. TRACE also provides for common quantity and key parameter links across multiple alternatives, maximizing ease of updating estimates and performing sensitivity analyses, and ensuring consistency.

  13. Lease Condensate Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Authors: Lauren Mayne and John Staub 1 Direct all questions to John Staub, john.staub@eia.gov, (202) 586-6344 Disclaimer: Views not necessarily those of the U.S. Energy Information Administration Incorporating International Petroleum Reserves and Resource Estimates into Projections of Production U.S. Energy Information Administration June 7, 2011 This paper is released to encourage discussion and critical comment. The analysis and conclusions expressed here are those of the authors and not

  14. Robust and intelligent bearing estimation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claassen, John P.

    2000-01-01

    A method of bearing estimation comprising quadrature digital filtering of event observations, constructing a plurality of observation matrices each centered on a time-frequency interval, determining for each observation matrix a parameter such as degree of polarization, linearity of particle motion, degree of dyadicy, or signal-to-noise ratio, choosing observation matrices most likely to produce a set of best available bearing estimates, and estimating a bearing for each observation matrix of the chosen set.

  15. Derived Annual Estimates of Manufacturing Energy Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    > Derived Annual Estimates - Executive Summary Derived Annual Estimates of Manufacturing Energy Consumption, 1974-1988 Figure showing Derived Estimates Executive Summary This...

  16. Examples of Cost Estimation Packages

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Estimates can be performed in a variety of ways. Some of these are for projects for an undefined scope, a conventional construction project, or where there is a level of effort required to complete the work. Examples of cost estimation packages for these types of projects are described in this appendix.

  17. Table 4. U.S. shale gas plays: natural gas production and proved...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Columns may not add to subtotals due to independent rounding. " "The production estimates are offered only as an observed indicator of production trends and may differ from EIA ...

  18. Module: Estimating Historical Emissions from Deforestation |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Website: www.leafasia.orgtoolstechnical-guidance-series-estimating-historical Cost: Free Language: English Module: Estimating Historical Emissions from Deforestation Screenshot...

  19. Estimate Radiological Dose for Animals

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-12-18

    Estimate Radiological dose for animals in ecological environment using open literature values for parameters such as body weight, plant and soil ingestion rate, rad. halflife, absorbed energy, biological halflife, gamma energy per decay, soil-to-plant transfer factor, ...etc

  20. Estimates of Green potentials. Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danchenko, V I

    2003-02-28

    Optimal Cartan-type covers by hyperbolic discs of carriers of Green {alpha}-potentials are obtained in a simply connected domain in the complex plane and estimates of the potentials outside the carriers are presented. These results are applied to problems on the separation of singularities of analytic and harmonic functions. For instance, uniform and integral estimates in terms of Green capacities of components of meromorphic functions are obtained.

  1. Figure 7. Projected Production for the High Development Rate...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. Projected Production for the High Development Rate of Technically Recoverable Oil Estimated at 5 Percent, Mean, and 95 Percent Probabilities for the ANWR Coastal Plain of the...

  2. Figure 6. Projected Production for the Low Development Rate of...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Projected Production for the Low Development Rate of Technically Recoverable Oil Estimated at 5 Percent, Mean, and 95 Percent Probabilities for the ANWR Coastal Plain of the...

  3. Alaska (with Total Offshore) Shale Production (Billion Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    company data. Release Date: 11192015 Next Release Date: 12312016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Estimated Production Alaska Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes,...

  4. New York Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Release Date: 11192015 Next Release Date: 12312016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production New York Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and ...

  5. Evaluation Product : Micro-ARSCL (Dataset) | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microscale data product based on the increased temporal resolution of the MMCRs which includes information about the local maxima in each Doppler spectrum, uncertainty estimates ...

  6. Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  7. Evaluation Product : Micro-ARSCL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Jensen

    2014-07-31

    Microscale data product based on the increased temporal resolution of the MMCRs which includes information about the local maxima in each Doppler spectrum, uncertainty estimates for the Doppler moments of the primary peak, Doppler moment shape parameters (e.g., skewness and kurtosis), and more accurate identification of radar clutter.

  8. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.

    1986-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr.

  9. Isotopes Products

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotopes Products Isotopes Products Isotopes produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory are saving lives, advancing cutting-edge research and keeping the U.S. safe. Products stress and rest Stress and rest Rb-82 PET images in a patient with dipyridamole stress-inducible lateral wall and apical ischemia. (http://www.fac.org.ar/scvc/llave/image/machac/machaci.htm#f2,3,4) Strontium-82 is supplied to our customers for use in Sr-82/Rb-82 generator technologies. The generators in turn are supplied to

  10. Preliminary relative permeability estimates of methanehydrate-bearing sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Moridis,George J.

