National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for 1800-2400 night 0000-0500

  1. Night Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Support for the Plains Elevated Convection at Night Experiment layer strongly depends on the characteristics of the daytime boundary layer, and both the Local Coupling Studies campaign and 24/7 operations of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometers (AERIs) during PECAN will provide data to investigate this hypothesis. These two data sets will provide scientists with a rich description of the atmosphere to study for many years to come. Science Objective Simulating the nighttime

  2. Robotics Night at the Bradbury

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Robotics Night at the Bradbury Robotics Night at the Bradbury WHEN: Aug 28, 2015 5:00 PM - 7:00 PM WHERE: Bradbury Science Museum 1350 Central Ave, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 87544 USA CONTACT: Jessica Privette 505 667-0375 CATEGORY: Bradbury INTERNAL: Calendar Login Robotics Night at the Bradbury Event Description An evening at the museum celebrating all things robotic. This evening features the return of one of our most popular events. The fun includes robots of all different sizes, shapes and

  3. NASA Earth at Night Video

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Twitter Google + Vimeo GovDelivery SlideShare NASA Earth at Night Video HomeEC, Energy, Energy Efficiency, Global, Modeling, News & Events, Solid-State Lighting, VideosNASA Earth ...

  4. Solar Night Industries Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    St Louis, Missouri Zip: 63147 Product: Manufacturer and distributor of products which store energy by day and release it by night. References: Solar Night Industries Inc1 This...

  5. DOE Sponsored College Night Draws Thousands

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    College recruiters from the Golden State to the Peach State gathered in a packed arena for the twentieth annual CSRA College Night in Augusta, Georgia. The event is a cooperative effort among Department of Energy (DOE), Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC and its partners, local private schools, business and industry and local government.

  6. Save Energy, Save Date Night | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy, Save Date Night Save Energy, Save Date Night February 11, 2013 - 1:42pm Addthis Saving energy allows you to spend that money elsewhere. Saving energy allows you to spend ...

  7. Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) Experiment Science Plan

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Program Document) | SciTech Connect Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) Experiment Science Plan Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) Experiment Science Plan The Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) experiment is a large field campaign that is being supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) with contributions from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Atmospheric and Space

  8. Green Up Your Next Movie Night! | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Green Up Your Next Movie Night! Green Up Your Next Movie Night! February 1, 2012 - 7:30am Addthis John Chu John Chu Communications Specialist with the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Winter. For many of us, the season means hot chocolate, winter sports, exercise indoors, and the classic American pastime-movie night. So, if you find yourself caught in a chilly day, and are in the mood for popcorn and a good flick at home, check out the following movies that have environmental or

  9. Teachers Invited to Science Activities Night at Jefferson Lab | Jefferson

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab Teachers Invited to Science Activities Night at Jefferson Lab In the style of a science fair, dozens of teachers shared their favorite or most-effective classroom activities with the many teachers who attended the 2015 Teacher Night at Jefferson Lab. The 2016 event will take place on April 13. Teachers Invited to April 13 Science Activities Night at Jefferson Lab; Sign up by April 1 NEWPORT NEWS, Va., March 2, 2016 - Elementary- and middle-school teachers interested in learning new and

  10. Shining Energy-saving LEDs on Utah Starry Nights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Utah is known for its magnificent night skies, where stargazers can catch a glimpse of constellations or a rogue shooting star. Now some rural towns have found a way to create even better views—and conserve energy.

  11. Pantex night held at discovery center | National Nuclear Security...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    event featured an exhibit on the extinct Megalodon shark as well as a mummy in the Lost Egypt exhibit. B&W Pantex sponsored the shark exhibit. Pantex night held at discovery center...

  12. Geothermal Heating and Cooling Systems Featured on NBC Nightly News

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NBC Nightly News recently featured a story on geothermal heating and cooling systems that are providing 30%-70% energy and cost savings for homeowners in Jordan, New York.

  13. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Day and Night cloud

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fraction - Cloud Inter-Compariosn IOP results Day and Night cloud fraction - Cloud Inter-Compariosn IOP results Genkova, Iliana University of Illinois-Champaign Long, Chuck Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Turner, David Pacific Northwest National Laboratory We present results from the CIC IOP from March-may, 2003. Day time and night time cloud fraction retrieval algorithms have been presented and intercompared. Amount of low, middle and high cloud have been estimated and compared to

  14. News Media Invited to Teachers' Science Activities Night at Jefferson Lab |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab Teachers' Science Activities Night at Jefferson Lab News Media Invited to Teachers' Science Activities Night at Jefferson Lab What: Third Annual Region II Teacher Night When: Wednesday, April 21, 2010, from 6:30 to 8 p.m. Where: CEBAF Center at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, located at 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, Va. 23606 (Map and directions at: http://www.jlab.org/visitors/visiting/index.html ) Details: More than 100 elementary- and

  15. ARM Support for the Plains Elevated Convection at Night (AS-PECAN) Field

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Campaign Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect ARM Support for the Plains Elevated Convection at Night (AS-PECAN) Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM Support for the Plains Elevated Convection at Night (AS-PECAN) Field Campaign Report The Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) field campaign was a large multi-agency/multi-institutional experiment that targeted nighttime convection events in the central plains of the United States in order to better

  16. Y-12 team raises more than $20,000 for Light the Night event...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Lymphoma Society's Light The Night Walk funds therapies and treatment advances for blood cancer patients. Follow Y-12 on Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and Flickr. Related...

  17. Teachers Invited to April 1 Science Activities Night at Jefferson Lab; Sign

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    up by March 18 | Jefferson Lab 1 Science Activities Night at Jefferson Lab; Sign up by March 18 Teachers participated in hands-on science activities and picked up activities' starter kits and resource materials at Jefferson Lab's 2014 Teachers' Night. The event focused on physical science activities that teachers of fourth- through eighth-grade classes can use in the classroom. Dozens of teachers, including participants in the JLab Science Activities for Teachers program, shared their

  18. Night-time naturally ventilated offices: Statistical simulations of window-use patterns from field monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Geun Young; Steemers, Koen

    2010-07-15

    This paper investigates occupant behaviour of window-use in night-time naturally ventilated offices on the basis of a pilot field study, conducted during the summers of 2006 and 2007 in Cambridge, UK, and then demonstrates the effects of employing night-time ventilation on indoor thermal conditions using predictive models of occupant window-use. A longitudinal field study shows that occupants make good use of night-time natural ventilation strategies when provided with openings that allow secure ventilation, and that there is a noticeable time of day effect in window-use patterns (i.e. increased probability of action on arrival and departure). We develop logistic models of window-use for night-time naturally ventilated offices, which are subsequently applied to a behaviour algorithm, including Markov chains and Monte Carlo methods. The simulations using the behaviour algorithm demonstrate a good agreement with the observational data of window-use, and reveal how building design and occupant behaviour collectively affect the thermal performance of offices. They illustrate that the provision of secure ventilation leads to more frequent use of the window, and thus contributes significantly to the achievement of a comfortable indoor environment during the daytime occupied period. For example, the maximum temperature for a night-time ventilated office is found to be 3 C below the predicted value for a daytime-only ventilated office. (author)

  19. ARM-support for the Plains Elevated Convection at Night (AS-PECAN) Field Campaign Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 ARM Support for the Plains Elevated Convection at Night (A -PECAN) Field Campaign Report DD Turner B Geerts April 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or

  20. Calculation of variable-base degree-days and degree-nights from monthly average temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonderegger, R.; Cleary, P.; Dickinson, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Computerized Instrumented Residential Audit (CIRA), a micro-computer building energy analysis program developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, uses a monthly variable-base degree-day method to calculate heating and cooling loads. The method's unique feature is its ability to model thermostat setbacks and storage of solar gain. The program accomplishes this by dividing each day into two periods, ''average day'' (8 a.m. to 8 p.m.) and ''average night'' (8 p.m. to 8 a.m.), with different base temperatures. For each mode (heating or cooling) and for each period (day or night), the program reconstructs degree-days as a function of average monthly day or night temperature using three empirical coefficients specific to the location. A comparison is made between degree-days computed from hourly weather tapes and those predicted using this method. The root mean square error between predicted and actual degree days is typically between 3 and 12 degree-days per month. Tables of the coefficients are given for over 150 locations in the United States, computed from hourly dry-bulb temperatures on TRY and TMY tapes. Seasonal predictions of heating and cooling energy budgets using this method show good correspondence to the DOE-2 hourly simulation method.

  1. Observed Minimum Illuminance Threshold for Night Market Vendors in Kenya who use LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan; Radecsky, Kristen

    2009-03-21

    Creation of light for work, socializing, and general illumination is a fundamental application of technology around the world. For those who lack access to electricity, an emerging and diverse range of LED based lighting products hold promise for replacing and/or augmenting their current fuel-based lighting sources that are costly and dirty. Along with analysis of environmental factors, economic models for total cost-ofownership of LED lighting products are an important tool for studying the impacts of these products as they emerge in markets of developing countries. One important metric in those models is the minimum illuminance demanded by end-users for a given task before recharging the lamp or replacing batteries. It impacts the lighting service cost per unit time if charging is done with purchased electricity, batteries, or charging services. The concept is illustrated in figure 1: LED lighting products are generally brightest immediately after the battery is charged or replaced and the illuminance degrades as the battery is discharged. When a minimum threshold level of illuminance is reached, the operational time for the battery charge cycle is over. The cost to recharge depends on the method utilized; these include charging at a shop at a fixed price per charge, charging on personal grid connections, using solar chargers, and purchasing dry cell batteries. This Research Note reports on the observed"charge-triggering" illuminance level threshold for night market vendors who use LED lighting products to provide general and task oriented illumination. All the study participants charged with AC power, either at a fixed-price charge shop or with electricity at their home.

