National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for 1970s high-purity optical

  1. Global High-purity Pentoxide Industry 2015 Market Research Report...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global High-purity Pentoxide Industry 2015 Market Research Report Home Gosreports's picture Submitted by Gosreports(70) Contributor 2 July, 2015 - 21:10 Global High-purity...

  2. Method of high purity silane preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y. Simon (Golden, CO); Belov, Eugene P. (Moscow, RU); Gerlivanov, Vadim G. (Moscow, RU); Zadde, Vitali V. (Moscow, RU); Kleschevnikova, Solomonida I. (Moscow, RU); Korneev, Nikolai N. (Moscow, RU); Lebedev, Eugene N. (Moscow, RU); Pinov, Akhsarbek B. (Moscow, RU); Ryabenko, Eugene A. (Moscow, RU); Strebkov, Dmitry S. (Moscow, RU); Chernyshev, Eugene A. (Moscow, RU)

    2000-01-01

    A process for the preparation of high purity silane, suitable for forming thin layer silicon structures in various semiconductor devices and high purity poly- and single crystal silicon for a variety of applications, is provided. Synthesis of high-purity silane starts with a temperature assisted reaction of metallurgical silicon with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. Alcoxysilanes formed in the silicon-alcohol reaction are separated from other products and purified. Simultaneous reduction and oxidation of alcoxysilanes produces gaseous silane and liquid secondary products, including, active part of a catalyst, tetra-alcoxysilanes, and impurity compounds having silicon-hydrogen bonds. Silane is purified by an impurity adsorption technique. Unreacted alcohol is extracted and returned to the reaction with silicon. Concentrated mixture of alcoxysilanes undergoes simultaneous oxidation and reduction in the presence of a catalyst at the temperature -20.degree. C. to +40.degree. C. during 1 to 50 hours. Tetra-alcoxysilane extracted from liquid products of simultaneous oxidation and reduction reaction is directed to a complete hydrolysis. Complete hydrolysis of tetra-alcoxysilane results in formation of industrial silica sol and alcohol. Alcohol is dehydrated by tetra-alcoxysilane and returned to the reaction with silicon.

  3. PhosPlusPhosPlus High-Purity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    depositions. · The use of high-purity raw materials results in high-purity doping of single crystalPlus sources are manufactured from raw materials exhibiting very high purity. These materials are made using represent a significant advancement in the field of phosphorus dopant materials. Their ability to easily

  4. Observing bulk diamond spin coherence in high-purity nanodiamonds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helena S. Knowles; Dhiren M. Kara; Mete Atature

    2013-10-03

    Nitrogen-vacancy centres (NVs) in diamond are attractive for research straddling quantum information science and nanoscale magnetometry and thermometry. While ultrapure bulk diamond NVs sustain the longest spin coherence times among optically accessible spins, nanodiamond NVs display persistently poor spin coherence. Here we introduce high-purity nanodiamonds accommodating record-long NV coherence times, >60 us, observed via universal dynamical decoupling. We show that the main contribution to decoherence comes from nearby nitrogen impurities rather than surface states. We protect the NV spin free precession, essential to DC magnetometry, by driving solely these impurities into the motional narrowing regime. This extends the NV free induction decay time from 440 ns, longer than that in type Ib bulk diamond, to 1.27 us, which is comparable to that in type IIa (impurity-free) diamond. These properties allow the simultaneous exploitation of both high sensitivity and nanometre resolution in diamond-based emergent quantum technologies.

  5. Production of High Purity Niobium Ingots at CBMM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moura, Lourenco de; Faria Sousa, Clovis Antonio de; Burgos Cruz, Edmundo [CBMM-Companhia Brasileira de Metalurgia e Mineracao, Fazenda Corrego da Mata, P.O. Box 838.183.903, Araxa, MG (Brazil)

    2011-03-31

    CBMM is a fully integrated company, from the mine to the end line of the production chain, supplying different niobium products to the world market: ferroniobium, nickelniobium, niobium pentoxide and high purity metallic niobium. This high purity metallic niobium has long been known to exhibit superconductivity below 9.25 Kelvin. This characteristic has the potential to bring technological benefits for many different areas such as medicine, computing and environment. This paper presents the raw material requirements as well as CBMM experience on producing high purity niobium ingots. The results prove that CBMM material can be the best solution for special applications such as low cost superconductive radiofrequency cavities.

  6. Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in high purity magnesium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roche, Neil Gerard

    1981-01-01

    DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8cM University in partial i'ulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1981 Major Subject: Chemistry DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Approved as to style and content by: E. A. Schweikert (Chairman of Committee) G. J. Bastiaans (Member) L...

  7. Comparison of Deformation in High-Purity Single/Large Grain and Polycrystalline Niobium Superconducting Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapati Rao Myneni; Peter Kneisel

    2005-07-10

    The current approach for the fabrication of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities is to roll and deep draw sheets of polycrystalline high-purity niobium. Recently, a new technique was developed at Jefferson Laboratory that enables the fabrication of single-crystal high-purity Nb SRF cavities. To better understand the differences between SRF cavities fabricated out of fine-grained polycrystalline sheet in the standard manner and single crystal cavities fabricated by the new technique, two half-cells were produced according to the two different procedures and compared using a variety of analytical techniques including optical microscopy, scanning laser confocal microscopy, profilometry, and X-ray diffraction. Crystallographic orientations, texture, and residual stresses were determined in the samples before and after forming and this poster presents the results of this ongoing study.

  8. Low cost routes to high purity silicon and derivatives thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laine, Richard M; Krug, David James; Marchal, Julien Claudius; Mccolm, Andrew Stewart

    2013-07-02

    The present invention is directed to a method for providing an agricultural waste product having amorphous silica, carbon, and impurities; extracting from the agricultural waste product an amount of the impurities; changing the ratio of carbon to silica; and reducing the silica to a high purity silicon (e.g., to photovoltaic silicon).

  9. Method and apparatus for producing high purity silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.

    1983-05-27

    A method for producing high purity silicon includes forming a copper silicide alloy and positioning the alloy within an enclosure. A filament member is also placed within the enclosure opposite the alloy. The enclosure is then filled with a chemical vapor transport gas adapted for transporting silicon. Finally, both the filament member and the alloy are heated to temperatures sufficient to cause the gas to react with silicon at the alloy surface and deposit the reacted silicon on the filament member. In addition, an apparatus for carrying out this method is also disclosed.

  10. Method and apparatus for producing high purity silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1984-01-01

    A method for producing high purity silicon includes forming a copper silie alloy and positioning the alloy within an enclosure. A filament member is also placed within the enclosure opposite the alloy. The enclosure is then filled with a chemical vapor transport gas adapted for transporting silicon. Finally, both the filament member and the alloy are heated to temperatures sufficient to cause the gas to react with silicon at the alloy surface and deposit the reacted silicon on the filament member. In addition, an apparatus for carrying out this method is also disclosed.

  11. Retrofitting America: A 1970s Home Energy Efficiency Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-11-17

    This paper describes a modeling tool that Building America research team CARB developed to identify the energy benefits of various retrofit energy efficiency measures for a typical 1970s ranch home in ten cities across four climate zones in the United States.

  12. DEEP LEVEL TRANSIENT SPECTROSCOPY OF HIGH-PURITY GERMANIUM DIODES/DETECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, E.E.

    2011-01-01

    1978 LBL,-3140"'/ c-. cr DEEP LEVEL TRANSIENT SPECTROSCOPY.are changing the charge state of deep traps. A minority trapenergy and concentration of deep traps in high-purity Ge, it

  13. Use of a High-Purity Germanium Semiconductor Detector for Rapid Post-Nuclear Event Forensics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horowitz, Steven Michael

    2015-07-27

    This thesis investigates the ability of a high-purity germanium detector to perform post-detonation forensics on the debris from several types of nuclear weapons 24 hours after detonation. The ultimate result of this ...

  14. Catalytic CVD generation of high-purity single-walled carbon nanotubes at low temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    CVD Catalytic CVD generation of high-purity single-walled carbon nanotubes at low temperature-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 We have demonstrated the high-quality and low-temperature generation on the generation temperature and gas flow rate. In order to create nanotube devices, we tried to generate SWNTs

  15. High Purity Americium-241 for Fuel Cycle R&D Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Paul A. Lessing

    2011-07-01

    Previously the U.S. Department of Energy released Am-241 for various applications such as smoke detectors and Am-Be neutron sources for oil wells. At this date there is a shortage of usable, higher purity Am-241 in metal and oxide form available in the United States. Recently, the limited source of Am-241 has been from Russia with production being contracted to existing customers. The shortage has resulted in the price per gram rising dramatically over the last few years. DOE-NE currently has need for high purity Am-241 metal and oxide to fabricate fuel pellets for reactor testing in the Fuel Cycle R&D program. All the available high purity americium has been gathered from within the DOE system of laboratories. However, this is only a fraction of the projected needs of FCRD over the next 10 years. Therefore, FCR&D has proposed extraction and purification concepts to extract Am-241 from a mixed AmO2-PuO2 feedstock stored at the Savannah River Site. The most simple extraction system is based upon high temperature reduction using lanthanum metal with concurrent evaporation and condensation to produce high purity Am metal. Metallic americium has over a four order of magnitude higher vapor pressure than plutonium. Results from small-scale reduction experiments are presented. These results confirm thermodynamic predictions that at 1000 deg C metallic lanthanum reduces both PuO2 and AmO2. Faster kinetics are expected for temperatures up to about 1500 deg C.

  16. Crystal growth and detector performance of large size high-purity Ge crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Guojian; Mei, Hao; Mei, Dongming; Irmscher, Klaus; Guan, Yutong; Yang, Gang

    2015-01-01

    High-purity germanium crystals approximately 12 cm in diameter were grown in a hydrogen atmosphere using the Czochralski method. The dislocation density of the crystals was determined to be in the range of 2000 - 4200 cm-2, which meets a requirement for use as a radiation detector. The axial and radial distributions of impurities in the crystals were measured and are discussed. A planar detector was also fabricated from one of the crystals and then evaluated for electrical and spectral performance. Measurements of gamma-ray spectra from Cs-137 and Am-241 sources demonstrate that the detector has excellent energy resolution.

  17. Crystal growth and detector performance of large size high-purity Ge crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guojian Wang; Mark Amman; Hao Mei; Dongming Mei; Klaus Irmscher; Yutong Guan; Gang Yang

    2015-05-07

    High-purity germanium crystals approximately 12 cm in diameter were grown in a hydrogen atmosphere using the Czochralski method. The dislocation density of the crystals was determined to be in the range of 2000 - 4200 cm-2, which meets a requirement for use as a radiation detector. The axial and radial distributions of impurities in the crystals were measured and are discussed. A planar detector was also fabricated from one of the crystals and then evaluated for electrical and spectral performance. Measurements of gamma-ray spectra from Cs-137 and Am-241 sources demonstrate that the detector has excellent energy resolution.

  18. Electrical and mechanical studies of high purity aluminum single crystals at 4.2 K under cyclic strain 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, Hong

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of orientation on strain hardening and resistivity degradation in high purity aluminum single crystals resulting from uniaxial cyclic strain at 4.2 K. Aluminum crystals with various...

  19. Process for producing high purity silicon nitride by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and nitrogen-hydrogen liquid reactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pugar, Eloise A. (Isla Vista, CA); Morgan, Peter E. D. (Thousand Oaks, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, nitrogen, and hydrogen which can then be heated to produce a high purity alpha silicon nitride. The process comprises: reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity nitrogen-hydrogen reactant in its liquid state (such as ammonia or hydrazine) having the formula: N.sub.n H.sub.(n+m) wherein: n=1-4 and m=2 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is straight chain, and 0 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is cyclic. High purity silicon nitride can be formed from this intermediate product by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200.degree.-1700.degree. C. for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours to form a high purity alpha silicon nitride product. The discovery of the existence of a soluble Si-N-H intermediate enables chemical pathways to be explored previously unavailable in conventional solid state approaches to silicon-nitrogen ceramics.

  20. Process for producing high purity silicon nitride by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and nitrogen-hydrogen liquid reactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pugar, E.A.; Morgan, P.E.D.

    1987-09-15

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, nitrogen, and hydrogen which can then be heated to produce a high purity alpha silicon nitride. The process comprises: reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity nitrogen-hydrogen reactant in its liquid state (such as ammonia or hydrazine) having the formula: N/sub n/H/sub (n+m)/ wherein: n = 1--4 and m = 2 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is straight chain, and 0 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is cyclic. High purity silicon nitride can be formed from this intermediate product by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200--1700/degree/C for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours to form a high purity alpha silicon nitride product. The discovery of the existence of a soluble Si/endash/N/endash/H intermediate enables chemical pathways to be explored previously unavailable in conventional solid-state approaches to silicon-nitrogen ceramics

  1. Surface preparation for high purity alumina ceramics enabling direct brazing in hydrogen atmospheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cadden, Charles H. (Danville, CA); Yang, Nancy Yuan Chi (Lafayette, CA); Hosking, Floyd M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for preparing the surface of a high purity alumina ceramic or sapphire specimen that enables direct brazing in a hydrogen atmosphere using an active braze alloy. The present invention also relates to a method for directly brazing a high purity alumina ceramic or sapphire specimen to a ceramic or metal member using this method of surface preparation, and to articles produced by this brazing method. The presence of silicon, in the form of a SiO.sub.2 -containing surface layer, can more than double the tensile bond strength in alumina ceramic joints brazed in a hydrogen atmosphere using an active Au-16Ni-0.75 Mo-1.75V filler metal. A thin silicon coating applied by PVD processing can, after air firing, produce a semi-continuous coverage of the alumina surface with a SiO.sub.2 film. Room temperature tensile strength was found to be proportional to the fraction of air fired surface covered by silicon-containing films. Similarly, the ratio of substrate fracture versus interface separation was also related to the amount of surface silicon present prior to brazing. This process can replace the need to perform a "moly-manganese" metallization step.

  2. The early development and deployment of FGD in the US (1960s-1970s)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    i The early development and deployment of FGD in the US (1960s-1970s) Final case study report, and does not have the authority of a full Research Report #12;iii Contents Summary of key findings Network (KTN) for Energy Generation and Supply, with responsibility for analysis of future and emerging

  3. SIMULTANEOUS PRODUCTION OF HIGH-PURITY HYDROGEN AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2 FROM SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linda Denton; Hana Lorethova; Tomasz Wiltowski; Court Moorefield; Parag Kulkarni; Vladimir Zamansky; Ravi Kumar

    2003-12-01

    This final report summarizes the progress made on the program ''Simultaneous Production of High-Purity Hydrogen and Sequestration-Ready CO{sub 2} from Syngas (contract number DE-FG26-99FT40682)'', during October 2000 through September of 2003. GE Energy and Environmental Research (GE-EER) and Southern Illinois University (SIU) at Carbondale conducted the research work for this program. This program addresses improved methods to efficiently produce simultaneous streams of high-purity hydrogen and separated carbon dioxide from synthesis gas (syngas). The syngas may be produced through either gasification of coal or reforming of natural gas. The process of production of H{sub 2} and separated CO{sub 2} utilizes a dual-bed reactor and regenerator system. The reactor produces hydrogen and the regenerator produces separated CO{sub 2}. The dual-bed system can be operated under either a circulating fluidized-bed configuration or a cyclic fixed-bed configuration. Both configurations were evaluated in this project. The experimental effort was divided into lab-scale work at SIU and bench-scale work at GE-EER. Tests in a lab-scale fluidized bed system demonstrated the process for the conversion of syngas to high purity H{sub 2} and separated CO{sub 2}. The lab-scale system generated up to 95% H{sub 2} (on a dry basis). Extensive thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions between the syngas and the fluidized solids determined an optimum range of temperature and pressure operation, where the extent of the undesirable reactions is minimum. The cycling of the process between hydrogen generation and oxygen regeneration has been demonstrated. The fluidized solids did not regenerate completely and the hydrogen purity in the reuse cycle dropped to 70% from 95% (on a dry basis). Changes in morphology and particle size may be the most dominant factor affecting the efficiency of the repeated cycling between hydrogen production and oxygen regeneration. The concept of simultaneous production of hydrogen and separated stream of CO{sub 2} was proved using a fixed bed 2 reactor system at GE-EER. This bench-scale cyclic fixed-bed reactor system designed to reform natural gas to syngas has been fabricated in another coordinated DOE project. This system was modified to reform natural gas to syngas and then convert syngas to H{sub 2} and separated CO{sub 2}. The system produced 85% hydrogen (dry basis).

  4. Operation of a high purity germanium crystal in liquid argon as a Compton suppressed radiation spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John L. Orrell; Craig E. Aalseth; John F. Amsbaugh; Peter J. Doe; Todd W. Hossbach

    2006-10-11

    A high purity germanium crystal was operated in liquid argon as a Compton suppressed radiation spectrometer. Spectroscopic quality resolution of less than 1% of the full-width half maximum of full energy deposition peaks was demonstrated. The construction of the small apparatus used to obtain these results is reported. The design concept is to use the liquid argon bath to both cool the germanium crystal to operating temperatures and act as a scintillating veto. The scintillation light from the liquid argon can veto cosmic-rays, external primordial radiation, and gamma radiation that does not fully deposit within the germanium crystal. This technique was investigated for its potential impact on ultra-low background gamma-ray spectroscopy. This work is based on a concept initially developed for future germanium-based neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments.

  5. Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Timothy Christopher (Allentown, PA); Farris, Thomas Stephen (Bethlehem, PA)

    2008-11-18

    The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

  6. Search of Axions from a Nuclear Power Reactor with a High-Purity Germanium Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. M. Chang; TEXONO Collaboration

    2007-01-21

    A search of axions produced in nuclear transitions was performed at the Kuo-Sheng Nuclear Power Station with a high-purity germanium detector of mass 1.06 kg at a distance of 28 m from the 2.9 GW reactor core. The expected experimental signatures were mono-energetic lines produced by their Primakoff or Compton conversions at the detector. Based on 459.0/96.3 days of Reactor ON/OFF data, no evidence of axion emissions were observed and constraints on the couplings $\\gagg$ and $\\gaee$ versus axion mass $m_a$ within the framework of invisible axion models were placed. The KSVZ and DFSZ models can be excluded for 10^4 eV < m_a < 10^6 ~eV. Model-independent constraints on \\gagg \\gv1 < 7.7 X 10^{-9} GeV^{-2} for m_{a} < 10^5 eV and \\gaee \\gv1 < 1.3 X 10^{-10} for m_{a} < 10^6 eV at 90% confidence level were derived. This experimental approach provides a unique probe for axion mass at the keV--MeV range not accessible to the other techniques.

  7. “Where are all the feminists?” The Joan Little Case and Anti-Rape Activism During the 1970s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacquet, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    focuses on the politics of rape, 1960-1980. This is a workJoan Little case and anti-rape activism during the 1970s Amovements politicized this rape case from their particular

  8. High-purity hydrogen gas from the reaction between BOF steel slag and water in the 473e673 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    energy (above 120 MJ/kg); 2) water is the main by-product in hydrogen fuel cell or during combustion carbonated beforehand at 0.142 Æ 0.002 kg of CO2 per kg of slag. The reaction was found to be thermally activated. A high purity hydrogen (99.995%) is produced with non-carbonated steel slag below 573 K whereas

  9. High Purity Hydrogen Production with In-Situ Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Capture in a Single Stage Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nihar Phalak; Shwetha Ramkumar; Daniel Connell; Zhenchao Sun; Fu-Chen Yu; Niranjani Deshpande; Robert Statnick; Liang-Shih Fan

    2011-07-31

    Enhancement in the production of high purity hydrogen (H{sub 2}) from fuel gas, obtained from coal gasification, is limited by thermodynamics of the water gas shift (WGS) reaction. However, this constraint can be overcome by conducting the WGS in the presence of a CO{sub 2}-acceptor. The continuous removal of CO{sub 2} from the reaction mixture helps to drive the equilibrium-limited WGS reaction forward. Since calcium oxide (CaO) exhibits high CO{sub 2} capture capacity as compared to other sorbents, it is an ideal candidate for such a technique. The Calcium Looping Process (CLP) developed at The Ohio State University (OSU) utilizes the above concept to enable high purity H{sub 2} production from synthesis gas (syngas) derived from coal gasification. The CLP integrates the WGS reaction with insitu CO{sub 2}, sulfur and halide removal at high temperatures while eliminating the need for a WGS catalyst, thus reducing the overall footprint of the hydrogen production process. The CLP comprises three reactors - the carbonator, where the thermodynamic constraint of the WGS reaction is overcome by the constant removal of CO{sub 2} product and high purity H{sub 2} is produced with contaminant removal; the calciner, where the calcium sorbent is regenerated and a sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream is produced; and the hydrator, where the calcined sorbent is reactivated to improve its recyclability. As a part of this project, the CLP was extensively investigated by performing experiments at lab-, bench- and subpilot-scale setups. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was also conducted to determine the feasibility of the CLP at commercial scale. This report provides a detailed account of all the results obtained during the project period.

  10. Preparation of uniform nanoparticles of ultra-high purity metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, metals, and metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Liu, Shengfeng; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Liu, Qingyuan; Smith, Stacey Janel

    2012-07-03

    In preferred embodiments, metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal (alloy) nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal oxide nanoparticles are provided. According to embodiments, the nanoparticles may possess narrow size distributions and high purities. In certain preferred embodiments, methods of preparing metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal nanoparticles are provided. These methods may provide tight control of particle size, size distribution, and oxidation state. Other preferred embodiments relate to a precursor material that may be used to form nanoparticles. In addition, products prepared from such nanoparticles are disclosed.

  11. Search of Axions at the Kuo-Sheng Nuclear Power Station with a High-Purity Germanium Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, C M; Chou, M H; Deniz, M; Huang, H X; Lee, F S; Li, H B; Li, J; Liao, H Y; Lin, S T; Singh, V; Wu, S C; Xin, B; al, et

    2006-01-01

    A search of axions produced in nuclear transitions was performed at the Kuo-Sheng Nuclear Power Station with a high-purity germanium detector of mass 1.06 kg at a distance of 28 m from the 2.9 GW reactor core. The experimental signatures were mono-energetic lines produced by their Primakoff or Compton conversions at the detector. No evidence of axion emissions were observed and model-independent constraints on the axion mass $m_a$, branching ratio $\\braxion$, and couplings $\\gagg$, $\\gaee$ were placed. Limits on $\\gagg ^2 \\braxion

  12. Search of Neutrino Magnetic Moments with a High-Purity Germanium Detector at the Kuo-Sheng Nuclear Power Station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. T. Wong; TEXONO Collaboration

    2006-11-14

    A search of neutrino magnetic moments was carried out at the Kuo-Sheng Nuclear Power Station at a distance of 28 m from the 2.9 GW reactor core. With a high purity germanium detector of mass 1.06 kg surrounded by scintillating NaI(Tl) and CsI(Tl) crystals as anti-Compton detectors, a detection threshold of 5 keV and a background level of 1 $\\cpd$ near threshold were achieved. Details of the reactor neutrino source, experimental hardware, background understanding and analysis methods are presented. Based on 570.7 and 127.8 days of Reactor ON and OFF data, respectively, at an average Reactor ON electron anti-neutrino flux of $\\rm{6.4 \\times 10^{12} cm^{-2} s^{-1}}$, the limit on the neutrino magnetic moments of $\\rm{\\munuebar < 7.4 \\times 10^{-11} \\mub}$ at 90% confidence level was derived. Indirect bounds on the $\

  13. ENSO regimes and the late 1970's climate shift: The role of synoptic weather and South Pacific ocean spiciness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Kane, Terence J.; Matear, Richard J.; Chamberlain, Matthew A.; Oke, Peter R.

    2014-08-15

    South Pacific subtropical density compensated temperature and salinity (spiciness) anomalies are known to be associated with decadal equatorial variability, however, the mechanisms by which such disturbances are generated, advect and the degree to which they modulate the equatorial thermocline remains controversial. During the late 1970's a climate regime transition preceded a period of strong and sustained El Nino events. Using an ocean general circulation model forced by the constituent mechanical and thermodynamic components of the reanalysed atmosphere we show that the late 1970's transition coincided with the arrival of a large-scale, subsurface cold and fresh water anomaly in the central tropical Pacific. An ocean reanalysis for the period 1990–2007 that assimilates subsurface Argo, XBT and CTD data, reveals that disturbances occur due to the subduction of negative surface salinity anomalies from near 30° S, 100° W which are advected along the ?=25–26 kgm{sup ?3} isopycnal surfaces. These anomalies take, on average, seven years to reach the central equatorial Pacific where they may substantially perturb the thermocline before the remnants ultimately ventilate in the region of the western Pacific warm pool. Positive (warm–salty) disturbances, known to occur due to late winter diapycnal mixing and isopycnal outcropping, arise due to both subduction of subtropical mode waters and subsurface injection. On reaching the equatorial band (10° S–0° S) these disturbances tend to deepen the thermocline reducing the model's ENSO. In contrast the emergence of negative (cold–fresh) disturbances at the equator are associated with a shoaling of the thermocline and El Nino events. Process studies are used to show that the generation and advection of anomalous density compensated thermocline disturbances critically depend on stochastic forcing of the intrinsic ocean by weather. We further show that in the absence of the inter-annual component of the atmosphere forcing Central Pacific El Nino events are manifest.

  14. Characteristics of Signals Originating near the Lithium-Diffused N+ Contact of High Purity Germanium P-Type Point Contact Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo, E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Amman, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Avignone, F. T. [University of South Carolina/ORNL; Barabash, A.S. [Institute of Theoretical & Experimental Physics, Moscow, Russia; Barton, P. J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Beene, James R [ORNL; Bertrand Jr, Fred E [ORNL; Boswell, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brudanin, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Busch, M. [Duke University; Chan, Y-D [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Christofferson, C. D. [South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, Rapid City, SD; Collar, Juan I. [University of Chicago; Combs, D. C. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Cooper, Reynold J [ORNL; Detwiler, J.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Doe, P. J. [University of Washington; Efremenko, Yuri [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Egorov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Ejiri, H. [Osaka University; Elliott, S. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Esterline, J. [Duke University; Fast, J.E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Fields, N. [University of Chicago; Finnerty, P. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Fraenkle, F. M. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn} [ORNL; Gehman, V. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Giovanetti, G. K. [Univ, of North Carolina & Triangle Universities Nucl. Lab - Durham, NC; Green, M. P. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Guiseppe, V.E. [University of South Dakota; Gusey, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Hallin, A. L. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada; Hazama, R. [Osaka University; Henning, R. [Univ, of North Carolina & Triangle Universities Nucl. Lab - Durham, NC; Hoppe, E.W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Horton, M. [South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, Rapid City, SD; Howard, S. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Howe, M. A. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Johnson, R. A. [University of Washington, Seattle; Keeter, K.J. [Black Hills State University, Spearfish, SD; Kidd, M. F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Knecht, A. [University of Washington, Seattle; Kochetov, O. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Konovalov, S.I. [Institute of Theoretical & Experimental Physics, Moscow, Russia; Kouzes, R. T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); LaFerriere, B. D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Leon, J. [University of Washington, Seattle; Leviner, L. E. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Loach, J.C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Looker, Q. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Luke, P.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); MacMullin, S. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Marino, M. G. [University of Washington, Seattle; Martin, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Merriman, J. H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Miller, M. L. [University of Washington, Seattle; Mizouni, L. [PPNL/Univ. of South Carolina; Nomachi, M. [Osaka University; Orrell, John L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Overman, N. R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Perumpilly, G. [University of South Dakota; Phillips II, D. G. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Poon, A.W.P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); et al.

    2013-01-01

    A study of signals originating near the lithium-diffused n+ contact of p-type point contact (PPC) high purity germanium detectors (HPGe) is presented. The transition region between the active germanium and the fully dead layer of the n+ contact is examined. Energy depositions in this transition region are shown to result in partial charge collection. This provides a mechanism for events with a well defined energy to contribute to the continuum of the energy spectrum at lower energies. A novel technique to quantify the contribution from this source of background is introduced. Experiments that operate germanium detectors with a very low energy threshold may benefit from the methods presented herein.

  15. Measurement of the high-field Q-drop in a high-purity large-grain niobium cavity for different oxidation processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gianluigi Ciovati; Peter Kneisel; alex gurevich

    2007-06-01

    The most challenging issue for understanding the performance of superconducting radio-frequency (rf) cavities made of high-purity (residual resistivity ratio > 200) niobium is due to a sharp degradation (“Q-drop”) of the cavity quality factor Q0(Bp) as the peak surface magnetic field (Bp) exceeds about 90 mT, in the absence of field emission. In addition, a low-temperature (100 – 140 ?C) “in-situ” baking of the cavity was found to be beneficial in reducing the Q-drop. In this contribution, we present the results from a series of rf tests at 1.7 K and 2.0 K on a single-cell cavity made of high-purity large (with area of the order of few cm2) grain niobium which underwent various oxidation processes, after initial buffered chemical polishing, such as anodization, baking in pure oxygen atmosphere and baking in air up to 180 °C, with the objective of clearly identifying the role of oxygen and the oxide layer on the Q-drop. During each rf test a temperature mapping system allows measuring the local temperature rise of the cavity outer surface due to rf losses, which gives information about the losses location, their field dependence and space distribution. The results confirmed that the depth affected by baking is about 20 – 30 nm from the surface and showed that the Q-drop did not re-appear in a previously baked cavity by further baking at 120 °C in pure oxygen atmosphere or in air up to 180 °C. These treatments increased the oxide thickness and oxygen concentration, measured on niobium samples which were processed with the cavity and were analyzed with Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS). Nevertheless, the performance of the cavity after air baking at 180 °C degraded significantly and the temperature maps showed high losses, uniformly distributed on the surface, which could be completely recovered only by a post-purification treatment at 1250 °C. A statistic of the position of the “hot-spots” on the cavity surface showed that grain-boundaries are not the preferred location. An interesting correlation was found between the Q-drop onset, the quench field and the low-field energy gap, which supports the hypothesis of thermo-magnetic instability governing the Q-drop and the baking effect.