    2006-05-08

    The relative permeability to fluids in hydrate-bearing sediments is an important parameter for predicting natural gas production from gas hydrate reservoirs. We estimated the relative permeability parameters (van Genuchten alpha and m) in a hydrate-bearing sand by means of inverse modeling, which involved matching water saturation predictions with observations from a controlled waterflood experiment. We used x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning to determine both the porosity and the hydrate and aqueous phase saturation distributions in the samples. X-ray CT images showed that hydrate and aqueous phase saturations are non-uniform, and that water flow focuses in regions of lower hydrate saturation. The relative permeability parameters were estimated at two locations in each sample. Differences between the estimated parameter sets at the two locations were attributed to heterogeneity in the hydrate saturation. Better estimates of the relative permeability parameters require further refinement of the experimental design, and better description of heterogeneity in the numerical inversions.

  11. Forest Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Purchased energy remains the third largest manufacturing cost for the forest products industry–despite its extensive use of highly efficient co-generation technology. The industry has worked with...

  12. Hydrogen Production

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produ

  13. Quick estimating for thermal conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastri, S.R.S.; Rao, K.K. )

    1993-08-01

    Accurate values for thermal conductivity--an important engineering property used in heat transfer calculations of liquids--are not as readily available as those for other physical properties. Therefore, it often becomes necessary to use estimated data. A new estimating method combines ease of use with an accuracy that is generally better than existing procedures. The paper discusses how to select terms and testing correlations, then gives two examples of the use of the method for calculation of the thermal conductivity of propionic acid and chlorobenzene.

  14. Estimated Water Flows in 2005: United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-16

    Flow charts depicting water use in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of water use patterns. Approximately 410,500 million gallons per day of water are managed throughout the United States for use in farming, power production, residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Water is obtained from four major resource classes: fresh surface-water, saline (ocean) surface-water, fresh groundwater and saline (brackish) groundwater. Water that is not consumed or evaporated during its use is returned to surface bodies of water. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states in addition to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) and one national water flow chart representing a comprehensive systems view of national water resources, use, and disposition.

  15. Chapter 17: Estimating Net Savings: Common Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Violette, D. M.; Rathbun, P.

    2014-09-01

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to particular program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings, but does not prescribe particular methods.

  16. Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If the customer has a ratio of estimated monthly kilowatt-hour (kWh) usage to line extension mileage that is less than or equal to 1,000, the utility must provide the comparison at no cost. If the...

  17. BLE: Battery Life Estimator | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BLE: Battery Life Estimator BLE: Battery Life Estimator Argonne's Battery Life Estimator (BLE) software is a state-of-the-art tool kit for fitting battery aging data and for ...

  18. Development of surface mine cost estimating equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-26

    Cost estimating equations were developed to determine capital and operating costs for five surface coal mine models in Central Appalachia, Northern Appalachia, Mid-West, Far-West, and Campbell County, Wyoming. Engineering equations were used to estimate equipment costs for the stripping function and for the coal loading and hauling function for the base case mine and for several mines with different annual production levels and/or different overburden removal requirements. Deferred costs were then determined through application of the base case depreciation schedules, and direct labor costs were easily established once the equipment quantities (and, hence, manpower requirements) were determined. The data points were then fit with appropriate functional forms, and these were then multiplied by appropriate adjustment factors so that the resulting equations yielded the model mine costs for initial and deferred capital and annual operating cost. (The validity of this scaling process is based on the assumption that total initial and deferred capital costs are proportional to the initial and deferred costs for the primary equipment types that were considered and that annual operating cost is proportional to the direct labor costs that were determined based on primary equipment quantities.) Initial capital costs ranged from $3,910,470 in Central Appalachia to $49,296,785; deferred capital costs ranged from $3,220,000 in Central Appalachia to $30,735,000 in Campbell County, Wyoming; and annual operating costs ranged from $2,924,148 in Central Appalachia to $32,708,591 in Campbell County, Wyoming. (DMC)

  19. Bottom production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  20. Estimating Waste Inventory and Waste Tank Characterization |...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Estimating Waste Inventory and Waste Tank Characterization Estimating Waste Inventory and Waste Tank Characterization Summary Notes from 28 May 2008 Generic Technical Issue ...

  1. Estimates and Recommendations for Coincidence Geometry (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Estimates and Recommendations for Coincidence Geometry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimates and Recommendations for Coincidence Geometry You are accessing a...