  2. The Dark Side of Algae Cultivation. Characterizing night biomass loss in three photosynthetic algae, Chlorella sorokiniana, Nannochloropsis salina and Picochlorum sp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmundson, Scott J.; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2015-10-28

    Night biomass loss in photosynthetic algae is an essential parameter that is often overlooked when modeling or optimizing biomass productivities. Night respiration acts as a tax on daily biomass gains and has not been well characterized in the context of biofuel production. We examined the night biomass loss in three algae strains that may have potential for commercial biomass production (Nannochloropsis salina- CCMP1776, Chlorella sorokiniana- DOE1412, and Picochlorum sp. LANL-WT). Biomass losses were monitored by ash free dry weight (AFDW mg/L-1) and optical density (OD750) on a thermal-gradient incubator. Night biomass loss rates were highly variable (ranging from -0.006 to -0.59 day -1), species-specific, and dependent on both culture growth phase prior to the dark period and night pond temperature. In general, the fraction of biomass lost over a 10 hour dark period, which ranged from ca. 1 to 22% in our experiments, was positively correlated with temperature and declined as the culture transitioned from exponential to linear to stationary phase. The dynamics of biomass loss should be taken into consideration in algae strain selection, are critical in predictive modeling of biomass production based on geographic location and can influence the net productivity of photosynthetic cultures used for bio-based fuels or products.

  3. Evaluation of the NightCool Nocturnal Radiation Cooling Concept: Annual Performance Assessment in Scale Test Buildings Stage Gate 1B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Danny S.; Sherwin, John R.

    2008-03-01

    In this report, data is presented on the long-term comparative with all of NightCool system fully operational, with circulating fans when attic conditions are favorable for nocturnal cooling and with conventional air conditioning at other times. Data is included for a full year of the cooling season in Central Florida, which stretches from April to November of 2007.

  4. Constraining the atmospheric composition of the day-night terminators of HD 189733b: Atmospheric retrieval with aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jae-Min; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Barstow, Joanna K.; Heng, Kevin

    2014-07-01

    A number of observations have shown that Rayleigh scattering by aerosols dominates the transmission spectrum of HD 189733b at wavelengths shortward of 1 ?m. In this study, we retrieve a range of aerosol distributions consistent with transmission spectroscopy between 0.3-24 ?m that were recently re-analyzed by Pont et al. To constrain the particle size and the optical depth of the aerosol layer, we investigate the degeneracies between aerosol composition, temperature, planetary radius, and molecular abundances that prevent unique solutions for transit spectroscopy. Assuming that the aerosol is composed of MgSiO{sub 3}, we suggest that a vertically uniform aerosol layer over all pressures with a monodisperse particle size smaller than about 0.1 ?m and an optical depth in the range 0.002-0.02 at 1 ?m provides statistically meaningful solutions for the day/night terminator regions of HD 189733b. Generally, we find that a uniform aerosol layer provide adequate fits to the data if the optical depth is less than 0.1 and the particle size is smaller than 0.1 ?m, irrespective of the atmospheric temperature, planetary radius, aerosol composition, and gaseous molecules. Strong constraints on the aerosol properties are provided by spectra at wavelengths shortward of 1 ?m as well as longward of 8 ?m, if the aerosol material has absorption features in this region. We show that these are the optimal wavelengths for quantifying the effects of aerosols, which may guide the design of future space observations. The present investigation indicates that the current data offer sufficient information to constrain some of the aerosol properties of HD189733b, but the chemistry in the terminator regions remains uncertain.

  5. WRF-Chem model predictions of the regional impacts of N2O5 heterogeneous processes on night-time chemistry over north-western Europe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lowe, Douglas; Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Morgan, Will; Allan, James D.; Utembe, Steve; Ouyang, Bin; Aruffo, Eleonora; Le Breton, Michael; Zaveri, Rahul A.; di Carlo, Piero; et al

    2015-02-09

    Chemical modelling studies have been conducted over north-western Europe in summer conditions, showing that night-time dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) heterogeneous reactive uptake is important regionally in modulating particulate nitrate and has a~modest influence on oxidative chemistry. Results from Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model simulations, run with a detailed volatile organic compound (VOC) gas-phase chemistry scheme and the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC) sectional aerosol scheme, were compared with a series of airborne gas and particulate measurements made over the UK in July 2010. Modelled mixing ratios of key gas-phase species were reasonably accurate (correlationsmore » with measurements of 0.7–0.9 for NO2 and O3). However modelled loadings of particulate species were less accurate (correlation with measurements for particulate sulfate and ammonium were between 0.0 and 0.6). Sulfate mass loadings were particularly low (modelled means of 0.5–0.7 μg kg−1air, compared with measurements of 1.0–1.5 μg kg−1air). Two flights from the campaign were used as test cases – one with low relative humidity (RH) (60–70%), the other with high RH (80–90%). N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry was found to not be important in the low-RH test case; but in the high-RH test case it had a strong effect and significantly improved the agreement between modelled and measured NO3 and N2O5. When the model failed to capture atmospheric RH correctly, the modelled NO3 and N2O5 mixing ratios for these flights differed significantly from the measurements. This demonstrates that, for regional modelling which involves heterogeneous processes, it is essential to capture the ambient temperature and water vapour profiles. The night-time NO3 oxidation of VOCs across the whole region was found to be 100–300 times slower than the daytime OH oxidation of these compounds. The difference in contribution was less for alkenes (× 80) and comparable for dimethylsulfide (DMS). However the suppression of NO3 mixing ratios across the domain by N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry has only a very slight, negative, influence on this oxidative capacity. The influence on regional particulate nitrate mass loadings is stronger. Night-time N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry maintains the production of particulate nitrate within polluted regions: when this process is taken into consideration, the daytime peak (for the 95th percentile) of PM10 nitrate mass loadings remains around 5.6 μg kg−1air, but the night-time minimum increases from 3.5 to 4.6 μg kg−1air. The sustaining of higher particulate mass loadings through the night by this process improves model skill at matching measured aerosol nitrate diurnal cycles and will negatively impact on regional air quality, requiring this process to be included in regional models.« less

  6. Self-reported Impacts of LED Lighting Technology Compared to Fuel-based Lighting on Night Market Business Prosperity in Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan; Mumbi, Maina

    2009-02-11

    The notion of"productive use" is often invoked in discussions about whether new technologies improve productivity or otherwise enhance commerce in developing-country contexts. It an elusive concept,especially when quantitative measures are sought. Improved and more energy efficient illumination systems for off-gridapplication--the focus of the Lumina Project--provide a case in which a significant productivity benefit can be imagined, given the importance of light to the successful performance of many tasks, and the very low quality of baseline illumination provided by flame-based source. This Research Note summarizes self-reported quantitative and qualitative impacts of switching to LED lighting technology on the prosperity of night-market business owners and operators. The information was gathered in the context of our 2008 market testing field work in Kenya?s Rift Valley Province, which was performed in the towns of Maai Mahiu and Karagita by Arne Jacobson, Kristen Radecsky, Peter Johnstone, Maina Mumbi, and others. Maai Mahiu is a crossroads town; provision of services to travelers and freight carriers is a primary income source for the residents. In contrast, the primary income for Karagita's residents is from work in the large, factory style flower farms on the eastern shores of Lake Naivasha that specialize in producing cut flowers for export to the European market. According to residents, both towns had populations of 6,000 to 8,000 people in June 2008. We focused on quantifying the economics of fuel-based and LED lighting technology in the context of business use by night market vendors and shop keepers. Our research activities with the business owners and operators included baseline measurement of their fuel-based lighting use, an initial survey, offering for sale data logger equipped rechargeable LED lamps, monitoring the adoption of the LED lamps, and a follow-up survey.

  7. Robotics Night at the Bradbury

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Material robots. Don't miss it Los Alamos National Laboratory HazMat Team Los Alamos Police Department Bomb Squad UNM-LA Robotics Club Sumo Bot Battles FIRST Robotics Teams...

  8. WRF-Chem model predictions of the regional impacts of N2O5 heterogeneous processes on night-time chemistry over north-western Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, Douglas; Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Morgan, Will; Allan, James D.; Utembe, Steve; Ouyang, Bin; Aruffo, Eleonora; Le Breton, Michael; Zaveri, Rahul A.; di Carlo, Piero; Percival, Carl; Coe, H.; Jones, Roderic L.; McFiggans, Gordon

    2015-02-09

    Chemical modelling studies have been conducted over north-western Europe in summer conditions, showing that night-time dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) heterogeneous reactive uptake is important regionally in modulating particulate nitrate and has a~modest influence on oxidative chemistry. Results from Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model simulations, run with a detailed volatile organic compound (VOC) gas-phase chemistry scheme and the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC) sectional aerosol scheme, were compared with a series of airborne gas and particulate measurements made over the UK in July 2010. Modelled mixing ratios of key gas-phase species were reasonably accurate (correlations with measurements of 0.70.9 for NO2 and O3). However modelled loadings of particulate species were less accurate (correlation with measurements for particulate sulfate and ammonium were between 0.0 and 0.6). Sulfate mass loadings were particularly low (modelled means of 0.50.7 ?g kg?1air, compared with measurements of 1.01.5 ?g kg?1air). Two flights from the campaign were used as test cases one with low relative humidity (RH) (6070%), the other with high RH (8090%). N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry was found to not be important in the low-RH test case; but in the high-RH test case it had a strong effect and significantly improved the agreement between modelled and measured NO3 and N2O5. When the model failed to capture atmospheric RH correctly, the modelled NO3 and N2O5 mixing ratios for these flights differed significantly from the measurements. This demonstrates that, for regional modelling which involves heterogeneous processes, it is essential to capture the ambient temperature and water vapour profiles.

    The night-time NO3 oxidation of VOCs across the whole region was found to be 100300 times slower than the daytime OH oxidation of these compounds. The difference in contribution was less for alkenes ( 80) and comparable for dimethylsulfide (DMS). However the suppression of NO3 mixing ratios across the domain by N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry has only a very slight, negative, influence on this oxidative capacity. The influence on regional particulate nitrate mass loadings is stronger. Night-time N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry maintains the production of particulate nitrate within polluted regions: when this process is taken into consideration, the daytime peak (for the 95th percentile) of PM10 nitrate mass loadings remains around 5.6 ?g kg?1air, but the night-time minimum increases from 3.5 to 4.6 ?g kg?1air. The sustaining of higher particulate mass loadings through the night by this process improves model skill at matching measured aerosol nitrate diurnal cycles and will negatively impact on regional air quality, requiring this process to be included in regional models.

  9. RangeTables.xls

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (MeVcmmg) LET vs. Range in Si for 25 MeV SEE Beams (low LET) 4 He 14 N 0 0.5 1 1.5 0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600 4 He 14 N 22 Ne 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 100 200 300 400 500...