  16. Signal modeling of high-purity Ge detectors with a small read-out electrode and application to neutrinoless double beta decay search in Ge-76

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Agostini; C. A. Ur; D. Budjáš; E. Bellotti; R. Brugnera; C. M. Cattadori; A. di Vacri; A. Garfagnini; L. Pandola; S. Schönert

    2011-01-17

    The GERDA experiment searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay of Ge-76 using high-purity germanium detectors enriched in Ge-76. The analysis of the signal time structure provides a powerful tool to identify neutrinoless double beta decay events and to discriminate them from gamma-ray induced backgrounds. Enhanced pulse shape discrimination capabilities of "Broad Energy Germanium" detectors with a small read-out electrode have been recently reported. This paper describes the full simulation of the response of such a detector, including the Monte Carlo modeling of radiation interaction and subsequent signal shape calculation. A pulse shape discrimination method based on the ratio between the maximum current signal amplitude and the event energy applied to the simulated data shows quantitative agreement with the experimental data acquired with calibration sources. The simulation has been used to study the survival probabilities of the decays which occur inside the detector volume and are difficult to assess experimentally. Such internal decay events are produced by the cosmogenic radio-isotopes Ge-68 and Co-60 and the neutrinoless double beta decay of Ge-76. Fixing the experimental acceptance of the double escape peak of the 2.614 MeV photon to 90%, the estimated survival probabilities at Qbb = 2.039 MeV are (86+-3)% for Ge-76 neutrinoless double beta decays, (4.5+-0.3)% for the Ge-68 daughter Ga-68, and (0.9+0.4-0.2)% for Co-60 decays.

  17. A Search of Neutrino Magnetic Moments with a High-Purity Germanium Detector at the Kuo-Sheng Nuclear Power Station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, H T; Lin, S T; Lee, F S; Singh, V; Wu, S C; Chang, C Y; Chang, H M; Chen, C P; Chou, M H; Deniz, M; Fang, J M; Hu, C H; Huang, H X; Jon, G C; Kuo, W S; Lai, W P; Lee, S C; Li, J; Liao, H Y; Lin, F K; Lin, S K; Lu, J Q; Sheng, H Y; Su, R F; Tong, W S; Xin, B; Yeh, T R; Yue, Q; Zhou, Z Y; Zhuang, B A

    2007-01-01

    A search of neutrino magnetic moments was carried out at the Kuo-Sheng Nuclear Power Station at a distance of 28 m from the 2.9 GW reactor core. With a high purity germanium detector of mass 1.06 kg surrounded by scintillating NaI(Tl and CsI(Tl) crystals as anti-Compton detectors, a detection threshold of 5 keV and a background level of 1 $\\cpd$ near threshold were achieved. Details of the reactor neutrino source, experimental hardware, background understanding and analysis methods are presented. Based on 570.7 and 127.8 days of Reactor ON and OFF data, respectively, at an average Reactor ON electron anti-neutrino flux of $\\rm{6.44 \\times 10^{12} cm^{-2} s^{-1}}$, the limit on the neutrino magnetic moments of $\\rm{\\munuebar < 7.2 \\times 10^{-11} \\mub}$ at 90% confidence level was derived. Indirect bounds of the $\

  18. Robust Low-Cost Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Purity Hydrogen Production form Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Torkelson; Neng Ye; Zhijiang Li; Decio Coutinho; Mark Fokema

    2008-05-31

    This report details work performed in an effort to develop a low-cost, robust water gas shift membrane reactor to convert coal-derived syngas into high purity hydrogen. A sulfur- and halide-tolerant water gas shift catalyst and a sulfur-tolerant dense metallic hydrogen-permeable membrane were developed. The materials were integrated into a water gas shift membrane reactor in order to demonstrate the production of >99.97% pure hydrogen from a simulated coal-derived syngas stream containing 2000 ppm hydrogen sulfide. The objectives of the program were to (1) develop a contaminant-tolerant water gas shift catalyst that is able to achieve equilibrium carbon monoxide conversion at high space velocity and low steam to carbon monoxide ratio, (2) develop a contaminant-tolerant hydrogen-permeable membrane with a higher permeability than palladium, (3) demonstrate 1 L/h purified hydrogen production from coal-derived syngas in an integrated catalytic membrane reactor, and (4) conduct a cost analysis of the developed technology.

  19. Neutron Damage in Mechanically-Cooled High-Purity Germanium Detectors for Field-Portable Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.H. Seabury; C.J. Wharton; A.J. Caffrey; J.B. McCabe; C. DeW. Van Siclen

    2013-10-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation (PGNAA) systems require the use of a gamma-ray spectrometer to record the gamma-ray spectrum of an object under test and allow the determination of the object’s composition. Field-portable systems, such as Idaho National Laboratory’s PINS system, have used standard liquid-nitrogen-cooled high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors to perform this function. These detectors have performed very well in the past, but the requirement of liquid-nitrogen cooling limits their use to areas where liquid nitrogen is readily available or produced on-site. Also, having a relatively large volume of liquid nitrogen close to the detector can impact some assessments, possibly leading to a false detection of explosives or other nitrogen-containing chemical. Use of a mechanically-cooled HPGe detector is therefore very attractive for PGNAA applications where nitrogen detection is critical or where liquid-nitrogen logistics are problematic. Mechanically-cooled HPGe detectors constructed from p-type germanium, such as Ortec’s trans-SPEC, have been commercially available for several years. In order to assess whether these detectors would be suitable for use in a fielded PGNAA system, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been performing a number of tests of the resistance of mechanically-cooled HPGe detectors to neutron damage. These detectors have been standard commercially-available p-type HPGe detectors as well as prototype n-type HPGe detectors. These tests compare the performance of these different detector types as a function of crystal temperature and incident neutron fluence on the crystal.

  20. Football - Individuals - 1970s - 491 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2005-06-30

    Deng Josh Laveman Kate MacAdam Kunyao Yu April 1, 2014 ESL-IE-14-05-05 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 GM Plant Background ? Energy goals incorporated in business plans o EPA...

  1. Football - Individuals - 1970s - 485 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2005-06-30

    Teamwork and communication are two important processes within multi-agent systems designed to act in a coherent and coordinated manner. Modeling teamwork involves interleaving steps within shared plans that will allow agents to work together towards...

  2. Football - Individuals - 1970s - 432 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2005-06-30

    The domestic dog, Canis lupus familiaris, is a unique model system for the dissection of hereditary diseases. Selective breeding practices have created more than 300 distinct breeds of dogs, born from a desire to create ...

  3. Football - Individuals - 1970s - 440 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2005-06-30

    Rotating shaft seals, such as labyrinth seals, are used in high speed turbomachinery including aircraft gas turbine engines and industrial centrifugal compressors. Analysis, design, and testing of a non-rotating cantilever beam style shaft seal test...

  4. Football - Individuals - 1970s - 372 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2005-06-30

    .UI&n half would be suffering from his Vulcan divorce ??? except possibly for Jim Kirk. They strolled on. After awhile she said, ''Thank you, S.!lrek." "For what?" "For taking rooms on the M-I floor. For squeezing in time to walk out here among real, leafy...'t believe that the .ense of inter species hostility that was i'1creasingly prevalent a:nong civilians had :>enetrated the Service! "Lieutenant. I'm Captain Kirk and this i3 my first officer, Mr. Spack. Is anything wrong?" "Nothiing that concerns you...

  5. Football - Individuals - 1970s - 452 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2005-06-30

    the circuits are robust and optimized with consideration of parametric variations. This research presents innovative computer-aided design approaches to address three such problems: (1) large analog/mixed-signal performance modeling under process variations, (2...

  6. Football - Individuals - 1970s - 422 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2005-06-30

    The quaternary intermetallic rare-earth nickel borocarbides RNi2B2C are a family of compounds that show magnetic behavior, superconducting behavior, and/or both. Thermal transport measurements reveal both electron and phonon scattering mechanisms...

  7. Football - Individuals - 1970s - 443 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2005-06-30

    , and rhythmic/arrhythmic progeny (Table 4), suggesting that there is a linkage between LR75. 6A and eas. The percentage of eas: LR75. 6A recombinants indicate that LR75. 6A lies 20 map units from eas. Further testing must now be done to determine on which... side of the eas locus LR75. 6A lies. In order to make this determination, a three-point cross must be set up. This involves crossing one of the progeny from the bd, his3eas, a X LR75. 6A cross with two other strains. One will be selected on either...

  8. Football - Individuals - 1970s - 403 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2005-06-30

    Conflicts between humans and leopards have intensified in the Junnar Forest Division (JFD), India due to a combination of factors: loss of natural habitats, increasing rural human densities, and increasing leopard populations. ...

  9. Preparation of High Purity, High Molecular-Weight Chitin from Ionic Liquids for Use as an Adsorbate for the Extraction of Uranium from Seawater (Workscope MS-FC: Fuel Cycle R&D)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, Robin

    2013-12-21

    Ensuring a domestic supply of uranium is a key issue facing the wider implementation of nuclear power. Uranium is mostly mined in Kazakhstan, Australia, and Canada, and there are few high-grade uranium reserves left worldwide. Therefore, one of the most appealing potential sources of uranium is the vast quantity dissolved in the oceans (estimated to be 4.4 billion tons worldwide). There have been research efforts centered on finding a means to extract uranium from seawater for decades, but so far none have resulted in an economically viable product, due in part to the fact that the materials that have been successfully demonstrated to date are too costly (in terms of money and energy) to produce on the necessary scale. Ionic Liquids (salts which melt below 100{degrees}C) can completely dissolve raw crustacean shells, leading to recovery of a high purity, high molecular weight chitin powder and to fibers and films which can be spun directly from the extract solution suggesting that continuous processing might be feasible. The work proposed here will utilize the unprecedented control this makes possible over the chitin fiber a) to prepare electrospun nanofibers of very high surface area and in specific architectures, b) to modify the fiber surfaces chemically with selective extractant capacity, and c) to demonstrate their utility in the direct extraction and recovery of uranium from seawater. This approach will 1) provide direct extraction of chitin from shellfish waste thus saving energy over the current industrial process for obtaining chitin; 2) allow continuous processing of nanofibers for very high surface area fibers in an economical operation; 3) provide a unique high molecular weight chitin not available from the current industrial process leading to stronger, more durable fibers; and 4) allow easy chemical modification of the large surface areas of the fibers for appending uranyl selective functionality providing selectivity and ease of stripping. The resulting sorbent should prove economically feasible, as well as providing an overall net energy gain.

  10. Global High-purity Pentoxide Industry 2015 Market Research Report...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on. Then it analyzed the world's main region market conditions, including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry...

  11. Top-Down, Scalable Fabrication of High Purity Fluorescent Nanodiamonds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Luozhou

    We demonstrate a fabrication technique for high volume production of high quality nanocrystals from bulk chemical vapor deposition diamond. Ramsey and Spin-Echo measurements confirm the long spin coherence of nitrogen ...

  12. HYDROGEN CONCENTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION IN HIGH-PURITY GERMANIUM CRYSTALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    melting point. By analogy, hydrogen permeation measurementsin silicon suggest that the hydrogen solubility also is notNo. 1, February 1982 HYDROGEN CONCENTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION

  13. 1970's | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLosThe 26thI D- 6 0GrantsThe Life of Enrico FermiU.S.Resources's's The

  14. 1970's | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLosThe 26thI D- 6 0GrantsThe Life of Enrico FermiU.S.Resources's's

  15. Study of optical properties of Erbium doped Tellurite glass-polymer composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sushama, D., E-mail: sushasukumar@gmail.com [Research Awardee, LAMP, Dept. of Physics, Nit, Calicut, India and Dept. of Physics, M.S.M. College, Kayamkulam, Kerala (India)

    2014-10-15

    Chalcogenide glasses have wide applications in optical device technology. But it has some disadvantages like thermal instability. Among them Tellurite glasses exhibits high thermal Stability. Doping of rare earth elements into the Tellurite glasses improve its optical properties. To improve its mechanical properties composites of this Tellurite glasses with polymer are prepared. Bulk samples of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped TeO{sub 2}?WO{sub 3}?La{sub 2}O{sub 3} Tellurite glasses are prepared from high purity oxide mixtures, melting in an alumina crucible in air atmosphere. Composites of this Tellurite glasses with polymer are prepared by powder mixing method and the thin films of these composites are prepared using polymer press. Variations in band gap of these composites are studied from the UV/Vis/NIR absorption.

  16. Optical Multi-Channel Intensity Interferometry - or: How To Resolve O-Stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trippe, Sascha; Lee, Bangwon; Choi, Changsu; Oh, Junghwan; Lee, Taeseok; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Im, Myungshin; Park, Yong-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Intensity interferometry, based on the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect, is a simple and inexpensive method for optical interferometry at microarcsecond angular resolutions; its use in astronomy was abandoned in the 1970s because of low sensitivity. Motivated by recent technical developments, we argue that the sensitivity of large modern intensity interferometers can be improved by factors up to approximately 25,000, corresponding to 11 photometric magnitudes, compared to the pioneering Narrabri Stellar Interferometer. This is made possible by (i) using avalanche photodiodes (APD) as light detectors, (ii) distributing the light received from the source over multiple independent spectral channels, and (iii) use of arrays composed of multiple large light collectors. Our approach permits the construction of large (with baselines ranging from few kilometers to intercontinental distances) optical interferometers at the cost of (very) long-baseline radio interferometers. Realistic intensity interferometer designs are abl...

  17. Optical Fibers Optics and Photonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    Optical Fibers Optics and Photonics Dr. Palffy-Muhoray Ines Busuladzic Department of Theoretical and Applied Mathematics The University of Akron April 21, 2008 #12;Outline · History of optical fibers · What are optical fibers? · How are optical fibers made? · Light propagation through optical fibers · Application

  18. HYDROGEN EFFECTS ON THE CHARACTER OF DISLOCATIONS IN HIGH-PURITY ALUMINUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Paulo J.

    . ROBERTSON{ and H. K. BIRNBAUM Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Frederick Seitz Materials nucleating and growing a brittle hydride phase [29]; and hydrogen reducing the stacking-fault energy [20, 24

  19. Summary Report of Summer Work: High Purity Single Crystal Growth & Microstructure of Ferritic-Martensitic Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pestovich, Kimberly Shay

    2015-08-18

    Harnessing the power of the nuclear sciences for national security and to benefit others is one of Los Alamos National Laboratory’s missions. MST-8 focuses on manipulating and studying how the structure, processing, properties, and performance of materials interact at the atomic level under nuclear conditions. Within this group, single crystal scintillators contribute to the safety and reliability of weapons, provide global security safeguards, and build on scientific principles that carry over to medical fields for cancer detection. Improved cladding materials made of ferritic-martensitic alloys support the mission of DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program to close the nuclear fuel cycle, aiming to solve nuclear waste management challenges and thereby increase the performance and safety of current and future reactors.

  20. High density-high purity graphite prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoenig, Clarence L. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Porous graphite in solid form is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid graphite monolith with a bulk density greater than or equal to 2.10 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed, chemically vapor deposited, or coated by some other suitable means onto graphite. Hot isostatic pressing at 2200.degree. C. and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for two hours produces a bulk density of 2.10 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made.

  1. High density-high purity graphite prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoenig, C.L.

    1994-08-09

    Porous graphite in solid form is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid graphite monolith with a bulk density greater than or equal to 2.10 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed, chemically vapor deposited, or coated by some other suitable means onto graphite. Hot isostatic pressing at 2,200 C and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for two hours produces a bulk density of 2.10 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made. 1 fig.

  2. High Purity Germanium Detectors at LBNL | U.S. DOE Office of...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301) 903-3833...

  3. Pulse shapes from electron and photon induced events in segmented high-purity germanium detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Abt; A. Caldwell; K. Kröninger; J. Liu; X. Liu; B. Majorovits

    2007-04-23

    Experiments built to search for neutrinoless double beta-decay are limited in their sensitivity not only by the exposure but also by the amount of background encountered. Radioactive isotopes in the surrounding of the detectors which emit gamma-radiation are expected to be a significant source of background in the GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA. Methods to select electron induced events and discriminate against photon induced events inside a germanium detector are presented in this paper. The methods are based on the analysis of the time structure of the detector response. Data were taken with a segmented GERDA prototype detector. It is shown that the analysis of the time response of the detector can be used to distinguish multiply scattered photons from electrons.

  4. Experimental Demonstration of Advanced Palladium Membrane Separators for Central High Purity Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sean Emerson; Neal Magdefrau; Susanne Opalka; Ying She; Catherine Thibaud-Erkey; Thoman Vanderspurt; Rhonda Willigan

    2010-06-30

    The overall objectives for this project were to: (1) confirm the high stability and resistance of a PdCu trimetallic alloy to carbon and carbide formation and, in addition, resistance to sulfur, halides, and ammonia; (2) develop a sulfur, halide, and ammonia resistant alloy membrane with a projected hydrogen permeance of 25 m{sup 3}m{sup -2}atm{sup -0.5}h{sup -1} at 400 C and capable of operating at pressures of 12.1 MPa ({approx}120 atm, 1750 psia); and (3) construct and experimentally validate the performance of 0.1 kg/day H{sup 2} PdCu trimetallic alloy membrane separators at feed pressures of 2 MPa (290 psia) in the presence of H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and HCl. This project successfully increased the technology readiness level of palladium-based metallic membranes for hydrogen separation from coal-biomass gasifier exhaust or similar hydrogen-containing gas streams. The reversible tolerance of palladium-copper (PdCu) alloys was demonstrated for H{sub 2}S concentrations varying from 20 ppmv up to 487 ppmv and NH{sub 3} concentrations up to 9 ppmv. In addition, atomistic modeling validated the resistance of PdCu alloys to carbon formation, irreversible sulfur corrosion, and chlorine attack. The experimental program highlighted two key issues which must be addressed as part of future experimental programs: (1) tube defects and (2) non-membrane materials of construction. Four out of five FCC PdCu separators developed leaks during the course of the experimental program because {approx}10% of the alloy tubes contained a single defect that resulted in a thin, weak point in the tube walls. These defects limited operation of the existing tubes to less than 220 psig. For commercial applications of a PdCu alloy hydrogen separator under high sulfur concentrations, it was determined that stainless steel 316 is not suitable for housing or supporting the device. Testing with sulfur concentrations of 487 {+-} 4 ppmv resulted in severe corrosion of the stainless steel components of the separators. The project identified an experimental methodology for quantifying the impact of gas contaminants on PdCu alloy membrane performance as well as an atomistic modeling approach to screen metal alloys for their resistance to irreversible sulfur corrosion. Initial mathematical descriptions of the effect of species such as CO and H{sub 2}S were developed, but require further experimental work to refine. At the end of the project, an improvement to the experimental approach for acquiring the necessary data for the permeability model was demonstrated in preliminary tests on an enhanced PdCu separator. All of the key DOE 2010 technical targets were met or exceeded except for the hydrogen flux. The highest flux observed for the project, 125 ft{sup 3}ft{sup -2}h{sup -1}, was obtained on a single tube separator with the aforementioned enhanced PdCu separator with a hydrogen feed pressure of 185 psig at 500 C.

  5. Technology for processing ammonium rhodanide of coking plants into high-purity ammonium thiocyanate and thiourea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urakaev, F.K. [Institute of Geology & Mineral SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-04-15

    The regularities of the reversible reaction of isomerization of ammonium thiocyanate (NH{sub 4}NCS) into thiourea (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CS, and the reverse reaction, were analyzed. An ecologically clean and highly efficient method for the extraction, purification, separation, and production of isomers from the coal byproduct ammonium thiocyanate was developed based on the measured volatilities of NH{sub 4}NCS and (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CS.

  6. A simplified method for obtaining high-purity perchlorate from groundwater for isotope analyses.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    vonKiparski, G; Hillegonds, D

    2011-04-04

    Investigations into the occurrence and origin of perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) found in groundwater from across North America have been sparse until recent years, and there is mounting evidence that natural formation mechanisms are important. New opportunities for identifying groundwater perchlorate and its origin have arisen with the utilization of improved detection methods and sampling techniques. Additionally, application of the forensic potential of isotopic measurements has begun to elucidate sources, potential formation mechanisms and natural attenuation processes. Procedures developed appear to be amenable to enable high precision stable isotopic analyses, as well as lower precision AMS analyses of {sup 36}Cl. Immediate work is in analyzing perchlorate isotope standards and developing full analytical accuracy and uncertainty expectations. Field samples have also been collected, and will be analyzed when final qa/qc samples are deemed acceptable.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of High Purity Cobalt (III) Tetrasulfonatophenyl Porphyrin Chloride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    ) 1180 (s) -SO3 - 3 1122 (s) 1125 (s) -SO3 - 3 1035 (s) 1037 (s) Phenyl3 1009 (s) 1004 (s) (C-N)/(CC)3

  8. Generation of high-purity higher-order Laguerre-Gauss beams at high laser power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Carbone; C. Bogan; P. Fulda; A. Freise; B. Willke

    2013-03-14

    We have investigated the generation of highly pure higher-order Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beams at high laser power of order 100W, the same regime that will be used by 2nd generation gravitational wave interferometers such as Advanced LIGO. We report on the generation of a helical type LG33 mode with a purity of order 97% at a power of 83W, the highest power ever reported in literature for a higher-order LG mode.

  9. High Purity Germanium Detectors at LBNL | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLosThe23-24, 2011 High Energy Physics AdvisoryScienceHeavy-Ions|

  10. OpenEI Community - Global High-purity Pentoxide Industry 2015 Market

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI VenturesNewSt.Information OlindaOnslow County,OpTICOpenBarter Jump

  11. Global High-purity Pentoxide Industry 2015 Market Research Report | OpenEI

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View New Pages RecentPlant <SilverChangeInformationGlobal

  12. Optical microspectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2004-05-25

    An optical microspectrometer comprises a grism to disperse the spectra in a line object. A single optical microspectrometer can be used to sequentially scan a planar object, such as a dye-tagged microchip. Because the optical microspectrometer is very compact, multiple optical microspectrometers can be arrayed to provide simultaneous readout across the width of the planar object The optical microspectrometer can be fabricated with lithographic process, such as deep X-ray lithography (DXRL), with as few as two perpendicular exposures.

  13. The Tokai Reprocessing Issue: Japan’s Rise to Elite Nation Status in the 1970s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shih, Ashanti

    2011-01-01

    the Acquisition of Nuclear Weapons [Includes Japan Sectioncan be used to create nuclear weapons. If the spent fuel isbetween nations with nuclear weapons and nations which

  14. Building a Movement: Filipino American Union and Community Organizing in Seattle in the 1970s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domingo, Ligaya Rene

    2010-01-01

    mobilization and Social Movements: A Partial Theory.comparative perspective on Social Movements. In ComparativeDemocracy in American Social Movements. Chicago: University

  15. The Tokai Reprocessing Issue: Japan’s Rise to Elite Nation Status in the 1970s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shih, Ashanti

    2011-01-01

    that would prevent nuclear proliferation other than givingwith an ambitious nuclear non-proliferation agenda in mind,nuclear fuel into a pure plutonium product, may have proliferation

  16. In the mid 1970s, researchers surmised that transposons could be used as tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mekalanos, John

    - essential genes contain insertions, followed by growth of the library in defined in vitro conditions of transposons has been insertional mutagen- esis, in which a library of bacterial strains, each containing with MPS. The approach requires the construction of a transposon insertion library in which most or all non

  17. Independent Mexican cinema and the dream of a national cinema in 1970s Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramirez Vargas, Erika Michelle

    2011-01-01

    under the newly developed cinematic schools. These woulddeveloped specific cinematic goals through international andideas surrounding the new cinematic movement. Starting in

  18. A Language of Rebuilt Reality: The Photography of Robert Cumming in the 1970s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Sarah Bay

    2012-01-01

    print, from the portfolio Tulsa, 1970, printed 1980; LACMA,created between 1968-1971, Tulsa. Clark, working just priorprint, from the portfolio Tulsa, 1970, printed 1980; LACMA,

  19. A Language of Rebuilt Reality: The Photography of Robert Cumming in the 1970s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Sarah Bay

    2012-01-01

    24 December, 1978, 1978, gelatin silver print; LACMA, giftconsequence, 1973, two gelatin silver prints; LACMA, gift ofon the pedestal, 1978, gelatin silver print, 8 x 10 in. ;

  20. Independent Mexican cinema and the dream of a national cinema in 1970s Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramirez Vargas, Erika Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Compilción y Concepto. México: UNAM, 2004. Barnitz,históricos y contemporáneos. Mexico: UNAM, Berrueco García,del cine mexicano. Mexico: Instituto de Investigaciones

  1. The Tokai Reprocessing Issue: Japan’s Rise to Elite Nation Status in the 1970s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shih, Ashanti

    2011-01-01

    to master and control nuclear technology both as a means toobtain and develop nuclear technology would be improved. ”nondiscriminatory forms of nuclear technology. 35 On March

  2. Independent Mexican cinema and the dream of a national cinema in 1970s Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramirez Vargas, Erika Michelle

    2011-01-01

    with the production of documentary films from the archivalof the longer documentary film. The resulting film became Eland how this documentary and experimental film works in

  3. Independent Mexican cinema and the dream of a national cinema in 1970s Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramirez Vargas, Erika Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Cinema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Burton, Julianne, ed. Cinema and Social Change in LatinYears of the New Latin American Cinema. London: British Film

  4. FINITE ELEMENT METHODS: 1970's AND BEYOND L.P. Franca (Ed.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masud, Arif

    of Colorado at Denver P.O. Box 173364, Campus Box 170 Denver, CO 80217-3364, USA Departamento de Mecanica de

  5. Refurbishment and Testing of the 1970's Era LASS Solenoid Coils for JLab's Hall D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anumagalla, Ravi; Biallas, George; Brindza, Paul; Carstens, Thomas; Creel, Jonathan; Egiyan, Hovanes; Martin, Floyd; Qiang, Yi; Spiegel, Scot; Stevens, Mark; Wissmann, Mark

    2012-07-01

    JLab refurbished the LASS1, 1.85 m bore Solenoid, consisting of four superconducting coils to act as the principal analysis magnet for nuclear physics in the newly constructed, Hall D at Jefferson Lab. The coils, built in 1971 at Stanford Linier Accelerator Center and used a second time at the MEGA Experiment at Los Alamos, had electrical shorts and leaks to the insulating vacuum along with deteriorated superinsulation & instrumentation. Root cause diagnosis of the problems and the repair methods are described along with the measures used to qualify the vessels and piping within the Laboratory's Pressure Safety Program (mandated by 10CFR851). The extraordinary refrigerator operational methods used to utilize the obsolete cryogenic apparatus gathered for the off-line, single coil tests are described.

  6. The Tokai Reprocessing Issue: Japan’s Rise to Elite Nation Status in the 1970s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shih, Ashanti

    2011-01-01

    Issue; Pages Missing],” Top Secret, Memorandum, March 18,Information Items,” Top Secret- Sensitive, Report, Septemberfor Dr. Brzezinski,” Top Secret, Report, September 28, 1977,

  7. Posters about Ecology and the Environment Before and During the 1970s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cushing, Lincoln

    2010-01-01

    first proposed commercial nuclear power plant in the Unitedsafe, clean, and cheap” nuclear power had begun to develop

  8. The Tokai Reprocessing Issue: Japan’s Rise to Elite Nation Status in the 1970s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shih, Ashanti

    2011-01-01

    of the ‘right’ to reprocess. ” 52 Thus, the administrationJapan’s strong desire to reprocess spent fuel, coupled withthe U.S. , Japan’s bid to reprocess at Tokai represented the

  9. International monetary relations between the United States, France, and West Germany in the 1970s 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rae, Michelle Frasher

    2004-09-30

    the globe. Designed to correct the inadequacies of the gold standard, it provided institutions for the exchange ideas and problem-solving and standardized guidelines to manage trade and commerce in a growing and interdependent world. For thirty years... Woods tied the U.S. dollar to gold at a set rate of $35 an ounce, members chose to keep dollars instead of gold bars in their reserves, and pegged exchange rates to the strength of the dollar and the U.S. economy. As long as the US held enough gold...

  10. The Tokai Reprocessing Issue: Japan’s Rise to Elite Nation Status in the 1970s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shih, Ashanti

    2011-01-01

    had control over Japan’s reprocessing rights, but also thatNon-Proliferation and Reprocessing in Japan [Attachments NotThe Tokai Reprocessing Issue: Japan’s Fight for Elite Nation

  11. The Tokai Reprocessing Issue: Japan’s Rise to Elite Nation Status in the 1970s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shih, Ashanti

    2011-01-01

    U.S. Policy on Spent Fuel Reprocessing: The Issues,” http://U.S. Policy on Spent Fuel Reprocessing: The Issues,” http://the spent fuel is “recycled” by reprocessing, in which the

  12. 1970s | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministrationTechnicalTechnicalScience.gov App Findin the EffectiveInformation

  13. Fiber Optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    said Todd Eckman, vice president of Information Management for MSA. "This new fiber optics will benefit DOE, Benton PUD and NoaNet (Northwest Open Access Network) users. This,...

  14. Optical coupler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    2004-06-15

    In a camera or similar radiation sensitive device comprising a pixilated scintillation layer, a light guide and an array of position sensitive photomultiplier tubes, wherein there exists so-called dead space between adjacent photomultiplier tubes the improvement comprising a two part light guide comprising a first planar light spreading layer or portion having a first surface that addresses the scintillation layer and optically coupled thereto at a second surface that addresses the photomultiplier tubes, a second layer or portion comprising an array of trapezoidal light collectors defining gaps that span said dead space and are individually optically coupled to individual position sensitive photomultiplier tubes. According to a preferred embodiment, coupling of the trapezoidal light collectors to the position sensitive photomultiplier tubes is accomplished using an optical grease having about the same refractive index as the material of construction of the two part light guide.

  15. Optical memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  16. Optical analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, A.D.

    1987-09-28

    An optical analyzer wherein a sample of particulate matter, and particularly of organic matter, which has been collected on a quartz fiber filter is placed in a combustion tube, and light from a light source is passed through the sample. The temperature of the sample is raised at a controlled rate and in a controlled atmosphere. The magnitude of the transmission of light through the sample is detected as the temperature is raised. A data processor, differentiator and a two pen recorder provide a chart of the optical transmission versus temperature and the rate of change of optical transmission versus temperature signatures (T and D) of the sample. These signatures provide information as to physical and chemical processes and a variety of quantitative and qualitative information about the sample. Additional information is obtained by repeating the run in different atmospheres and/or different rates or heating with other samples of the same particulate material collected on other filters. 7 figs.

  17. Sandia Energy - Quantum Optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantum Optics Home Energy Research EFRCs Solid-State Lighting Science EFRC Quantum Optics Quantum OpticsTara Camacho-Lopez2015-03-30T16:37:03+00:00 Quantum Optics with a Single...

  18. A SPRAY REACTOR CONCEPT FOR CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF P-XYLENE TO PRODUCE HIGH-PURITY TEREPHTHALIC ACID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Meng

    2013-08-31

    Terephthalic acid (TPA), with current annual world capacity of exceeding 50 million metric tons, is a commercially important chemical used primarily in the manufacture of polyesters. A spray reactor in which the liquid phase, containing dissolved p...