  2. Surface daytime net radiation estimation using artificial neural networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Yi; Liang, Shunlin; Zhang, Xiaotong; Xiao, Zhiqiang

    2014-11-11

    Net all-wave surface radiation (Rn) is one of the most important fundamental parameters in various applications. However, conventional Rn measurements are difficult to collect because of the high cost and ongoing maintenance of recording instruments. Therefore, various empirical Rn estimation models have been developed. This study presents the results of two artificial neural network (ANN) models (general regression neural networks (GRNN) and Neuroet) to estimate Rn globally from multi-source data, including remotely sensed products, surface measurements, and meteorological reanalysis products. Rn estimates provided by the two ANNs were tested against in-situ radiation measurements obtained from 251 global sites between 1991–2010more » both in global mode (all data were used to fit the models) and in conditional mode (the data were divided into four subsets and the models were fitted separately). Based on the results obtained from extensive experiments, it has been proved that the two ANNs were superior to linear-based empirical models in both global and conditional modes and that the GRNN performed better and was more stable than Neuroet. The GRNN estimates had a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.92, a root mean square error (RMSE) of 34.27 W·m–2 , and a bias of –0.61 W·m–2 in global mode based on the validation dataset. In conclusion, ANN methods are a potentially powerful tool for global Rn estimation.« less

  3. $100 billion mistake: is the windfall revenue estimate too high

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuelson, R.J.

    1980-04-26

    An economic analysis of the Windfall Profits Tax (as proposed at the time) suggests that the estimate of a $227 billion revenue over the next decade may be as much as $100 billion too high. This judgment is based on provisions in the law allowing states to deduct severance taxes up to 15 percent on oil before federal taxes are paid and offering tax incentives for tertiary projects. The arithmetic, particularly in the case of enhanced oil recovery, illustrates how the incentives could shift more production from a 70% to a 30% tax rate than the Federal government had estimated. (DCK)

  4. Background estimation in experimental spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, R.; Hanson, K. M.; Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS P940, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 ; Dose, V.; Linden, W. von der

    2000-02-01

    A general probabilistic technique for estimating background contributions to measured spectra is presented. A Bayesian model is used to capture the defining characteristics of the problem, namely, that the background is smoother than the signal. The signal is allowed to have positive and/or negative components. The background is represented in terms of a cubic spline basis. A variable degree of smoothness of the background is attained by allowing the number of knots and the knot positions to be adaptively chosen on the basis of the data. The fully Bayesian approach taken provides a natural way to handle knot adaptivity and allows uncertainties in the background to be estimated. Our technique is demonstrated on a particle induced x-ray emission spectrum from a geological sample and an Auger spectrum from iron, which contains signals with both positive and negative components. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  5. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-100 Raman Lidar Profiles Best Estimate Value-Added...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Raman Lidar Profiles Best Estimate Value-Added Product Technical Report R Newsom January 2012 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. ...

  6. Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Landscapting Water Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-30

    Guidance to help Federal agencies estimate unmetered landscaping water use as required by Executive Order 13514

  7. Oil Production

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-07-01

    A horizontal and slanted well model was developed and incorporated into BOAST, a black oil simulator, to predict the potential production rates for such wells. The HORIZONTAL/SLANTED WELL MODEL can be used to calculate the productivity index, based on the length and location of the wellbore within the block, for each reservoir grid block penetrated by the horizontal/slanted wellbore. The well model can be run under either pressure or rate constraints in which wellbore pressuresmore » can be calculated as an option of infinite-conductivity. The model can simulate the performance of multiple horizontal/slanted wells in any geometric combination within reservoirs.« less

  8. Hydrogen Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production Hydrogen can be produced using diverse, domestic resources. Fossil fuels, such as natural gas and coal, can be converted to produce hydrogen, and the use of carbon capture, utilization, and storage can reduce the carbon footprint of these processes. Hydrogen can also be produced from low carbon and renewable resources, including biomass grown from non-food crops and splitting water using electricity from wind, solar, geothermal, nuclear, and hydroelectric. This diversity of potential

  9. Petroleum products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book is the first of three volumes devoted to petroleum products and lubricants. This volume begins with standard D 56 and contains all petroleum standards up to D 1947. It contains specifications and test methods for fuels, solvents, burner fuel oils, lubricating oils, cutting oils, lubricating greases, fluids measurement and sampling, liquified petroleum gases, light hydrocarbons, plant spray oils, sulfonates, crude petroleum, petrolatam, and wax.

  10. Hydrogen Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Production - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  11. Product separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welsh, Robert A.; Deurbrouck, Albert W.

    1976-01-20

    A secondary light sensitive photoelectric product separator for use with a primary product separator that concentrates a material so that it is visually distinguishable from adjacent materials. The concentrate separation is accomplished first by feeding the material onto a vibratory inclined surface with a liquid flow, such as a wet concentrating table. Vibrations generally perpendicular to the stream direction of flow cause the concentrate to separate from its mixture according to its color. When the concentrate and its surrounding stream reach the recovery end of the table, a detecting device notes the line of color demarcation and triggers a signal if it differs from a normal condition. If no difference is noted nothing moves on the second separator. However, if a difference is detected in the constant monitoring of the color line's location, a product splitter and recovery unit normally positioned near the color line at the recovery end, moves to a new position. In this manner the selected separated concentrate is recovered at a maximum rate regardless of variations in the flow stream or other conditions present.