  10. Elementary School Science Night | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    physical properties of RScSb (R = rare earth) compounds. A neutron diffraction, magnetization and heat capacity study (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Electronically- and crystal-structure-driven magnetic structures and physical properties of RScSb (R = rare earth) compounds. A neutron diffraction, magnetization and heat capacity study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronically- and crystal-structure-driven magnetic structures and physical properties of RScSb (R = rare

  11. Dust Devils BBQ night Both 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 or August 11 Sign-up by July 16 or August 4 Times BBQ - 6:15 p.m. Game - 7:15pm Cost $15/adult ~ $10/child (4-12) includes BBQ/beverages and reserved Upper Box seat for the ballgame Menu All-you-can-eat menu includes grilled chicken sandwiches, hamburgers, hot dogs, side item, chips and beverages. Reservations Contact Marta Caballero at 373-9898 or by email at Marta_I_Caballero@rl.gov Join HERO for a Dust Devils baseball game and PRE-GAME BBQ

  12. Geothermal Heating and Cooling Systems Featured on NBC Nightly...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    cooling systems that are providing 30%-70% energy and cost savings for homeowners in Jordan, New York. Demand for these systems is growing; nationally, shipments of geothermal...

  13. Free-space quantum key distribution at night

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buttler, W.T.; Hughes, R.J.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Luther, G.G.; Morgan, G.L.; Nordholt, J.E.; Peterson, C.G.; Simmons, C.M.

    1998-09-01

    An experimental free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) system has been tested over an outdoor optical path of {approximately} 1 km under nighttime conditions at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This system employs the Bennett 92 protocol; in this paper, the authors give a brief overview of this protocol, and describe the experimental implementation of it. An analysis of the system efficiency is presented, as well as a description of the error detection protocol which employs a two-dimensional parity check scheme. Finally, the susceptibility of this system to eavesdropping by various techniques is determined, and the effectiveness of privacy amplification procedures is discussed. The conclusions are that free-space QKD is both effective and secure; possible applications include the rekeying of satellites in low earth orbit.

  14. Smart Companies "Wake up" Night Shift Workers Make More Mistakes...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to Accidents A study from Circadian Technologies, http:www.circadian.commediaPress.html, a consulting firm which specializes in advising the nation's largest companies on how...

  15. Y-12 lights the night | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    on the importance of finding cures for and providing access to treatments for blood cancer patients. Y-12's team is striving to meet its 20,000 goal, making the 10-year total...

  16. Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) Experiment Science...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    is to improve the understanding and simulation of the processes that initiate and ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) ...

  17. Teachers Invited to Activities Night at Jefferson Lab | Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    science games, sound, force and motion, the periodic table, diffraction, the solar system, static electricity, renewable energy, and compounds and mixtures. In...

  18. Teachers Invited to April 1 Science Activities Night at Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NEWPORT NEWS, Va., March 2, 2015 - Elementary- and middle-school teachers interested in learning new and innovative methods for teaching the physical sciences are invited to...

  19. Teachers Invited to April 2 Science Activities Night at Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    science games, sound, force and motion, the periodic table, diffraction, the solar system, static electricity, renewable energy, and compounds and mixtures. Teacher...

  20. Teachers Invited to April 20 Science Activities Night at Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    science games, sound, force and motion, the periodic table, diffraction, the solar system, static electricity, renewable energy, and compounds and mixtures. In...

  1. Teachers Invited to Activities Night at Jefferson Lab | Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    28, 2008 - Elementary and middle-school teachers interested in learning new and innovative methods for teaching the physical sciences are invited to attend the First Annual Region...

  2. Teachers Invited to Activities Night at Jefferson Lab | Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3, 2009 - Elementary and middle-school teachers interested in learning new and innovative methods for teaching the physical sciences are invited to attend the Second Annual Region...

  3. ARM-support for the Plains Elevated Convection at Night (AS-PECAN...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological ... Both weather and climate models struggle to properly represent the timing and intensity of ...

  4. ARM Support for the Plains Elevated Convection at Night (AS-PECAN...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Both weather and climate models struggle to properly represent the timing and intensity of ... of convectively available potential energy (CAPE) that frequently exists above the ...

  5. Insider looks at "Rhythm of the Night" | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inside the Crystal Ball: New Approaches to Predicting the Gasoline Price at the Pump Christiane Baumeister, Bank of Canada Lutz Kilian, University of Michigan Thomas K. Lee, U.S. Energy Information Administration April 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Energy Information Administration Washington, DC 20585 This paper is released to encourage discussion and critical comment. The analysis and conclusions expressed here are those of the authors and not necessarily those of

  6. Y-12 team raises more than $20,000 for Light the Night event...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    April 2016 (12) March 2016 (28) February 2016 (21) January 2016 (21) December 2015 (18) November 2015 (11) October 2015 (15) September 2015 (9) August 2015 (10) July 2015 (8) June ...

  7. EECBG Success Story: Shining Energy-Saving LEDs on Utah Starry Nights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Thanks to an Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG), Utah is replacing streetlights with efficient LEDs across 14 rural communities. About 2,500 streetlights will be replaced and could save the town 20% to 50% on electricity bills. Learn more.

  8. Photo of the Week: Satellite View of Sandy at Night | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of CIMSSUniversity Wisconsin-MadisonNASANOAA. Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite ...

  9. Smart Companies "Wake up" Night Shift Workers Make More Mistakes & More

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Emerging Technologies » Small Business Portfolio Small Business Portfolio California-based Heliotrope is one of many small businesses that have been supported by the Energy Department’s SBIR’s program. | Heliotrope Technologies California-based Heliotrope is one of many small businesses that have been supported by the Energy Department's SBIR's program. | Heliotrope Technologies The federal government supports research at thousands of small innovative businesses through the Small

  10. Lighting the night one step at a time | Y-12 National Security...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a light on the importance of finding cures for and providing access to treatments for blood cancer patients. Y-12's team is striving to meet its 20,000 goal, making the 10-year...

  11. Night of the Living Trash: Bringing Your Waste Back to Life

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Halloween season, the U.S. Department of Energy’s  Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is highlighting how waste can be “brought back to life” and turned into something useful. On average,...

  12. Assets in Action "A Night in Italy" fundraiser on October 20

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assessments InfoCenter Assessments InfoCenter The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) enterprise assessment programs provide line management, Congress, and other stakeholders with an independent evaluation of safety, emergency management, security and cyber performance and programs to ensure these, and other critical areas as directed by the Secretary of Energy, are appropriately addressed. Assessment related information is made available to DOE senior management and stakeholders, such as

  13. Managing the Night Off-Peak Power Demand in the Central Region UPS with Newly Commissioned NPP Capacities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Pron, D. M.

    2014-01-15

    The use of hydrogen technologies as a controlled-load consumer based on the newly commissioned base-load nuclear power plants to level out the daily load profile is justified for the Unified Power System (UPS) of the Central Region of Russia, as an example, for the period till 2020.

  14. Alertness, performance and off-duty sleep on 8-hour and 12-hour night shifts in a simulated continuous operations control room setting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, T.L.

    1995-04-01

    A growing number of nuclear power plants in the United States have adopted routine 12-hr shift schedules. Because of the potential impact that extended work shifts could have on safe and efficient power plant operation, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission funded research on 8-hr and 12-hr shifts at the Human Alertness Research Center (HARC) in Boston, Massachusetts. This report describes the research undertaken: a study of simulated 8-hr and 12-hr work shifts that compares alertness, speed, and accuracy at responding to simulator alarms, and relative cognitive performance, self-rated mood and vigor, and sleep-wake patterns of 8-hr versus 12-hr shift workers.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: About Sandia: Community Involvement...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Math Night Family Math Night Family Math Night provides an evening of hands-on math activities held at local elementary schools. Students and parents work together on fun math ...

  16. Sandia Energy Videos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NASA Earth at Night Video http:energy.sandia.govnasa-earth-at-night-video http:energy.sandia.govnasa-earth-at-night-videocomments Wed, 09 Jan 2013 20:32:59 +0000 http:...

  17. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM Support for the Plains Elevated Convection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsARM Support for the Plains Elevated Convection at Night Experiment: Doppler Lidar Operations Related Campaigns ARM Support for the Plains Elevated Convection at Night...

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: About Sandia: Community Involvement...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cyber Technologies Academy CroSSlinks Science Volunteers DOE Regional Science Bowls Family Math Night Family Science Night Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Programs ...

  19. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NASA Earth at Night Video EC, Energy, Energy Efficiency, Global, Modeling, News & Events, Solid-State Lighting, Videos NASA Earth at Night Video Have you ever wondered what the ...

  20. Outdoor Solar Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    per night than expected. Nightly run times may also vary depending on how clear the sky is on any given day. Operating times in the winter months may vary as much as 30%-50%...

  1. ARM - Lesson Plans: Reason for the Seasons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    three observations explain why we experience night and day; why the relative lengths of day and night vary from place to place and from time to time; and why we have seasons on...

  2. 2008 - 03 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Mar 2008 Fri, 2008-03-28 14:00 Teachers Invited to Activities Night at Jefferson Lab

  3. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    , 2014 [Education, Facility News] ARM Educational Outreach Puts Fun Twist on Science Night Bookmark and Share Community STEM Event Draws Big Crowds Laura Riihimaki intrigues students with monsoon activity during science night. Laura Riihimaki intrigues students with monsoon activity during science night. In November, ARM communications staff and scientists participated in the 6th annual Chief Joseph Middle School Science Night in Richland, Washington. Hundreds of students, parents, and educators

  4. Energy Department Announces $25 Million to Lower Cost of Concentrating...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    clean and renewable energy, even at night, by storing the heat generated by the sun. "Investments to improve the efficiency and lower the costs of concentrating solar...

  5. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM Support for the Plains Elevated Convection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Convection at Night Experiment: Doppler Lidar Operations 2015.06.01, Turner, SGP Comments? ... Lead Scientist : David Turner For data sets, see below. Abstract The Plains Elevated ...

  6. ARM - 2007 Science Team Meeting Pictures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dr. Warren Wiscombe visits with attendees during Tuesday night's poster session. Rick Petty and meeting attendees talk after a session. Dr. Kiran Alapaty, ARM Science Program...

  7. Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid: Final...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... security and climate change are driving policies, ... at night, introduces system-balancing challenges that ... as a new storage asset class capturing the full value of ...