  19. Measurement of the dielectric properties of high-purity sapphire at 1.865 GHZ from 2-10 Kelvin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. Pogue, P. McIntyre, Akhdiyor Sattarov, Charles Reece

    2012-06-01

    A dielectric test cavity was designed and tested to measure the microwave dielectric properties of ultrapure sapphire at cryogenic temperatures. Measurements were performed by placing a large cylindrical crystal of sapphire in a Nb superconducting cavity operating in the TE01 mode at 1.865 GHz. The dielectric constant, heat capacity, and loss tangent were all calculated using experimental data and RF modeling software. The motivation for these measurements was to determine if such a sapphire could be used as a dielectric lens to focus the magnetic field onto a sample wafer in a high field wafer test cavity. The measured properties have been used to finalize the design of the wafer test cavity.

  20. Foundations for quantitative microstructural models to track evolution of the metallurgical state during high purity Nb cavity fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieler, Thomas R; Wright, Neil T; Compton, Chris C

    2014-03-15

    The goal of the Materials Science SRF Cavity Group of Michigan State University and the National Superconducting Cyclotron has been (and continues to be) to understand quantitatively the effects of process history on functional properties. These relationships were assessed via studies on Nb samples and cavity parts, which had various combinations of forming processes, welding, heat treatments, and surface preparation. A primary focus was on large-grain cavity building strategies. Effects of processing operations and exposure to hydrogen on the thermal conductivity has been identified in single and bi-crystal samples, showing that the thermal conductivity can be altered by a factor of 5 depending on process history. Characterization of single crystal tensile samples show a strong effect of crystal orientation on deformation resistance and shape changes. Large grain half cells were examined to characterize defect content and surface damage effects, which provided quantitative information about the depth damage layers from forming.

  1. Total plastic strain and electrical resistivity in high purity aluminum cyclically strained at 4.2 K 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gehan, James Terence

    1988-01-01

    important implications to the electrical behavior of aluminum reported here. B. Conce ts of Strain Controlled Tests The following section is a description of one type of mechanical test used to investigate fatigue characteristics in materials. While other... Stress 72 73 76 78 79 LIST OF TABLES Ta. ble Page I. Stopping Points and Parameter Settings of the Mechanical Test . 39 II. Test Variables of Experiments III. Rate of Mechanical Cycling and Average Number of Data Points Collected by Computer...

  2. Calcium looping process for high purity hydrogen production integrated with capture of carbon dioxide, sulfur and halides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramkumar, Shwetha; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-07-30

    A process for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (i) gasifying a fuel into a raw synthesis gas comprising CO, hydrogen, steam, sulfur and halide contaminants in the form of H.sub.2S, COS, and HX, wherein X is a halide; (ii) passing the raw synthesis gas through a water gas shift reactor (WGSR) into which CaO and steam are injected, the CaO reacting with the shifted gas to remove CO.sub.2, sulfur and halides in a solid-phase calcium-containing product comprising CaCO.sub.3, CaS and CaX.sub.2; (iii) separating the solid-phase calcium-containing product from an enriched gaseous hydrogen product; and (iv) regenerating the CaO by calcining the solid-phase calcium-containing product at a condition selected from the group consisting of: in the presence of steam, in the presence of CO.sub.2, in the presence of synthesis gas, in the presence of H.sub.2 and O.sub.2, under partial vacuum, and combinations thereof.

  3. Design, construction, and operation of a laboratory scale reactorfor the production of high-purity, isotopically enriched bulksilicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ager III, J.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

    2004-12-20

    The design and operation of a recirculating flow reactor designed to convert isotopically enriched silane to polycrystalline Si with high efficiency and chemical purity is described. The starting material is SiF{sub 4}, which is enriched in the desired isotope by a centrifuge method and subsequently converted to silane. In the reactor, the silane is decomposed to silicon on the surface of a graphite starter rod (3 mm diameter) heated to 700-750 C. Flow and gas composition (0.3-0.5% silane in hydrogen) are chosen to minimize the generation of particles by homogeneous nucleation of silane and to attain uniform deposition along the length of the rod. Growth rates are 5 {micro}m/min, and the conversion efficiency is greater than 95%. A typical run produces 35 gm of polycrystalline Si deposited along a 150 mm length of the rod. After removal of the starter rod, dislocation-free single crystals are formed by the floating zone method. Crystals enriched in all 3 stable isotopes of Si have been made: {sup 28}Si (99.92%), {sup 29}Si (91.37%), and {sup 30}Si (88.25%). Concentrations of electrically active impurities (P and B) are as low as mid-10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. Concentrations of C and O lie below 10{sup 16} and 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, respectively.

  4. The production of ultra-high purity single isotopes or tailored isotope mixtures by ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liezers, Martin; Farmer, Orville T.; Dion, Michael P.; Thomas, Linda MP; Eiden, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01

    We report the development and testing of a simple collector arrangement for a commercial quadrupole ICP-MS that for the first time has been used to produce small quantities of highly enriched (>99.99%) single isotopes, with deposition rates >10 ng/hour. The collector assembly replaces the standard instrument detector allowing for implantation with simultaneous monitoring of the incident ion current. Even under zero bias implant conditions, low energy (<10 eV), ion collection efficiency was observed to be very high ~99%. 151Eu ion currents of 0.1-0.5 nA were collected on a simple, planar foil without resorting to any type of cup configuration. Recovery of the enriched isotope from such foils is much simpler than from a more complex cup configuration. High rejection of adjacent mass isotopes was demonstrated by selectively implanting 167Er without any discernible co-implantation of 166Er and 168Er. The important analytical possibilities of the new approach to isotope ratio measurement, tracer purification and radiation measurements are discussed.

  5. Creation, storage, and on-demand release of optical quantum states with a negative Wigner function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun-ichi Yoshikawa; Kenzo Makino; Shintaro Kurata; Peter van Loock; Akira Furusawa

    2013-09-13

    Highly nonclassical quantum states of light, characterized by Wigner functions with negative values, have been created so far only in a heralded fashion. In this case, the desired output emerges rarely and randomly from a quantum-state generator. An important example is the heralded production of high-purity single-photon states, typically based on some nonlinear optical interaction. In contrast, on-demand single-photon sources were also reported, exploiting the quantized level structure of matter systems. These sources, however, lead to highly impure output states, composed mostly of vacuum. While such impure states may still exhibit certain single-photon-like features such as anti-bunching, they are not enough nonclassical for advanced quantum information processing. On the other hand, the intrinsic randomness of pure, heralded states can be circumvented by first storing and then releasing them on demand. Here we propose such a controlled release, and we experimentally demonstrate it for heralded single photons. We employ two optical cavities, where the photons are both created and stored inside one cavity, and finally released through a dynamical tuning of the other cavity. We demonstrate storage times of up to 300 ns, while keeping the single-photon purity around 50% after storage. This is the first demonstration of a negative Wigner function at the output of an on-demand photon source or a quantum memory. In principle, our storage system is compatible with all kinds of nonclassical states, including those known to be essential for many advanced quantum information protocols.

  6. Parallel optical sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Skogen, Erik J; Vawter, Gregory A

    2014-05-20

    An optical sampler includes a first and second 1.times.n optical beam splitters splitting an input optical sampling signal and an optical analog input signal into n parallel channels, respectively, a plurality of optical delay elements providing n parallel delayed input optical sampling signals, n photodiodes converting the n parallel optical analog input signals into n respective electrical output signals, and n optical modulators modulating the input optical sampling signal or the optical analog input signal by the respective electrical output signals, and providing n successive optical samples of the optical analog input signal. A plurality of output photodiodes and eADCs convert the n successive optical samples to n successive digital samples. The optical modulator may be a photodiode interconnected Mach-Zehnder Modulator. A method of sampling the optical analog input signal is disclosed.

  7. Optical Tweezers Physics 464 Applied Optics,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optical Tweezers Physics 464 ­ Applied Optics, By Scott Cline #12;Project Topics · Brief history · Typical set-up · How they work · Common use #12;Discovery · Effects of optical scattering and gradient forces discovered by Arthur Ashkin 1970 · Method of creating an "optical trap" established in 1986

  8. Optical Packet Switching -1 Optical Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellia, Marco

    Optical Packet Switching - 1 Optical Networks: from fiber transmission to photonic switching Optical Packet Switching Fabio Neri and Marco Mellia TLC Networks Group ­ Electronics Department e.mellia@polito.it ­ tel. 011 564 4173 #12;Optical Packet Switching - 2 · This work is licensed under the Creative Commons

  9. Optics and Optical Engineering Program Assessment Plan Program Learning Objectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantlon, Jessica F.

    Optics and Optical Engineering Program Assessment Plan Program Learning, and processes that underlie optics and optical engineering. 2. Strong understanding of the fundamental science, mathematics, and processes that underlie optics and optical

  10. Optical microphone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

    2000-01-11

    An optical microphone includes a laser and beam splitter cooperating therewith for splitting a laser beam into a reference beam and a signal beam. A reflecting sensor receives the signal beam and reflects it in a plurality of reflections through sound pressure waves. A photodetector receives both the reference beam and reflected signal beam for heterodyning thereof to produce an acoustic signal for the sound waves. The sound waves vary the local refractive index in the path of the signal beam which experiences a Doppler frequency shift directly analogous with the sound waves.

  11. Optical microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotz, K.T.; Noble, K.A.; Faris, G.W. [Molecular Physics Laboratory, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2004-09-27

    We present a method for the control of small droplets based on the thermal Marangoni effect using laser heating. With this approach, droplets covering five orders of magnitude in volume ({approx}1.7 {mu}L to 14 pL), immersed in decanol, were moved on an unmodified polystyrene surface, with speeds of up to 3 mm/s. When two droplets were brought into contact, they spontaneously fused and rapidly mixed in less than 33 ms. This optically addressed microfluidic approach has many advantages for microfluidic transport, including exceptional reconfigurability, low intersample contamination, large volume range, extremely simple substrates, no electrical connections, and ready scaling to large arrays.

  12. Optical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaves, Julio C.; Falicoff, Waqidi; Minano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Dross, Oliver; Parkyn, Jr., William A.

    2010-07-13

    An optical manifold for efficiently combining a plurality of blue LED outputs to illuminate a phosphor for a single, substantially homogeneous output, in a small, cost-effective package. Embodiments are disclosed that use a single or multiple LEDs and a remote phosphor, and an intermediate wavelength-selective filter arranged so that backscattered photoluminescence is recycled to boost the luminance and flux of the output aperture. A further aperture mask is used to boost phosphor luminance with only modest loss of luminosity. Alternative non-recycling embodiments provide blue and yellow light in collimated beams, either separately or combined into white.

  13. Optical manifold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falicoff, Waqidi; Chaves, Julio C.; Minano, Juan Carlos; Benitez, Pablo; Dross, Oliver; Parkyn, Jr., William A.

    2010-02-23

    Optical systems are described that have at least one source of a beam of blue light with divergence under 15.degree.. A phosphor emits yellow light when excited by the blue light. A collimator is disposed with the phosphor and forms a yellow beam with divergence under 15.degree.. A dichroic filter is positioned to transmit the beam of blue light to the phosphor and to reflect the beam of yellow light to an exit aperture. In different embodiments, the beams of blue and yellow light are incident upon said filter with central angles of 15.degree., 22.degree., and 45.degree.. The filter may reflect all of one polarization and part of the other polarization, and a polarization rotating retroreflector may then be provided to return the unreflected light to the filter.

  14. The SLS optics beamline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    The SLS Optics Beamline U. Flechsig ? , R. Abela ? , R.in the ?eld of x-ray optics and synchrotron radiation in-radiation, beamline optics, channel cut monochromator,

  15. SURFACE NONLINEAR OPTICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Y.R.

    2010-01-01

    B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, Optics Lett. i, 393 See, for3, 1980 SURFACE NONLINEAR OPTICS Y.R. Shen, C.K. Chen, andde Janiero SURFRACE NONLINEAR OPTICS Y. R. Shen, C. K. Chen,

  16. NONLINEAR OPTICS AT INTERFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chenson K.

    2010-01-01

    N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics (W. A. Benjamin, 1977) p.Research Division NONLINEAR OPTICS AT INTERFACES Chenson K.ED LBL-12084 NONLINEAR OPTICS AT INTERFACES Chenson K. Chen

  17. Chapter 2 Diffractive Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-09-14

    Diffractive optics is an emerging technology with many applications. Some of the important applications include the design and fabrication of optical elements ...

  18. Advanced Optical Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    laser. Today, the optical team designs and fabricates a variety of custom diffractive optics for researchers worldwide. Included are multilayer dielectric and gold-overcoated...

  19. Planar micro-optic solar concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Jason Harris

    2010-01-01

    Planar Micro-Optic Solar Collectors," Optics for Solarin planar micro-optic solar collectors,” Optics Express, (inin planar micro-optic solar collectors,” Optics Express (in

  20. Inhomogeneous broadening and peak shift of the 7.6 eV optical absorption band of oxygen vacancies in SiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kajihara, Koichi, E-mail: kkaji@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Urban Environmental Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); Skuja, Linards [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga iela 8, LV1063 Riga (Latvia); Hosono, Hideo [Materials and Structures Laboratory and Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2014-10-21

    The peak parameters of radiation-induced 7.6 eV optical absorption band of oxygen vacancies (Si-Si bonds) were examined for high-purity synthetic ?-quartz and amorphous SiO{sub 2} (a?SiO{sub 2}) exposed to {sup 60}Co ?-rays. The peak shape is asymmetric with the steeper edge at the lower energy side both in ?-quartz and a?SiO{sub 2}, and the peak energy is larger for ?-quartz than that for a?SiO{sub 2}. The full width at half maximum for a?SiO{sub 2} is larger by ?40-60% than that for ?-quartz, and it increases with an increase in the disorder of the a?SiO{sub 2} network, which is enhanced by raising the temperature of preannealing before irradiation, i.e., fictive temperature. These data are interpreted from the viewpoint of the site-to-site distribution of the Si-Si bond length in a?SiO{sub 2}.

  1. LABORATORY I: GEOMETRIC OPTICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Lab I - 1 LABORATORY I: GEOMETRIC OPTICS In this lab, you will solve several problems related to the formation of optical images. Most of us have a great deal of experience with the formation of optical images this laboratory, you should be able to: · Describe features of real optical systems in terms of ray diagrams

  2. Optical XOR gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G. Allen

    2013-11-12

    An optical XOR gate is formed as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) from two sets of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each set of the optical waveguide devices including an electroabsorption modulator electrically connected in series with a waveguide photodetector. The optical XOR gate utilizes two digital optical inputs to generate an XOR function digital optical output. The optical XOR gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.

  3. The antecedents of Taiwan new cinema : the state of Taiwan film in the 1960s and 1970s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wicks, James Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Interpretation of the Cinematic Narrative and Image………..……..Critical Interventions, Cinematic Reconfigurations, and theTable 4: Three Cinematic Depictions of Migration……………………………

  4. The antecedents of Taiwan new cinema : the state of Taiwan film in the 1960s and 1970s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wicks, James Anthony

    2010-01-01

    the Bad, and the Beautiful. ” Cinema and Urban Culture inMary Farquhar. China on Screen: Cinema and Nation. New York:in Mainland Chinese Cinema. ” In Cinema Taiwan: Politics,

  5. The antecedents of Taiwan new cinema : the state of Taiwan film in the 1960s and 1970s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wicks, James Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Editors. “Special Issue on Taiwan Film. ” Modern ChinesePublishing, 2003. ———. “Taiwan in Mainland Chinese Cinema. ”In Cinema Taiwan: Politics, Popularity and State of the

  6. A medium-rise 1970s maternity hospital in the east of England: resilience and adaptation to climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, C. Alan; Giridharan, Renganathan; Lomas, Kevin J.

    2015-01-30

    study project for the ‘Design and Delivery of Robust Hospitals in a Changing Climate’ (DeDeRHECC) project, pursuing the methodology developed for that research. Environmental data was collected within representative spaces within the hospital, with some...

  7. “Where are all the feminists?” The Joan Little Case and Anti-Rape Activism During the 1970s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacquet, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    dismay of many feminists, racism (and not sexism) became theon trial. “Sexism lost out to racism” 13 Rape as a contestedthat, “sexism lost out to racism in the reporting. ” 16 Many

  8. Since the 1970s, it has become clear that learning in animals is often accomplished by specialized learning mechanisms, the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Towne, William F.

    to update, their solar ephemeris functions, that is, their memories of the sun's daily pattern of movement reasonably accurate solar ephemeris functions for use in their celestial compass orientation. In both cases been assumed that bees keep their solar ephemerides fully up to date (Gould, 1980, 1984; Dyer, 1987

  9. Encountering Chile: influence of Chilean exiles on United States popular opinions in the 1970s and 1980s 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willard, Rachel

    2013-02-22

    and North American corporate and military action. This study proposes the concept of "historical agency" as a means by which to understand the significance of these exiled Chilean creators, and it implicates them as creators of popular history....

  10. Latching micro optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A

    2013-05-21

    An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.

  11. Active optical zoom system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wick, David V.

    2005-12-20

    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  12. Active Optics in Modern, Large Optical Telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lothar Noethe

    2001-11-07

    Active optics is defined as the control of the shape and the alignment of the components of an optical system at low temporal frequencies. For modern large telescopes with flexible monolithic or segmented primary mirrors and also flexible structures this technique is indispensable to reach a performance which is either diffraction limited for an operation in space or limited by the atmosphere for an operation on the ground. This article first describes the theory of active optics, both of the wavefront analysis and the correction mechanisms, then the design of three representative active optics systems, two in telescopes of the four and eight meter class with meniscus mirrors and one in a telescope with a segmented primary mirror, and, finally, presents practical experience with these active optics systems.

  13. LABORATORY VII: WAVE OPTICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    LABORATORY VII: WAVE OPTICS Lab VII - 1 In this lab, you will solve problems in ways that take-like behavior. These conditions may be less familiar to you than the conditions for which geometrical optics

  14. High bandwidth optical mount

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, D.A.; Kuklo, T.

    1994-11-08

    An optical mount, which directs a laser beam to a point by controlling the position of a light-transmitting optic, is stiffened so that a lowest resonant frequency of the mount is approximately one kilohertz. The optical mount, which is cylindrically-shaped, positions the optic by individually moving a plurality of carriages which are positioned longitudinally within a sidewall of the mount. The optical mount is stiffened by allowing each carriage, which is attached to the optic, to move only in a direction which is substantially parallel to a center axis of the optic. The carriage is limited to an axial movement by flexures or linear bearings which connect the carriage to the mount. The carriage is moved by a piezoelectric transducer. By limiting the carriage to axial movement, the optic can be kinematically clamped to a carriage. 5 figs.

  15. Reflective optical imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT)

    2000-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  16. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

    1994-04-26

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

  17. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, Richard (Ammon, ID); Kotter, Dale (Bingham County, ID)

    1994-01-01

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

  18. Exciton-photon interaction in low-dimensional semiconductor microcavities A. I. Tartakovski *)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -dimensionally 3D optically con- fined semicondu-dimensional optical confinement photon wires , fabricated from planar Bragg structures with a quantum well of Microelectronics and High-Purity Materials, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow Region

  19. University of Central Florida College of Optics & Photonics Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Stryland, Eric

    University of Central Florida College of Optics & Photonics Optics Spring 2010 OSE-6432: Principles of guided wave optics; electro -optics, acousto-optics and optoelectronics. Location: CREOL-A-214 or by Appointment Reference Materials: 1. Class Notes. 2. "Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides", K. Okamoto, Academic

  20. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF OPTICS A: PURE AND APPLIED OPTICS Nanostructures + Light = `New Optics'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF OPTICS A: PURE AND APPLIED OPTICS EDITORIAL Nanostructures + Light = `New Optics' Guest Editors Nikolay Zheludev University of Southampton, UK Vladimir optics and classical electrodynamics became fashionable again. Fields that several generations

  1. Fiber optic vibration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, Joseph B. (Harriman, TN); Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Tobin, Kenneth W. (Harriman, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity.

  2. Fiber optic vibration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, J.B.; Muhs, J.D.; Tobin, K.W.

    1995-01-10

    A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity. 2 figures.

  3. Omnidirectional fiber optic tiltmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.

    1983-06-30

    A tiltmeter is provided which is useful in detecting very small movements such as earth tides. The device comprises a single optical fiber, and an associated weight affixed thereto, suspended from a support to form a pendulum. A light source, e.g., a light emitting diode, mounted on the support transmits light through the optical fiber to a group of further optical fibers located adjacent to but spaced from the free end of the single optical fiber so that displacement of the single optical fiber with respect to the group will result in a change in the amount of light received by the individual optical fibers of the group. Photodetectors individually connectd to the fibers produce corresponding electrical outputs which are differentially compared and processed to produce a resultant continuous analog output representative of the amount and direction of displacement of the single optical fiber.

  4. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  5. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, Roland L. (Bloomfield, CO); Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

    1988-01-01

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  6. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  7. Transpiration purged optical probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2004-01-06

    An optical apparatus for clearly viewing the interior of a containment vessel by applying a transpiration fluid to a volume directly in front of the external surface of the optical element of the optical apparatus. The fluid is provided by an external source and transported by means of an annular tube to a capped end region where the inner tube is perforated. The perforation allows the fluid to stream axially towards the center of the inner tube and then axially away from an optical element which is positioned in the inner tube just prior to the porous sleeve. This arrangement draws any contaminants away from the optical element keeping it free of contaminants. In one of several embodiments, the optical element can be a lens, a viewing port or a laser, and the external source can provide a transpiration fluid having either steady properties or time varying properties.

  8. Optical atomic magnetometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Budker, Dmitry; Higbie, James; Corsini, Eric P.

    2013-11-19

    An optical atomic magnetometers is provided operating on the principles of nonlinear magneto-optical rotation. An atomic vapor is optically pumped using linearly polarized modulated light. The vapor is then probed using a non-modulated linearly polarized light beam. The resulting modulation in polarization angle of the probe light is detected and used in a feedback loop to induce self-oscillation at the resonant frequency.

  9. 27 Jan 2003 Smart Optics Faraday Partnership 1 Smart Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenaway, Alan

    27 Jan 2003 Smart Optics Faraday Partnership 1 Smart Optics Technologies, Techniques and Space Applications Alan Greenaway Physics, EPS Heriot-Watt University #12;27 Jan 2003 Smart Optics Faraday Partnership 2 Smart? · The Smart Optics Faraday Partnership interprets `Smart Optics' to mean: ­ `... includes

  10. NONLINEAR OPTICS AT INTERFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chenson K.

    2010-01-01

    Surface Plasmons at a Metal-Dielectric Interface . . . .Plasmons at Metal-Dielectric Interfaces . . . . A. GeneralNONLINEAR OPTICS AT INTERFACES Chenson K. Chen (Ph.D.

  11. AN INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM OPTICS...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    AN INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM OPTICS... ...the light as you've never seen before... Optics:http://science.howstuffworks.com/laser5.htm #12;5 DEFINITION Quantum Optics: "Quantum optics is a field in quantum physics, dealing OPTICS OPERATORS Light is described in terms of field operators for creation and annihilation of photons

  12. Dual frequency optical cavity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    George, E. Victor (Livermore, CA); Schipper, John F. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for generating two distinct laser frequencies in an optical cavity, using a "T" configuration laser cavity and means for intermittently increasing or decreasing the index of refraction n of an associated transmission medium in one arm of the optical cavity to enhance laser action in one arm or the second arm of the cavity.

  13. Optical scanning apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villarreal, R.A.

    1985-11-06

    An optical scanner employed in a radioactive environment for reading indicia imprinted about a cylindrical surface of an article by means of an optical system including metallic reflective and mirror surfaces resistant to degradation and discoloration otherwise imparted to glass surfaces exposed to radiation is described.

  14. Fiber optic hydrophone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Davis, Donald T. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optic fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends.

  15. Optically Induced Transparency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yuanlin; Shen, Zhenhua; Cao, Jianjun; Chen, Xianfeng; Liang, Xiaogan; Wan, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Light-matter-light interactions serve as the backbone technology of all-optical information processing for both on-chip and long-haul communication purposes. The representative example of electromagnetically induced transparency has its unique ability of optically controlling transparency windows with relative low light in atomic systems, though its practical applications are limited due to rigid experimental requirements. Here we demonstrate a new form of optically induced transparency in a micro-cavity by introducing four-wave mixing gain in order to couple nonlinearly two separated resonances of the micro-cavity in ambient environment. A signature Fano-like resonance is also observed owing to the nonlinear interference of two coupled resonances. Moreover, we show that the unidirectional gain of four-wave mixing can lead to non-reciprocal transmission at the transparency windows. Optically induced transparency may offer a unique platform for a compact, integrated solution to all-optical processing and quant...

  16. Digital optical conversion module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

    1988-07-19

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

  17. Fiber optic hydrophone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuzmenko, P.J.; Davis, D.T.

    1994-05-10

    A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer is disclosed. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optical fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends. 2 figures.

  18. Bringing Optical Metamaterials to Reality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valentine, Jason Gage

    2010-01-01

    refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires. ," Science ,Optical negative-index metamaterials," Nature Photonics ,Optical negative-index bulk metamaterials consisting of 2D

  19. Projection optics box

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hale, Layton C. (Livermore, CA); Malsbury, Terry (Tracy, CA); Hudyma, Russell M. (San Ramon, CA); Parker, John M. (Tracy, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A projection optics box or assembly for use in an optical assembly, such as in an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system using 10-14 nm soft x-ray photons. The projection optics box utilizes a plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors, each mounted on a precision actuator, and which reflects an optical image, such as from a mask, in the EUVL system onto a point of use, such as a target or silicon wafer, the mask, for example, receiving an optical signal from a source assembly, such as a developed from laser system, via a series of highly reflective mirrors of the EUVL system. The plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors are mounted in a housing assembly comprised of a series of bulkheads having wall members secured together to form a unit construction of maximum rigidity. Due to the precision actuators, the mirrors must be positioned precisely and remotely in tip, tilt, and piston (three degrees of freedom), while also providing exact constraint.

  20. Gregorian optical system with non-linear optical technology for protection against intense optical transients

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackermann, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Diels, Jean-Claude M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-26

    An optical system comprising a concave primary mirror reflects light through an intermediate focus to a secondary mirror. The secondary mirror re-focuses the image to a final image plane. Optical limiter material is placed near the intermediate focus to optically limit the intensity of light so that downstream components of the optical system are protected from intense optical transients. Additional lenses before and/or after the intermediate focus correct optical aberrations.

  1. Scalable optical quantum computer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manykin, E A; Mel'nichenko, E V [Institute for Superconductivity and Solid-State Physics, Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-31

    A way of designing a scalable optical quantum computer based on the photon echo effect is proposed. Individual rare earth ions Pr{sup 3+}, regularly located in the lattice of the orthosilicate (Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}) crystal, are suggested to be used as optical qubits. Operations with qubits are performed using coherent and incoherent laser pulses. The operation protocol includes both the method of measurement-based quantum computations and the technique of optical computations. Modern hybrid photon echo protocols, which provide a sufficient quantum efficiency when reading recorded states, are considered as most promising for quantum computations and communications. (quantum computer)

  2. Optical limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBranch, D.W.; Mattes, B.R.; Koskelo, A.C.; Heeger, A.J.; Robinson, J.M.; Smilowitz, L.B.; Klimov, V.I.; Cha, M.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Hummelen, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO{sub 2}) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400--1,100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes. 5 figs.

  3. Fiber optic laser rod

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, G.F.

    1988-04-13

    A laser rod is formed from a plurality of optical fibers, each forming an individual laser. Synchronization of the individual fiber lasers is obtained by evanescent wave coupling between adjacent optical fiber cores. The fiber cores are dye-doped and spaced at a distance appropriate for evanescent wave coupling at the wavelength of the selected dye. An interstitial material having an index of refraction lower than that of the fiber core provides the optical isolation for effective lasing action while maintaining the cores at the appropriate coupling distance. 2 figs.

  4. Silicon fiber optic sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pocha, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Wood, Billy E. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-10-02

    A Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by a partially or wholly reflective surface on the free end of an integrated elongate channel or an integrated bounding wall of a chip of a wafer and a partially reflective surface on the end of the optical fiber. Such a constructed device can be utilized to detect one or more physical parameters, such as, for example, strain, through the optical fiber using an optical detection system to provide measuring accuracies of less than aboutb0.1%.

  5. Enhancement mechanisms for optical forces in integrated optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enhancement mechanisms for optical forces in integrated optics M. L. Povinelli(a) , M. Loncar, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MA 02139 ABSTRACT We investigate the extension of optical micromanipulation to integrated optics. In particular, we consider whether propagating light signals can cause

  6. Adaptive optics enhanced simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dainty, Chris

    Adaptive optics enhanced simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy David Merino and Chris Dainty Applied Optics Group, Department of Experimental Physics, National and Adrian Gh. Podoleanu Applied Optics Group, School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent at Canterbury

  7. Methods for globally treating silica optics to reduce optical damage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Philip Edward; Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Bude, Jeffrey Devin; Shen, Nan; Steele, William Augustus; Laurence, Ted Alfred; Feit, Michael Dennis; Wong, Lana Louie

    2012-11-20

    A method for preventing damage caused by high intensity light sources to optical components includes annealing the optical component for a predetermined period. Another method includes etching the optical component in an etchant including fluoride and bi-fluoride ions. The method also includes ultrasonically agitating the etching solution during the process followed by rinsing of the optical component in a rinse bath.

  8. A lateral optical equilibrium in waveguide-resonator optical force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    A lateral optical equilibrium in waveguide-resonator optical force Varat Intaraprasonk,1@stanford.edu Abstract: We consider the lateral optical force between a resonator and a waveguide, and study the possibility of an equilibrium that occurs solely from the optical force in such system. We prove analytically

  9. Metasurface optical antireflection coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Boyang [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States). Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.; Hendrickson, Joshua [Air Force Research Lab., Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States); Nader, Nima [Air Force Research Lab., Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States); Solid State Scientific Corporation, Nashua, New Hampshire (United States); Chen, Hou -Tong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies.; Guo, Junpeng [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States). Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

    2014-12-15

    Light reflection at the boundary of two different media is one of the fundamental phenomena in optics, and reduction of reflection is highly desirable in many optical systems. Traditionally, optical antireflection has been accomplished using single- or multiple-layer dielectric films and graded index surface structures in various wavelength ranges. However, these approaches either impose strict requirements on the refractive index matching and film thickness, or involve complicated fabrication processes and non-planar surfaces that are challenging for device integration. Here, we demonstrate an antireflection coating strategy, both experimentally and numerically, by using metasurfaces with designer optical properties in the mid-wave infrared. Our results show that the metasurface antireflection is capable of eliminating reflection and enhancing transmission over a broad spectral band and a wide incidence angle range. The demonstrated antireflection technique has no requirement on the choice of materials and is scalable to other wavelengths.