  12. Production Planning Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-04-20

    PRODMOD is an integrated computational tool for performing dynamic simulation and optimization for the entire high level waste complex at the Savannah River Site (SRS) It is being used at SRS for planning purposes so that all waste can be processed efficiently. The computational tool 1) optimizes waste blending sequences, 2) minimizes waste volume production, 3) reduces waste processing time, 4) provides better process control and understanding, and 5) assists strategic planning, scheduling, and costmore » estimation. PRODMOD has been developed using Aspen Technology''s software development package SPEEDUP. PRODMOD models all the key HLW processing operations at SRS: storage and evaporation: saltcake production and dissolution: filtration (dewatering): precipitation: sludge and precipitate washing: glass, grout, and organics production. Innovative approaches have been used in making PRODMOD a very fast computational tool. These innovative approaches are 1) constructing a dynamic problem as a steady state problem 2) mapping between event-space (batch processes) and time-space (dynamic processes) without sacrificing the details in the batch process. The dynamic nature of the problem is constructed in linear form where time dependence is implicit. The linear constructs and mapping algorithms have made it possible to devise a general purpose optimization scheme which couples the optimization driver with the PRODMOD simulator. The optimization scheme is capable of generating single or multiple optimal input conditions for different types of objective functions over single or multiple years of operations depending on the nature of the objective function and operating constraints.« less

  13. Fuel Cell System for Transportation -- 2005 Cost Estimate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, D.

    2006-10-01

    Independent review report of the methodology used by TIAX to estimate the cost of producing PEM fuel cells using 2005 cell stack technology. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Manager asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to commission an independent review of the 2005 TIAX cost analysis for fuel cell production. The NREL Systems Integrator is responsible for conducting independent reviews of progress toward meeting the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) technical targets. An important technical target of the Program is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell cost in terms of dollars per kilowatt ($/kW). The Program's Multi-Year Program Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan established $125/kW as the 2005 technical target. Over the last several years, the Program has contracted with TIAX, LLC (TIAX) to produce estimates of the high volume cost of PEM fuel cell production for transportation use. Since no manufacturer is yet producing PEM fuel cells in the quantities needed for an initial hydrogen-based transportation economy, these estimates are necessary for DOE to gauge progress toward meeting its targets. For a PEM fuel cell system configuration developed by Argonne National Laboratory, TIAX estimated the total cost to be $108/kW, based on assumptions of 500,000 units per year produced with 2005 cell stack technology, vertical integration of cell stack manufacturing, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components purchased from a supplier network. Furthermore, TIAX conducted a Monte Carlo analysis by varying ten key parameters over a wide range of values and estimated with 98% certainty that the mean PEM fuel cell system cost would be below DOE's 2005 target of $125/kW. NREL commissioned DJW TECHNOLOGY, LLC to form an Independent Review Team (the Team) of industry fuel cell experts and to evaluate the cost estimation process and the results reported by TIAX. The results of this

  14. Estimating Externalities of Natural Gas Fuel Cycles, Report 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes methods for estimating the external costs (and possibly benefits) to human health and the environment that result from natural gas fuel cycles. Although the concept of externalities is far from simple or precise, it generally refers to effects on individuals' well being, that result from a production or market activity in which the individuals do not participate, or are not fully compensated. In the past two years, the methodological approach that this report describes has quickly become a worldwide standard for estimating externalities of fuel cycles. The approach is generally applicable to any fuel cycle in which a resource, such as coal, hydro, or biomass, is used to generate electric power. This particular report focuses on the production activities, pollution, and impacts when natural gas is used to generate electric power. In the 1990s, natural gas technologies have become, in many countries, the least expensive to build and operate. The scope of this report is on how to estimate the value of externalities--where value is defined as individuals' willingness to pay for beneficial effects, or to avoid undesirable ones. This report is about the methodologies to estimate these externalities, not about how to internalize them through regulations or other public policies. Notwithstanding this limit in scope, consideration of externalities can not be done without considering regulatory, insurance, and other considerations because these institutional factors affect whether costs (and benefits) are in fact external, or whether they are already somehow internalized within the electric power market. Although this report considers such factors to some extent, much analysis yet remains to assess the extent to which estimated costs are indeed external. This report is one of a series of reports on estimating the externalities of fuel cycles. The other reports are on the coal, oil, biomass, hydro, and nuclear fuel cycles, and on general methodology.