  8. EECBG Success Story: Tribe's Headquarters Gets Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Programs EECBG Success Story: San Francisco Turns Up The Heat In Push To Eliminate Old Boilers EECBG Success Story: Shining Energy-Saving LEDs on Utah Starry Nights...

  9. What Every Public Safety Officer Should Know About Radiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    applications include cancer treatments. Industrial uses include well logging, physical prop- erty measurements, smoke detectors, and weapon night sights (tritium). Special nuclear...

  10. Renewable energy generation sources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technology. The result is a reliable, competitive solution that optimizes CLFR technology benefits by ensuring that the energy harvested can be dispatched night or day through the...

  11. revercomb-98.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    figure, please see http:www.arm.govdocsdocumentstechnicalconf9803revercomb-98.pdf.) with the CF instrument (day and night), and the GSFC scanning Raman lidar (with new...

  12. Section 26

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    On the Fundamental Role of Day Versus Night Radiation Differences in Forcing Nocturnal Convective Maxima and in Assessing Global Warming Prospects W. M. Gray and J. D. Sheaffer ...

  13. Microsoft PowerPoint - 5-Reindustrialization Meeting May 2014...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... & Target Acquisition Optical Systems Night Vision Thermal Weapon Sights Optical Solar Reflectors And Cover Glasses Head Up Display Optics Helmet Mounted Displays HV Power ...

  14. Berkeley Algorithms Help Researchers Understand Dark Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and tracking these objects requires scientists to scrupulously monitor the night sky for slight changes, a task that would be extremely tedious and time-consuming for the...

  15. No Garlic Necessary: Protect Your Home from Energy Vampires

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Unplugging your television may not be a practical option every night, but during a long trip you can reap significant energy savings.

  16. Triton Technologies Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc Place: Reston, Virginia Zip: 20191 Sector: Hydro, Solar Product: Technology firm with activities in hydro microturbines and ethanol production. Merged with Solar Night...

  17. Radiant Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the following sections discuss radiant floor heat and radiant panels separately. ... pumping air through the floors at night outweighs the benefits of using solar heat during the day. ...

  18. Energy Department Announces Outdoor Winners of Next Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The 2013 Next Generation LuminairesTM (NGL) Design Competition outdoor lighting category winners were announced Wednesday night at the Strategies in Light conference in Santa ...

  19. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Grupe,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SmartVent night ventilation cooling; and FreshVent continuous ventilation. ... Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best ...

  20. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    begin to answer questions like: how much money does it cost the school to leave all the computers on at night? http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadspower-metering-project...

  1. Radiance: Science and Stagecraft Come Together via Alan Alda...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    on opening night of the upcoming World Science Festival, through a special reading of ... a greater public understanding of science -- was kind enough to answer a few ...

  2. Central Activator Keeps the Circadian Clock Ticking

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    disorder, or night-shift work, has been associated with an increased occurrence of obesity, depression, diabetes, certain cancers, addiction, and other health issues. Current...

  3. Better Buildings Residential Network Program Sustainability Peer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Evaluation Financing & Revenue Marketing & Outreach Multifamily Low-income ... off power strips at night affects digital clocks; people dislike the color of ...

  4. President Bush Directs Energy Secretary to Draw Down Strategic...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    that our refineries remain supplied with crude oil. "Last night, President Bush took the ... This action allowed use of the considerable stock of reformulated gasoline in storage, and ...

  5. DOE Publishes GATEWAY Report on Exterior Lighting at Princeton...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using LED luminaires that operated night and day to replace 252 metal halide parking garage luminaires that only operated after dark showed that the inherent controllability of ...

  6. LPO5-002-Proj-Poster-CSP-Solana

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    storage system provides Solana with 'night-time' solar that allows electricity production for up to 6 hours without the sun. INVESTING in AMERICAN ENERGY OWNERS Abengoa Yield...

  7. Inspection Report: INS-O-01-04 | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and gear, including night vision goggles, used to interdict terrorists; (2) create economies of scale purchasing; (3) allow standardized training at the National Nuclear...

  8. Recruitment Events

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Labs 10615 Olin College 10715 Montana State 10715 Cal Tech 102015 New Mexico Highlands University 11415 Harvard (Eng Boutique Night) 111815 Georgia Tech 1...

  9. Fourth Fridays Downtown - Under the Microscope

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Microscope: Explore the natural world through the eyes of microscopes. Examine pond water, plants, fibers, pollen, and more. August 28 - Robotics Night at the Museum: Try...

  10. Fourth Fridays Downtown - Exploring the Solar System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Microscope: Explore the natural world through the eyes of microscopes. Examine pond water, plants, fibers, pollen, and more. August 28 - Robotics Night at the Museum: Try...

  11. Fourth Fridays Downtown

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Microscope: Explore the natural world through the eyes of microscopes. Examine pond water, plants, fibers, pollen, and more. August 28 - Robotics Night at the Museum: Try...

  12. Fourth Fridays Downtown - Working with Wind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Microscope: Explore the natural world through the eyes of microscopes. Examine pond water, plants, fibers, pollen, and more. August 28 - Robotics Night at the Museum: Try...

  13. ARM - Field Campaign - CASES Data Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    night, morning) provide a robust dataset for looking at the diurnal changes of the wind, temperature, humidity and their vertical transports near the ground and through the lowest...

  14. Critical Skills Master's Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and related tuition associated costs. * Relocation benefits based on current Sandia policy. * One four daythree night campus visit to secure housing and finalize graduate...

  15. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: American Lung Association...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Denver Clean Cities Website American Lung Association's Initiatives Workplace Charging News Announcement on Facebook from Oct 28: Last night, our Executive Director, Curt Huber, ...

  16. ARM - Field Campaign - IPASRC II Campaign

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    calibration improves the accuracy of pyrgeometers compared to a black body calibration. ... Universal Time Coordinates) during the whole IOP. During clear-sky nights, the same ...

  17. How Did You Celebrate Valentine's Day Efficiently?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Perhaps you took the bus to dinner instead of driving, kept the television off for the night, or used candles instead of lights?

  18. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Cloud Properties at Night and in Low Sun Conditions The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program measurements at the surface allow for continued development and...

  19. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Minnis, P., and Young, D.F., NASA Langley Research Center Eighth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Current retrievals of cloud properties at night...

  20. Microsoft Word - 2014 2 26 WIPP Employees Notified of Preliminary...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    event. All employees present the night of the event were checked for any external contamination before being allowed to leave the site. As a precautionary measure, the...

  1. WIPP UPDATE: June 13, 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is being performed at night to reduce heat stress, was completed safely with excellent control of radiological contamination. WIPP's ventilation system has two filter units....

  2. Central Activator Keeps the Circadian Clock Ticking

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or night-shift work, has been associated with an increased occurrence of obesity, depression, diabetes, certain cancers, addiction, and other health issues. Current treatment...

  3. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    The threat from Tropical Storm Barry dissipated as it was downgraded to a tropical depression shortly after making landfall in the Florida panhandle on Sunday night August 5,...

  4. Nighttime Cloud Detection Over the Arctic Using AVHRR Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Night of the Living Trash: Bringing Your Waste Back to Life Night of the Living Trash: Bringing Your Waste Back to Life October 30, 2015 - 12:33pm Addthis Night of the Living Trash: Bringing Your Waste Back to Life Dr. Valerie Sarisky-Reed Dr. Valerie Sarisky-Reed Deputy Director, Bioenergy Technologies Office This Halloween season, the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is highlighting how waste can be "brought back to life" and turned into

  5. Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th & 8th Grade

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers | Jefferson Lab Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th & 8th Grade Teachers Teachers Night To Improve Science Education - A highlight of the JSAT program is the annual Teacher Night, when current and former JSAT participants share with other teachers, some of the new techniques and activities they've learned or developed to enhance science education for their students. The 2013 Teacher Night will be held on April 17. NEWPORT NEWS, Va., July 9, 2012 - The

  6. LPO5-002-Proj-Poster-CSP-Solana

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with 'night-time' solar that allows electricity production for up to 6 hours without the sun. INVESTING in AMERICAN ENERGY OWNERS Abengoa S.A. & Abengoa Solar, LLC LOCATION Gila...

  7. Rick's Grph.xlsx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NYMEX Price By Year June 13 2012 AVERAGE ENTERGY ENTERGY ENTERGY YEARLY ON PEAK SATSUN 7 NIGHTS NYMEX GASys a Year On Peak)y - Sundays a Year) 365 Off Peak Days) PRICE 2008...

  8. USD E'16 ATLANTA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    REGISTER NOW 15th Annual DOE Small Business Forum & Expo MAY 23 - 25, 2016 Atlanta Marriott Marquis 265 Peachtree Center Avenue Atlanta, GA 30303 Government per diem 135.00night ...

  9. United States Atomic Energy Commission formed, part 2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    night; however, it was already coming into play even before the World War II ended. Churchill especially feared the worst and sought the United States help to hasten decisions...

  10. ARM - As-PECAN - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Related Campaigns ARM Support for the Plains Elevated Convection at Night Experiment: Doppler Lidar Operations 2015.06.01, Turner, SGP Comments? We would love to hear from you...

  11. Substantial Progress towards 12 GeV | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For some of the physicists, the analysis of these data took precedence over eating turkey during the Thanksgiving weekend. And just last night, beam was sent to three halls -...

  12. Best Practices Solar Case Study: Grupe-Carsten Crossings, Rocklin, CA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-06-01

    Building America fact sheet on Grupe, an energy-efficient home builder in hot/mixed dry climate using night ventilation cooling, high-performance appliances, radiant barrier, and solar photovoltaics.

  13. Check In & Registration - Combustion Energy Frontier Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Saturday June 20th. I noticed that I am being charged lodging for the Saturday night stay. Is lodging not covered by the CEFRC scholarship? This is a change from previous years....

  14. Microsoft Word - Unrelated Accident

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For Immediate Release Truck Accident Did Not Involve WIPP Shipment CARLSBAD, N.M., October 1, 2009 - A Wednesday night truck accident north of Albuquerque on Highway 165 that ...

  15. BWXTymes, A newsletter for employees and friends of Y-12 National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Grider remembered a late-night, collect phone call by a lady who had seen a UFO. Grider suspected that the caller "might have been dipping in the wine cellar a bit much that ...

  16. deb_pone.0065794 1..11

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... 12.5-112.5 kHz in the laboratory and found that during ... placed by the edge of a small pond, where nightly bat ... Our work did not require approval by an Institutional Animal ...