  10. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, S. Michael (Livermore, CA)

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  11. Metasurface optical antireflection coating

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Boyang; Hendrickson, Joshua; Nader, Nima; Chen, Hou -Tong; Guo, Junpeng

    2014-12-15

    Light reflection at the boundary of two different media is one of the fundamental phenomena in optics, and reduction of reflection is highly desirable in many optical systems. Traditionally, optical antireflection has been accomplished using single- or multiple-layer dielectric films and graded index surface structures in various wavelength ranges. However, these approaches either impose strict requirements on the refractive index matching and film thickness, or involve complicated fabrication processes and non-planar surfaces that are challenging for device integration. Here, we demonstrate an antireflection coating strategy, both experimentally and numerically, by using metasurfaces with designer optical properties in the mid-wave infrared.more »Our results show that the metasurface antireflection is capable of eliminating reflection and enhancing transmission over a broad spectral band and a wide incidence angle range. The demonstrated antireflection technique has no requirement on the choice of materials and is scalable to other wavelengths.« less

  12. Optical gamma thermometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, Glen Peter; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon Kwee

    2013-08-06

    An optical gamma thermometer includes a metal mass having a temperature proportional to a gamma flux within a core of a nuclear reactor, and an optical fiber cable for measuring the temperature of the heated metal mass. The temperature of the heated mass may be measured by using one or more fiber grating structures and/or by using scattering techniques, such as Raman, Brillouin, and the like. The optical gamma thermometer may be used in conjunction with a conventional reactor heat balance to calibrate the local power range monitors over their useful in-service life. The optical gamma thermometer occupies much less space within the in-core instrument tube and costs much less than the conventional gamma thermometer.

  13. Erected mirror optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, James J.

    2005-06-07

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) optical switching apparatus is disclosed that is based on an erectable mirror which is formed on a rotatable stage using surface micromachining. An electrostatic actuator is also formed on the substrate to rotate the stage and mirror with a high angular precision. The mirror can be erected manually after fabrication of the device and used to redirect an incident light beam at an arbitrary angel and to maintain this state in the absence of any applied electrical power. A 1.times.N optical switch can be formed using a single rotatable mirror. In some embodiments of the present invention, a plurality of rotatable mirrors can be configured so that the stages and mirrors rotate in unison when driven by a single micromotor thereby forming a 2.times.2 optical switch which can be used to switch a pair of incident light beams, or as a building block to form a higher-order optical switch.

  14. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  15. Optical fiber switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

    2002-01-01

    Optical fiber switches operated by electrical activation of at least one laser light modulator through which laser light is directed into at least one polarizer are used for the sequential transport of laser light from a single laser into a plurality of optical fibers. In one embodiment of the invention, laser light from a single excitation laser is sequentially transported to a plurality of optical fibers which in turn transport the laser light to separate individual remotely located laser fuel ignitors. The invention can be operated electro-optically with no need for any mechanical or moving parts, or, alternatively, can be operated electro-mechanically. The invention can be used to switch either pulsed or continuous wave laser light.

  16. Toroidal optical activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raybould, T A; Papasimakis, N; Kuprov, I; Youngs, I; Chen, W T; Tsai, D P; Zheludev, N I

    2015-01-01

    Optical activity is ubiquitous across natural and artificial media and is conventionally understood in terms of scattering from electric and magnetic moments. Here we demonstrate experimentally and confirm numerically a type of optical activity that cannot be attributed to electric and magnetic multipoles. We show that our observations can only be accounted for by the inclusion of the toroidal dipole moment, the first term of the recently established peculiar family of toroidal multipoles.

  17. Synthesis of High-Purity alpha-and beta-PbO and Possible Applications to Synthesis and Processing of Other Lead Oxide Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perry, Dale L.

    2011-01-01

    structural forms of lead(II) oxide X-ray diffractionand Processing of Other Lead Oxide Materials D. L. PERRY andThe red, tetragonal form of lead oxide, ?-PbO, litharge, and

  18. Synthesis of High-Purity alpha-and beta-PbO and Possible Applications to Synthesis and Processing of Other Lead Oxide Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, Dale L.; Wilkinson, T. J.

    2009-11-12

    The red, tetragonal form of lead oxide, alpha-PbO, litharge, and the yellow, orthorhombic form, beta-PbO, massicot, have been synthesized from lead(II) salts in aqueous media at elevated temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the size, morphology, and crystallographic structural forms of the products. The role of impurities in the experimental synthesis of the materials and microstructural variations in the final products are described, and the implications of these observations with respect to the synthesis of different conducting lead oxides and other related materials are discussed.

  19. Synthesis of High-Purity alpha-and beta-PbO and Possible Applications to Synthesis and Processing of Other Lead Oxide Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perry, Dale L.

    2011-01-01

    and Processing of Other Lead Oxide Materials D. L. PERRY andred, tetragonal form of lead oxide, ?-PbO, litharge, and thedifferent conducting lead oxides and other related materials

  20. PURDUE UNIVERSITY ULTRAFAST OPTICS & OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS LABORATORY Photonic RF Waveform Synthesis,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purdue University

    PURDUE UNIVERSITY ULTRAFAST OPTICS & OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS LABORATORY Photonic RF Waveform, Shijun Xiao Funding from ARO, DARPA, and NSF #12;PURDUE UNIVERSITY ULTRAFAST OPTICS & OPTICAL FIBER performance (spectral engineering, dispersion compensation) #12;PURDUE UNIVERSITY ULTRAFAST OPTICS & OPTICAL

  1. PURDUE UNIVERSITY ULTRAFAST OPTICS & OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS LABORATORY Andrew M. Weiner and Ehsan Hamidi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purdue University

    PURDUE UNIVERSITY ULTRAFAST OPTICS & OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS LABORATORY Andrew M. Weiner ULTRAFAST OPTICS & OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS LABORATORY Ultrawideband (UWB) Radio-frequency Photonics UWB;PURDUE UNIVERSITY ULTRAFAST OPTICS & OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS LABORATORY Femtosecond Pulse Shaping A

  2. Fault location in optical networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, Rick C.; Kryzak, Charles J.; Keeler, Gordon A.; Serkland, Darwin K.; Geib, Kent M.; Kornrumpf, William P.

    2008-07-01

    One apparatus embodiment includes an optical emitter and a photodetector. At least a portion of the optical emitter extends a radial distance from a center point. The photodetector provided around at least a portion of the optical emitter and positioned outside the radial distance of the portion of the optical emitter.

  3. The Mathematics of Nonlinear Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Métivier, Guy

    The Mathematics of Nonlinear Optics Guy M´etivier March 7, 2009 Contents 1 Introduction 4 2 Examples of equations arising in nonlinear optics 11 3 The framework of hyperbolic systems 18 3.1 Equations Optics 49 5.1 Linear geometric optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 5

  4. Undergraduate Handbook Dear Optics student,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantlon, Jessica F.

    Undergraduate Handbook Fall 2013 #12;2 Dear Optics student, It is my great pleasure to welcome you to The Institute of Optics. The Institute of Optics has been educating the next generation of leaders in the field since it was founded in 1929 as the first optics department in the country

  5. SCIENCE, OPTICS & YOU GUIDEBOOK INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    SCIENCE, OPTICS & YOU GUIDEBOOK - i - INTRODUCTION WHAT IS SCIENCE, 0PTICS & YOU? The Science, Optics and You Guidebook is made up as follows: Science, Optics and You is a standards light, color, and optics. Activities are designed to engage students in active investigation

  6. Fibre optics: Forty years later

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dianov, Evgenii M

    2010-01-31

    This paper presents a brief overview of the state of the art in fibre optics and its main applications: optical fibre communications, fibre lasers and fibre sensors for various physical property measurements. The future of fibre optics and the status of this important area of the modern technology in Russia are discussed. (fiber optics)

  7. Embedded fiducials in optical surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Embedded fiducials are provided in optical surfaces and a method for embedding the fiducials. Fiducials, or marks on a surface, are important for optical fabrication and alignment, particularly when individual optical elements are aspheres. Fiducials are used during the course of the polishing process to connect interferometric data, and the equation describing the asphere, to physical points on the optic. By embedding fiducials below the surface of the optic and slightly outside the clear aperture of the optic, the fiducials are not removed by polishing, do not interfere with the polishing process, and do not affect the performance of the finished optic.

  8. Transparent electrode for optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1984-10-19

    The invention relates generally to optical switches and techniques for applying a voltage to an electro-optical crystal, and more particularly, to transparent electodes for an optical switch. System architectures for very large inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers require active optical elements with apertures on the order of one meter. Large aperture optical switches are needed for isolation of stages, switch-out from regenerative amplifier cavities and protection from target retroreflections.

  9. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF OPTICS A: PURE AND APPLIED OPTICS Polarization Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friesem, Asher A.

    INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF OPTICS A: PURE AND APPLIED OPTICS EDITORIAL Polarization Optics Guest Editors Jari Turunen University of Joensuu, Finland Asher A Friesem Weizmann Institute This special issue on Polarization Optics contains one review article and 23 research papers, many of which

  10. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading, by a single spectrophotometer.

  11. Optical key system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hagans, Karla G. (Livermore, CA); Clough, Robert E. (Danville, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An optical key system comprises a battery-operated optical key and an isolated lock that derives both its operating power and unlock signals from the correct optical key. A light emitting diode or laser diode is included within the optical key and is connected to transmit a bit-serial password. The key user physically enters either the code-to-transmit directly, or an index to a pseudorandom number code, in the key. Such person identification numbers can be retained permanently, or ephemeral. When a send button is pressed, the key transmits a beam of light modulated with the password information. The modulated beam of light is received by a corresponding optical lock with a photovoltaic cell that produces enough power from the beam of light to operate a password-screen digital logic. In one application, an acceptable password allows a two watt power laser diode to pump ignition and timing information over a fiberoptic cable into a sealed engine compartment. The receipt of a good password allows the fuel pump, spark, and starter systems to each operate. Therefore, bypassing the lock mechanism as is now routine with automobile thieves is pointless because the engine is so thoroughly disabled.

  12. Generalizing Optical Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rickard Jonsson; Hans Westman

    2007-08-21

    We show that by employing the standard projected curvature as a measure of spatial curvature, we can make a certain generalization of optical geometry (Abramowicz and Lasota 1997, Class. Quantum Grav. 14 (1997) A23). This generalization applies to any spacetime that admits a hypersurface orthogonal shearfree congruence of worldlines. This is a somewhat larger class of spacetimes than the conformally static spacetimes assumed in standard optical geometry. In the generalized optical geometry, which in the generic case is time dependent, photons move with unit speed along spatial geodesics and the sideways force experienced by a particle following a spatially straight line is independent of the velocity. Also gyroscopes moving along spatial geodesics do not precess (relative to the forward direction). Gyroscopes that follow a curved spatial trajectory precess according to a very simple law of three-rotation. We also present an inertial force formalism in coordinate representation for this generalization. Furthermore, we show that by employing a new sense of spatial curvature (Jonsson, Class. Quantum Grav. 23 (2006) 1) closely connected to Fermat's principle, we can make a more extensive generalization of optical geometry that applies to arbitrary spacetimes. In general this optical geometry will be time dependent, but still geodesic photons move with unit speed and follow lines that are spatially straight in the new sense. Also, the sideways experienced (comoving) force on a test particle following a line that is straight in the new sense will be independent of the velocity.

  13. Real time perfusion and oxygenation monitoring in an implantable optical sensor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Hariharan

    2006-04-12

    in operating rooms. In the late 1970s Scott Wilbur of the Biox corporation designed an ear sensor that used light emitting diode and solid state photodetectors to develop a clinically accepted pulse oximeter. The fiberoptic cables of previous ear oximeters.... Traditional oximeters use two light emitting diodes that emit light at 660nm (red) and 940nm (infrared) wavelengths. At these wavelengths both oxyhemoglobin and reduced hemoglobin have different absorption spectra (Fig. 1). The ratio of absorbances...

  14. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  15. Optically Reconfigurable Photonic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Qian; Gholipour, Behrad; Wang, Chih-Ming; Yuan, Guanghui; Teng, Jinghua; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2015-01-01

    Optoelectronic components with adjustable parameters, from variable-focal-length lenses to spectral filters that can change functionality upon stimulation, have enormous technological importance. Tuning of such components is conventionally achieved by either micro- or nano-mechanical actuation of their consitutive parts, stretching or application of thermal stimuli. Here we report a new dielectric metasurface platform for reconfigurable optical components that are created with light in a non-volatile and reversible fashion. Such components are written, erased and re-written as two-dimensional binary or grey-scale patterns into a nanoscale film of phase change material by inducing a refractive-index-changing phase-transition with tailored trains of femtosecond pulses. We combine germanium-antimony-tellurium-based films optimized for high-optical-contrast ovonic switching with a sub-wavelength-resolution optical writing process to demonstrate technologically relevant devices: visible-range reconfigurable bi-chr...

  16. Optical plasma microelectronic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forati, Ebrahim; Dill, Thyler; Sievenpiper, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The semiconductor channel in conventional microelectronic devices was successfully replaced with an optically triggered gas plasma channel. The combination of DC and laser-induced gas ionizations controls the conductivity of the channel, enabling us to realize different electronic devices such as transistors, switches, modulators, etc. A special micro-scale metasurface was used to enhance the laser-gas interaction, as well as combining it with DC ionization properly. Optical plasma devices benefit form the advantages of plasma/vacuum electronic devices while preserving most of the integrablity of semiconductor based devices.

  17. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, R.; Ries, H.

    1998-10-06

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source a light reflecting surface, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line with the reflecting surface defined in terms of the reference lines a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line to the reflection surface along the desired edge ray through the point. 35 figs.

  18. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, R.; Ries, H.

    1996-12-17

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source, a light reflecting surface, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line with the reflecting surface defined in terms of the reference line as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line to the reflection surface along the desired edge ray through the point. 35 figs.

  19. Cavity quantum electro-optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mankei Tsang

    2010-06-30

    The quantum dynamics of the coupling between a cavity optical field and a resonator microwave field via the electro-optic effect is studied. This coupling has the same form as the opto-mechanical coupling via radiation pressure, so all previously considered opto-mechanical effects can in principle be observed in electro-optic systems as well. In particular, I point out the possibilities of laser cooling of the microwave mode, entanglement between the optical mode and the microwave mode via electro-optic parametric amplification, and back-action-evading optical measurements of a microwave quadrature.

  20. Optical Characterization Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Optical Characterization Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The Optical Characterization Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) conducts optical characterization of large solar concentration devices. Concentration solar power (CSP) mirror panels and concentrating solar systems are tested with an emphasis is on measurement of parabolic trough mirror panels. The Optical Characterization Laboratory provides state-of-the-art characterization and testing capabilities for assessing the optical surface quality and optical performance for various CSP technologies including parabolic troughs, linear Fresnel, dishes, and heliostats.

  1. Optical fiber based ultrashort pulse multispectral nonlinear optical microscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Adam Michael

    2009-05-15

    Nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) utilizing femtosecond laser pulses is well suited for imaging living tissues. This work reports on the design and development of an optical fiber based multispectral NLOM developed around ...

  2. Optics in data center network architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrington, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2 Reducing Cabling Complexity with Optics . . . . .Advances in Information Optics and Photonics. SPIE, 2008. [c-Through: Part-time Optics in Data Centers,” in Proceedings

  3. High-index-contrast electromechanical optical switches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryant, Reginald (Reginald Eugene), 1978-

    2011-01-01

    System developers are looking to replace protocol-dependent, bandwidth-limited optical networks with intelligent optically-transparent integrated photonic networks. Several electromechanical optical switches are explored ...

  4. 2.71 Optics, Fall 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbastathis, George

    Introduction to optical science with elementary engineering applications. Geometrical optics: ray-tracing, aberrations, lens design, apertures and stops, radiometry and photometry. Wave optics: basic electrodynamics, ...

  5. Optical apparatus for forming correlation spectrometers and optical processors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, M.A.; Ricco, A.J.; Sinclair, M.B.; Senturia, S.D.

    1999-05-18

    Optical apparatus is disclosed for forming correlation spectrometers and optical processors. The optical apparatus comprises one or more diffractive optical elements formed on a substrate for receiving light from a source and processing the incident light. The optical apparatus includes an addressing element for alternately addressing each diffractive optical element thereof to produce for one unit of time a first correlation with the incident light, and to produce for a different unit of time a second correlation with the incident light that is different from the first correlation. In preferred embodiments of the invention, the optical apparatus is in the form of a correlation spectrometer; and in other embodiments, the apparatus is in the form of an optical processor. In some embodiments, the optical apparatus comprises a plurality of diffractive optical elements on a common substrate for forming first and second gratings that alternately intercept the incident light for different units of time. In other embodiments, the optical apparatus includes an electrically-programmable diffraction grating that may be alternately switched between a plurality of grating states thereof for processing the incident light. The optical apparatus may be formed, at least in part, by a micromachining process. 24 figs.

  6. Fiber optic compass development 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Kyongtae

    2005-11-01

    magnetometer based on this principle, a single mode optical fiber coated with nickel [6] 3 or wrapped around a Metglas cylinder [7] experiences a strain which is dependent on the external magnetic field [8-10]. The fiber is deployed in one arm of a Michelson...

  7. Optical cloaking with metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Bilotti; S. Tricarico; L. Vegni

    2008-06-06

    In this contribution, we present the design of cylindrical electromagnetic cloaks working at optical frequencies, making use of layered structures of plasmonic and non-plasmonic materials. The simulated results confirm the validity of the proposed approach and show a rather broad-band behavior of the cloaking device.

  8. High throughput optical scanner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basiji, David A. (Seattle, WA); van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Seattle, WA)

    2001-01-01

    A scanning apparatus is provided to obtain automated, rapid and sensitive scanning of substrate fluorescence, optical density or phosphorescence. The scanner uses a constant path length optical train, which enables the combination of a moving beam for high speed scanning with phase-sensitive detection for noise reduction, comprising a light source, a scanning mirror to receive light from the light source and sweep it across a steering mirror, a steering mirror to receive light from the scanning mirror and reflect it to the substrate, whereby it is swept across the substrate along a scan arc, and a photodetector to receive emitted or scattered light from the substrate, wherein the optical path length from the light source to the photodetector is substantially constant throughout the sweep across the substrate. The optical train can further include a waveguide or mirror to collect emitted or scattered light from the substrate and direct it to the photodetector. For phase-sensitive detection the light source is intensity modulated and the detector is connected to phase-sensitive detection electronics. A scanner using a substrate translator is also provided. For two dimensional imaging the substrate is translated in one dimension while the scanning mirror scans the beam in a second dimension. For a high throughput scanner, stacks of substrates are loaded onto a conveyor belt from a tray feeder.

  9. Genesis of CREOLGenesis of CREOL The College of Optics & PhotonicsThe College of Optics & Photonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Stryland, Eric

    Genesis of CREOLGenesis of CREOL The College of Optics & PhotonicsThe College of Optics & Photonics, the School of OpticsCREOL, the School of Optics CREOL, The College of Optics & PhotonicsCREOL, The College of Optics & Photonics CREOL & FPCE, The College of Optics and PhotonicsCREOL & FPCE, The College of Optics

  10. Bachelor of Science Degree in Optics Bachelor of Science Degree in Optical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantlon, Jessica F.

    Bachelor of Science Degree in Optics Bachelor of Science Degree in Optical Engineering The Institute of Optics Major Requirements OPT 201 Geometrical Optics Lab (2 cr.) OPT 202 Physical Optics Lab (2 Theory of Optics OPT 225 Optical Sources and Detectors OPT 241 Geometrical Optics OPT 242 Aberrations

  11. Bachelor of Science Degree in Optics Bachelor of Science Degree in Optical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahon, Bradford Z.

    Bachelor of Science Degree in Optics Bachelor of Science Degree in Optical Engineering The Institute of Optics Major Requirements OPT 197 Geometrical Optics Lab (2 cr.) OPT 198 Physical Optics Lab (2 Theory of Optics OPT 225 Optical Sources and Detectors OPT 241 Geometrical Optics OPT 242 Aberrations

  12. Optical single sideband modulation using strong optical injection-locked semiconductor lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Hyuk-Kee; Lau, Erwin K.; Wu, Ming C.

    2007-01-01

    generation by direct modulation of optical injection-lockedreported direct SSB modulation from an optically injection-

  13. 4-ID-D optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4-ID-D Beamline Optics A schetch of the major optical components for beam line 4-ID-D are shown above. All these components located in the B-station upstream from the D...

  14. Frame dragging with optical vortices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strohaber, James

    2011-12-22

    General Relativistic calculations in the linear regime have been made for electromagnetic beams of radiation known as optical vortices. These exotic beams of light carry a physical quantity known as optical orbital angular momentum (OAM...

  15. Diagnostics Implemented on NIF - Optical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Streaked Optical Pyrometer Shared LOS 90-315 DIM LLNL SOP measures the breakout time of an optically emitting shock. Robert M. Malone et al., "Combining a thermal-imaging...

  16. Optics (XSD) | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optics Group (X-ray Science Division) The mission of the Optics Group is to facilitate the efficient and productive use and operation of APS beamline-based research facilities. In...

  17. Distributed optical fiber vibration sensing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Hui

    2001-01-01

    This thesis presents a distributed optical fiber vibration sensor. The purpose of this sensing system is to monitor, in real time, the status of railcars by burying an optical fiber underground beside the rails. Using a coherent homodyne technique...

  18. Optics learning through affordable kit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P, Anusha N, E-mail: anushnp@gmail.com, E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@gmail.com; Shaji, Chitra, E-mail: anushnp@gmail.com, E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@gmail.com; Sharan, Alok, E-mail: anushnp@gmail.com, E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Puducherry-605014 (India)

    2014-10-15

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  19. Ultrafast Optics and Optical Fiber Communications Laboratory http://purcell.ecn.purdue.edu/~fsoptics/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purdue University

    Ultrafast Optics and Optical Fiber Communications Laboratory http, A. M. Weiner Purdue University C. Lin Avanex Corporation Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics;Ultrafast Optics and Optical Fiber Communications Laboratory http://purcell.ecn.purdue.edu/~fsoptics/ 2

  20. Catalog Entry for PHYS 522: NONLINEAR OPTICS PHYS 522 (3) Nonlinear Optics (3)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akerib, Daniel S.

    Catalog Entry for PHYS 522: NONLINEAR OPTICS PHYS 522 (3) Nonlinear Optics (3) Classical and propagation. Properties of optical fibers and nonlinear materials. Theory of nonlinear propagation, solitons, inverse scattering transforms, optical chaos. Applications to lasers, optical violability, self

  1. Large core fiber optic cleaver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halpin, J.M.

    1996-03-26

    The present invention relates to a device and method for cleaving optical fibers which yields cleaved optical fiber ends possessing high damage threshold surfaces. The device can be used to cleave optical fibers with core diameters greater than 400 {micro}m. 30 figs.

  2. Single-cycle nonlinear optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goulielmakis, E.; Max-Planck-Institut fur Quantenoptik

    2008-01-01

    g l e - C y c l e Nonlinear Optics E. G o u l i e l m a k iSingle-Cycle Nonlinear Optics E. Goulielmakis *, M.D-85748 Garching. Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley

  3. Large core fiber optic cleaver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halpin, John M. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device and method for cleaving optical fibers which yields cleaved optical fiber ends possessing high damage threshold surfaces. The device can be used to cleave optical fibers with core diameters greater than 400 .mu.m.

  4. Aerogel-clad optical fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprehn, G.A.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Poco, J.F.; Sandler, P.H.

    1997-11-04

    An optical fiber is surrounded by an aerogel cladding. For a low density aerogel, the index of refraction of the aerogel is close to that of air, which provides a high numerical aperture to the optical fiber. Due to the high numerical aperture, the aerogel clad optical fiber has improved light collection efficiency. 4 figs.

  5. Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Diffractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne and David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Diffractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne optical tweezers from a single laser beam using diffractive optical elements. As a demonstration of this technique, we have implemented a 4 \\Theta 4 square array of optical tweezers -- the hexadeca

  6. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayers, Marion Jay (Brentwood, CA); Ayers, Shannon Lee (Brentwood, CA)

    2010-08-24

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  7. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayers, Marion Jay; Ayers, Shannon Lee

    2012-10-09

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  8. Modular optical detector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horn, Brent A. (Livermore, CA); Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracy, CA)

    2006-02-14

    A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

  9. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Ries, Harald (Villigen PSI, CH)

    2000-01-01

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source 102, a light reflecting surface 108, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line 104 with the reflecting surface 108 defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

  10. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Ries, Harald (Villigen, CH)

    1996-01-01

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source 102, a light reflecting surface 108, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line 104 with the reflecting surface 108 defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

  11. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Ries, Harald (Villigen PSI, CH)

    1998-01-01

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source 102, a light reflecting surface 108, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line 104 with the reflecting surface 108 defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

  12. Optical Network Testbeds Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Mambretti

    2007-06-01

    This is the summary report of the third annual Optical Networking Testbed Workshop (ONT3), which brought together leading members of the international advanced research community to address major challenges in creating next generation communication services and technologies. Networking research and development (R&D) communities throughout the world continue to discover new methods and technologies that are enabling breakthroughs in advanced communications. These discoveries are keystones for building the foundation of the future economy, which requires the sophisticated management of extremely large qualities of digital information through high performance communications. This innovation is made possible by basic research and experiments within laboratories and on specialized testbeds. Initial network research and development initiatives are driven by diverse motives, including attempts to solve existing complex problems, the desire to create powerful new technologies that do not exist using traditional methods, and the need to create tools to address specific challenges, including those mandated by large scale science or government agency mission agendas. Many new discoveries related to communications technologies transition to wide-spread deployment through standards organizations and commercialization. These transition paths allow for new communications capabilities that drive many sectors of the digital economy. In the last few years, networking R&D has increasingly focused on advancing multiple new capabilities enabled by next generation optical networking. Both US Federal networking R&D and other national R&D initiatives, such as those organized by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) of Japan are creating optical networking technologies that allow for new, powerful communication services. Among the most promising services are those based on new types of multi-service or hybrid networks, which use new optical networking technologies. Several years ago, when many of these optical networking research topics were first being investigated, they were the subject of controversial debate. The new techniques challenged many long-held concepts related to architecture and technology. However, today all major networking organizations are transitioning toward infrastructure that incorporates these new concepts. This progress has been assisted through the series of Optical Networking Testbed Workshops (ONT). The first (ONT1) outlined a general framework of key issues and topics and developed a series of recommendations (www.nren.nasa.gov/workshop7). The second (ONT2) developed a common vision of optical network technologies, services, infrastructure, and organizations (www.nren.nasa.gov/workshop8). Processes that allow for a common vision encourage widespread deployment of these types of resources among advanced networking communities. Also, such a shared vision enables key concepts and technologies to migrate from basic research testbeds to wider networking communities. The ONT-3 workshop built on these earlier activities by expanding discussion to include additional considerations of the international interoperability and of greater impact of optical networking technology on networking in general. In accordance with this recognition, the workshop confirmed that future-oriented research and development is indispensable to fundamentally change the current Internet architecture to create a global network incorporating completely new concepts. The workshop also recognized that the first priority to allow for this progress is basic research and development, including international collaborative activities, which are important for the global realization of interoperability of a new generation architecture.

  13. Fiber optic moisture sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkham, R.R.

    1984-08-03

    A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

  14. MicroSight Optics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    MicroSight is an innovative gunsight technology that allows a marksman's eye to focus on both the front gunsight and the intended target. The MicroSight improves both firearm safety and performance by imaging two objects at different focal distances. The MicroSight was developed at Idaho National Laboratory, and has been licensed by Apollo Optical Systems. You can learn more about INL's research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  15. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Homuth, Emil F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

  16. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraser, J.S.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1985-05-20

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radiofrequency-powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  17. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraser, John S. (Los Alamos, NM); Sheffield, Richard L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radio frequency powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  18. Optically Controlled Jitter Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julia Manasson; V. A. Manasson

    2006-08-17

    A new simple circuit producing random pulse trains is proposed and experimentally studied. The circuit is composed of an operational amplifier and two feedback links, one of which comprises two photodiodes. The photodiodes are responsible for nonlinearity in the feedback. By varying the illumination it is possible to control the nonlinearity in the photodiode current-voltage characteristics and change the degree of randomness in the oscillations. The circuit's simplicity and optical control make it attractive for coupled map lattices.

  19. Adaptive Optics in Star Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfgang Brandner

    2003-09-29

    Over the past ten years, the concept of adaptive optics has evolved from early experimental stages to a standard observing tool now available at almost all major optical and near-infrared telescope facilities. Adaptive optics will also be essential in exploiting the full potential of the large optical/infrared interferometers currently under construction. Both observations with high-angular resolution and at high contrast, and with a high point source sensitivity are facilitated by adaptive optics. Among the areas which benefit most from the use of adaptive optics are studies of the circumstellar environment (envelopes, disks, outflows), substellar companions and multiple systems, and dense young stellar populations. This contribution highlights some of the recent advances in star formation studies facilitated by adaptive optics, and gives a brief tutorial on optimized observing and data reduction strategies.

  20. Optical polarizer material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ebbers, C.A.

    1999-08-31

    Several crystals have been identified which can be grown using standard single crystals growth techniques and which have a high birefringence. The identified crystals include Li.sub.2 CO.sub.3, LiNaCO.sub.3, LiKCO.sub.3, LiRbCO.sub.3 and LiCsCO.sub.3. The condition of high birefringence leads to their application as optical polarizer materials. In one embodiment of the invention, the crystal has the chemical formula LiK.sub.(1-w-x-y) Na.sub.(1-w-x-z) Rb.sub.(1-w-y-z) Cs.sub.(1-x-y-z) CO.sub.3, where w+x+y+z=1. In another embodiment, the crystalline material may be selected from a an alkali metal carbonate and a double salt of alkali metal carbonates, where the polarizer has a Wollaston configuration, a Glan-Thompson configuration or a Glan-Taylor configuration. A method of making an LiNaCO.sub.3 optical polarizer is described. A similar method is shown for making an LiKCO.sub.3 optical polarizer.

  1. Optical fiber inspection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, F.W.

    1985-04-05

    A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected. 10 figs.