  15. ARM - PI Product - ISDAC Microphysics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsISDAC Microphysics ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : ISDAC Microphysics Best estimate of cloud microphysical parameters derived using data collected by the cloud microphysical probes installed on the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada Convair-580 during ISDAC. These files contain phase, liquid and ice crystal size distributions (Nw(D) and Ni(D) respectively), liquid water

  16. Distributed Dynamic State Estimator, Generator Parameter Estimation and Stability Monitoring Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meliopoulos, Sakis; Cokkinides, George; Fardanesh, Bruce; Hedrington, Clinton

    2013-12-31

    This is the final report for this project that was performed in the period: October1, 2009 to June 30, 2013. In this project, a fully distributed high-fidelity dynamic state estimator (DSE) that continuously tracks the real time dynamic model of a wide area system with update rates better than 60 times per second is achieved. The proposed technology is based on GPS-synchronized measurements but also utilizes data from all available Intelligent Electronic Devices in the system (numerical relays, digital fault recorders, digital meters, etc.). The distributed state estimator provides the real time model of the system not only the voltage phasors. The proposed system provides the infrastructure for a variety of applications and two very important applications (a) a high fidelity generating unit parameters estimation and (b) an energy function based transient stability monitoring of a wide area electric power system with predictive capability. Also the dynamic distributed state estimation results are stored (the storage scheme includes data and coincidental model) enabling an automatic reconstruction and “play back” of a system wide disturbance. This approach enables complete play back capability with fidelity equal to that of real time with the advantage of “playing back” at a user selected speed. The proposed technologies were developed and tested in the lab during the first 18 months of the project and then demonstrated on two actual systems, the USVI Water and Power Administration system and the New York Power Authority’s Blenheim-Gilboa pumped hydro plant in the last 18 months of the project. The four main thrusts of this project, mentioned above, are extremely important to the industry. The DSE with the achieved update rates (more than 60 times per second) provides a superior solution to the “grid visibility” question. The generator parameter identification method fills an important and practical need of the industry. The “energy function” based

  17. Residential Lighting Usage Estimate Tool, v1.0

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    By improving our understanding of residential lighting-energy usage and quantifying it across many different parameters, the new study will be of use to anyone doing energy estimates – such as utilities, market and investment analysts, and government agencies. It will also help manufacturers design products that not only better serve consumers' needs, but that maximize the energy savings that technologies like SSL make possible.

  18. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3. U.S. uranium concentrate production, shipments, and sales, 2003-15 Activity at U.S. mills and In-Situ-Leach plants 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Estimated contained U3O8 (thousand pounds) Ore from Mines and Stockpiles Fed to Mills1 0 W W W 0 W W W W W W W 0 Other Feed Materials 2 W W W W W W W W W W W W W Total Mill Feed W W W W W W W W W W W W W Uranium Concentrate Produced at U.S. Mills (thousand pounds U3O8) W W W W W W W W W W W W W Uranium Concentrate

  19. 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-10

    An energy flow chart or 'atlas' for 136 countries has been constructed from data maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and estimates of energy use patterns for the year 2007. Approximately 490 exajoules (460 quadrillion BTU) of primary energy are used in aggregate by these countries each year. While the basic structure of the energy system is consistent from country to country, patterns of resource use and consumption vary. Energy can be visualized as it flows from resources (i.e. coal, petroleum, natural gas) through transformations such as electricity generation to end uses (i.e. residential, commercial, industrial, transportation). These flow patterns are visualized in this atlas of 136 country-level energy flow charts.

  20. Bayesian estimation methods in metrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, M.G.; Forbes, A.B.; Harris, P.M.

    2004-11-16

    In metrology -- the science of measurement -- a measurement result must be accompanied by a statement of its associated uncertainty. The degree of validity of a measurement result is determined by the validity of the uncertainty statement. In recognition of the importance of uncertainty evaluation, the International Standardization Organization in 1995 published the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement and the Guide has been widely adopted. The validity of uncertainty statements is tested in interlaboratory comparisons in which an artefact is measured by a number of laboratories and their measurement results compared. Since the introduction of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement, key comparisons are being undertaken to determine the degree of equivalence of laboratories for particular measurement tasks. In this paper, we discuss the possible development of the Guide to reflect Bayesian approaches and the evaluation of key comparison data using Bayesian estimation methods.

  1. State Energy Price and Expenditure Estimates

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2016-01-01

    Energy price and expenditure estimates in dollars per million Btu and in million dollars, by state, 1970-2014.

  2. Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter discusses a formalized methodology is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software.

  3. Theoretical Estimate of Maximum Possible Nuclear Explosion

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Bethe, H. A.

    1950-01-31

    The maximum nuclear accident which could occur in a Na-cooled, Be moderated, Pu and power producing reactor is estimated theoretically. (T.R.H.) 2O82 Results of nuclear calculations for a variety of compositions of fast, heterogeneous, sodium-cooled, U-235-fueled, plutonium- and power-producing reactors are reported. Core compositions typical of plate-, pin-, or wire-type fuel elements and with uranium as metal, alloy, and oxide were considered. These compositions included atom ratios in the following range: U-23B to U-235 from 2 to 8; sodium to U-235 from 1.5 to 12; iron to U-235 from 5 to 18; and vanadium to U-235 from 11 to 33. Calculations were performed to determine the effect of lead and iron reflectors between the core and blanket. Both natural and depleted uranium were evaluated as the blanket fertile material. Reactors were compared on a basis of conversion ratio, specific power, and the product of both. The calculated results are in general agreement with the experimental results from fast reactor assemblies. An analysis of the effect of new cross-section values as they became available is included. (auth)

  4. Market analysis of shale oil co-products. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data are presented in these appendices on the marketing and economic potential for soda ash, aluminia, and nahcolite as by-products of shale oil production. Appendices 1 and 2 contain data on the estimated capital and operating cost of an oil shales/mineral co-products recovery facility. Appendix 3 contains the marketing research data.