  17. Glen Wurden

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    safety of one's driveway is not always as undisturbed and peaceful as one may wish. "Java gets excited when coyotes are nearby," Wurden notes, "and one night I got excited, too,...

  18. DOE Tour of Zero: The School Street Homes by StreetScape Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the owners return home at night. 5 of 17 Advanced solid-state lighting technology uses LED lights for 90% of the fixtures. All of the lights are integrated into the home's smart...

  19. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    out at night * SA temperature reset with respect to zone needing most heatcooling * Time ... AT 4.4% THE POTENTIAL SAVINGS IS 69.50YEAR MANUFACTURERS PREDICT 2-6 TIMES LIFE DO NOT ...

  20. Norris Electric Coop | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    618-783-8765 or 877-783-8765 Website: norriselectric.com Twitter: @NorrisElectric Facebook: https:www.facebook.comNorrisElectric Outage Hotline: 1-877-783-3221 Nights,...

  1. Tips: Programmable Thermostats | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tips: Programmable Thermostats Cool summer tip: In the summer, save money by automatically turning up the air conditioner at night or when you're away from home. Cool summer tip: ...

  2. HERO Whitefish, Montana

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    side lodging at the Kandahar Lodge in Whitefish, Montana Prices start at 250 per person and include 2 nights lodging, 3 days skiing and daily breakfast (for 6 sharing a...

  3. OE Blog Archive | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Valley How flow batteries can support renewables and resiliency on the grid. May 12, 2014 Hurricane Sandy -- shown here via satellite on the night of November 2, 2012 -- was the...

  4. Energy Department Announces Outdoor Winners of Next Generation Luminaires™ Solid-State Lighting Design Competition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 2013 Next Generation LuminairesTM (NGL) Design Competition outdoor lighting category winners were announced Wednesday night at the Strategies in Light conference in Santa Clara, California. The...

  5. Blog | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    13, 2012 No Garlic Necessary: Protect Your Home from Energy Vampires Unplugging your television may not be a practical option every night, but during a long trip you can reap...

  6. Blog | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Day Efficiently? Perhaps you took the bus to dinner instead of driving, kept the television off for the night, or used candles instead of lights? February 14, 2012 Fuel Economy...

  7. Richland C

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    November 15 to March 15 Hanford Site Boundary Industrial Areas Protected Bald Eagle Winter Night Roost Areas for FY2015 (Version 11-5-15) / 0 2 4 6 8 10 Miles 0 5 10 15 20 Kilometers

  8. News Item

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    located in the heart of the Blue Ridge Mountains and features the world's second largest man-made star, lit up every night for your viewing pleasure. He was an undergraduate...

  9. F. A. flroaa8, Jr.';

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    2 ten hour shifts for 5 days a week, and 1 Quble 5 hour shift on Satutiay. There was 1 man on each shift. The day work was done by Mr. Ludwick %ou" Seherer. The night shift man...

  10. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to help them understand why the rain in the Great Plains falls mainly in the dark. Their marathon of wakefulness is called PECAN, the Plains Elevated Convection at Night field...

  11. Improving Petroleum Displacement Potential of PHEVs Using Enhanced Charging Scenarios: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, T.; Smith, K.; Pesaran, A. A.

    2009-05-01

    Describes NREL's R&D on the petroleum displacement potential of plug-in hybrid vehicles; vehicles charged during the day would save about 5% more fuel than those charged at night.

  12. COLLOQUIUM: Your Restless Brain: Changing Continually Throughout...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brain: Changing Continually Throughout the Day and Night Professor Barry Jacobs Princeton University Presentation: File WC02APR2014BJacob.pptx As you read this, your brain is ...

  13. SSRL HEADLINES April 2012

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Per plan, out of concern for staff and system safety, the skeletal night staff ... The SPEAR3 complex was targeted for early power restoration. SPEAR3 began the recovery process ...

  14. Biogenic Aerosols Effects on Climate and Clouds Cloud OD Sensor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Because of our direct connection to the Internet, virus software protection was installed and frequent virus scans were scheduled at night. 4.0 TWST Data Catalog TWST was deployed ...

  15. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1, 2007 (Next Release on July 18, 2007) The Second Half The Major League Baseball All-Star Game, which was played last night, occurs every year at the midpoint of the baseball...

  16. 2011 - 02 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    20 Science Activities Night at Jefferson Lab Tue, 02082011 - 1:00pm Thomas Jefferson High School for Science & Technology Wins Feb. 5 Virginia Science Bowl; Warwick High Wins...

  17. Blog | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    night or when you're away from home. Program Your Thermostat for Fall and Winter Savings Cold weather is on the way Check out this refresher on using your programmable thermostat...

  18. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    much of the country last week, beginning with snow in Seattle during Monday Night Football, continuing with several inches of snow in parts of the Midwest by Thursday, and...

  19. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    run last night, but this past Sunday, Tom Glavine became the 23rd player to win 300 games, while just a day before that, Alex Rodriguez was the 22nd player to reach the 500...

  20. MHK Technologies/Wave Water Pump WWP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    adjusts to varyilng sea levels and wave hights It resists storms safe to navigation as red floats are clearly seen during the day and red flashing lights during the night It does...

  1. Hispanic Heritage Month - Honoring a Heritage and Individual...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Edmonds continued on, starting SMArt (Science, Math and Art) Night at her local elementary school in Pasadena to expose elementary school children to math, science and art and show ...

  2. What problem are you working on?

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-09-15

    Superconductors, supercomputers, new materials, clean energy, big science - ORNL researchers' work is multidisciplinary and world-leading. Hear them explain it in their own words in this video first shown at UT-Battelle's 2013 Awards Night.

  3. What problem are you working on?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-11-21

    Superconductors, supercomputers, new materials, clean energy, big science - ORNL researchers' work is multidisciplinary and world-leading. Hear them explain it in their own words in this video first shown at UT-Battelle's 2013 Awards Night.

  4. Join HERO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Join HERO for a night full of murder, mystery, wine and food January 29, 2016 6 o'clock pm Chandler Reach Winery - Benton City 30 per suspect person Included in the price: Light...

  5. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: One Sky Homes, San Jose...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EPS under the slab, solar hot water, an HRV, and a very high efficiency heat pump with central fan-integrated Night Ventilation cooling that cuts cooling costs by 98%. PDF icon ...

  6. Hydroacoustic Estimates of Fish Density Distributions in Cougar Reservoir, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Batten, George W.; Mitchell, T. D.

    2012-09-01

    Day and night mobile hydroacoustic surveys were conducted once each month from April through December 2011 to quantify the horizontal and vertical distributions of fish throughout Cougar Reservoir, Lane County, Oregon.

  7. Recovery Act State Memos Louisiana

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... for the installation of 11,500 residential electric AMI meters and 8,250 in-home display ... "Do you choose to pay the electric bill for leaving them on all night, or do you ...

  8. Slideshow: Flipping the Switch on LED Lighting for the National Mall

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Last night, Energy Secretary Steven Chu and Interior Secretary Ken Salazar ushered in a new era for energy efficiency on the National Mall when they flipped the switch on LED lights in 174 vintage Olmsted lampposts.

  9. Exhibit F-3

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Outdoor Lights No Outdoor Lights or Rarely Used Outdoor Lights Turned On During the Evening, but Turned Off Before Bedtime Outdoor Lights Left on All Night Outdoor Lights with a...

  10. Have Fun With Astronomy at JLab on Oct. 14 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14. Learn, laugh and be amazed as Wayne "Skip" Bird shares wonders of the night sky, the solar system and the universe. Find your way through the maze of 13 planets, and explore...

  11. U.S. Chamber of Commerce Biofuels Dialogue Series: Outlook for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... industry and to use it in the production of cost-competitive alternative energy. ... As the President said last night, we must trust in the creative genius of American ...

  12. CARBON DIOXIDE FLUXES IN A CENTRAL HARDWOODS OAK-HICKORY FOREST...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CO2 (500 ppm) near the surface in still air at night, venting of this buildup in the morning hours under radiation-induced turbulent air flow, and small vertical gradients of CO2 ...

  13. BPA employees help rescue bear cub in Shelton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energized high-voltage electrical equipment. The bear spent a chilly night in a nearby tree before being lured to a trap with donuts as bait. "We saw the little guy on our...

  14. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    invited to Curiosity rover landing party Sunday night at new Mars exhibit LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, July 31, 2012-Curious about Curiosity, the SUV-sized rover scheduled to touch down...

  15. Bradbury Science Museum gets martian fever

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    invited to Curiosity rover landing party Sunday night at new Mars exhibit LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, July 31, 2012-Curious about Curiosity, the SUV-sized rover scheduled to touch down...

  16. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Grupe, Rocklin, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This builder worked with Consortium for Advanced Residential Builldings to design HERS-54 homes that included PV roof tiles, SmartVent night ventilation cooling; and FreshVent continuous ventilation

  17. Tracking Santa With Our Eyes in the Sky | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tracking Santa With Our Eyes in the Sky Tracking Santa With Our Eyes in the Sky December 24, 2013 - 10:00am Addthis The Energy Department's Los Alamos National Lab is tracking Santa Claus as he circles the globe the night before Christmas. The Energy Department's Los Alamos National Lab is tracking Santa Claus as he circles the globe the night before Christmas. Michael Hess Michael Hess Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Every year since 1998, the Energy

  18. Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th & 8th Grade

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers; Registration Deadline is Sept. 11 | Jefferson Lab 1 A highlight of the Jefferson Lab Science Activities for Teachers program is Teacher Night - held at the end of the program. During the event, JSAT participants share with hundreds of teachers, from across the area, their favorite and most effective classroom science activities. These are photos from the Teacher Night held on April 1, 2015; next year's event will be April 13, 2016. Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program

  19. Sustainable Federal Buildings and Campuses | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Sustainable Federal Buildings and Campuses Sustainable Federal Buildings and Campuses An air-intake structure outside this high-performance federal building lowers energy costs by taking in chilly night air to cool the building's data center. An air-intake structure outside this high-performance federal building lowers energy costs by taking in chilly night air to cool the building's data center. The Federal Energy Management Program provides strategies, best practices, and resources to help