  2. Optical ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Lowry, Mark E. (Castro Valley, CA)

    1994-01-01

    An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium.

  3. Optical ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, C.R.; Lowry, M.E.

    1994-03-29

    An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium. 3 figures.

  4. Pedestal substrate for coated optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hale, Layton C. (Livermore, CA); Malsbury, Terry N. (Tracy, CA); Patterson, Steven R. (Concord, NC)

    2001-01-01

    A pedestal optical substrate that simultaneously provides high substrate dynamic stiffness, provides low surface figure sensitivity to mechanical mounting hardware inputs, and constrains surface figure changes caused by optical coatings to be primarily spherical in nature. The pedestal optical substrate includes a disk-like optic or substrate section having a top surface that is coated, a disk-like base section that provides location at which the substrate can be mounted, and a connecting cylindrical section between the base and optics or substrate sections. The connecting cylindrical section may be attached via three spaced legs or members. However, the pedestal optical substrate can be manufactured from a solid piece of material to form a monolith, thus avoiding joints between the sections, or the disk-like base can be formed separately and connected to the connecting section. By way of example, the pedestal optical substrate may be utilized in the fabrication of optics for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography imaging system, or in any optical system requiring coated optics and substrates with reduced sensitivity to mechanical mounts.

  5. Method for optical and mechanically coupling optical fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toeppen, John S. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for splicing optical fibers. A fluorescing solder glass frit having a melting point lower than the melting point of first and second optical fibers is prepared. The solder glass frit is then attached to the end of the first optical fiber and/or the end of the second optical fiber. The ends of the optical fibers are aligned and placed in close proximity to each other. The solder glass frit is then heated to a temperature which is lower than the melting temperature of the first and second optical fibers, but which is high enough to melt the solder glass frit. A force is applied to the first and second optical fibers pushing the ends of the fibers towards each other. As the solder glass flit becomes molten, the layer of molten solder glass is compressed into a thin layer between the first and second optical fibers. The thin compressed layer of molten solder glass is allowed to cool such that the first and second optical fibers are bonded to each other by the hardened layer of solder glass.

  6. Optical single sideband modulation using strong optical injection-locked semiconductor lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Hyuk-Kee; Lau, Erwin K.; Wu, Ming C.

    2007-01-01

    polarization controller. OSA: optical spectrum analyzer.RF-SA; RF spectrum analyzer). Fig. 4. Measured optical powermonitored by an optical spectrum analyzer with a resolution

  7. Ferroelectric optical image comparator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, M.A.; Land, C.E.; Martin, S.J.; Pfeifer, K.B.

    1993-11-30

    A ferroelectric optical image comparator has a lead lanthanum zirconate titanate thin-film device which is constructed with a semi-transparent or transparent conductive first electrode on one side of the thin film, a conductive metal second electrode on the other side of the thin film, and the second electrode is in contact with a nonconducting substrate. A photoinduced current in the device represents the dot product between a stored image and an image projected onto the first electrode. One-dimensional autocorrelations are performed by measuring this current while displacing the projected image. 7 figures.

  8. Optical humidity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarvin, Jeffrey A. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1987-01-01

    An optical dielectric humidity sensor which includes a dielectric mirror having multiple alternating layers of two porous water-adsorbent dielectric materials with differing indices of refraction carried by a translucent substrate. A narrow-band polarized light source is positioned to direct light energy onto the mirror, and detectors are positioned to receive light energy transmitted through and reflected by the mirror. A ratiometer indicates humidity in the atmosphere which surrounds the dielectric mirror as a function of a ratio of light energies incident on the detectors.

  9. Integrated optical XY coupler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G. Allen (Albuquerque, NM); Hadley, G. Ronald (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    An integrated optical XY coupler having two converging input waveguide arms meeting in a central section and a central output waveguide arm and two diverging flanking output waveguide arms emanating from the central section. In-phase light from the input arms constructively interfers in the central section to produce a single mode output in the central output arm with the rest of the light being collected in the flanking output arms. Crosstalk between devices on a substrate is minimized by this collection of the out-of-phase light by the flanking output arms of the XY coupler.

  10. Optical humidity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarvin, J.A.

    1987-02-10

    An optical dielectric humidity sensor is disclosed which includes a dielectric mirror having multiple alternating layers of two porous water-adsorbent dielectric materials with differing indices of refraction carried by a translucent substrate. A narrow-band polarized light source is positioned to direct light energy onto the mirror, and detectors are positioned to receive light energy transmitted through and reflected by the mirror. A ratiometer indicates humidity in the atmosphere which surrounds the dielectric mirror as a function of a ratio of light energies incident on the detectors. 2 figs.

  11. Quantum Gravitational Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham M Shore

    2003-04-15

    In quantum theory, the curved spacetime of Einstein's general theory of relativity acts as a dispersive optical medium for the propagation of light. Gravitational rainbows and birefringence replace the classical picture of light rays mapping out the null geodesics of curved spacetime. Even more remarkably, {\\it superluminal} propagation becomes a real possibility, raising the question of whether it is possible to send signals into the past. In this article, we review recent developments in the quantum theory of light propagation in general relativity and discuss whether superluminal light is compatible with causality.

  12. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Homuth, E.F.

    1991-03-19

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor is described in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figures.

  13. Sandia Energy - Quantum Optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygenLaboratory Fellows JerryPredictive SimulationQuantum Optics

  14. Physical space and its role in the production and reproduction of violence in the "slum wars" in Medellin, Colombia (1970s-2013)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samper Escobar, Jose Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Rhetorically, people often make a tacit linkage between the spaces of urban informality ("slums"), crime and violence. This occurs in academic circles-as exemplified by the common occurrence that when researchers seek to ...

  15. Metropolitan High-Technology Industry Growth in the Mid 1970s: Can Everyone Have a Slice of the High-Tech Pie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasmeier, Amy; Hall, Peter; Markusen, Ann R.

    1984-01-01

    surroundi ng high-technology (high-tech) i ndus­ tries is incommunities compete for high - tech employment with only agoverning the diffusion of high-tech development. All too

  16. Metropolitan High-Technology Industry Growth in the Mid 1970s: Can Everyone Have a Slice of the High-Tech Pie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasmeier, Amy; Hall, Peter; Markusen, Ann R.

    1984-01-01

    tion and Gro wth in High Technology Industries: A R egionalC . Burke , Thomas. 1 97 9 . High Technology En terprise in1 9 83c. De fining High Technology Industries. I nstitute of

  17. Metropolitan High-Technology Industry Growth in the Mid 1970s: Can Everyone Have a Slice of the High-Tech Pie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasmeier, Amy; Hall, Peter; Markusen, Ann R.

    1984-01-01

    such as crystal-growth technology. The second measure ,sustained economic growth (Office of Technology Assessmen t,TABLE 1 High Technology Industries Growth Performance, 1972-

  18. Experimental Citizens: The Experimental Housing Allowance Program and Housing Vouchers as American Social Policy in the 1970s and 1980s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arias, Melanie Kayser Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    Urban Institute, 1978. Tulsa Housing Authority. ExperimentalProgram: Final Report. Tulsa: The Authority, 1975. U.S.Durham, North Carolina; and Tulsa, Oklahoma. The AAE was not

  19. History and Significance of National Development Service (NDS): Creating ‘Civil Space’ and Commitment to Service in Nepal During the 1970s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Messerschmidt, Donald A.; Yadama, Gautam; Silwal, Bhuvan

    2007-01-01

    with technical skills in agriculture, engineering, solar energy, health sciences, and water management, along with a few from liberal arts, management and planning. This emphasis on technical expertise marks one of the basic differences between the new NDVS... another so we can become more than communities of strangers'. NOS provided just such an opportunity for bridging social capital where students and citizens in impoverished rural communities forged new alliances. It also raised political consciousness...

  20. In reaction to the international energy crisis of the 1970s, Syracuse University institutes sustainability measures, calling for energy conservation. The University initiates a campus recycling program.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McConnell, Terry

    sustainability measures, calling for energy conservation. 1990 The University initiates a campus recycling the Department of Energy and Computing Management (now Energy Systems and Sustainability Management). University campus buildings to save energy over year-end holidays. Sustainability Division completes Climate Action

  1. Huber, Shocked, DRAFT for Env. Politics Workshop, 10/14/11, Berkeley, CA Page 1 Shocked: "Energy Crisis" and Neoliberal Transformation in the 1970s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Whendee

    "more fuel at lower prices, and a higher speed and load limits."5 Equally frustrated over gasoline" (341).3 In the wake of the Iranian revolution and ensuing gasoline shortage, what one columnist called truckers who converged on the Five Points intersection in Levittown (which contained 4 gasoline stations

  2. Experimental Citizens: The Experimental Housing Allowance Program and Housing Vouchers as American Social Policy in the 1970s and 1980s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arias, Melanie Kayser Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    www.huduser.org/Publications/pdf/HUD-000490.pdf. Dubinsky,Experiment. RAND Note N-1491-HUD. Santa Monica: RAND Corp. ,1982, Reagan’s budget cut HUD’s new budget authority to $

  3. Experimental Citizens: The Experimental Housing Allowance Program and Housing Vouchers as American Social Policy in the 1970s and 1980s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arias, Melanie Kayser Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    are gone. HUD’s voucher and Section 8 existing programs,of HUD and local housing authority Section 8 programs. Theprovided by HUD. The voucher and Section 8 “existing

  4. Experimental Citizens: The Experimental Housing Allowance Program and Housing Vouchers as American Social Policy in the 1970s and 1980s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arias, Melanie Kayser Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    all of the formal sources of market information. 17 Theseused public “formal” sources of housing information, such as

  5. Spatial optic multiplexer/diplexer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tremblay, Paul L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for simultaneous transmission of optic signals having different wavelengths over a single optic fiber. Multiple light signals are transmitted through optic fibers that are formed into a circumference surrounding a central core fiber. The multiple light signals are directed by a lens into a single receiving fiber where the light combines and is then focused into the central core fiber which transmits the light to a wavelength discriminating receiver assembly.

  6. Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Di#ractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne and David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Di#ractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne)) We describe a simple method for creating multiple optical tweezers from a single laser beam using di#ractive optical elements. As a demonstration of this technique, we have implemented a 4 × 4 square array

  7. Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Diffractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne and David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Diffractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne)) We describe a simple method for creating multiple optical tweezers from a single laser beam using diffractive optical elements. As a demonstration of this technique, we have implemented a 4 × 4 square array

  8. Low noise optical position sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spear, Jonathan David (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A novel optical position sensor is described that uses two component photodiodes electrically connected in parallel, with opposing polarities. A lens provides optical gain and restricts the acceptance angle of the detector. The response of the device to displacements of an optical spot is similar to that of a conventional bi-cell type position sensitive detector. However, the component photodiode design enables simpler electronic amplification with inherently less electrical noise than the bi-cell. Measurements by the sensor of the pointing noise of a focused helium-neon laser as a function of frequency demonstrate high sensitivity and suitability for optical probe beam deflection experiments.

  9. Optical Characterization of Plasmonic Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, David Jaeyun

    2012-01-01

    V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials (Springer, 2010). L. D.Characterization of Plasmonic Metamaterials by David JaeyunCharacterization of Plasmonic Metamaterials Copyright 2012

  10. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ward, Michael B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate.

  11. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1991-05-21

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker is comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate. 4 figures.

  12. Optically stimulated differential impedance spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, Lonnie C; Parks, II, James E; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A; Partridge, Jr., William P

    2014-02-18

    Methods and apparatuses for evaluating a material are described. Embodiments typically involve use of an impedance measurement sensor to measure the impedance of a sample of the material under at least two different states of illumination. The states of illumination may include (a) substantially no optical stimulation, (b) substantial optical stimulation, (c) optical stimulation at a first wavelength of light, (d) optical stimulation at a second wavelength of light, (e) a first level of light intensity, and (f) a second level of light intensity. Typically a difference in impedance between the impedance of the sample at the two states of illumination is measured to determine a characteristic of the material.

  13. All-optical Reservoir Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Reservoir Computing is a novel computing paradigm which uses a nonlinear recurrent dynamical system to carry out information processing. Recent electronic and optoelectronic Reservoir Computers based on an architecture with a single nonlinear node and a delay loop have shown performance on standardized tasks comparable to state-of-the-art digital implementations. Here we report an all-optical implementation of a Reservoir Computer, made of off-the-shelf components for optical telecommunications. It uses the saturation of a semiconductor optical amplifier as nonlinearity. The present work shows that, within the Reservoir Computing paradigm, all-optical computing with state-of-the-art performance is possible.

  14. Optical computing and computational complexity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winfree, Erik

    Optical computing and computational complexity Damien Woods Boole Centre for Research­vector algebra [9, 24]. There have been much resources devoted to designs, implementations and algorithms

  15. Optical computing and computational complexity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winfree, Erik

    Optical computing and computational complexity Damien Woods Boole Centre for Research-vector algebra [9, 24]. There have been much resources devoted to designs, implementations and algorithms

  16. Optical oxygen concentration monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, P.

    1997-07-22

    A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen`s A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2,000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest. 4 figs.

  17. Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-03-04

    This invention consists of a transcutaneous bilirubin detector comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient.

  18. Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-11-09

    A transcutaneous bilirubin detector is designed comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient. 6 figures.

  19. Optical oxygen concentration monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

    1997-01-01

    A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

  20. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  1. Engineering extension.uci.edu/optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrett, Jeffrey A.

    Engineering extension.uci.edu/optics OpticalEngineeringand OpticalInstrumentDesign Certificate and optical systems. These are essential to virtually every industry including defense, medical, clean energy. The Optical Engineering Certificate Program addresses the growing demand for skilled professionals who can

  2. Optical dispersion and nonlinearity in integrated silicon nanophotonic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Dawn Tse Hui

    2011-01-01

    vii OSA Optical Spectrum Analyzer OTDM Optical Time Divisionusing an optical spectrum analyzer with a broadband opticalport of an optical spectrum analyzer where the reflection

  3. Optical forces and optical torques on various materials arising from optical lattices in the Lorentz-Mie regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Lin

    By combining the Maxwell stress tensor with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we calculate the optical force and optical torque on particles from optical lattices. We compare our method to the two-component ...

  4. Bi-stable optical actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holdener, Fred R. (Tracy, CA); Boyd, Robert D. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a bi-stable optical actuator device that is depowered in both stable positions. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition from one state to another. The optical actuator device may be maintained in a stable position either by gravity or a restraining device.

  5. Optical Formula Recognition Stephane Lavirotte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Optical Formula Recognition St´ephane Lavirotte Lo¨ic Pottier Safir Team Safir Team INRIA Sophia This paper describes the design and the first steps of implementation of Ofr (Optical Formula Recognition on the third part: we define a class of context-sensitive graph gram- mars for mathematical formulas, study

  6. Monolithic fiber optic sensor assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, Scott

    2015-02-10

    A remote sensor element for spectrographic measurements employs a monolithic assembly of one or two fiber optics to two optical elements separated by a supporting structure to allow the flow of gases or particulates therebetween. In a preferred embodiment, the sensor element components are fused ceramic to resist high temperatures and failure from large temperature changes.

  7. Optical Theorem in Nonlinear Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We consider the optical theorem for scattering of electromagnetic waves in nonlinear media. This result is used to obtain the power extinguished from a field by a nonlinear scatterer. The cases of second harmonic generation and the Kerr effect are studied in some detail. Applications to nonlinear apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy are considered.

  8. Maxwell's Optics Symplectic Hamiltonian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulyabov, D S; Sevastyanov, L A

    2015-01-01

    The Hamiltonian formalism is extremely elegant and convenient to mechanics problems. However, its application to the classical field theories is a difficult task. In fact, you can set one to one correspondence between the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian in the case of hyperregular Lagrangian. It is impossible to do the same in gauge-invariant field theories. In the case of irregular Lagrangian the Dirac Hamiltonian formalism with constraints is usually used, and this leads to a number of certain difficulties. The paper proposes a reformulation of the problem to the case of a field without sources. This allows to use a symplectic Hamiltonian formalism. The proposed formalism will be used by the authors in the future to justify the methods of vector bundles (Hamiltonian bundles) in transformation optics.

  9. Integrated optical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watkins, Arthur D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smartt, Herschel B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Taylor, Paul L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01

    An integrated optical sensor for arc welding having multifunction feedback control. The sensor, comprising generally a CCD camera and diode laser, is positioned behind the arc torch for measuring weld pool position and width, standoff distance, and post-weld centerline cooling rate. Computer process information from this sensor is passed to a controlling computer for use in feedback control loops to aid in the control of the welding process. Weld pool position and width are used in a feedback loop, by the weld controller, to track the weld pool relative to the weld joint. Sensor standoff distance is used in a feedback loop to control the contact tip to base metal distance during the welding process. Cooling rate information is used to determine the final metallurgical state of the weld bead and heat affected zone, thereby controlling post-weld mechanical properties.

  10. Integrated optical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watkins, A.D.; Smartt, H.B.; Taylor, P.L.

    1994-01-04

    An integrated optical sensor for arc welding having multifunction feedback control is described. The sensor, comprising generally a CCD camera and diode laser, is positioned behind the arc torch for measuring weld pool position and width, standoff distance, and post-weld centerline cooling rate. Computer process information from this sensor is passed to a controlling computer for use in feedback control loops to aid in the control of the welding process. Weld pool position and width are used in a feedback loop, by the weld controller, to track the weld pool relative to the weld joint. Sensor standoff distance is used in a feedback loop to control the contact tip to base metal distance during the welding process. Cooling rate information is used to determine the final metallurgical state of the weld bead and heat affected zone, thereby controlling post-weld mechanical properties. 6 figures.

  11. Fluorescent optical position sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-11-15

    A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.

  12. Bevalac external beamline optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested.

  13. Multilayer optical dielectric coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Emmett, John L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A highly damage resistant, multilayer, optical reflective coating includes alternating layers of doped and undoped dielectric material. The doping levels are low enough that there are no distinct interfaces between the doped and undoped layers so that the coating has properties nearly identical to the undoped material. The coating is fabricated at high temperature with plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques to eliminate defects, reduce energy-absorption sites, and maintain proper chemical stoichiometry. A number of differently-doped layer pairs, each layer having a thickness equal to one-quarter of a predetermined wavelength in the material are combined to form a narrowband reflective coating for a predetermined wavelength. Broadband reflectors are made by using a number of narrowband reflectors, each covering a portion of the broadband.

  14. 1 Introduction and Ray Optics Optics is the study of light and its interaction with matter.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    1 Introduction and Ray Optics Optics is the study of light and its interaction with matter. Light and detection of light. ,Methods of studying light, in historical order are: -ray optics -wave optics -electromagnetic optics -photon optics (E & M fields are wavefunctions of photons). In this course, we will focus

  15. Optical Signal Processing in All-Optical Packet Routing Systems S. J. Ben Yoo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolner, Brian H.

    Optical Signal Processing in All-Optical Packet Routing Systems S. J. Ben Yoo Department@ece.ucdavis.edu, Abstract: This paper discusses important signal processing functions in all-optical packet routing systems. We will pay special attention to all-optical time-to-live, optical performance monitoring, optical

  16. Miniature mechanical transfer optical coupler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abel, Philip (Overland Park, KS); Watterson, Carl (Kansas City, MO)

    2011-02-15

    A miniature mechanical transfer (MT) optical coupler ("MMTOC") for optically connecting a first plurality of optical fibers with at least one other plurality of optical fibers. The MMTOC may comprise a beam splitting element, a plurality of collimating lenses, and a plurality of alignment elements. The MMTOC may optically couple a first plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a first MT connector with a second plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a second MT connector and a third plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a third MT connector. The beam splitting element may allow a portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to pass through to the second plurality of fibers and simultaneously reflect another portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to the third plurality of fibers.

  17. Optical set-reset latch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogen, Erik J.

    2013-01-29

    An optical set-reset (SR) latch is formed from a first electroabsorption modulator (EAM), a second EAM and a waveguide photodetector (PD) which are arranged in an optical and electrical feedback loop which controls the transmission of light through the first EAM to latch the first EAM in a light-transmissive state in response to a Set light input. A second waveguide PD controls the transmission of light through the second EAM and is used to switch the first EAM to a light-absorptive state in response to a Reset light input provided to the second waveguide PD. The optical SR latch, which may be formed on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate (e.g. an InP or a GaAs substrate) as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC), stores a bit of optical information and has an optical output for the logic state of that bit of information.

  18. The role of lanthanides in optical materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, M.J.

    1995-05-01

    A survey is presented of the use of the lanthanides as chemical components in transmitting optical materials and as activators in materials for luminescent, electro-optic, magneto-optic, and various photosensitive applications.

  19. A. La Rosa Lecture Notes APPLIED OPTICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    light energy is transmitted from one point to another in an optical system. 2. Classical theoryA. La Rosa Lecture Notes APPLIED OPTICS ________________________________________________________________________ 11.1 Optics in different regimes The electromagnetic spectrum From: http

  20. NANOSCALE OPTICAL COMPUTING USING RESONANCE ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebeck, Alvin R.

    OPTICAL COMPUTING USING RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER LOGIC A NEW NANOSCALE DEVICE BASED ON A SINGLE-MOLECULE OPTICAL PHENOMENON CALLED RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER- molecule optical devices called chromo- phores. In isolation, a given chromophore absorbs photons

  1. Planar micro-optic solar concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Jason Harris

    2010-01-01

    Collectors," Optics for Solar Energy, OSA paper STuD2 (Collectors," Optics for Solar Energy, OSA paper STuD2 (Collectors," Optics for Solar Energy, OSA paper STuD2 (

  2. Development of optical field emitter arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yujia, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Optical field emitters are electron emission sources actuated by incident light. Optically actuated field emitters may produce ultrafast pulses of electrons when excited by ultrafast optical pulses, thus making them of ...

  3. SCIENCE, OPTICS & YOU GUIDEBOOK FOR THE TEACHER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    SCIENCE, OPTICS & YOU GUIDEBOOK TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR THE TEACHER INTRODUCTION What is Science Optics and You? ...................................................... Using Centers to Teach Science) ACTIVITIES MODULE 1: THINKINGABOUT LIGHTAND OPTICS ........................... 1. Perspectives: Powers of 10

  4. Polyhedral integrated and free space optical interconnection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erteza, I.A.

    1998-01-06

    An optical communication system uses holographic optical elements to provide guided wave and non-guided communication, resulting in high bandwidth, high connectivity optical communications. Holograms within holographic optical elements route optical signals between elements and between nodes connected to elements. Angular and wavelength multiplexing allow the elements to provide high connectivity. The combination of guided and non-guided communication allows compact polyhedral system geometries. Guided wave communications provided by multiplexed substrate-mode holographic optical elements eases system alignment. 7 figs.

  5. Method of lightening radiation darkened optical elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reich, Frederich R. (Richland, WA); Schwankoff, Albert R. (W. Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01

    A method of lightening a radiation-darkened optical element in wich visible optical energy or electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the range of from about 2000 to about 20,000 angstroms is directed into the radiation-darkened optical element; the method may be used to lighten radiation-darkened optical element in-situ during the use of the optical element to transmit data by electronically separating the optical energy from the optical output by frequency filtering, data cooling, or interlacing the optic energy between data intervals.

  6. Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance Studies on ?-conjugated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ThesisDissertation: Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance Studies on -conjugated semiconductor systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optically Detected Magnetic...

  7. Funding Opportunity Announcement: CSP: Concentrating Optics for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CSP: Concentrating Optics for Lower Levelized Energy Costs (COLLECTS) Funding Opportunity Announcement: CSP: Concentrating Optics for Lower Levelized Energy Costs (COLLECTS)...

  8. Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics Advances would boost security screening systems, infrared thermal cameras,...

  9. Agile optical frequency synthesis via parametric processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuo, Ping Piu

    2011-01-01

    spectrum analyzer. .ON-OFF keying Optical spectrum analyzer Photo-detector Phaseby an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) at the output end of

  10. Microfluidics for optics and quantitative cell biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, James Kyle

    2008-01-01

    OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Microfluidics for Optics and6 2. Microfluidics for Quantitative CellTHE DISSERTATION Microfluidics for Optics and Quantitative

  11. Power inverter with optical isolation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Paul G.; Schroeder, John Alan

    2005-12-06

    An optically isolated power electronic power conversion circuit that includes an input electrical power source, a heat pipe, a power electronic switch or plurality of interconnected power electronic switches, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the input power source, a mechanism for connecting comprising an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or input bus bars, an optically isolated drive circuit connected to the switch, a heat sink assembly upon which the power electronic switch or switches is mounted, an output load, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the output load, the mechanism for connecting including an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or output bus bars, at least one a fiber optic temperature sensor mounted on the heat sink assembly, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar, and at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar.

  12. OPTICAL BIOPSY: COMPLEMENTING HISTOLOGY WITH NONLINEAR OPTICAL MICROSCOPY 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shafer, Christina

    2006-08-16

    acquisition from 32 detectors. The initial task competed involved the scanning mechanism; a program was created to control motorized optical scanning mirrors. The next task required a circuit board to be built to interface the detectors with the computer. A...

  13. Optic probe for semiconductor characterization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO); Hambarian, Artak (Yerevan, AM)

    2008-09-02

    Described herein is an optical probe (120) for use in characterizing surface defects in wafers, such as semiconductor wafers. The optical probe (120) detects laser light reflected from the surface (124) of the wafer (106) within various ranges of angles. Characteristics of defects in the surface (124) of the wafer (106) are determined based on the amount of reflected laser light detected in each of the ranges of angles. Additionally, a wafer characterization system (100) is described that includes the described optical probe (120).

  14. Optical switches and switching methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doty, Michael

    2008-03-04

    A device and method for collecting subject responses, particularly during magnetic imaging experiments and testing using a method such as functional MRI. The device comprises a non-metallic input device which is coupled via fiber optic cables to a computer or other data collection device. One or more optical switches transmit the subject's responses. The input device keeps the subject's fingers comfortably aligned with the switches by partially immobilizing the forearm, wrist, and/or hand of the subject. Also a robust nonmetallic switch, particularly for use with the input device and methods for optical switching.

  15. Optical analog-to-digital converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G. Allen (Corrales, NM); Raring, James (Goleta, CA); Skogen, Erik J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-07-21

    An optical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is disclosed which converts an input optical analog signal to an output optical digital signal at a sampling rate defined by a sampling optical signal. Each bit of the digital representation is separately determined using an optical waveguide interferometer and an optical thresholding element. The interferometer uses the optical analog signal and the sampling optical signal to generate a sinusoidally-varying output signal using cross-phase-modulation (XPM) or a photocurrent generated from the optical analog signal. The sinusoidally-varying output signal is then digitized by the thresholding element, which includes a saturable absorber or at least one semiconductor optical amplifier, to form the optical digital signal which can be output either in parallel or serially.

  16. Graphene Nanobubble: A New Optical Nonlinear Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao, Qiaoliang; Xiang, Yuanjiang; Zhang, Kai; Li, Shaojuan; Jiang, Xiaofang; Xu, Qing-Hua; Loh, Kian Ping; Venkatesan, T

    2015-01-01

    Graphene is a rising star in nonlinear optics due to its saturable absorption and giant Kerr nonlinearity, these properties are useful in digital optics based on optical nonlinear devices. However, practical applications require large optical nonlinearities and these are inherently limited by the interaction length of atomically thin graphene. Here, we demonstrate optical bistability in a Fabry Perot cavity containing monolayer and bilayer graphene which have been restructured to form nanobubbles. We find that graphene nanobubble can act as a new type of optical nonlinear media due to its vertical side wall as well as added curvature, which enable strong non linear dispersive effects leading to a large optically induced phase change. Unlike thermally induced bistability, the all optical switching between two transmission states happens within a time scale of tens of nanoseconds. Nanobubble based optical devices with intrinsic optical nonlinearity help to overcome the optical path length limitation of atomical...

  17. Optical sedimentation recorder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bishop, James K.B.

    2014-05-06

    A robotic optical sedimentation recorder is described for the recordation of carbon flux in the oceans wherein both POC and PIC particles are captured at the open end of a submersible sampling platform, the captured particles allowed to drift down onto a collection plate where they can be imaged over time. The particles are imaged using three separate light sources, activated in sequence, one source being a back light, a second source being a side light to provide dark field illumination, and a third source comprising a cross polarized light source to illuminate birefringent particles. The recorder in one embodiment is attached to a buoyancy unit which is capable upon command for bringing the sedimentation recorder to a programmed depth below the ocean surface during recordation mode, and on command returning the unit to the ocean surface for transmission of recorded data and receipt of new instructions. The combined unit is provided with its own power source and is designed to operate autonomously in the ocean for extended periods of time.

  18. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabold, D.

    1995-12-01

    Our fiber optic temperature measurement sensor and system is a major improvement over methods currently in use in most industrial processes, and it delivers all of the attributes required simplicity, accuracy, and cost efficiency-to help improve all of these processes. Because temperature is a basic physical attribute of nearly every industrial and commercial process, our system can eventually result in significant improvements in nearly every industrial and commercial process. Many finished goods, and the materials that go into them, are critically dependent on the temperature. The better the temperature measurement, the better quality the goods will be and the more economically they can be produced. The production and transmission of energy requires the monitoring of temperature in motors, circuit breakers, power generating plants, and transmission line equipment. The more reliable and robust the methods for measuring these temperature, the more available, stable, and affordable the supply of energy will become. The world is increasingly realizing the threats to health and safety of toxic or otherwise undesirable by products of the industrial economy in the environment. Cleanup of such contamination often depends on techniques that require the constant monitoring of temperature in extremely hazardous environments, which can damage most conventional temperature sensors and which are dangerous for operating personnel. Our system makes such monitoring safer and more economical.

  19. Polyplanar optical display electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSanto, L.; Biscardi, C.

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments. In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) circuit board is removed from the Texas Instruments DLP light engine assembly. Due to the compact architecture of the projection system within the display chassis, the DMD{trademark} chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. The authors discuss the operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with various video formats (CVBS, Y/C or S-video and RGB) including the format specific to the B-52 aircraft. A brief discussion of the electronics required to drive the laser is also presented.

  20. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF OPTICS A: PURE AND APPLIED OPTICS The plurality of optical singularities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, Michael Victor

    INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF OPTICS A: PURE AND APPLIED OPTICS EDITORIAL The plurality of optical singularities Guest Editors Michael Berry (Co-Director of NATO ARW) H H Wills Physics, Kiev, Ukraine This collection of papers arose from an Advanced Research Workshop on Singular Optics

  1. Geometrical optics in general relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Loinger

    2006-09-19

    General relativity includes geometrical optics. This basic fact has relevant consequences that concern the physical meaning of the discontinuity surfaces propagated in the gravitational field - as it was first emphasized by Levi-Civita.