  5. The economics of biomass production in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, R.L.; Walsh, M.E.; Lichtenberg, E.; Roningen, V.O.; Shapouri, H.

    1995-12-31

    Biomass crops (e.g. poplar, willow, switchgrass) could become important feedstocks for power, liquid fuel, and chemical production. This paper presents estimates of the potential production of biomass in the US under a range of assumptions. Estimates of potential biomass crop yields and production costs from the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) are combined with measures of land rents from USDA`s Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), to estimate a competitive supply of biomass wood and grass crops. Estimates are made for one potential biomass use--electric power production--where future costs of electricity production from competing fossil fuels set the demand price. The paper outlines the methodology used and limitations of the analysis.

  6. Montana Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 12 13 7 2010's 13 13 16 19 42 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Estimated Production Montana Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production Shale

  7. Virginia Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 3 3 3 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Estimated Production Virginia Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production Shale Gas

  8. Wyoming Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 7 102 29 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Estimated Production Wyoming Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production Shale Gas

  9. Surface daytime net radiation estimation using artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Yi; Liang, Shunlin; Zhang, Xiaotong; Xiao, Zhiqiang

    2014-11-11

    Net all-wave surface radiation (Rn) is one of the most important fundamental parameters in various applications. However, conventional Rn measurements are difficult to collect because of the high cost and ongoing maintenance of recording instruments. Therefore, various empirical Rn estimation models have been developed. This study presents the results of two artificial neural network (ANN) models (general regression neural networks (GRNN) and Neuroet) to estimate Rn globally from multi-source data, including remotely sensed products, surface measurements, and meteorological reanalysis products. Rn estimates provided by the two ANNs were tested against in-situ radiation measurements obtained from 251 global sites between 1991–2010 both in global mode (all data were used to fit the models) and in conditional mode (the data were divided into four subsets and the models were fitted separately). Based on the results obtained from extensive experiments, it has been proved that the two ANNs were superior to linear-based empirical models in both global and conditional modes and that the GRNN performed better and was more stable than Neuroet. The GRNN estimates had a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.92, a root mean square error (RMSE) of 34.27 W·m–2 , and a bias of –0.61 W·m–2 in global mode based on the validation dataset. In conclusion, ANN methods are a potentially powerful tool for global Rn estimation.

  10. ARM - PI Product - Radiative Flux Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsRadiative Flux Analysis ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Radiative Flux Analysis The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and

  11. Robust Bearing Estimation for 3-Component Stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claassen, John P.

    1999-06-03

    A robust bearing estimation process for 3-component stations has been developed and explored. The method, called SEEC for Search, Estimate, Evaluate and Correct, intelligently exploits the in- herent information in the arrival at every step of the process to achieve near-optimal results. In particular, the approach uses a consistent framework to define the optimal time-frequency windows on which to make estimates, to make the bearing estimates themselves, to construct metrics helpful in choosing the better estimates or admitting that the bearing is immeasurable, andjinally to apply bias corrections when calibration information is available to yield a single final estimate. The method was applied to a small but challenging set of events in a seismically active region. The method demonstrated remarkable utility by providing better estimates and insights than previously available. Various monitoring implications are noted fiom these findings.

  12. Robust bearing estimation for 3-component stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CLAASSEN,JOHN P.

    2000-02-01

    A robust bearing estimation process for 3-component stations has been developed and explored. The method, called SEEC for Search, Estimate, Evaluate and Correct, intelligently exploits the inherent information in the arrival at every step of the process to achieve near-optimal results. In particular the approach uses a consistent framework to define the optimal time-frequency windows on which to make estimates, to make the bearing estimates themselves, to construct metrics helpful in choosing the better estimates or admitting that the bearing is immeasurable, and finally to apply bias corrections when calibration information is available to yield a single final estimate. The algorithm was applied to a small but challenging set of events in a seismically active region. It demonstrated remarkable utility by providing better estimates and insights than previously available. Various monitoring implications are noted from these findings.