  20. ARM - 2004 Science Team Meeting Pictures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Meeting2004 Science Team Meeting Pictures 2004 Meeting 2004 Meeting Home Proceedings Sorted by Author Proceedings Sorted by Title Cover Competition Winners Pictures Meeting Archives ARM Science Team Meeting Proceedings Past Science Team Meetings 2004 Science Team Meeting Pictures To see larger versions of these images click the image. Kelle Smith and Pat Nelson take a break Saturday night before the Science Team meeting begins! Kelle Smith and Pat Nelson take a break Saturday night before the

  1. Hotel Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Logistics Hotel Information Location The workshop was held at the Hilton Washington DC/Rockville Executive Meeting Center. Address is 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland, 20852. The hotel is about 27 miles from Dulles Airport. Hotel Information Home Page Maps and Transportation Area Information Sleeping Room Block A block of rooms at the federal per diem rate of $226++ per night (single or double) has been reserved for the nights of September 10 & 11, 2012. As a courtesy, this rate will

  2. Hotel Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Logistics Hotel Information Location The review was held at the Hilton Washington DC/Rockville Executive Meeting Center. Address is 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland, 20852. Hotel Information Home Page Maps and Transportation Area Information Sleeping Room Block A block of rooms at $183 + 15% tax per night (single or double) has been reserved for the nights of November 26 & 27, 2012. Making Your Reservation To reserve your room, please call 1-800-HILTONS (445-8667) and refer to the

  3. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Use of the ARM WSI to Estimate the Atmospheric Optical Depth at Night Musat, I.C. and Ellingson, R.G., University of Maryland Eleventh Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting The shortwave extinction by atmospheric constituents can be studied during the night, with the light of stars as a radiation source, using the ARM Whole Sky Imager (WSI). The digital images obtained with the WSI are processed to infer the star radiance at the TOA and the broadband atmospheric

  4. Sustainable Federal Buildings and Campuses | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facilities » Sustainable Federal Buildings and Campuses Sustainable Federal Buildings and Campuses An air-intake structure outside this high-performance federal building lowers energy costs by taking in chilly night air to cool the building's data center. An air-intake structure outside this high-performance federal building lowers energy costs by taking in chilly night air to cool the building's data center. The Federal Energy Management Program provides strategies, best practices, and

  5. Quantifying advective and nonstationary effects on eddy fluxes in the AmeriFlux network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Fitzjarrald

    2012-12-19

    Our goal was to study the flows within and above of a forested area and assess the degree to which horizontal subcanopy motions transport significant amounts of CO2. This process can explain why ecosystem respiration appears to be underestimated on calm nights. It is essential to understand the physical and biological mechanisms that determine relevant processes that occur on these ?¢????suspect?¢???? nights.

  6. Savannah River Site Contractor's Education Outreach to Schools Flourishes |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Contractor's Education Outreach to Schools Flourishes Savannah River Site Contractor's Education Outreach to Schools Flourishes February 26, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis This photo shows the annual Central Savannah River Area College Night event, which was attended by more than 7,000 area high school students. The event is managed by SRNS employees. This photo shows the annual Central Savannah River Area College Night event, which was attended by more than 7,000 area high

  7. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10, 2014 [Facility News] New Experiment Records Avian Migration in Oklahoma Bookmark and Share From March through May 2014, researchers are using a night vision (infrared) camera and a pole-mounted acoustic recording array to identify specific biological signals in cloud and precipitation radar measurements at the ARM Southern Great Plains site. From March through May 2014, researchers are using a night vision (infrared) camera and a pole-mounted acoustic recording array to identify specific

  8. The variable sky of deep synoptic surveys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridgway, Stephen T.; Matheson, Thomas; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Olsen, Knut A. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85725 (United States); Howell, Steve B., E-mail: ridgway@noao.edu [NASA Ames Research Center, P.O. Box 1, M/S 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    The discovery of variable and transient sources is an essential product of synoptic surveys. The alert stream will require filtering for personalized criteriaa process managed by a functionality commonly described as a Broker. In order to understand quantitatively the magnitude of the alert generation and Broker tasks, we have undertaken an analysis of the most numerous types of variable targets in the skyGalactic stars, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and asteroids. It is found that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be capable of discovering ?10{sup 5} high latitude (|b| > 20) variable stars per night at the beginning of the survey. (The corresponding number for |b| < 20 is orders of magnitude larger, but subject to caveats concerning extinction and crowding.) However, the number of new discoveries may well drop below 100 per night within less than one year. The same analysis applied to GAIA clarifies the complementarity of the GAIA and LSST surveys. Discovery of AGNs and QSOs are each predicted to begin at ?3000 per night and decrease by 50 times over four years. Supernovae are expected at ?1100 per night, and after several survey years will dominate the new variable discovery rate. LSST asteroid discoveries will start at >10{sup 5} per night, and if orbital determination has a 50% success rate per epoch, they will drop below 1000 per night within two years.

  9. Comparison of Daytime and Nighttime Populations Adjacent to Interstate Highways in Metropolitan Areas Using LandScan USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Paul E

    2007-01-01

    An article of similar title was published in the International Journal of Radioactive Materials Transport in 1999. The study concluded that the daytime and nighttime populations are not substantially different for the metropolitan areas examined. This study revisits the issue, but using the LandScan USA high resolution population distribution data, which includes daytime and night-time population. Segments of Interstate highway beltways, along with the direct route through the city, for Atlanta, St. Louis, and Kansas City are examined with an 800m buffer from either side of the highways. The day/night ratio of population is higher using the LandScan USA data. LandScan USA daytime and night-time data will be incorporated into the TRAGIS routing model in future.

  10. Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    May 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 Day Shift 6:00 MA AP BL down BL down BL down BL down BL down 0 0 Night Shift 18:00 AP AP BL down BL down BL down BL down BL down 0 0 May 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 9 Day Shift 6:00 BL down BL down BL down BL down BL down BL down BL down 0 0 Night Shift 18:00 BL down BL down BL down BL down BL down BL down BL down 0 0 May 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 10 Day Shift 6:00 AP AP BL down BL down BL down BL down BL down 0 0 Night Shift 18:00 AP AP BL down BL down BL down BL down BL down 0 0 May 23

  11. Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Day Day Night Apr 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Day LA63 Day Night LA63 Night IH- LA63 May 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

  12. Video: Secretary Moniz Loosens Up For Earth Day Pitch | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Video: Secretary Moniz Loosens Up For Earth Day Pitch Video: Secretary Moniz Loosens Up For Earth Day Pitch April 21, 2014 - 4:11pm Addthis After work one night last week, Secretary Moniz practiced his pitch for tomorrow night's Red Sox Earth Day game. | Video by Matty Greene, Energy Department. Marissa Newhall Marissa Newhall Director of Digital Strategy and Communications Editor's note: This post has been updated since publication. It's Earth Week on Energy.gov! All week, we're

  13. arm_stm_2007_revercomb_poster.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GOES & RRTM Fluxes and AIRS Partial Fluxes Partial Flux * AIRS obs, * LBLRTM) Total Flux * GOES, * RRTM Year 2000 - 2006 RRTM flux (AIRS Ts, emis) CERES comparison RRTM minus CERES W/m 2 W/m 2 Clear Sky TOA Flux from GOES and Aqua CERES Clear Sky TOA Flux GOES minus CERES * Mean: +5.5 W/m 2 , StdDev: 11.3 W/m 2 Clear Sky TOA Flux from GOES and RRTM calculations Clear Sky TOA Flux GOES minus RRTM calculations W/m 2 W/m 2 wavenumber Obs-Calc (K) Obs-Calc (K) Day Night Day Night Mean Observed

  14. Fermilab Arts & Lecture Series Tickets

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ticket Information On-Line Tickets On-Line ticketing is now available! Click here to be connected to our secure on-line ticketing site. Please note that on-line ticketing for any particular event closes down the Friday prior to the event at noon. For example, a Friday night lecture has on-line sales ending at noon; on-line sales for a given Saturday night Art Series event will end at noon the Friday prior; and sales for a Sunday afternoon Gallery Chamber Series event will end at noon the Friday

  15. Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th & 8th Grade

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers; Registration Deadline is Sept. 12 | Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th & 8th Grade Teachers; Registration Deadline is Sept. 12 For many teachers who enroll in Jefferson Lab Science Activities for Teachers, or JSAT, a highlight of the year is participating in Teacher Night. The event gives the teachers an opportunity to share some of the skills, knowledge and tools that they've acquired through the program. Jefferson Lab's Teacher Night for the 2014-15

  16. Lodging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lodging Lodging Meeting Hotel - Hyatt Regency Bethesda NOTE: Rooms on June 9 are sold out at the Hyatt Regency. Please select one of the alternate hotels below. All are offering the government rate of $229 per night. A reserved room block has been made at the Hyatt Regency Bethesda. Use the following link to make reservations: https://resweb.passkey.com/go/HEEA. The cutoff data for room reservations is May 10, 2015. Alternate Hotels Ask for the government rate ($229 per night). Bethesa Court

  17. NNSA Package Certification Engineer Functional Area Qualification Standard

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Highly Enriched Uranium Removal Featured on The Rachel Maddow Show NNSA Highly Enriched Uranium Removal Featured on The Rachel Maddow Show March 22, 2012 - 11:37am Addthis NNSA Administrator Thomas D’Agostino appeared live last night to break the news with Rachel Maddow that all remaining weapons-usable material has been successfully removed from Mexico. | Photo courtesy of the NNSA. NNSA Administrator Thomas D'Agostino appeared live last night to break the news

  18. ARM - Blog Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12, 2015 [Blog, Field Notes, PECAN] Life in the PECAN Operations Center Bookmark and Share Editor's Note: Dave Turner, remote sensing expert and lead principal investigator of the ARM funded support for the Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) field campaign, sent this update. The team will collect atmospheric data between sunset and 6:00 a.m. during the 25 targeted nights of the PECAN field campaign, weather permitting. The team will collect atmospheric data between sunset and 6:00 a.m.

  19. Nocturnal Low-Level Jet in a Mountain Basin Complex. I. Evolution and Effects on Local Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banta, Robert M.; Darby, Lisa S.; Fast, Jerome D.; Pinto, James O.; Whiteman, Charles D.; Shaw, William J.; Orr, Brad W.