  2. Stochastic Physical Optics & Bell's correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. F. Geurdes

    2012-03-19

    With the use of classical statistical argumentation similar to the one used in e.g. statistical optics, it is demonstrated that in entanglement of photons, a classical realist explanation cannot be excluded by the CHSH measure in experiment.

  3. Low Contrast Dielectric Metasurface Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhan, Alan; Trivedi, Rahul; Dodson, Chris; Majumdar, Arka

    2015-01-01

    The miniaturization of current image sensors is largely limited by the volume of the optical elements. Using a sub-wavelength patterned quasi-periodic structure, also known as a metasurface, one can build planar optical elements based on the principle of diffraction. However, it was believed that high refractive index materials are required for metasurface optics. Here, we show that one can employ the design principles of a metasurface even with low contrast materials, such as silicon nitride. We validate our theory by fabricating and experimentally characterizing several silicon nitride based lenses and vortex beam generators . The fabricated lenses achieved beam spots of less than 1 {\\mu}m with numerical apertures as high as ~ 0.75. A transmission efficiency of 90% and focusing efficiency of 40% in the visible regime was observed. Our results pave the way towards building low-loss metasurface based optical elements at visible frequencies using low contrast materials.

  4. Bio-inspired optical components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walish, Joseph John

    2008-01-01

    Guiding electro-magnetic radiation is fundamental to optics. Lenses, mirrors, and photonic crystals all accomplish this task by different routes. Understanding the interaction of light with materials is fundamental to ...

  5. Electrically-driven optical antennas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kern, Johannes; Prangsma, Jord C; Emmerling, Monika; Kamp, Martin; Hecht, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Unlike radiowave antennas, optical nanoantennas so far cannot be fed by electrical generators. Instead, they are driven by light or via optically active materials in their proximity. Here, we demonstrate direct electrical driving of an optical nanoantenna featuring an atomic-scale feed gap. Upon applying a voltage, quantum tunneling of electrons across the feed gap creates broadband quantum shot noise. Its optical frequency components are efficiently converted into photons by the antenna. We demonstrate that the properties of the emitted photons are fully controlled by the antenna architecture, and that the antenna improves the quantum efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude with respect to a non-resonant reference system. Our work represents a new paradigm for interfacing electrons and photons at the nanometer scale, e.g. for on-chip wireless data communication, electrically driven single- and multiphoton sources, as well as for background-free linear and nonlinear spectroscopy and sensing with nanometer...

  6. All-optical polariton transistor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ballarini, Dario; Cancellieri, Emiliano; Houdré, Romuald; Giacobino, Elisabeth; Cingolani, Roberto; Bramati, Alberto; Gigli, Giuseppe; Sanvitto, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    While optical technology provides the best solution for the transmission of information, optical logics is still in its infancy. In particular, energy considerations impose to reduce the power required for nonlinear interactions in future optical devices, which, in addition, should be compatible with present semiconductor technology. Exciton-polaritons are composite particles, resulting from the strong coupling between excitons and photons, which have recently demonstrated exceptional properties like huge non-linearities, condensation and superfluidity. Here we experimentally demonstrate a switching scheme for polaritons moving in the plane of a microcavity which satisfy all the requirements for an all-optical transistor. Two laser beams are converted into polariton quasi-particles, which are used as input states for generating and controlling the output, obtaining up to 19 times amplification. Moreover this polariton transistor shows to work with an interchangeable input-output signal, and needing an energy ...

  7. MScOpticalFibre Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southampton, University of

    infrastructure were pioneered at the Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC). These developments include spin-out ventures from the ORC. Our MSc Optical Fibre Technologies programme offers a great opportunity Entrepreneurship *Subjecttoapproval Forfurtherinformationonthiscourse,pleasesearch:ORC MSc Fibre www.orc

  8. Scintillator fiber optic long counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCollum, Tom (Sterling, VA); Spector, Garry B. (Fairfax, VA)

    1994-01-01

    A flat response position sensitive neutron detector capable of providing neutron spectroscopic data utilizing scintillator fiber optic filaments embedded in a neutron moderating housing having an open end through which neutrons enter to be detected.

  9. Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olivier, S

    2008-06-27

    The use of adaptive optics was originally conceived by astronomers seeking to correct the blurring of images made with large telescopes due to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The basic idea is to use a device, a wave front corrector, to adjust the phase of light passing through an optical system, based on some measurement of the spatial variation of the phase transverse to the light propagation direction, using a wave front sensor. Although the original concept was intended for application to astronomical imaging, the technique can be more generally applied. For instance, adaptive optics systems have been used for several decades to correct for aberrations in high-power laser systems. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the world's largest laser system, the National Ignition Facility, uses adaptive optics to correct for aberrations in each of the 192 beams, all of which must be precisely focused on a millimeter scale target in order to perform nuclear physics experiments.

  10. Scintillator fiber optic long counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCollum, T.; Spector, G.B.

    1994-03-29

    A flat response position sensitive neutron detector capable of providing neutron spectroscopic data utilizing scintillator fiber optic filaments embedded in a neutron moderating housing having an open end through which neutrons enter to be detected is described. 11 figures.

  11. Buried fiber optic intrusion sensor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, Eric William

    2004-09-30

    piezoelectric transducer to produce a controllable optical phase shift at the 2 km point of a 12 km path length. Interrogation of the distributed sensor was accomplished by repetitively gating light pulses from the stable laser into the sensing fiber...

  12. Polygonal billiards and "optical tori"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eduardo Díaz-Miguel

    2015-07-16

    We give an optical physicist view of the problem of the trajectories in a polygonal billiard using only basic facts of Optics and the theory of functions of a complex variable. This approach allow us to stablish a certain correspondence between n-gon billiards and one-holed 2n-punctured tori. Therefore the existence of periodic trajectories in a certain polygon becomes the problem of the existence of closed geodesics in its associated torus.

  13. Nanoscale Optical Devices: Force, Torque and Modulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Ming

    2010-01-01

    problem. Optical interconnectors can bring severalfunctionalities for the interconnectors. Compared with

  14. Optical feedback structures and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snee, Preston T; Chan, Yin Thai; Nocera, Daniel G; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2014-11-18

    An optical resonator can include an optical feedback structure disposed on a substrate, and a composite including a matrix including a chromophore. The composite disposed on the substrate and in optical communication with the optical feedback structure. The chromophore can be a semiconductor nanocrystal. The resonator can provide laser emission when excited.

  15. Quantum optics with edge states Bernard Plaais

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plaçais, Bernard

    Quantum optics with edge states Bernard Plaçais placais@lpa.ens.fr Gwendal Fève Jean-Marc Berroir Genève) #12;Aalto University, Fri. April 25th. 2014, Electron Quantum Optics with Edge States, Parts 3&4, BP Summary (quantum optics with edge states) o Electron optics principles o Single electron sources o

  16. Fiber optic sensor and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vartuli, James Scott; Bousman, Kenneth Sherwood; Deng, Kung-Li; McEvoy, Kevin Paul; Xia, Hua

    2010-05-18

    A fiber optic sensor including a fiber having a modified surface integral with the fiber wherein the modified surface includes an open pore network with optical agents dispersed within the open pores of the open pore network. Methods for preparing the fiber optic sensor are also provided. The fiber optic sensors can withstand high temperatures and harsh environments.

  17. Modulated optical vortices Jennifer E. Curtis 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Modulated optical vortices Jennifer E. Curtis 1 and David G. Grier Dept. of Physics, James Franck-beam optical gradient force traps created by focusing helical modes of light are known as optical vortices. Modulating the helical pitch of such a modes' wavefront yields a new class of optical traps whose dynamically

  18. BIO-OPTICAL PRESENTATIONS YEARS 2000 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    BIO-OPTICAL PRESENTATIONS YEARS 2000 ­ 2004 YEAR 00-01 Armstrong, R.A., F. Gilbes, R. Guerrero. Lopez, and F. Gilbes, 2000, "Apparent Optical Properties at the Caribbean Time Station", Ocean Optics XV, Monaco. Gilbes, F., and R.A. Armstrong, 2000, "Inherent Optical Properties at the Caribbean Time Series

  19. 1 x N^2 wavelength-selective switch with two cross-scanning one-axis analog micromirror arrays in a 4-f optical system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, J C; Huang, STY; Hah, D; Wu, Ming C

    2006-01-01

    optical microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), optical ?berinclude optical microelectromechanical systems (MEMS),

  20. Optical manufacturing requirements for an AVLIS plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Primdahl, K.; Chow, R.; Taylor, J.R.

    1997-07-14

    A uranium enrichment plant utilizing Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology is currently being planned. Deployment of the Plant will require tens of thousands of commercial and custom optical components and subsystems. The Plant optical system will be expected to perform at a high level of optical efficiency and reliability in a high-average-power-laser production environment. During construction, demand for this large number of optics must be coordinated with the manufacturing capacity of the optical industry. The general requirements and approach to ensure supply of optical components is described. Dynamic planning and a closely coupled relationship with the optics industry will be required to control cost, schedule, and quality.

  1. September 15, 1997 / Vol. 22, No. 18 / OPTICS LETTERS 1433 Optical bistability induced by mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang-Yen, Christopher

    September 15, 1997 / Vol. 22, No. 18 / OPTICS LETTERS 1433 Optical bistability induced by mirror, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 Received May 2, 1997 We have observed optical bistability caused in 106 (ppm) have been successfully measured. © 1997 Optical Society of America Optical bistability

  2. The College of Optics & Photonics The College of Optics and Photonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Stryland, Eric

    CREOL The College of Optics & Photonics The College of Optics and Photonics #12;CREOL The College of Optics & Photonics CREOLThe College of Optics and Photonics Industrial Affiliates Day 2010 #12;CREOL The College of Optics & Photonics Prof. William T. Rhodes Department of Comp & Elect Engrng & Comp Science

  3. Energy Efficient All-Optical Arbitration in Optical Network-on-Chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    Energy Efficient All-Optical Arbitration in Optical Network-on-Chip Somayyeh Koohi+ , Yawei Yin *Email: sbyoo@ucdavis.edu Abstract: We propose an all-optical arbitration architecture to resolve end-point contention in the optical networks-on-chip. The proposed architecture reduces on-chip optical power

  4. High precision and continuous optical transport using a standing wave optical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin. University of

    High precision and continuous optical transport using a standing wave optical line trap Vassili://chaos.utexas.edu/ Abstract: We introduce the Standing Wave Optical Line Trap (SWOLT) as a novel tool for precise optical nanoparticles. © 2011 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (000.2170) Equipment and techniques; (120

  5. A New Optical Switching Fabric Architecture Incorporating Rapidly Switching All-Optical Variable Delay Buffers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolner, Brian H.

    1 A New Optical Switching Fabric Architecture Incorporating Rapidly Switching All-Optical Variable@ece.ucdavis.edu Abstract: This paper discusses new optical packet switch architectures utilizing all-optical variable delay the simulation performance of the proposed architectures. ? 2004 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (060

  6. Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation Based Optical-Label Switching Transmitter with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolner, Brian H.

    Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation Based Optical-Label Switching Transmitter with All-Optical, 95616 Email: sbyoo@ucdavis.edu Abstract: This paper introduces a modulation-format transparent optical-label switching transmitter based on optical arbitrary waveform generation. Packets consisting of 100 Gb

  7. Optical ampli ers in broadcast optical networks: A Yatindra Nath Singh, miete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh Yatindra Nath

    Optical ampli ers in broadcast optical networks: A survey Yatindra Nath Singh, miete Department@ee.iitd.ernet.in Abstract Optical data networks are needed to meet ever increasing bandwidth re- quirements. Broadcast optical networks can provide easy and reliable imple- mentation of optical networks, but due to limited

  8. Fiber optics spectrochemical emission sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffin, J.W.; Olsen, K.B.

    1992-02-04

    A method is described of in situ monitoring of a body of a fluid stored in a tank or groundwater or vadose zone gases in a well for the presence of selected chemical species. The method uses a probe insertable into the well or tank via a cable and having an electrical apparatus for exciting selected chemical species in the body of fluid. The probe can have a pair of electrodes for initiating a spark or a plasma cell for maintaining a plasma to excite the selected chemical species. The probe also has an optical apparatus for receiving optical emissions emitted by the excited species and optically transmitting the emissions via the cable to an analysis location outside the well. The analysis includes detecting a selected wavelength in the emissions indicative of the presence of the selected chemical species. A plurality of probes can be suspended at an end of a respective cable, with the transmitting and analyzing steps for each probe being synchronized sequentially for one set of support equipment and instrumentation to monitor at multiple test points. The optical apparatus is arranged about the light guide axis so that the selected chemical species are excited in the fluid in alignment with the light guide axis. Optical emissions are received from the excited chemical species along such axis. 18 figs.

  9. Optical coherence domain reflectometry guidewire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colston, Billy W. (Livermore, CA); Everett, Matthew (Pleasanton, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Matthews, Dennis (Moss Beach, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A guidewire with optical sensing capabilities is based on a multiplexed optical coherence domain reflectometer (OCDR), which allows it to sense location, thickness, and structure of the arterial walls or other intra-cavity regions as it travels through the body during minimally invasive medical procedures. This information will be used both to direct the guidewire through the body by detecting vascular junctions and to evaluate the nearby tissue. The guidewire contains multiple optical fibers which couple light from the proximal to distal end. Light from the fibers at the distal end of the guidewire is directed onto interior cavity walls via small diameter optics such as gradient index lenses and mirrored corner cubes. Both forward viewing and side viewing fibers can be included. The light reflected or scattered from the cavity walls is then collected by the fibers, which are multiplexed at the proximal end to the sample arm of an optical low coherence reflectometer. The guidewire can also be used in nonmedical applications.

  10. Fiber optics spectrochemical emission sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffin, Jeffrey W. (Kennewick, WA); Olsen, Khris B. (West Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A method of in situ monitoring of a body of a fluid stored in a tank or groundwater or vadose zone gases in a well for the presence of selected chemical species uses a probe insertable into the well or tank via a cable and having electrical apparatus for exciting selected chemical species in the body of fluid. The probe can have a pair of electrodes for initiating a spark or a plasma cell for maintaining a plasma to excite the selected chemical species. The probe also has optical apparatus for receiving optical emissions emitted by the excited species and optically transmitting the emissions via the cable to an analysis location outside the well. The analysis includes detecting a selected wavelength in the emissions indicative of the presence of the selected chemical species. A plurality of probes can be suspended at an end of a respective cable, with the transmitting and analyzing steps for each probe being synchronized sequentially for one set of support equipment and instrumentation to monitor at multiple test points. The optical apparatus is arranged about the light guide axis so that the selected chemical species are excited the fluid in alignment with the light guide axis and optical emissions are received from the excited chemical species along such axis.

  11. Optical sensor of magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, M.A.; Martin, S.J.

    1986-03-25

    An optical magnetic field strength sensor for measuring the field strength of a magnetic field comprising a dilute magnetic semi-conductor probe having first and second ends, longitudinally positioned in the magnetic field for providing Faraday polarization rotation of light passing therethrough relative to the strength of the magnetic field. Light provided by a remote light source is propagated through an optical fiber coupler and a single optical fiber strand between the probe and the light source for providing a light path therebetween. A polarizer and an apparatus for rotating the polarization of the light is provided in the light path and a reflector is carried by the second end of the probe for reflecting the light back through the probe and thence through the polarizer to the optical coupler. A photo detector apparatus is operably connected to the optical coupler for detecting and measuring the intensity of the reflected light and comparing same to the light source intensity whereby the magnetic field strength may be calculated.

  12. Fiber optic based optical coherence tomography (OCT) for dental applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, M. J., LLNL

    1998-06-02

    We have developed a hand-held fiber optic based optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for scanning of the oral cavity We have produced, using this scanning device, in viva cross-sectional images of hard and soft dental tissues in human volunteers Clinically relevant anatomical structures, including the gingival margin, periodontal sulcus, and dento-enamel junction, were visible in all the images The dento-enamel junction and the alveolar bone were identifiable in approximately two thirds of the images These images represent, to our knowledge, the first in viva OCT images of human dental tissue.

  13. Semiconductor-based all-optical switching for optical time-division multiplexed networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Bryan S. (Bryan Shawn), 1975-

    2003-01-01

    All-optical switching will likely be required for future optical networks operating at data rates which exceed electronic processing speeds. Switches utilizing nonlinearities in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) are ...

  14. Integrated optical biosensor system (IOBS)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grace, Karen M. (Los Alamos, NM); Sweet, Martin R. (Los Alamos, NM); Goeller, Roy M. (Los Alamos, NM); Morrison, Leland Jean (White Rock, NM); Grace, Wynne Kevin (Los Alamos, NM); Kolar, Jerome D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-10-30

    An optical biosensor has a first enclosure with a pathogen recognition surface, including a planar optical waveguide and grating located in the first enclosure. An aperture is in the first enclosure for insertion of sample to be investigated to a position in close proximity to the pathogen recognition surface. A laser in the first enclosure includes means for aligning and means for modulating the laser, the laser having its light output directed toward said grating. Detection means are located in the first enclosure and in optical communication with the pathogen recognition surface for detecting pathogens after interrogation by the laser light and outputting the detection. Electronic means is located in the first enclosure and receives the detection for processing the detection and outputting information on the detection, and an electrical power supply is located in the first enclosure for supplying power to the laser, the detection means and the electronic means.

  15. Large aperture optical switching devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1983-12-12

    We have developed a new approach to constructing large aperture optical switches for next generation inertial confinement fusion lasers. A transparent plasma electrode formed in low pressure ionized gas acts as a conductive coating to allow the uniform charging of the optical faces of an electro-optic material. In this manner large electric fields can be applied longitudinally to large aperture, high aspect ratio Pockels cells. We propose a four-electrode geometry to create the necessary high conductivity plasma sheets, and have demonstrated fast (less than 10 nsec) switching in a 5x5 cm aperture KD*P Pockels cell with such a design. Detaid modelling of Pockels cell performance with plasma electrodes has been carried out for 15 and 30 cm aperture designs.

  16. Optical pumping and xenon NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raftery, M.D.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of xenon has become an important tool for investigating a wide variety of materials, especially those with high surface area. The sensitivity of its chemical shift to environment, and its chemical inertness and adsorption properties make xenon a particularly useful NMR probe. This work discusses the application of optical pumping to enhance the sensitivity of xenon NMR experiments, thereby allowing them to be used in the study of systems with lower surface area. A novel method of optically-pumping [sup 129]Xe in low magnetic field below an NMR spectrometer and subsequent transfer of the gas to high magnetic field is described. NMR studies of the highly polarized gas adsorbed onto powdered samples with low to moderate surface areas are now possible. For instance, NMR studies of optically-pumped xenon adsorbed onto polyacrylic acid show that xenon has a large interaction with the surface. By modeling the low temperature data in terms of a sticking probability and the gas phase xenon-xenon interaction, the diffusion coefficient for xenon at the surface of the polymer is determined. The sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping also allows the NMR observation of xenon thin films frozen onto the inner surfaces of different sample cells. The geometry of the thin films results in interesting line shapes that are due to the bulk magnetic susceptibility of xenon. Experiments are also described that combine optical pumping with optical detection for high sensitivity in low magnetic field to observe the quadrupoler evolution of 131 Xe spins at the surface of the pumping cells. In cells with macroscopic asymmetry, a residual quadrupolar interaction causes a splitting in the [sup 131]Xe NMR frequencies in bare Pyrex glass cells and cells with added hydrogen.

  17. Optical pumping and xenon NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raftery, M.D.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of xenon has become an important tool for investigating a wide variety of materials, especially those with high surface area. The sensitivity of its chemical shift to environment, and its chemical inertness and adsorption properties make xenon a particularly useful NMR probe. This work discusses the application of optical pumping to enhance the sensitivity of xenon NMR experiments, thereby allowing them to be used in the study of systems with lower surface area. A novel method of optically-pumping {sup 129}Xe in low magnetic field below an NMR spectrometer and subsequent transfer of the gas to high magnetic field is described. NMR studies of the highly polarized gas adsorbed onto powdered samples with low to moderate surface areas are now possible. For instance, NMR studies of optically-pumped xenon adsorbed onto polyacrylic acid show that xenon has a large interaction with the surface. By modeling the low temperature data in terms of a sticking probability and the gas phase xenon-xenon interaction, the diffusion coefficient for xenon at the surface of the polymer is determined. The sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping also allows the NMR observation of xenon thin films frozen onto the inner surfaces of different sample cells. The geometry of the thin films results in interesting line shapes that are due to the bulk magnetic susceptibility of xenon. Experiments are also described that combine optical pumping with optical detection for high sensitivity in low magnetic field to observe the quadrupoler evolution of 131 Xe spins at the surface of the pumping cells. In cells with macroscopic asymmetry, a residual quadrupolar interaction causes a splitting in the {sup 131}Xe NMR frequencies in bare Pyrex glass cells and cells with added hydrogen.

  18. Optical Switch Using Risley Prisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-02-22

    An optical switch using Risley prisms and rotary microactuators to independently rotate the wedge prisms of each Risley prism pair is disclosed. The optical switch comprises an array of input Risley prism pairs that selectively redirect light beams from a plurality of input ports to an array of output Risley prism pairs that similarly direct the light beams to a plurality of output ports. Each wedge prism of each Risley prism pair can be independently rotated by a variable-reluctance stepping rotary microactuator that is fabricated by a multi-layer LIGA process. Each wedge prism can be formed integral to the annular rotor of the rotary microactuator by a DXRL process.

  19. Optical switch using Risley prisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-04-15

    An optical switch using Risley prisms and rotary microactuators to independently rotate the wedge prisms of each Risley prism pair is disclosed. The optical switch comprises an array of input Risley prism pairs that selectively redirect light beams from a plurality of input ports to an array of output Risley prism pairs that similarly direct the light beams to a plurality of output ports. Each wedge prism of each Risley prism pair can be independently rotated by a variable-reluctance stepping rotary microactuator that is fabricated by a multi-layer LIGA process. Each wedge prism can be formed integral to the annular rotor of the rotary microactuator by a DXRL process.

  20. Study of optical Laue diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakravarthy, Giridhar, E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Allam, Srinivasa Rao, E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Satyanarayana, S. V. M., E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Sharan, Alok, E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Puducherry-605014 (India)

    2014-10-15

    We present the study of the optical diffraction pattern of one and two-dimensional gratings with defects, designed using desktop pc and printed on OHP sheet using laser printer. Gratings so prepared, using novel low cost technique provides good visual aid in teaching. Diffraction pattern of the monochromatic light (632.8nm) from the grating so designed is similar to that of x-ray diffraction pattern of crystal lattice with point defects in one and two-dimensions. Here both optical and x-ray diffractions are Fraunhofer. The information about the crystalline lattice structure and the defect size can be known.

  1. Reflective optical imaging system with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Henry N. (Sunol, CA); Hudyma, Russell M. (San Ramon, CA); Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT); Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical system is characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  2. Integrated optical tamper sensor with planar waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carson, R.F.; Casalnuovo, S.A.

    1993-01-05

    A monolithic optical tamper sensor, comprising an optical emitter and detector, connected by an optical waveguide and placed into the critical entry plane of an enclosed sensitive region, the tamper sensor having a myriad of scraps of a material optically absorbent at the wavelength of interest, such that when the absorbent material is in place on the waveguide, an unique optical signature can be recorded, but when entry is attempted into the enclosed sensitive region, the scraps of absorbent material will be displaced and the optical/electrical signature of the tamper sensor will change and that change can be recorded.

  3. Gauss Optics and Gauss Sum on an Optical Phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shigeki Matsutani

    2008-07-12

    In the previous article (Found Phys. Lett. {\\bf{16}} 325-341), we showed that a reciprocity of the Gauss sums is connected with the wave and particle complementary. In this article, we revise the previous investigation by considering a relation between the Gauss optics and the Gauss sum based upon the recent studies of the Weil representation for a finite group.

  4. OPTICAL PARAMETRIC AMPLIFIER TEST FOR OPTICAL STOCHASTIC COOLING OF RHIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    that has been pumped by a second harmonic of pulsed CO2 laser system. Particle emission was emulated by output of another hybrid CO2 laser operating in single longitudenal mode regime at wavelength 9.552 m in heating. The compromise between cooling and heating imposes requirements on the optical amplifier gain

  5. Hybrid solar collector using nonimaging optics and photovoltaic components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Pablo G. B. , “Nonimaging optics”. Academic Press, 2005. [7]Pablo G. B. , “Nonimaging optics”. Academic Press, 2005. [7]Using Nonimaging Optics and Photovoltaic Components Roland

  6. MEMS multi-pole electromagnets: Compact electron optics and undulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Jere Charles

    2014-01-01

    laser system using MEMS optics . . . . . . . . . Heatattempt at MEMS undulators and focusing optics. . . . . .all published quadrupole optics by more than an order of

  7. POLARIZATION-INVARIANT DIRECTIONAL CLOAKING BY TRANSFORMATION OPTICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Krishna; Chen, Xudong; Hu, Li; Liu, Hongyu; Uhlmann, Gunther

    2011-01-01

    cloaking with the SHS lining,” Optics Express, Vol. 15, No.and free- space cloak,” Optics Express, Vol. 17, 19947–P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nature

  8. Optical Modulation and Detection Techniques for High-Spectral Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chien, Cheng-Chung

    2008-01-01

    an x optical spectrum analyzer with ~ 10 pm resolution. Fig.Agilent 86146B optical spectrum analyzer (OSA), operated inusing an optical spectrum analyzer with ~ 10 pm resolution.

  9. Novel Nonlinear Optics and Quantum Optics Approaches for Ultrasound-Modulated Optical Tomography in Soft Biological Tissue 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Huiliang

    2012-02-14

    the advantages of optical imaging deep into highly scattering tissue. However lack of efficient tagged light detection techniques has so far prevented ultrasound-modulated optical tomography from achieving maturity. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and imaging...

  10. Surface figure control for coated optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA); Spence, Paul A. (Pleasanton, CA); Kanouff, Michael P. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A pedestal optical substrate that simultaneously provides high substrate dynamic stiffness, provides low surface figure sensitivity to mechanical mounting hardware inputs, and constrains surface figure changes caused by optical coatings to be primarily spherical in nature. The pedestal optical substrate includes a disk-like optic or substrate section having a top surface that is coated, a disk-like base section that provides location at which the substrate can be mounted, and a connecting cylindrical section between the base and optics or substrate sections. The optic section has an optical section thickness.sup.2 /optical section diameter ratio of between about 5 to 10 mm, and a thickness variation between front and back surfaces of less than about 10%. The connecting cylindrical section may be attached via three spaced legs or members. However, the pedestal optical substrate can be manufactured from a solid piece of material to form a monolith, thus avoiding joints between the sections, or the disk-like base can be formed separately and connected to the connecting section. By way of example, the pedestal optical substrate may be utilized in the fabrication of optics for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography imaging system, or in any optical system requiring coated optics and substrates with reduced sensitivity to mechanical mounts.

  11. Hadamard multimode optical imaging transceiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooke, Bradly J; Guenther, David C; Tiee, Joe J; Kellum, Mervyn J; Olivas, Nicholas L; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R; Judd, Stephen L; Braun, Thomas R

    2012-10-30

    Disclosed is a method and system for simultaneously acquiring and producing results for multiple image modes using a common sensor without optical filtering, scanning, or other moving parts. The system and method utilize the Walsh-Hadamard correlation detection process (e.g., functions/matrix) to provide an all-binary structure that permits seamless bridging between analog and digital domains. An embodiment may capture an incoming optical signal at an optical aperture, convert the optical signal to an electrical signal, pass the electrical signal through a Low-Noise Amplifier (LNA) to create an LNA signal, pass the LNA signal through one or more correlators where each correlator has a corresponding Walsh-Hadamard (WH) binary basis function, calculate a correlation output coefficient for each correlator as a function of the corresponding WH binary basis function in accordance with Walsh-Hadamard mathematical principles, digitize each of the correlation output coefficient by passing each correlation output coefficient through an Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC), and performing image mode processing on the digitized correlation output coefficients as desired to produce one or more image modes. Some, but not all, potential image modes include: multi-channel access, temporal, range, three-dimensional, and synthetic aperture.

  12. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farah, J.

    1999-04-06

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically. 23 figs.

  13. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farah, John (M.I.T. Branch P.O. Box 301, Cambridge, MA 02139)

    1995-01-01

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically.

  14. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farah, J.

    1995-05-30

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically. 29 figs.

  15. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farah, John (M.I.T. P.O. Box 397301, Cambridge, MA 02139)

    1999-01-01

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically.

  16. Fabrication of an optical component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nichols, Michael A. (Livermore, CA); Aikens, David M. (Pleasanton, CA); Camp, David W. (Oakland, CA); Thomas, Ian M. (Livermore, CA); Kiikka, Craig (Livermore, CA); Sheehan, Lynn M. (Livermore, CA); Kozlowski, Mark R. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A method for forming optical parts used in laser optical systems such as high energy lasers, high average power lasers, semiconductor capital equipment and medical devices. The optical parts will not damage during the operation of high power lasers in the ultra-violet light range. A blank is first ground using a fixed abrasive grinding method to remove the subsurface damage formed during the fabrication of the blank. The next step grinds and polishes the edges and forms bevels to reduce the amount of fused-glass contaminants in the subsequent steps. A loose abrasive grind removes the subsurface damage formed during the fixed abrasive or "blanchard" removal process. After repolishing the bevels and performing an optional fluoride etch, the surface of the blank is polished using a zirconia slurry. Any subsurface damage formed during the loose abrasive grind will be removed during this zirconia polish. A post polish etch may be performed to remove any redeposited contaminants. Another method uses a ceria polishing step to remove the subsurface damage formed during the loose abrasive grind. However, any residual ceria may interfere with the optical properties of the finished part. Therefore, the ceria and other contaminants are removed by performing either a zirconia polish after the ceria polish or a post ceria polish etch.

  17. CONTROL FOR AN OPTICALLY POWERED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    this thesis to my family. iii #12;iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to acknowledge my UNM advisor Chaouki Laboratories. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company problems from Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR). Also, optically

  18. Remotely readable fiber optic compass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Migliori, A.; Swift, G.W.; Garrett, S.L.