  13. Economical Production of Pu-238

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven D. Howe; Douglas Crawford; Jorge Navarro; Terry Ring

    2013-02-01

    All space exploration missions traveling beyond Jupiter must use radioisotopic power sources for electrical power. The best isotope to power these sources is plutonium-238. The US supply of Pu-238 is almost exhausted and will be gone within the next decade. The Department of Energy has initiated a production program with a $10M allocation from NASA but the cost is estimated at over $100 M to get to production levels. The Center for Space Nuclear Research has conceived of a potentially better process to produce Pu-238 earlier and for significantly less cost. The new process will also produce dramatically less waste. Potentially, the front end costs could be provided by private industry such that the government only had to pay for the product produced. Under a NASA Phase I NIAC grant, the CSNR has evaluated the feasibility of using a low power, commercially available nuclear reactor to produce at least 1.5 kg of Pu-238 per year. The impact on the neutronics of the reactor have been assessed, the amount of Neptunium target material estimated, and the production rates calculated. In addition, the size of the post-irradiation processing facility has been established. In addition, a new method for fabricating the Pu-238 product into the form used for power sources has been identified to reduce the cost of the final product. In short, the concept appears to be viable, can produce the amount of Pu-238 needed to support the NASA missions, can be available within a few years, and will cost significantly less than the current DOE program.

  14. Reliability Estimates for Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee C. Cadwallader; Peter I. Petersen

    2005-09-01

    Failure rates for large power supplies at a fusion facility are critical knowledge needed to estimate availability of the facility or to set priorties for repairs and spare components. A study of the "failure to operate on demand" and "failure to continue to operate" failure rates has been performed for the large power supplies at DIII-D, which provide power to the magnet coils, the neutral beam injectors, the electron cyclotron heating systems, and the fast wave systems. When one of the power supplies fails to operate, the research program has to be either temporarily changed or halted. If one of the power supplies for the toroidal or ohmic heating coils fails, the operations have to be suspended or the research is continued at de-rated parameters until a repair is completed. If one of the power supplies used in the auxiliary plasma heating systems fails the research is often temporarily changed until a repair is completed. The power supplies are operated remotely and repairs are only performed when the power supplies are off line, so that failure of a power supply does not cause any risk to personnel. The DIII-D Trouble Report database was used to determine the number of power supply faults (over 1,700 reports), and tokamak annual operations data supplied the number of shots, operating times, and power supply usage for the DIII-D operating campaigns between mid-1987 and 2004. Where possible, these power supply failure rates from DIII-D will be compared to similar work that has been performed for the Joint European Torus equipment. These independent data sets support validation of the fusion-specific failure rate values.

  15. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC`s mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation`s civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC`s FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC`s Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC`s Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses and NRC`s Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

  16. Time and Resource Estimation Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-06-08

    RESTORE is a computer software tool that allows one to model a complex set of steps required to accomplish a goal (e.g., repair a ruptured natural gas pipeline and restore service to customers). However, the time necessary to complete step may be uncertain and may be affected by conditions, such as the weather, the time of day, the day of the week. Therefore, "nature" can influence which steps are taken and the time needed tomore » complete each step. In addition, the tool allows one to model the costs for each step, which also may be uncertain. RESTORE allows the user to estimate the time and cost, both of which may be uncertain, to achieve an intermediate stage of completion, as well as overall completion. The software also makes it possible to model parallel, competing groups of activities (i.e., parallel paths) so that progreSs at a ‘merge point’ can proceed before other competing activities are completed. For example, RESTORE permits one to model a workaround and a simultaneous complete repair to determine a probability distribution for the earliest time service can be restored to a critical customer. The tool identifies the ‘most active path’ through the network of tasks, which is extremely important information for assessing the most effective way to speed-up or slow-down progress. Unlike other project planning and risk analysis tools, RESTORE provides an intuitive, graphical, and object-oriented environment for structuring a model and setting its parameters.« less

  17. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Biodiesel production capacity and production million gallons Period Annual Production ... B100 is the industry designation for pure biodiesel; a biodiesel blend contains both pure ...

  18. ARM KAZR-ARSCL Value Added Product

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jensen, Michael

    The Ka-band ARM Zenith Radars (KAZRs) have replaced the long-serving Millimeter Cloud Radars, or MMCRs. Accordingly, the primary MMCR Value Added Product (VAP), the Active Remote Sensing of CLouds (ARSCL) product, is being replaced by a KAZR-based version, the KAZR-ARSCL VAP. KAZR-ARSCL provides cloud boundaries and best-estimate time-height fields of radar moments.

  19. ARM KAZR-ARSCL Value Added Product

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jensen, Michael

    2012-09-28

    The Ka-band ARM Zenith Radars (KAZRs) have replaced the long-serving Millimeter Cloud Radars, or MMCRs. Accordingly, the primary MMCR Value Added Product (VAP), the Active Remote Sensing of CLouds (ARSCL) product, is being replaced by a KAZR-based version, the KAZR-ARSCL VAP. KAZR-ARSCL provides cloud boundaries and best-estimate time-height fields of radar moments.