    2004-10-01

    A Doppler lidar deployed to the center of the Great Salt Lake (GSL) basin during the Vertical Transport and Mixing Experiment (VTMX) in October 2000 found a diurnal cycle of the along-basin winds with northerly, up-basin flow during the day and a southerly, down-basin low-level jet at night. The emphasis of VTMX was on stable atmospheric processes in the cold-air pool that formed in the basin at night. During the night the jet was fully formed as it entered the GSL basin from the south. Thus it was a feature of the complex string of basins draining into the Great Salt Lake, which included at least the Utah Lake basin to the south. The timing of the evening reversal to down-basin flow was sensitive to the larger-scale north-south pressure gradient imposed on the basin complex. On nights when the pressure gradient was not too strong, local drainage flow (slope flows and canyon outflow) was well developed along the Wasatch Range to the east and coexisted with the basin jet. The coexistence of these two types of flow generated localized regions of convergence and divergence, in which regions of vertical motions and transport were focused. Mesoscale numerical simulations captured these features and indicated that updrafts on the order of 5 cm/s could persist in these localized convergence zones, contributing to vertical displacement of air masses within the basin cold pool.

  20. Outside Air Ventilation Controller- Building America Top Innovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Building America Innovations profile describes Building America research showing automated night ventilation can reduce cooling energy costs up to 40% and peak demand up to 50% in California’s hot-dry central valley climates and can eliminate the need for air conditioning altogether in the coastal marine climate.

  1. Simplified method for calculating heating and cooling energy in residential buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonderegger, R.C.; Garnier, J.Y.

    1981-10-01

    A microcomputer-based program, Computerized, Instrumented, Residential Audit (CIRA), for determining economically optimal mixes of energy-saving measures in existing residential buildings was developed which requires extensive calculation of heating and cooling energy consumptions. In this paper, a simplified method of calculation that satisfies the requirements of speed and memory imposed by the type of microcomputer on which CIRA runs is presented. The method is based on monthly calculations of degree days and degree nights for both heating and cooling seasons. The base temperatures used in calculating the degree days and degree nights are derived from thermostat settings, solar and internal gains, sky radiation losses, and the thermal characteristics of the building envelope. Thermostat setbacks are handled by using the concept of effective thermal mass of the house. Performance variations of HVAC equipment with changes of part load and ambient conditions are taken into account using correlation curves based on experimental data. Degree days and nights for different base temperatures are evaluated by using a climate-specific empirical correlation with monthly average daily and nightly temperatures. Predictions obtained by this method and by DOE-2.1 are compared for the so-called Hastings ranch house for seven different climates in the United States. Heating and cooling energy consumptions predicted by CIRA lie generally within +- 10% of DOE-2.1 predictions.

  2. Facility Energy Checklist | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facility Energy Checklist Facility Energy Checklist This checklist outlines actions that conserve energy within facilities. For Your Buildings Checkbox Lower thermostat settings. Checkbox Match HVAC schedules to occupancy schedules. Checkbox Lower setback temperatures. Checkbox Optimize morning warmup and night setback controls. Checkbox Reduce/eliminate major sources of infiltration. Checkbox Install a desiccant dehumidification system. Checkbox Minimize use of outside air for process

  3. Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    May 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 Day Shift 6:00 MA AP BL down BL down BL down BL down BL down 0 0 Night Shift 18:00 AP AP BL down BL down BL down BL down BL down 0 0 May 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 9...

  4. Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8073-Ohldag 8073-Ohldag 8073-Ohldag 8073-Ohldag 6 0 0 Night Shift 18:00 AP 3993-Gray 3993-Gray 3993-Gray 3993-Gray 3993-Gray 3993-Gray 0 0 6 Jan 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Day...

  5. Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LK48 IH LK48 IH IH LJ15 Berrah LK09 Russell LJ69 Day LK24 Shpyrko IH LJ32 LJ32 IH-Sci Hoffman Night LJ51 Fuchs LK48 IH LK48 LJ32 LK48 Det LK34 Thibault DD-SPI IH IH PCS LJ69...

  6. Anaerobic digestion submarine in Abbey farmyard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    An anaerobic digestion system and fiber separation plant installed at Bethlehem Abbey (Northern Ireland) produces biogas for central heating and grain drying, and a compost which is bagged and sold. According to one report, it even keeps the monks warm at night. Designed by James Murcott of Farm Gas Ltd., the digester (shaped like a submarine) receives 10% solids slurry.

  7. 2010 - 04 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Apr 2010 Tue, 2010-04-27 14:00 Jefferson Lab plans &quot;Celebration of Science&quot; Open House for May 1 Tue, 2010-04-27 14:00 News Media Invited to Jefferson Lab's May 1 Open House Mon, 2010-04-19 14:00 News Media Invited to Teachers' Science Activities Night at

  8. Table 4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Night... 16.6 3.4 5.1 3.1 2.9 1.3 0.8 7.89 Automatic Control... 18.2 3.1 6.9 3.4 3.2 1.1 0.5 7.89 High...

  9. WATER TRAPPING ON TIDALLY LOCKED TERRESTRIAL PLANETS REQUIRES SPECIAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Jun; Abbot, Dorian S.; Liu, Yonggang; Hu, Yongyun

    2014-12-01

    Surface liquid water is essential for standard planetary habitability. Calculations of atmospheric circulation on tidally locked planets around M stars suggest that this peculiar orbital configuration lends itself to the trapping of large amounts of water in kilometers-thick ice on the night side, potentially removing all liquid water from the day side where photosynthesis is possible. We study this problem using a global climate model including coupled atmosphere, ocean, land, and sea ice components as well as a continental ice sheet model driven by the climate model output. For a waterworld, we find that surface winds transport sea ice toward the day side and the ocean carries heat toward the night side. As a result, nightside sea ice remains O(10m) thick and nightside water trapping is insignificant. If a planet has large continents on its night side, they can grow ice sheets O(1000m) thick if the geothermal heat flux is similar to Earth's or smaller. Planets with a water complement similar to Earth's would therefore experience a large decrease in sea level when plate tectonics drives their continents onto the night side, but would not experience complete dayside dessiccation. Only planets with a geothermal heat flux lower than Earth's, much of their surface covered by continents, and a surface water reservoir O(10%) of Earth's would be susceptible to complete water trapping.

  10. Long lifetime, low intensity light source for use in nighttime viewing of equipment maps and other writings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Alan M.; Edwards, William R.

    1983-01-01

    A long-lifetime light source with sufficiently low intensity to be used for reading a map or other writing at nighttime, while not obscuring the user's normal night vision. This light source includes a diode electrically connected in series with a small power source and a lens properly positioned to focus at least a portion of the light produced by the diode.

  11. Recovery Act Weekly Video: Upper ALE Building Demolition

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2012-06-14

    CH2MHILL Plateau Remediation Company demolition of 6652C Space Science Laboratory. The largest building atop Rattlesnake Mountain, the laboratory served as a nightly radar patrol center as well as a barracks. The Recovery Act funded project is helping reduce the site footprint.

  12. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Outside Air Ventilation Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    venThis Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research showing how automated night ventilation can reduce cooling energy costs up to 40% and peak demand up to 50% in California’s hot-dry central valley climates and can eliminate the need for air conditioning altogether in the coastal marine climate.

  13. Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Day LL41 He DD Day IH Night LK86 Albert SPI 412016 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27...

  14. Employees share the fun of STEM at local elementary

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Employees from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management participated in Woodland Elementary’s Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) night. Employees volunteered to help students from kindergarten through fourth grade forge a love for math and science and realize the possibilities these disciplines offer.

  15. (JS)_BL13 schedule S02-S03FY15HO3FINAL.xlsx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Ogassawara 8855 A Ogassawara 3 3 0 Apr 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Day Shift 6:00 AP AP 4281 A Cho 4281 A Cho 4281 A Cho 4281 A Cho 8073 A Ohldag 1 4 0 Night Shift 18:00 AP AP 4281 A Cho...

  16. Reduced diurnal temperature range does not change warming impacts on ecosystem carbon balance of Mediterranean grassland mesocosms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Phillips, Claire L.; Gregg, Jillian W.; Wilson, John K.

    2011-11-01

    Daily minimum temperature (Tmin) has increased faster than daily maximum temperature (Tmax) in many parts of the world, leading to decreases in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Projections suggest these trends are likely to continue in many regions, particularly northern latitudes and in arid regions. Despite wide speculation that asymmetric warming has different impacts on plant and ecosystem production than equal-night-and-day warming, there has been little direct comparison of these scenarios. Reduced DTR has also been widely misinterpreted as a result of night-only warming, when in fact Tmin occurs near dawn, indicating higher morning as well as night temperatures. We reportmore » on the first experiment to examine ecosystem-scale impacts of faster increases in Tmin than Tmax, using precise temperature controls to create realistic diurnal temperature profiles with gradual day-night temperature transitions and elevated early morning as well as night temperatures. Studying a constructed grassland ecosystem containing species native to Oregon, USA, we found the ecosystem lost more carbon at elevated than ambient temperatures, but was unaffected by the 3ºC difference in DTR between symmetric warming (constantly ambient +3.5ºC) and asymmetric warming (dawn Tmin=ambient +5ºC, afternoon Tmax= ambient +2ºC). Reducing DTR had no apparent effect on photosynthesis, likely because temperatures were most different in the morning and late afternoon when light was low. Respiration was also similar in both warming treatments, because respiration temperature sensitivity was not sufficient to respond to the limited temperature differences between asymmetric and symmetric warming. We concluded that changes in daily mean temperatures, rather than changes in Tmin/Tmax, were sufficient for predicting ecosystem carbon fluxes in this reconstructed Mediterranean grassland system.« less

  17. Reduced diurnal temperature range does not change warming impacts on ecosystem carbon balance of Mediterranean grassland mesocosms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Claire L.; Gregg, Jillian W.; Wilson, John K.