    1985-04-30

    A remotely readable fiber optic compass. A sheet polarizer is affixed to a magnet rotatably mounted in a compass body, such that the polarizer rotates with the magnet. The optical axis of the sheet polarizer is preferably aligned with the north-south axis of the magnet. A single excitation light beam is divided into four identical beams, two of which are passed through the sheet polarizer and through two fixed polarizing sheets which have their optical axes at right angles to one another. The angle of the compass magnet with respect to a fixed axis of the compass body can be determined by measuring the ratio of the intensities of the two light beams. The remaining ambiguity as to which of the four possible quadrants the magnet is pointing to is resolved by the second pair of light beams, which are passed through the sheet polarizer at positions which are transected by two semicircular opaque strips formed on the sheet polarizer. The incoming excitation beam and the four return beams are communicated by means of optical fibers, giving a remotely readable compass which has no electrical parts.

  19. Fourier interpolation stochastic optical fluctuation imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enderlein, Jörg

    Fourier interpolation stochastic optical fluctuation imaging Simon C. Stein,1 Anja Huss,1,2 Dirk H on Fourier transforms. We exemplify the method on simulated and experimental data. © 2015 Optical Society

  20. Complete Characterization of Quantum-Optical Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lvovsky, Alexander

    Complete Characterization of Quantum-Optical Processes Mirko Lobino, Dmitry Korystov, Connor characterization and assessment of processes that occur within quantum devices. We present a method for characterizing, with arbitrarily high accuracy, any quantum optical process. Our protocol recovers complete

  1. Photonic integrated circuits for optical logic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Ryan Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The optical logic unit cell is the photonic analog to transistor-transistor logic in electronic devices. Active devices such as InP-based semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) emitting at 1550 nm are vertically integrated ...

  2. Backconversion-limited optical parametric oscillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alford, William J. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Arlee V. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-11-14

    A more efficient class of optical parametric oscillators is made possible by introducing means for reducing signal losses due to backconversion of signal photons in the nonlinear optical medium.

  3. Optical chirped beam amplification and propagation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barty, Christopher P.

    2004-10-12

    A short pulse laser system uses dispersive optics in a chirped-beam amplification architecture to produce high peak power pulses and high peak intensities without the potential for intensity dependent damage to downstream optical components after amplification.

  4. Micro benchtop optics by bulk silicon micromachining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Pocha, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); McConaghy, Charles F. (Livermore, CA); Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics of bulk silicon and integrating the parallel etch planes of silicon with silicon wafer bonding and impurity doping, enables the fabrication of on-chip optics with in situ aligned etched grooves for optical fibers, micro-lenses, photodiodes, and laser diodes. Other optical components that can be microfabricated and integrated include semi-transparent beam splitters, micro-optical scanners, pinholes, optical gratings, micro-optical filters, etc. Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics thereof can be utilized to develop miniaturization of bio-instrumentation such as wavelength monitoring by fluorescence spectrometers, and other miniaturized optical systems such as Fabry-Perot interferometry for filtering of wavelengths, tunable cavity lasers, micro-holography modules, and wavelength splitters for optical communication systems.

  5. Resonantly pumped optical pumping injection cavity lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santilli, Michael Robert; McAlpine, T. C.; Greene, K. R.; Olafsen, L. J.; Bewley, W. W.; Felix, C. L.; Vurgaftman, I.; Meyer, J. R.; Lee, H.; Martinelli, R. U.

    2004-11-01

    An optical parametric oscillator is tuned to the resonance wavelength of the etalon in an optical pumping injection cavity (OPIC) laser with a type-II "W" active region, thereby minimizing the threshold pump intensity and maximizing the output slope...

  6. RICE UNIVERSITY Electrical and Optical Characterization of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natelson, Douglas

    RICE UNIVERSITY Electrical and Optical Characterization of Molecular Nanojunctions by Daniel R Stanley C. Moore Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering Peter Nordlander Professor of Physics and Astronomy Houston, Texas September, 2010 #12;ABSTRACT Electrical and Optical Characterization of Molecular

  7. Realizing Dynamic Optical Networking Mario Baldi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldi, Mario

    (UTC a.k.a. GMT) CTRTM can be globally distributed, then it is possible to (globally) distribute the O switching. Static optical switching requires a separate optical channel-- a.k.a. wavelength or lambda

  8. Hand-held optical fuel pin scanner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirchner, T.L.; Powers, H.G.

    1980-12-07

    An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane perpendicular to an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image to a stationary photodiode array.

  9. Optical Force Measurements In Concentrated Colloidal Suspensions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    This work concerns the construction and testing of an optical tweezers-based force transducer, and its application to a hard-sphere colloidal system. A particle in an optical trap forward-scatters a fraction of the ...

  10. Reflective optical imaging method and circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT)

    2001-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  11. EXACT WAVEFRONT CORRECTION IN ADAPTIVE OPTICS.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosier, Lionel - Institut de Mathématiques �lie Cartan, Université Henri Poincaré

    EXACT WAVEFRONT CORRECTION IN ADAPTIVE OPTICS. Pierre Le Gall Lionel Rosier Institut Elie Cartan an adaptive optical system in which a deformable mirror is controlled to compensate for random wavefront c 2005 IFAC Keywords: Adaptive optics, exact wavefront correction, membrane mirror. 1. INTRODUCTION

  12. Channel Routing for Integrated Optics Christopher Condrat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalla, Priyank

    Channel Routing for Integrated Optics Christopher Condrat (chris@g6net.com) Priyank Kalla (kalla, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Abstract--Increasing scope and applications of integrated optics necessitates the development of automated techniques for physical design of optical systems. This paper presents an automated

  13. Logic Synthesis for Integrated Optics Christopher Condrat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalla, Priyank

    Logic Synthesis for Integrated Optics Christopher Condrat chris@g6net.com Priyank Kalla kalla, Salt Lake City, UT, USA ABSTRACT As silicon photonics technology matures, optical devices methods for synthesizing optical devices for large-scale designs. We present design and synthesis method

  14. Multiphase Computations in Geometrical Optics Olof Runborg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Thomas S.

    Multiphase Computations in Geometrical Optics Olof Runborg Royal Institute of Technology Department. The tra­ ditional geometrical optics pair of equations suffer from the fact that the class of physically. The geometrical optics type asymptotic expansions are used 1 #12; in many applications, for example

  15. Motorcycle Emissions System Multireflection Optics for non-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    Motorcycle Emissions System Multireflection Optics for non- contact measurement of small emissions-2580 FAX 2587 · e-mail dstedman @ DU.edu · www.feat.biochem.du.edu #12;End view of six-pass optical system #12;#12;#12;#12;Side view of ramp and optics #12;#12;#12;Motorcycle Emissions · Measurement of 90cc

  16. Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, David A. B.

    Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects David A. B. Miller* Ginzton Laboratory@ee.stanford.edu Abstract: We analyze energy consumption in optical modulators operated in depletion and intended for low, even conceivably being more energy-efficient than an ideal loss-less modulator. ©2012 Optical Society

  17. Interferometry following adaptive optics Erez N. Ribak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribak, Erez

    Interferometry following adaptive optics Erez N. Ribak Department of Physics, Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel ABSTRACT Adaptive optics systems on single big telescopes correct many modes, allowing imaging, adaptive optics, big telescopes, shearing interferometry. 1. THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE WAVE FRONT Most big

  18. Imaging properties of supercritical angle fluorescence optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enderlein, Jörg

    Imaging properties of supercritical angle fluorescence optics J¨org Enderlein,1,4, Ingo Gregor,1.ruckstuhl@pci.uzh.ch 4http://www.joerg-enderlein.de enderlein@physik3.gwdg.de Abstract: In recent years, new optical the detection volume within one wavelength to an interface. For conventional optical systems with high numerical

  19. Holographic optical trapping David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Holographic optical trapping David G. Grier Yael Roichman Department of Physics and Center for Soft Matter Research, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 Holographic optical tweezers­beam optical traps use­ ful for capturing, moving and transforming mesoscopic objects. Through a combination

  20. Assessing Deterioration of ADSS Fiber Optic Cables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assessing Deterioration of ADSS Fiber Optic Cables Due to Corona Discharge Final Project Report of ADSS Fiber Optic Cables Due to Corona Discharge Final Project Report George G. Karady, Project Leader-Supporting) fiber optic cables installed on high voltage lines. The high electric field on those lines generates

  1. Holographic optical trapping David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Holographic optical trapping David G. Grier Yael Roichman Department of Physics and Center for Soft Matter Research, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 Holographic optical tweezers-beam optical traps use- ful for capturing, moving and transforming mesoscopic objects. Through a combination

  2. Diffractive optical elements for spectroscopy Hallvard Angelskar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tom Henning

    Diffractive optical elements for spectroscopy by Hallvard Angelsk°ar Submitted in partial;Abstract Diffractive optical elements can be used in spectroscopy instruments to fulfill several tasks to precisely fabricate complex diffractive optical elements with feature sizes below the micrometer scale

  3. MINT Optics Yeong Shang Loh1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MINT Optics Yeong Shang Loh1 May 2, 2000 Abstract This paper discusses the design and the preliminary beam test on the optical system for the MINT experiment. A set of optimized antenna parameters. Page #12;2 MINT Optics Yeong Shang Loh May 2, 2000 Abstract This paper discusses the design

  4. SPECIAL SECTION GUEST EDITORIAL Optics in Neuroscience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SPECIAL SECTION GUEST EDITORIAL Optics in Neuroscience In recent years there has been a strong trend to enhance tra- ditional research techniques in neuroscience with optical- based techniques and temporally spanning submillisecond to sec- onds. Optical techniques are attractive because they enable

  5. MINT Optical Layout Yeong Shang Loh1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MINT Optical Layout Yeong Shang Loh1 April 5, 2000 Abstract This paper discusses the criteria affecting the choice of optical configuration for the MINT antennae. Parameters for the shielded Cassegrain degradation from misalignment and mounting errors. 1 Advisor: S. Staggs and L. Page #12;2 MINT Optical Layout

  6. Linear rotary optical delay lines Maksim Skorobogatiy*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    Linear rotary optical delay lines Maksim Skorobogatiy* Department of Engineering Physics, École of analytical and semi-analytical solutions for the design of high-speed rotary optical delay lines that use of optical delay. Finally, two prototypes of rotary delay lines were fabricated using CNC machining

  7. Printed Optics: 3D Printing of Embedded Optical Elements for Interactive Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poupyrev, Ivan

    Printed Optics: 3D Printing of Embedded Optical Elements for Interactive Devices Karl D.D. Willis1 d Figure 1: Custom optical elements are fabricated with 3D printing and embedded in interactive), and embedded optoelectronics (d). ABSTRACT We present an approach to 3D printing custom optical ele- ments

  8. An All-Optical PCI-Express Network Interface for Optical Packet Switched Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    An All-Optical PCI-Express Network Interface for Optical Packet Switched Networks Odile Liboiron-latency edge node PCI-Express interface to a WDM optical packet switched network. Scalability is examined under the limits set by PCI-Express jitter specification on the packet propagation. ©2005 Optical Society

  9. Fiber coupling with adaptive optics for free-space optical communication Thomas Weyraucha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiber coupling with adaptive optics for free-space optical communication Thomas Weyraucha , Mikhail, Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Brookline, MA 02446 ABSTRACT We describe an adaptive optical fiber coupling system for free-space optical communication comprising a micro- electromechanical deformable

  10. Aero-Optics 1 Physics and Computation of Aero-Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordeyev, Stanislav

    Aero-Optics 1 Physics and Computation of Aero-Optics Meng Wang Department of Aerospace-fidelity simulation, opti- cal mitigation Abstract This article provides a critical review of aero-optics-induced optical distortions. Following a brief introduction of the fundamental theory and key concepts

  11. 832 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 25, No. 11 / June 1, 2000 Simultaneous optical wavelength interchange with a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    832 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 25, No. 11 / June 1, 2000 Simultaneous optical wavelength interchange January 21, 2000 We present a theoretical analysis for simultaneous optical wavelength interchange and isolation of a pair of collinear input optical signals by use of two concurrent difference

  12. Optical Networks Magazine May/June 2003 17 Optical-label

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolner, Brian H.

    Optical Networks Magazine May/June 2003 17 Optical-label switching, MPLS, MPLambdaS, and GMPLS S. J impressive progress accelerated by new enabling technologies such as optical fiber amplifiers. A number of commercial optical networking systems were announced and their deployments took place rapidly in the late 90

  13. Galen Sasaki University of Hawaii 1 Optical Amplifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sasaki, Galen H.

    1 Galen Sasaki University of Hawaii 1 Components · Optical Amplifiers ­ Semiconductor Optical Emitting Lasers ­ LEDs Galen Sasaki University of Hawaii 2 Outline · Optical Amplifiers ­ Semiconductor Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers ­ LEDs Galen Sasaki University of Hawaii 3 Semiconductor Optical

  14. PURDUE UNIVERSITY ULTRAFAST OPTICS & OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS LABORATORYA.M. Weiner Andrew M. Weiner, Jason McKinney*, and Shijun Xiao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purdue University

    PURDUE UNIVERSITY ULTRAFAST OPTICS & OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS LABORATORYA.M. Weiner Andrew M affiliation: Naval Research Labs #12;PURDUE UNIVERSITY ULTRAFAST OPTICS & OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS bandwidth #12;PURDUE UNIVERSITY ULTRAFAST OPTICS & OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS LABORATORYA.M. Weiner

  15. Reflective optical imaging systems with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudyma, Russell M. (San Ramon, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Optical systems compatible with extreme ultraviolet radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate are described. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical systems are particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput, and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical systems are characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  16. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Sung Hun (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2007-07-03

    Employing collector optics that has a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics is normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  17. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Lee, Sang Hun

    2006-07-25

    Employing collector optics that have a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics are normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  18. Method for producing damage resistant optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Burnham, Alan K. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Wegner, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Kozlowski, Mark R. (Windsor, CA); Feit, Michael D. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a system that mitigates the growth of surface damage in an optic. Damage to the optic is minimally initiated. In an embodiment of the invention, damage sites in the optic are initiated, located, and then treated to stop the growth of the damage sites. The step of initiating damage sites in the optic includes a scan of the optic using a laser to initiate defects. The exact positions of the initiated sites are identified. A mitigation process is performed that locally or globally removes the cause of subsequent growth of the damaged sites.

  19. Recent Advances in Retinal Imaging With Adaptive Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recent Advances in Retinal Imaging With Adaptive Optics 36 Optics & Photonics News January 2005-6938/05/01/0036/7-$0015.00 © Optical Society of America A daptive optics imaging systems use active optical elements to compensate for aberrations in the optical path between the camera and the object being imaged. In 1953, Babcock first

  20. Spinning angle optical calibration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Stephen K. (Morgantown, WV); Pratt, II, Harold R. (Morgantown, WV)

    1991-01-01

    An optical calibration apparatus is provided for calibrating and reproducing spinning angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An illuminated magnifying apparatus enables optical setting an accurate reproducing of spinning "magic angles" in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. A reference mark scribed on an edge of a spinning angle test sample holder is illuminated by a light source and viewed through a magnifying scope. When the "magic angle" of a sample material used as a standard is attained by varying the angular position of the sample holder, the coordinate position of the reference mark relative to a graduation or graduations on a reticle in the magnifying scope is noted. Thereafter, the spinning "magic angle" of a test material having similar nuclear properties to the standard is attained by returning the sample holder back to the originally noted coordinate position.

  1. Miniature hybrid optical imaging lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sitter, D.N. Jr.; Simpson, M.L.

    1997-10-21

    A miniature lens system that corrects for imaging and chromatic aberrations is disclosed, the lens system being fabricated from primarily commercially-available components. A first element at the input to a lens housing is an aperture stop. A second optical element is a refractive element with a diffractive element closely coupled to, or formed a part of, the rear surface of the refractive element. Spaced closely to the diffractive element is a baffle to limit the area of the image, and this is closely followed by a second refractive lens element to provide the final correction. The image, corrected for aberrations exits the last lens element to impinge upon a detector plane were is positioned any desired detector array. The diffractive element is fabricated according to an equation that includes, as variables, the design wavelength, the index of refraction and the radius from an optical axis of the lens system components. 2 figs.

  2. Miniature hybrid optical imaging lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sitter, Jr., David N. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A miniature lens system that corrects for imaging and chromatic aberrations, the lens system being fabricated from primarily commercially-available components. A first element at the input to a lens housing is an aperture stop. A second optical element is a refractive element with a diffractive element closely coupled to, or formed a part of, the rear surface of the refractive element. Spaced closely to the diffractive element is a baffle to limit the area of the image, and this is closely followed by a second refractive lens element to provide the final correction. The image, corrected for aberrations exits the last lens element to impinge upon a detector plane were is positioned any desired detector array. The diffractive element is fabricated according to an equation that includes, as variables, the design wavelength, the index of refraction and the radius from an optical axis of the lens system components.

  3. Optical Abelian Lattice Gauge Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Tagliacozzo; A. Celi; A. Zamora; M. Lewenstein

    2013-02-07

    We discuss a general framework for the realization of a family of abelian lattice gauge theories, i.e., link models or gauge magnets, in optical lattices. We analyze the properties of these models that make them suitable to quantum simulations. Within this class, we study in detail the phases of a U(1)-invariant lattice gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions originally proposed by Orland. By using exact diagonalization, we extract the low-energy states for small lattices, up to 4x4. We confirm that the model has two phases, with the confined entangled one characterized by strings wrapping around the whole lattice. We explain how to study larger lattices by using either tensor network techniques or digital quantum simulations with Rydberg atoms loaded in optical lattices where we discuss in detail a protocol for the preparation of the ground state. We also comment on the relation between standard compact U(1) LGT and the model considered.

  4. Optical geometry across the horizon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rickard Jonsson

    2007-08-19

    In a companion paper (Jonsson and Westman, Class. Quantum Grav. 23 (2006) 61), a generalization of optical geometry, assuming a non-shearing reference congruence, is discussed. Here we illustrate that this formalism can be applied to a finite four-volume of any spherically symmetric spacetime. In particular we apply the formalism, using a non-static reference congruence, to do optical geometry across the horizon of a static black hole. While the resulting geometry in principle is time dependent, we can choose the reference congruence in such a manner that an embedding of the geometry always looks the same. Relative to the embedded geometry the reference points are then moving. We discuss the motion of photons, inertial forces and gyroscope precession in this framework.

  5. Optical stress generator and detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey J. (Barrington, RI); Stoner, Robert J. (Duxbury, MA)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is a system for the characterization of thin films and interfaces between thin films through measurements of their mechanical and thermal properties. In the system light is absorbed in a thin film or in a structure made up of several thin films, and the change in optical transmission or reflection is measured and analyzed. The change in reflection or transmission is used to give information about the ultrasonic waves that are produced in the structure. The information that is obtained from the use of the measurement methods and apparatus of this invention can include: (a) a determination of the thickness of thin films with a speed and accuracy that is improved compared to earlier methods; (b) a determination of the thermal, elastic, and optical properties of thin films; (c) a determination of the stress in thin films; and (d) a characterization of the properties of interfaces, including the presence of roughness and defects.

  6. Optical stress generator and detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey J. (Barrington, RI); Stoner, Robert J (Duxbury, MA)

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed is a system for the characterization of thin films and interfaces between thin films through measurements of their mechanical and thermal properties. In the system light is absorbed in a thin film or in a structure made up of several thin films, and the change in optical transmission or reflection is measured and analyzed. The change in reflection or transmission is used to give information about the ultrasonic waves that are produced in the structure. The information that is obtained from the use of the measurement methods and apparatus of this invention can include: (a) a determination of the thickness of thin films with a speed and accuracy that is improved compared to earlier methods; (b) a determination of the thermal, elastic, and optical properties of thin films; (c) a determination of the stress in thin films; and (d) a characterization of the properties of interfaces, including the presence of roughness and defects.

  7. Optical stress generator and detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey J. (Barrington, RI); Stoner, Robert J (Duxbury, MA)

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed is a system for the characterization of thin films and interfaces between thin films through measurements of their mechanical and thermal properties. In the system light is absorbed in a thin film or in a structure made up of several thin films, and the change in optical transmission or reflection is measured and analyzed. The change in reflection or transmission is used to give information about the ultrasonic waves that are produced in the structure. The information that is obtained from the use of the measurement methods and apparatus of this invention can include: (a) a determination of the thickness of thin films with a speed and accuracy that is improved compared to earlier methods; (b) a determination of the thermal, elastic, and optical properties of thin films; (c) a determination of the stress in thin films; and (d) a characterization of the properties of interfaces, including the presence of roughness and defects.

  8. Optical stress generator and detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, H.J.; Stoner, R.J.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a system for the characterization of thin films and interfaces between thin films through measurements of their mechanical and thermal properties. In the system light is absorbed in a thin film or in a structure made up of several thin films, and the change in optical transmission or reflection is measured and analyzed. The change in reflection or transmission is used to give information about the ultrasonic waves that are produced in the structure. The information that is obtained from the use of the measurement methods and apparatus of this invention can include: (a) a determination of the thickness of thin films with a speed and accuracy that is improved compared to earlier methods; (b) a determination of the thermal, elastic, and optical properties of thin films; (c) a determination of the stress in thin films; and (d) a characterization of the properties of interfaces, including the presence of roughness and defects. 32 figs.

  9. Optical stress generator and detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey J. (Barrington, RI); Stoner, Robert J. (Duxbury, MA)

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a system for the characterization of thin films and interfaces between thin films through measurements of their mechanical and thermal properties. In the system light is absorbed in a thin film or in a structure made up of several thin films, and the change in optical transmission or reflection is measured and analyzed. The change in reflection or transmission is used to give information about the ultrasonic waves that are produced in the structure. The information that is obtained from the use of the measurement methods and apparatus of this invention can include: (a) a determination of the thickness of thin films with a speed and accuracy that is improved compared to earlier methods; (b) a determination of the thermal, elastic, and optical properties of thin films; (c) a determination of the stress in thin films; and (d) a characterization of the properties of interfaces, including the presence of roughness and defects.

  10. Optically transduced MEMS gyro device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Bogart, Gregory R; Langlois, Eric; Okandan, Murat

    2014-05-20

    A bulk micromachined vibratory gyro in which a proof mass has a bulk substrate thickness for a large mass and high inertial sensitivity. In embodiments, optical displacement transduction is with multi-layer sub-wavelength gratings for high sensitivity and low cross-talk with non-optical drive elements. In embodiments, the vibratory gyro includes a plurality of multi-layer sub-wavelength gratings and a plurality of drive electrodes to measure motion of the proof mass induced by drive forces and/or moments and induced by the Coriolis Effect when the gyro experiences a rotation. In embodiments, phase is varied across the plurality gratings and a multi-layer grating having the best performance is selected from the plurality.

  11. Subsea fiber-optic communications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    High, G.; Wright, P.J.

    1997-05-01

    High-cost and hazardous nature of recovering hydrocarbons offshore have led to the trend towards growth in subsea production control. The extended step-out distances of subsea completions is increasing the volume and complexity of subsea data communications beyond the capacity of conventional systems. Improved reservoir management using intelligent sensors, metering, and process equipment, requiring real-time monitoring and control, dictates the use of wideband communication. Fiber optics offers the necessary volume of data transmission, with the high-noise immunity needed for data integrity and safe operation, under the severe Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI) environments created where high power motors and power cables are used subsea. The marinizing of optical, opto-electronic communication components for production control, data acquisition of subsea completions for the offshore oil industry are described.

  12. Optical absorption of silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, T. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Display and System Application, Shanghai University, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072 (China); Institut d'Electronique et de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologies, IEMN (CNRS, UMR 8520), Groupe de Physique, Cite scientifique, avenue Poincare, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); Lambert, Y.; Krzeminski, C.; Grandidier, B.; Stievenard, D.; Leveque, G.; Akjouj, A.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B. [Institut d'Electronique et de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologies, IEMN (CNRS, UMR 8520), Groupe de Physique, Cite scientifique, avenue Poincare, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France)

    2012-08-01

    We report on simulations and measurements of the optical absorption of silicon nanowires (NWs) versus their diameter. We first address the simulation of the optical absorption based on two different theoretical methods: the first one, based on the Green function formalism, is useful to calculate the scattering and absorption properties of a single or a finite set of NWs. The second one, based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, is well-adapted to deal with a periodic set of NWs. In both cases, an increase of the onset energy for the absorption is found with increasing diameter. Such effect is experimentally illustrated, when photoconductivity measurements are performed on single tapered Si nanowires connected between a set of several electrodes. An increase of the nanowire diameter reveals a spectral shift of the photocurrent intensity peak towards lower photon energies that allow to tune the absorption onset from the ultraviolet radiations to the visible light spectrum.

  13. Oceanography June 200460 Optical Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boss, Emmanuel S.

    Oceanography June 200460 Optical Modeling of Ocean Wate Is the Case 1 - Case 2 Classification Still M M A N U E L B O S S COA STA L O C E A N O P T I C S A N D DY N A M I C S Oceanography June 200460This article has been published in Oceanography, Volume 17, Number 2, a quarterly journal

  14. IC-Compatible Technologies for Optical MEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krygowski, T.W.; Sniegowski, J.J.

    1999-04-30

    Optical Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (Optical MEMS) Technology holds the promise of one-day producing highly integrated optical systems on a common, monolithic substrate. The choice of fabrication technology used to manufacture Optical MEMS will play a pivotal role in the size, functionality and ultimately the cost of optical Microsystems. By leveraging the technology base developed for silicon integrated circuits, large batches of routers, emitters, detectors and amplifiers will soon be fabricated for literally pennies per part. In this article we review the current status of technologies used for Optical MEMS, as well as fabrication technologies of the future, emphasizing manufacturable surface micromachining approaches to producing reliable, low-cost devices for optical communications applications.

  15. October 15, 2002 / Vol. 27, No. 20 / OPTICS LETTERS 1773 Noninterferometric wide-field optical profilometry with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    October 15, 2002 / Vol. 27, No. 20 / OPTICS LETTERS 1773 Noninterferometric wide-field optical-field optically sectioning microscopy, we develop a noninterferometric optical profilometer without scanning on a single silicon chip for use as a miniaturized optical profiler. © 2002 Optical Society of America OCIS

  16. Method and apparatus for bistable optical information storage for erasable optical disks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Land, C.E.; McKinney, I.D.

    1988-05-31

    A method and an optical device for bistable storage of optical information, together with reading and erasure of the optical information, using a photoactivated shift in a field dependent phase transition between a metastable or a bias-stabilized ferroelectric (FE) phase and a stable antiferroelectric (AFE) phase in a lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT). An optical disk contains the PLZT. Writing and erasing of optical information can be accomplished by a light beam normal to the disk. Reading of optical information can be accomplished by a light beam at an incidence angle of 15 to 60 degrees to the normal of the disk. 10 figs.

  17. Optics and photonics research in the Lasers, Optics and Remote Sensing Department at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons-Potter, K.; Meister, D.C.

    1997-04-01

    Photonic system and device technologies have claimed a significant share of the current high-tech market. In particular, laser systems and optical devices impact a broad range of technological areas including telecommunications, optical computing, optical data storage, integrated photonics, remote environmental sensing and biomedical applications. Below we present an overview of photonics research being conducted within the Lasers, Optics and Remote Sensing department of the Physical and Chemical Sciences Center at Sandia National Laboratories. Recent results in the fields of photosensitive materials and devices, binary optics device applications, wavelength generation using optical parametric oscillators, and remote sensing are highlighted. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Use of Electrodeposition for Sample Preparation and Rejection Rate Prediction for Assay of Electroformed Ultra High Purity Copper for 232Th and 238U Prior to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP/MS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Day, Anthony R.; Farmer, Orville T.; Hossbach, Todd W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Mintzer, Esther E.; Seifert, Allen; Smart, John E.; Warren, Glen A.

    2008-07-01

    The search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge has driven the need for ultra-low background Ge detectors shielded by electroformed copper of ultra-high radiopurity (<0.1µBq/kg). Although electrodeposition processes are almost sophisticated enough to produce copper of this purity, to date there are no methods sensitive enough to assay it. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) can detect thorium and uranium at femtogram levels, but in the past, this assay has been hindered by high copper concentrations in the sample. Electrodeposition of copper samples removes copper from the solution while selectively concentrating thorium and uranium contaminants to be assayed by ICP/MS. Spiking 232Th and 238U into the plating bath simulates low purity copper and allows for the calculation of the electrochemical rejection rate of thorium and uranium in the electroplating system. This rejection value will help to model plating bath chemistry.

  19. On the Effect of Local Grain-Boundary Chemistry on the Macroscopic Mechanical Properties of a High Purity Y2O3-Al2O3-Containing Silicon Nitride Ceramic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    of oxidizing heat treatments and sintering additives, was found to result in a transition in fracture mechanism-sintering heat treatments have invariably been found to improve the strength, creep and toughness properties the mechanical properties, in terms of the effect of (i) post-sintering heat treatments and (ii) slight

  20. Method And Apparatus For Coupling Optical Elements To Optoelectronic Devices For Manufacturing Optical Transceiver Modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Gene R. (Albuquerque, NM); Armendariz, Marcelino G. (Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Robert P. (Albuquerque, NM); Carson, Richard F. (Albuquerque, NM); Chu, Dahwey (Albuquerque, NM); Duckett, III, Edwin B. (Albuquerque, NM); Giunta, Rachel Knudsen (Albuquerque, NM); Mitchell, Robert T. (Albuquerque, NM); McCormick, Frederick B. (Albuquerque, NM); Peterson, David W. (Sandia Park, NM); Rising, Merideth A. (Santa Fe, NM); Reber, Cathleen A. (Corrales, NM); Reysen, Bill H. (Lafayette, CO)

    2005-06-14

    A process is provided for aligning and connecting at least one optical fiber to at least one optoelectronic device so as to couple light between at least one optical fiber and at least one optoelectronic device. One embodiment of this process comprises the following steps: (1) holding at least one optical element close to at least one optoelectronic device, at least one optical element having at least a first end; (2) aligning at least one optical element with at least one optoelectronic device; (3) depositing a first non-opaque material on a first end of at least one optoelectronic device; and (4) bringing the first end of at least one optical element proximate to the first end of at least one optoelectronic device in such a manner that the first non-opaque material contacts the first end of at least one optoelectronic device and the first end of at least one optical element. The optical element may be an optical fiber, and the optoelectronic device may be a vertical cavity surface emitting laser. The first non-opaque material may be a UV optical adhesive that provides an optical path and mechanical stability. In another embodiment of the alignment process, the first end of at least one optical element is brought proximate to the first end of at least one optoelectronic device in such a manner that an interstitial space exists between the first end of at least one optoelectronic device and the first end of at least one optical element.