  20. Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013 This report provides detailed reactor designs and capital costs, and operating cost estimates for the hydrothermal liquefaction reactor system, used for

  1. Annual Coded Wire Tag Program; Oregon Missing Production Groups, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, Robert L.; Lewis, Mark A.; Murray, William M.

    1994-04-01

    The goal of this project is to develop the ability to estimate hatchery production survival values and evaluate effectiveness of Oregon hatcheries.

  2. Annual Coded Wire Program: Oregon Missing Production Groups: 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, Robert L.; Isaac, Dennis L.; Lewis, Mark A.; Murry, William M.

    1992-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop the ability to estimate hatchery production survival values and evaluate effectiveness of Oregon hatcheries.

  3. Characterization and estimation of permeability correlation structure from performance data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ershaghi, I.; Al-Qahtani, M.

    1997-08-01

    In this study, the influence of permeability structure and correlation length on the system effective permeability and recovery factors of 2-D cross-sectional reservoir models, under waterflood, is investigated. Reservoirs with identical statistical representation of permeability attributes are shown to exhibit different system effective permeability and production characteristics which can be expressed by a mean and variance. The mean and variance are shown to be significantly influenced by the correlation length. Detailed quantification of the influence of horizontal and vertical correlation lengths for different permeability distributions is presented. The effect of capillary pressure, P{sub c1} on the production characteristics and saturation profiles at different correlation lengths is also investigated. It is observed that neglecting P{sub c} causes considerable error at large horizontal and short vertical correlation lengths. The effect of using constant as opposed to variable relative permeability attributes is also investigated at different correlation lengths. Next we studied the influence of correlation anisotropy in 2-D reservoir models. For a reservoir under five-spot waterflood pattern, it is shown that the ratios of breakthrough times and recovery factors of the wells in each direction of correlation are greatly influenced by the degree of anisotropy. In fully developed fields, performance data can aid in the recognition of reservoir anisotropy. Finally, a procedure for estimating the spatial correlation length from performance data is presented. Both the production performance data and the system`s effective permeability are required in estimating the correlation length.

  4. Adaptive error covariances estimation methods for ensemble Kalman filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen, Yicun; Harlim, John

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a computationally fast algorithm for estimating, both, the system and observation noise covariances of nonlinear dynamics, that can be used in an ensemble Kalman filtering framework. The new method is a modification of Belanger's recursive method, to avoid an expensive computational cost in inverting error covariance matrices of product of innovation processes of different lags when the number of observations becomes large. When we use only product of innovation processes up to one-lag, the computational cost is indeed comparable to a recently proposed method by Berry–Sauer's. However, our method is more flexible since it allows for using information from product of innovation processes of more than one-lag. Extensive numerical comparisons between the proposed method and both the original Belanger's and Berry–Sauer's schemes are shown in various examples, ranging from low-dimensional linear and nonlinear systems of SDEs and 40-dimensional stochastically forced Lorenz-96 model. Our numerical results suggest that the proposed scheme is as accurate as the original Belanger's scheme on low-dimensional problems and has a wider range of more accurate estimates compared to Berry–Sauer's method on L-96 example.

  5. Notes on a New Coherence Estimator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickel, Douglas L.

    2016-01-01

    This document discusses some interesting features of the new coherence estimator in [1] . The estimator is d erived from a slightly different viewpoint. We discuss a few properties of the estimator, including presenting the probability density function of the denominator of the new estimator , which is a new feature of this estimator . Finally, we present an appr oximate equation for analysis of the sensitivity of the estimator to the knowledge of the noise value. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The preparation of this report is the result of an unfunded research and development activity. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  6. State energy data report 1994: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This document provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), operated by EIA. SEDS provides State energy consumption estimates to members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and provides the historical series needed for EIA`s energy models. Division is made for each energy type and end use sector. Nuclear electric power is included.

  7. U.S. Uranium Reserves Estimates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Methodology The U.S. uranium ore reserves reported by EIA for specific MFC categories represent the sums of quantities estimated to occur in known deposits on properties where data about the ore grade, configuration, and depth indicate that the quantities estimated could be recovered at or less than the stated costs given current mining and milling technology and regulations. The reserves estimates for year-end (delete: December 31, 2008), are based on historical data for uranium properties

  8. Alabama Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions 0 0 2009-2010 Extensions 0 0 2009-2010 New Field Discoveries 0 0 2009-2010 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 2009-2010 Estimated Production 0 0 0 0 2007-2010

  9. Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion Report |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion Report Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion Report This report provides an overview of the current state of electrolytic hydrogen production techonologies and an economic analysis of the processes and systems available as of December 2003. 36734.pdf (719.5 KB) More Documents & Publications Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water

  10. Interruption Cost Estimate Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cost Estimate (ICE) Calculator This calculator is a tool designed for electric reliability planners at utilities, government organizations or other entities that are...