  1. All-Optical Molecular Orientation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oda, Keita; Hita, Masafumi; Minemoto, Shinichirou; Sakai, Hirofumi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2010-05-28

    We report clear evidence of all-optical orientation of carbonyl sulfide molecules with an intense nonresonant two-color laser field in the adiabatic regime. The technique relies on the combined effects of anisotropic hyperpolarizability interaction and anisotropic polarizability interaction and does not rely on the permanent dipole interaction with an electrostatic field. It is demonstrated that the molecular orientation can be controlled simply by changing the relative phase between the two wavelength fields. The present technique brings researchers a new steering tool of gaseous molecules and will be quite useful in various fields such as electronic stereodynamics in molecules and ultrafast molecular imaging.

  2. Optical assay technology for safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edelson, M.C.; Lipert, R.J.; Murray, G.M.; Schuler, R.A.; Vera, J.; Wang, Z.M.; Weeks, S.J.

    1990-10-01

    Research conducted in the Ames Laboratory Nuclear Safeguards and Security Program during the period July 1, 1990 to September 30, 1990 is reviewed; included are reprints and preprints of papers written during this quarter. The first demonstration of isotopic selectivity in Inductively Coupled Plasma -- Laser Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy (ICP-LEAFS) is reported and the application of ICP-LEAFS to U isotopic analysis is discussed. Current work in applying optical spectroscopy to the analytical determination of gas phase metal atoms is reviewed. Program administration topics are included in a separately bound Management Supplement to this report.

  3. Generalized Superconductors and Holographic Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subhash Mahapatra; Prabwal Phukon; Tapobrata Sarkar

    2014-03-31

    We study generalized holographic s-wave superconductors in four dimensional R-charged black hole and Lifshitz black hole backgrounds, in the probe limit. We first establish the superconducting nature of the boundary theories, and then study their optical properties. Numerical analysis indicates that a negative Depine-Lakhtakia index may appear at low frequencies in the theory dual to the R-charged black hole, for certain temperature ranges, for specific values of the charge parameter. The corresponding cut-off values for these are numerically established in several cases. Such effects are seen to be absent in the Lifshitz background where this index is always positive.

  4. Visual-servoing optical microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callahan, Daniel E; Parvin, Bahram

    2013-10-01

    The present invention provides methods and devices for the knowledge-based discovery and optimization of differences between cell types. In particular, the present invention provides visual servoing optical microscopy, as well as analysis methods. The present invention provides means for the close monitoring of hundreds of individual, living cells over time; quantification of dynamic physiological responses in multiple channels; real-time digital image segmentation and analysis; intelligent, repetitive computer-applied cell stress and cell stimulation; and the ability to return to the same field of cells for long-term studies and observation. The present invention further provides means to optimize culture conditions for specific subpopulations of cells.

  5. Visual-servoing optical microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callahan, Daniel E. (Martinez, CA); Parvin, Bahram (Mill Valley, CA)

    2011-05-24

    The present invention provides methods and devices for the knowledge-based discovery and optimization of differences between cell types. In particular, the present invention provides visual servoing optical microscopy, as well as analysis methods. The present invention provides means for the close monitoring of hundreds of individual, living cells over time; quantification of dynamic physiological responses in multiple channels; real-time digital image segmentation and analysis; intelligent, repetitive computer-applied cell stress and cell stimulation; and the ability to return to the same field of cells for long-term studies and observation. The present invention further provides means to optimize culture conditions for specific subpopulations of cells.

  6. Visual-servoing optical microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callahan, Daniel E. (Martinez, CA); Parvin, Bahram (Hercules, CA)

    2009-06-09

    The present invention provides methods and devices for the knowledge-based discovery and optimization of differences between cell types. In particular, the present invention provides visual servoing optical microscopy, as well as analysis methods. The present invention provides means for the close monitoring of hundreds of individual, living cells over time: quantification of dynamic physiological responses in multiple channels; real-time digital image segmentation and analysis; intelligent, repetitive computer-applied cell stress and cell stimulation; and the ability to return to the same field of cells for long-term studies and observation. The present invention further provides means to optimize culture conditions for specific subpopulations of cells.

  7. Crooker named Optical Society Fellow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsClusterInformationContractCorporateCrooker named Optical Society Fellow

  8. Optical Modulation of Molecular Conductance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEY UNIVERSEHowScientificOmbudsTestimony| NationalOptical

  9. Package for integrated optic circuit and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, Stanley H. (26 Aspen Rd., Placitas, NM 87043); Hadley, G. Ronald (6012 Annapolis NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Warren, Mial E. (3825 Mary Ellen NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Carson, Richard F. (1036 Jewel Pl. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123); Armendariz, Marcelino G. (1023 Oro Real NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

    1998-01-01

    A structure and method for packaging an integrated optic circuit. The package comprises a first wall having a plurality of microlenses formed therein to establish channels of optical communication with an integrated optic circuit within the package. A first registration pattern is provided on an inside surface of one of the walls of the package for alignment and attachment of the integrated optic circuit. The package in one embodiment may further comprise a fiber holder for aligning and attaching a plurality of optical fibers to the package and extending the channels of optical communication to the fibers outside the package. In another embodiment, a fiber holder may be used to hold the fibers and align the fibers to the package. The fiber holder may be detachably connected to the package.

  10. Package for integrated optic circuit and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, S.H.; Hadley, G.R.; Warren, M.E.; Carson, R.F.; Armendariz, M.G.

    1998-08-04

    A structure and method are disclosed for packaging an integrated optic circuit. The package comprises a first wall having a plurality of microlenses formed therein to establish channels of optical communication with an integrated optic circuit within the package. A first registration pattern is provided on an inside surface of one of the walls of the package for alignment and attachment of the integrated optic circuit. The package in one embodiment may further comprise a fiber holder for aligning and attaching a plurality of optical fibers to the package and extending the channels of optical communication to the fibers outside the package. In another embodiment, a fiber holder may be used to hold the fibers and align the fibers to the package. The fiber holder may be detachably connected to the package. 6 figs.

  11. Background-free balanced optical cross correlator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nejadmalayeri, Amir Hossein; Kaertner, Franz X

    2014-12-23

    A balanced optical cross correlator includes an optical waveguide, a first photodiode including a first n-type semiconductor and a first p-type semiconductor positioned about the optical waveguide on a first side of the optical waveguide's point of symmetry, and a second photodiode including a second n-type semiconductor and a second p-type semiconductor positioned about the optical waveguide on a second side of the optical waveguide's point of symmetry. A balanced receiver including first and second inputs is configured to produce an output current or voltage that reflects a difference in currents or voltages, originating from the first and the second photodiodes of the balanced cross correlator and fed to the first input and to the second input of the balanced receiver.

  12. Automated pupil remapping with binary optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neal, Daniel R. (Tijeras, NM); Mansell, Justin (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Methods and apparatuses for pupil remapping employing non-standard lenslet shapes in arrays; divergence of lenslet focal spots from on-axis arrangements; use of lenslet arrays to resize two-dimensional inputs to the array; and use of lenslet arrays to map an aperture shape to a different detector shape. Applications include wavefront sensing, astronomical applications, optical interconnects, keylocks, and other binary optics and diffractive optics applications.

  13. Automated pupil remapping with binary optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neal, D.R.; Mansell, J.

    1999-01-26

    Methods and apparatuses are disclosed for pupil remapping employing non-standard lenslet shapes in arrays; divergence of lenslet focal spots from on-axis arrangements; use of lenslet arrays to resize two-dimensional inputs to the array; and use of lenslet arrays to map an aperture shape to a different detector shape. Applications include wavefront sensing, astronomical applications, optical interconnects, keylocks, and other binary optics and diffractive optics applications. 24 figs.

  14. Planar Integrated Optics and astronomical interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre Kern; Jean-Philippe Berger; Pierre Haguenauer; Fabien Malbet; Karine Perraut

    2005-08-01

    Integrated optics (IO) is an optical technology that allows to reproduce optical circuits on a planar substrate. Since 1996, we have investigated the potentiality of IO in the framework of astronomical single mode interferometry. We review in this paper the principles of IO, the requirements for interferometry and the corresponding solutions offered by IO, the results of component characterization and the possible fields of application.

  15. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors.

  16. Quantum Noise in Conventional Optical Heterodyne Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dechao He; Boya Xie; Yu Xiao; Sheng Feng

    2014-10-31

    By invoking the quantum theory of optical coherence, we theoretically show that the quantum noise in conventional optical heterodyne devices, which were previously identified as usual phase-insensitive amplifiers with additional quantum noise, is similar to that in optical homodyne devices, as verified by experimental data. Albeit more study is demanded to understand this result, it is certain that neither the uncertainty principle nor Caves's theorem for quantum noise of linear amplifiers sets a limit to the quantum noise of heterodyne devices.

  17. Apparatus and method for optical pulse measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebino, Rick P. (Livermore, CA); Tsang, Thomas (Brooklyn, NY); Fittinghoff, David N. (San Diego, CA); Sweetser, John N. (Livermore, CA); Krumbuegel, Marco A. (Danville, CA)

    1999-12-28

    Practical third-order frequency-resolved optical grating (FROG) techniques for characterization of ultrashort optical pulses are disclosed. The techniques are particularly suited to the measurement of single and/or weak optical pulses having pulse durations in the picosecond and subpicosecond regime. The relative quantum inefficiency of third-order nonlinear optical effects is compensated for through i) use of phase-matched transient grating beam geometry to maximize interaction length, and ii) use of interface-enhanced third-harmonic generation.

  18. Wavelength-tunable optical ring resonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watts, Michael R. (Albuquerque, NM); Trotter, Douglas C. (Albuquerque, NM); Young, Ralph W. (Albuquerque, NM); Nielson, Gregory N. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-07-19

    Optical ring resonator devices are disclosed that can be used for optical filtering, modulation or switching, or for use as photodetectors or sensors. These devices can be formed as microdisk ring resonators, or as open-ring resonators with an optical waveguide having a width that varies adiabatically. Electrical and mechanical connections to the open-ring resonators are made near a maximum width of the optical waveguide to minimize losses and thereby provide a high resonator Q. The ring resonators can be tuned using an integral electrical heater, or an integral semiconductor junction.

  19. Wavelength-tunable optical ring resonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watts, Michael R. (Albuquerque, NM); Trotter, Douglas C. (Albuquerque, NM); Young, Ralph W. (Albuquerque, NM); Nielson, Gregory N. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-10

    Optical ring resonator devices are disclosed that can be used for optical filtering, modulation or switching, or for use as photodetectors or sensors. These devices can be formed as microdisk ring resonators, or as open-ring resonators with an optical waveguide having a width that varies adiabatically. Electrical and mechanical connections to the open-ring resonators are made near a maximum width of the optical waveguide to minimize losses and thereby provide a high resonator Q. The ring resonators can be tuned using an integral electrical heater, or an integral semiconductor junction.

  20. Tripartite non-separability in classical optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. F. Balthazar; C. E. R. Souza; D. P. Caetano; E. F. Galvão; J. A. O. Huguenin; A. Z. Khoury

    2015-11-06

    It is possible to prepare classical optical beams which cannot be characterized by a tensor product of vectors describing each of their degrees of freedom. Here we report the experimental creation of such a non-separable, tripartite GHZ-like state of path, polarization and transverse modes of a classical laser beam. We use a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with an additional mirror and other optical elements to perform measurements that violate Mermin's inequality. This demonstration of a classical optical analogue of tripartite entanglement paves the path to novel optical applications inspired by multipartite quantum information protocols.

  1. Lead phosphate glass compositions for optical components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sales, Brian C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1987-01-01

    A lead phosphate glass to which has been added indium oxide or scandium oe to improve chemical durability and provide a lead phosphate glass with good optical properties.

  2. Optically Directed Assembly of Continuous Mesoscale Filaments...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optically Directed Assembly of Continuous Mesoscale Filaments Bahns, J. T.; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S.; Gray, S. K.; Chen, L. Not Available American Physical Society None USDOE...

  3. Conjugated Amplifying Polymers for Optical Sensing Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochat, Sebastien

    Thanks to their unique optical and electrochemical properties, conjugated polymers have attracted considerable attention over the last two decades and resulted in numerous technological innovations. In particular, their ...

  4. Quantum Reading of Unitary Optical Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michele Dall'Arno; Alessandro Bisio; Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano

    2015-02-20

    We address the problem of quantum reading of optical memories, namely the retrieving of classical information stored in the optical properties of a media with minimum energy. We present optimal strategies for ambiguous and unambiguous quantum reading of unitary optical memories, namely when one's task is to minimize the probability of errors in the retrieved information and when perfect retrieving of information is achieved probabilistically, respectively. A comparison of the optimal strategy with coherent probes and homodyne detection shows that the former saves orders of magnitude of energy when achieving the same performances. Experimental proposals for quantum reading which are feasible with present quantum optical technology are reported.

  5. Vertically-tapered optical waveguide and optical spot transformer formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bakke, Thor; Sullivan, Charles T.

    2004-07-27

    An optical waveguide is disclosed in which a section of the waveguide core is vertically tapered during formation by spin coating by controlling the width of an underlying mesa structure. The optical waveguide can be formed from spin-coatable materials such as polymers, sol-gels and spin-on glasses. The vertically-tapered waveguide section can be used to provide a vertical expansion of an optical mode of light within the optical waveguide. A laterally-tapered section can be added adjacent to the vertically-tapered section to provide for a lateral expansion of the optical mode, thereby forming an optical spot-size transformer for efficient coupling of light between the optical waveguide and a single-mode optical fiber. Such a spot-size transformer can also be added to a III-V semiconductor device by post processing.

  6. Methods and apparatus for optical switching using electrically movable optical fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-03-13

    Methods and apparatuses for electrically controlled optical switches are presented. An electrically controlled optical switch includes a fixture formed using a laminated dielectric material, a first optical fiber having a fixed segment supported by the fixture and a movable segment extending into a cavity, a second optical fiber having a fixed segment supported by the fixture and an extended segment where an optical interconnect may be established between the first optical fiber and the second optical fiber, and a first electrical actuator functionally coupled to the fixture and the first fiber which alters a position of the moveable segment, based upon a control signal, for changing a state of the optical interconnect between one of two states.

  7. Mechanical and optical behavior of a novel optical fiber crack sensor and an interferometric strain sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olson, Noah Gale, 1969-

    2002-01-01

    The proper interpretation of measurements from an optical fiber sensor requires a full understanding of its mechanical response to external action and the corresponding change in optical output. To quantify the mechanical ...

  8. Optical bistability with a repulsive optical force in coupled silicon photonic crystal membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hui, Pui-Chuen

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate actuation of a silicon photonic crystal membrane with a repulsive optical gradient force. The extent of the static actuation is extracted by examining the optical bistability as a combination of the ...

  9. New Optical Evaluation Approach for Parabolic Trough Collectors: First-Principle OPTical Intercept Calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, G.; Lewandowski, A.

    2012-11-01

    A new analytical method -- First-principle OPTical Intercept Calculation (FirstOPTIC) -- is presented here for optical evaluation of trough collectors. It employs first-principle optical treatment of collector optical error sources and derives analytical mathematical formulae to calculate the intercept factor of a trough collector. A suite of MATLAB code is developed for FirstOPTIC and validated against theoretical/numerical solutions and ray-tracing results. It is shown that FirstOPTIC can provide fast and accurate calculation of intercept factors of trough collectors. The method makes it possible to carry out fast evaluation of trough collectors for design purposes. The FirstOPTIC techniques and analysis may be naturally extended to other types of CSP technologies such as linear-Fresnel collectors and central-receiver towers.

  10. Entanglement Distribution in Optical Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex Ciurana; Vicente Martin; Jesus Martinez-Mateo; Bernhard Schrenk; Momtchil Peev; Andreas Poppe

    2014-09-21

    The ability to generate entangled photon-pairs over a broad wavelength range opens the door to the simultaneous distribution of entanglement to multiple users in a network by using centralized sources and flexible wavelength-division multiplexing schemes. Here we show the design of a metropolitan optical network consisting of tree-type access networks whereby entangled photon-pairs are distributed to any pair of users, independent of their location. The network is constructed employing commercial off-the-shelf components and uses the existing infrastructure, which allows for moderate deployment costs. We further develop a channel plan and a network-architecture design to provide a direct optical path between any pair of users, thus allowing classical and one-way quantum communication as well as entanglement distribution. This allows the simultaneous operation of multiple quantum information technologies. Finally, we present a more flexible backbone architecture that pushes away the load limitations of the original network design by extending its reach, number of users and capabilities.

  11. Enhanced Cooling for High Heat Flux Applications Using Droplet Impact and Optical Cavitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banks, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Optical Radiation Interaction with Matter, Leningrad,Optical Radiation Interaction with Matter, Leningrad,Optical Radiation Interaction with Matter, Leningrad,

  12. Balanced optical-microwave phase detector for sub-femtosecond optical-RF synchronization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Michael Y.; Kalaydzhyan, Aram; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2014-10-23

    We demonstrate that balanced optical-microwave phase detectors (BOMPD) are capable of optical-RF synchronization with sub-femtosecond residual timing jitter for large-scale timing distribution systems. RF-to-optical synchronization is achieved with a long-term stability of more »suppression ratio with potential improvement via DC offset adjustment.« less

  13. NONLINEAR-OPTICAL STUDIES OF ORGANIC LIQUIDS AND POLYMER OPTICAL FIBERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    NONLINEAR-OPTICAL STUDIES OF ORGANIC LIQUIDS AND POLYMER OPTICAL FIBERS By STEVEN RICHARD VIGIL AND POLYMER OPTICAL FIBERS Abstract by Steven Richard Vigil, Ph.D. Washington State University May 2000 Chair- ganic liquids nitrobenzene, carbon disulfide, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl-methacrylate. We also

  14. Optical Properties of Nanostructured Optical Materials Russell J. Gehr* and Robert W. Boyd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Robert W.

    Optical Properties of Nanostructured Optical Materials Russell J. Gehr* and Robert W. Boyd Manuscript Received April 24, 1996X The optical properties of nanoscale composite materials are often quite different from the properties of the constituent materials from which the composite is constructed

  15. New Optical Switching Fabric Architecture Incorporating Load Balanced Parallel Rapidly Switching All-Optical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolner, Brian H.

    New Optical Switching Fabric Architecture Incorporating Load Balanced Parallel Rapidly Switching All-Optical Variable Delay Buffer Arrays Haijun Yang and S. J. Ben Yoo Department of Electrical-8428 Email: yoo@ece.ucdavis.edu Abstract: We propose a novel optical switching fabric architecture employing

  16. Optical coherent transients in cold atoms: From free-induction decay to optical precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J. F.; Wang Shuyuan; Wei Dong; Loy, M. M. T.; Wong, G. K. L.; Du Shengwang [Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-03-15

    We report theoretical and experimental studies of the propagation of a square-modulated laser pulse through a laser-cooled atomic ensemble of two-level absorbers, as well as through a three-level system with electromagnetically induced transparency. We find that the transmission characteristics over a wide range of optical depth can be fully accounted for as optical coherent transients excited by the wide spectral content of the square-modulated optical pulse. We show that both time-domain atom-field coupled equations and frequency-domain linear dispersion theory give precisely the same description of the optical transients at a weak power limit. At low optical depth with moderate absorption, resonant excitation dominates and free-induction decay (FID) contributes mostly to the transient field. At high optical depth when absorption and propagation effects become significant, lossless optical precursors start to dominate the transient response. By varying the optical depth from 0 to 45, we observe that optical transients evolve gradually from FID to optical precursors. We thus show that FID and optical precursors, which have been considered as two different optical transients for many decades, can be unified within a single theoretical frame and they are the manifestations of the same physical process in two different regimes.

  17. Power selective optical filter devices and optical systems using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2014-10-07

    In an embodiment, a power selective optical filter device includes an input polarizer for selectively transmitting an input signal. The device includes a wave-plate structure positioned to receive the input signal, which includes at least one substantially zero-order, zero-wave plate. The zero-order, zero-wave plate is configured to alter a polarization state of the input signal passing in a manner that depends on the power of the input signal. The zero-order, zero-wave plate includes an entry and exit wave plate each having a fast axis, with the fast axes oriented substantially perpendicular to each other. Each entry wave plate is oriented relative to a transmission axis of the input polarizer at a respective angle. An output polarizer is positioned to receive a signal output from the wave-plate structure and selectively transmits the signal based on the polarization state.

  18. The College of Optics & Photonics 1 Industrial Affiliates Day

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Stryland, Eric

    3/7/14 1 CREOL The College of Optics & Photonics 1 Industrial Affiliates Day 2014 Symposium Advances in Optics & Photonics CREOLThe College of Optics and Photonics CREOL The College of Optics & Photonics 2 MJ Soileau V.P. for Research & Commercialization Professor of Optics, ECE & Physics Founder

  19. Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lucht, Robert P. (West Lafayette, IN); Kulatilaka, Waruna D. (West Lafayette, IN); Anderson, Thomas N. (Seguin, TX); Bougher, Thomas L. (Dublin, OH)

    2007-10-09

    Optical parametric oscillators (OPO) and systems are provided. The OPO has a non-linear optical material located between two optical elements where the product of the reflection coefficients of the optical elements are higher at the output wavelength than at either the pump or idler wavelength. The OPO output may be amplified using an additional optical parametric amplifier (OPA) stage.

  20. Ris-P.-715(EN) Optics and Fluid Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-P.-715(EN) Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department Annual Progress Report for 1993 Edited by S Research in the Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department is performed within the following two programme areas: optics and continuum physics. In optics the activities are within (a) optical materials, (b) quasi

  1. Center for Adaptive Optics* Santa Cruz,CA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, Gregory

    Center for Adaptive Optics* Santa Cruz,CA The Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) will concentrate on astronomical and vision science applications of adaptive optics and will reach out to other adaptive optics communities to share technologies. It will develop new instruments optimized for adaptive optics. Adaptive

  2. Optically Controlled 22 Switching Cell for Packet-Switched Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    Optically Controlled 2×2 Switching Cell for Packet-Switched Networks C. C. Lee1 , L. F. K. Lui1 a 10 Gb/s optically controlled 2×2 switching cell which can be used to construct N×N all-optical switches for all-optical packet-switched networks. All-optical packet-switching is performed based

  3. Metal Optics Based nanoLEDs: In Search of a Fast, Efficient, Nanoscale Light Emitter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggleston, Michael Scott

    2015-01-01

    on Lasers and Electro- Optics (Optical Society of America,M. C. Wu, "Subwavelength metal-optic semiconductor nanopatchand V. Gill, "Fiber optic communication technologies: What’s

  4. Fiber-based dual-beam optical trapping platform for stretching lipid vesicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinon, Tessa Monique

    2013-01-01

    from the Optical Spectrum Analyzer), optical-fiber-basedusing an Optical Spectrum Analyzer on a logarithmic scale.detector (Optical spectrum analyzer), we may carry out this

  5. February 2002 I Optics & Photonics News 59 1047-6938/02/02/0059/5-$0015.00 Optical Society of America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    February 2002 I Optics & Photonics News 59 1047-6938/02/02/0059/5-$0015.00 © Optical Society of America O ne of the goals of modern non- linear optics is the development of the ultimate fast, all-optical circuits created in nonlinear bulk media without any fabricated optical waveguide can be achieved

  6. April 15, 2004 / Vol. 29, No. 8 / OPTICS LETTERS 887 Optical light bullets in a pure Kerr medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fibich, Gadi

    April 15, 2004 / Vol. 29, No. 8 / OPTICS LETTERS 887 Optical light bullets in a pure Kerr medium 1 1 D optical bullets. Similarly to solitons, these bullets undergo elastic collisions. Since may be used to realize experimentally stable, nondissipative optical bullets. © 2004 Optical Society

  7. Deep-Space Optical Communications: Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Djordjevic, Ivan B.

    INVITED P A P E R Deep-Space Optical Communications: Future Perspectives and Applications Current technologies available for deep-space optical data transmission and networking are discussed in this paper IEEE, Abhijit Biswas, and Ivan B. Djordjevic, Senior Member IEEE ABSTRACT | The concept of deep

  8. Noise spectroscopy of an optical microresonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozlov, G. G.

    2013-05-15

    The noise spectrum is calculated for the intensity of light transmitted through an optical microresonator whose thickness experiences thermal oscillations. The noise spectrum reveals a maximum at the frequency of an acoustic mode localized in the optical microresonator and depends on the size of the illuminated region. The noise intensity estimates show that it can be detected by the modern noise spectroscopy technique.

  9. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Advances in Nonlinear Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gavilan, Marcel G. Clerc

    as homoclinic orbits passing close to a spatially oscillatory state [1, 16], or to the ghost of a spatial crystal light valve with optical feedback it has been found exper- imentally a different type of localized localized peaks [20]. Figure 1 shows the typical localized peak observed in the light valve with optical

  10. Ultrafast Optical Pulses: Synthesis and Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Kai

    2013-12-11

    scattering, which provides the required optical bandwidth. This technique is capable of producing a pulse whose duration can be shorter than one optical ?eld cycle in the visible-UV range, providing a potential for non-sinusoidal ?eld synthesis. We produce...

  11. Moisture Penetration Through Optical Fiber Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthewson, M. John

    Moisture Penetration Through Optical Fiber Coatings J. L. Armstrong, M. J. Matthewson and C. R Fiber Coatings Janet L. Armstrong, 1 M. John Matthewson, 1 Charles R. Kurkjian 2 1 Rutgers University for measuring the diffusion coefficients of water vapor through optical fiber polymer coatings has been

  12. Optical Pumping : Experiment and Theory Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zotin K. -H. Chu

    2008-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to share our enthusiasm for optical pumping experiments and to encourage their use in researches on practical physics. The experimental technique has been well developed and the apparatus sophisticated, but, by paying attention to a few details, reliable operation can be repeated. Some theoretical principles for optical pumping are also introduced and they can be demonstrated experimentally.

  13. The Optical Spectrum of the Vela Pulsar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. P. Mignani; S. Zharikov; P. A. Caraveo

    2007-07-13

    Our knowledge of the optical spectra of Isolated Neutron Stars (INSs) is limited by their intrinsic faintness. Among the fourteen optically identified INSs, medium resolution spectra have been obtained only for a handful of objects. No spectrum has been published yet for the Vela pulsar (PSR B0833-45), the third brightest (V=23.6) INS with an optical counterpart. Optical multi-band photometry underlines a flat continuum.In this work we present the first optical spectroscopy observations of the Vela pulsar, performed in the 4000-11000 A spectral range.Our observations have been performed at the ESO VLT using the FORS2 instrument. The spectrum of the Vela pulsar is characterized by a flat power-law (alpha = -0.04 +/- 0.04), which compares well with the values obtained from broad-band photometry. This confirms, once more, that the optical emission of Vela is entirely of magnetospheric origin. The comparison between the optical spectral indeces of rotation-powered INSs does not show evidence for a spectral evolution suggesting that, as in the X-rays, the INS aging does not affect the spectral properties of the magnetospheric emission. At the same time, the optical spectral indeces are found to be nearly always flatter then the X-rays ones, clearly suggesting a general spectral turnover at lower energies.

  14. Femtosecond Optical Spectroscopy and Scanning Probe Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scherer, Norbert F.

    microscopy (FOS-SPM), is capable of spatial localization of optically induced phenomenon at intdaces. Spatially localized, time resolved spectroscopicmeasurements are achieved via couplingof the metal SPM tip to an optical field at the interhqe.[2,3] FOS-SPM has been shown to be capable of identqing and differentating

  15. NREL Develops New Optical Evaluation Approach for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NREL Develops New Optical Evaluation Approach for Parabolic Trough Collectors New analytical method utility-scale power generation plants. A key param- eter for trough performance evaluation, and physical properties of system components. Optical performance is often evaluated using either a simple

  16. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Optical thermometry is a growing technological field which exploits the ability of certain materials to change their optical properties with temperature. A subclass of such materials are those which change their color as a reversible and reproducible function of temperature. These materials are thermochromic. This invention is a composition to measure temperature utilizing thermochromic semiconductors.

  17. Fiber optic D dimer biosensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, R.S.; Grant, S.A.

    1999-08-17

    A fiber optic sensor for D dimer (a fibrinolytic product) can be used in vivo (e.g., in catheter-based procedures) for the diagnosis and treatment of stroke-related conditions in humans. Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States. It has been estimated that strokes and stroke-related disorders cost Americans between $15-30 billion annually. Relatively recently, new medical procedures have been developed for the treatment of stroke. These endovascular procedures rely upon the use of microcatheters. These procedures could be facilitated with this sensor for D dimer integrated with a microcatheter for the diagnosis of clot type, and as an indicator of the effectiveness, or end-point of thrombolytic therapy. 4 figs.

  18. Efficient optical pulse stacker system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seppala, Lynn G. (Pleasanton, CA); Haas, Roger A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Method and apparatus for spreading and angle-encoding each pulse of a multiplicity of small area, short pulses into several temporally staggered pulses by use of appropriate beam splitters, with the optical elements being arranged so that each staggered pulse is contiguous with one or two other such pulses, and the entire sequence of stacked pulses comprising a single, continuous long pulse. The single long pulse is expanded in area, and then doubly passed through a nonstorage laser amplifier such as KrF. After amplification, the physically separated, angle-encoded and temporally staggered pulses are recombined into a single pulse of short duration. This high intensity output beam is well collimated and may be propagated over long distance, or used for irradiating inertial confinement fusion targets.

  19. Optics near an hyperbolic defect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fumeron, Sébastien; Santos, Fernando; Pereira, Erms; Moraes, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    We examine the properties of a new family of defects called hyperbolic disclinations, and discuss their possible use for the design of perfect optical absorbers. In hyperbolic metamaterials, the ratio of ordinary and extraordinary permittivities is negative, which leads to an effective metric of Kleinian signature (two timelike coordinates). Considering a disclination in the hyperbolic nematic host matrix, we show that the timelike geodesics are Poinsot spirals, i.e. whatever the impact parameter of an incident light beam, it is confined and whirls about the defect core. The trapping effect does not require light to be coherent. This property also remains in the wave formalism, which may be the sign for many potential applications.

  20. Sample holder with optical features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milas, Mirko; Zhu, Yimei; Rameau, Jonathan David

    2013-07-30

    A sample holder for holding a sample to be observed for research purposes, particularly in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), generally includes an external alignment part for directing a light beam in a predetermined beam direction, a sample holder body in optical communication with the external alignment part and a sample support member disposed at a distal end of the sample holder body opposite the external alignment part for holding a sample to be analyzed. The sample holder body defines an internal conduit for the light beam and the sample support member includes a light beam positioner for directing the light beam between the sample holder body and the sample held by the sample support member.