    2011-11-01

    Daily minimum temperature (Tmin) has increased faster than daily maximum temperature (Tmax) in many parts of the world, leading to decreases in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Projections suggest these trends are likely to continue in many regions, particularly northern latitudes and in arid regions. Despite wide speculation that asymmetric warming has different impacts on plant and ecosystem production than equal-night-and-day warming, there has been little direct comparison of these scenarios. Reduced DTR has also been widely misinterpreted as a result of night-only warming, when in fact Tmin occurs near dawn, indicating higher morning as well as night temperatures. We report on the first experiment to examine ecosystem-scale impacts of faster increases in Tmin than Tmax, using precise temperature controls to create realistic diurnal temperature profiles with gradual day-night temperature transitions and elevated early morning as well as night temperatures. Studying a constructed grassland ecosystem containing species native to Oregon, USA, we found the ecosystem lost more carbon at elevated than ambient temperatures, but was unaffected by the 3ºC difference in DTR between symmetric warming (constantly ambient +3.5ºC) and asymmetric warming (dawn Tmin=ambient +5ºC, afternoon Tmax= ambient +2ºC). Reducing DTR had no apparent effect on photosynthesis, likely because temperatures were most different in the morning and late afternoon when light was low. Respiration was also similar in both warming treatments, because respiration temperature sensitivity was not sufficient to respond to the limited temperature differences between asymmetric and symmetric warming. We concluded that changes in daily mean temperatures, rather than changes in Tmin/Tmax, were sufficient for predicting ecosystem carbon fluxes in this reconstructed Mediterranean grassland system.

  18. Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Day Shift 6:00 AP AP 4406A ROTUNDU 4406A ROTUNDU 4311 A Johnson 4311 A Johnson 4311 A Johnson 3 0 2 Night Shift 18:00 AP AP 4406A ROTUNDU 4406A ROTUNDU 4311 A Johnson 4311 A Johnson 4311 A Johnson 3 0 2 Feb/Mar 29 1 2 3 4 5 6 Day Shift 6:00 4464 A Hong 4464 A Hong 4464 A Hong 4464 A Hong 92A5A Abbamonte 92A5A Abbamonte 92A5A Abbamonte 4 0 3 Night Shift 18:00 4455 Gallo 4455 Gallo 4455 Gallo 4455 Gallo 92A5A Abbamonte 92A5A Abbamonte 92A5A Abbamonte 0 4 3 Mar 7 8 9 10 11 12

  19. Electrofishing survey of the Great Miami River, September 1992. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.C.; Bixby, R.; Engman, J.; Ross, L.; Stocker, L.

    1993-03-01

    At the end of summer in 1992 the fishery of the Great Miami River took an unexpected deviation from the stasis of past years as an intense suspended algal bloom decreased the compositional diversity found at the lower GMR stations. Daytime supersaturation of oxygen and elevated pHs, reaching 9 by midday during the month of August, undoubtedly caused severe deficits of oxygen at night. Despite the aeration at every riffle, the intensities of the biological processes in the water were sufficient to cause very high positive and negative excursions of oxygen over the day and night cycle. This report documents a fish harvest that was conducted as part of the oxygen excess/deficit study.

  20. Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jan 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Day IH IH IH IH Night Feb 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Day L733 Night IH IH L767 Seeman L785 Mar 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

  1. Rocky Flats 1990--91 winter validation tracer study: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, K.J.

    1991-10-01

    During the winter of 1990--91, North American Weather Consultants (NAWC) and its subcontractor, ABB Environmental Services (ABBES), conducted a Winter Validation Study (WVS) for EG&G Rocky Flats involving 12 separate tracer experiments conducted between February 3 and February 19, 1991. Six experiments were conducted during nighttime hours and four experiments were conducted during daytime hours. In addition, there was one day/night and one night/day transitional experiment conducted. The primary purpose of the WVS was to gather data to further the approval process for the Terrain Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC). TRAC is an atmospheric dispersion model developed and operated at the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) north of Denver, Colorado. A secondary objective was to gather data that will serve to validate the TRAC model physics.

  2. Dynamic measurement of heat loss coefficients through Trombe wall glazing systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A Trombe wall presents a unique opportunity to measure the heat-loss coefficient through the glazing system because the wall itself can be used as a heat meter. Since the instantaneous heat flux through the outer wall surface can be determined, the heat loss coefficient at night can be calculated by dividing by the wall surface-to-ambient temperature difference. This technique has been used to determine heat-loss coefficients for Los Alamos test rooms during the winter of 1980-1981. Glazing systems studied include single and double glazing both with and without night insulation used in conjunction with a flat black paint, and both single and double glazing used in conjunction with a selective surface.

  3. Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jul 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Day IH IH IH Night IH Aug 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Day Night Sep 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

  4. A Radiometric All-Sky Infrared Camera (RASICAM) for DES/CTIO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Peter M.; Rogers, Howard; Schindler, Rafe H.; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A novel radiometric all-sky infrared camera [RASICAM] has been constructed to allow automated real-time quantitative assessment of night sky conditions for the Dark Energy Camera [DECam] located on the Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. The camera is optimized to detect the position, motion and optical depth of thin, high (8-10km) cirrus clouds and contrails by measuring their apparent temperature above the night sky background. The camera system utilizes a novel wide-field equiresolution catadioptic mirror system that provides sky coverage of 2{pi} azimuth and 14-90{sup o} from zenith. Several new technological and design innovations allow the RASICAM system to provide unprecedented cloud detection and IR-based photometricity quantification. The design of the RASICAM system is presented.

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protective Actions Actions to Protect Workers, Public and the Environment The February 14 radioactivity release was a watershed event for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). It was the first accident of its kind in the 15-year operating history of the transuranic nuclear waste repository. No workers were underground when the release occurred. There were 11 workers on the night shift at the time of the release and two additional employees entered the site in response to the accident. These 13

  6. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    County, LANL consider colocation space April 24, 2016 One of the optional budget items the Los Alamos County Council tentatively approved Tuesday night was $50,000 from the Economic Development Fund to help finance an incubation colocate workspace. The proposed space - named Project Y, Cowork Los Alamos - is a collaboration between the Los Alamos Commerce and Development Corporation, Los Alamos National Laboratory's Richard P. Feynman Center for Innovation, Central Park Square and possibly the

  7. In the OSTI Collections: Gamma-Ray Bursts | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Scientific and Technical Information Gamma-Ray Bursts The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and its first lessons Seeing indirectly by shining light through light Gamma-ray bursters The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope An emerging picture References Research Organizations Instrument Websites Reports Available through OSTI's SciTech Connect Additional Reference The night sky, as our unaided eyes present it to us, obviously contains the sun, the moon, thousands of stars, a few planets, a milky

  8. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Grupe, Rocklin,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    California | Department of Energy Grupe, Rocklin, California Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Grupe, Rocklin, California Case Study of Grupe who worked with Building America research partner Davis Energy Group to design HERS-54 homes that included PV roof tiles, SmartVent night ventilation cooling; and FreshVent continuous ventilation. PDF icon Grupe: Carsten Crossings - Rocklin, CA More Documents & Publications Outside Air Ventilation Controller - Building America

  9. Introduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pre-dawn hours of January 24, 1978, a Canadian Mounted Police corporal located in Hay River, in the Canadian Northwest Territories, reported a meteor sighting. One hundred and twenty-fve miles north, in Yellowknife, a night janitor reported mysterious lights streaking across the darkened sky. What these eye-witnesses actually saw was the re-entry of the Soviet satellite Cosmos 954 into Earth's atmosphere. Background Cosmos 954 launched into orbit on September 18, 1977. The satellite was designed

  10. High Starch in Plant Leaves at Senescence - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Starch in Plant Leaves at Senescence Inventors: Thomas Sharkey, Sean Weise Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryCurrently, there is a great interest in using plant biomass, instead of grain, to produce ethanol. Starch can easily be used to make ethanol and would improve ethanol production from cellulose. In most plants, though, starch accumulated during the day is usually broken down each night, resulting in very little starch

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: Infrared-VideoSAR Comparison

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    VideoSAR Sandia has developed highly advanced "VideoSAR" algorithms (holding a number of patents for both VideoSAR and Velocity Independent Continuous Tracking Radar (VICTR) modes) which enable revolutionary Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) in a radar sensor. VideoSAR offers continuous collection and processing of phase history data, allowing observation of slow-moving targets day or night and during inclement weather or atmospheric conditions. Time between images is

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: Pathfinder Airborne ISR Systems: What is

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synthetic Aperture Radar? What is Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)? What is Synthetic Aperture Radar? Environmental monitoring, earth-resource mapping, and military systems require broad-area imaging at high resolutions. Often, this imagery must be acquired at night or during inclement weather. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) provides such a capability. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems take advantage of the long-range propagation characteristics of radar signals and the complex

  13. Hurricane Sandy and Our Energy Infrastructure | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Our Energy Infrastructure Hurricane Sandy and Our Energy Infrastructure November 30, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis David Sandalow David Sandalow Former Under Secretary of Energy (Acting) and Assistant Secretary for Policy & International Affairs Acting Under Secretary of Energy David Sandalow's remarks, as delivered, at the Columbia University Energy Symposium on November 30, 2012. One month ago last night, Hurricane Sandy slammed into the East Coast of the United States. The storm first made

  14. Biologists Gather New Information on Deer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gather New Information on Deer Populations at the NNSS Biologists are compiling results from a recent set of mule deer surveys on and around the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), hoping to shed light on deer behavior and habitat, as well as answer questions about their fluctuating numbers over the years. On October 12, 2011, NNSS biologists concluded a fourth round of mule deer sampling for the year. During this round, which spanned over three nights, researchers recorded mule deer locations

  15. ARPA-E Technology Showcase: Project Spotlight | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    E Technology Showcase: Project Spotlight ARPA-E Technology Showcase: Project Spotlight March 1, 2011 - 1:49pm Addthis William Mouat explains the PolyPlus battery technology. | Energy Department photo, credit Ken Shipp. William Mouat explains the PolyPlus battery technology. | Energy Department photo, credit Ken Shipp. April Saylor April Saylor Former Digital Outreach Strategist, Office of Public Affairs Last night, we had the chance to visit with a few of the researchers and scientists behind

  16. Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th & 8th Grade

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers | Jefferson Lab Teachers Get Their Science On - One hundred sixty-two elementary and middle-school teachers interested in learning new and innovative methods for teaching the physical sciences attended the Annual Region II Teacher Night held April 20 at Jefferson Lab. Fifty-four teachers who participated in enrichment programs at JLab for teachers of science presented the activities and demonstrations. Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th & 8th Grade

  17. DOE Recognizes Midwest Industrial Efficiency Leaders | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Midwest Industrial Efficiency Leaders DOE Recognizes Midwest Industrial Efficiency Leaders September 10, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis DETROIT, MI - The U.S. Department of Energy and Michigan Governor Jennifer M. Granholm joined with over 300 industry, state, and federal leaders to recognize industrial efficiency leaders and plot a course to accelerate industrial energy efficiency in the Midwest. As part of the Midwest Industrial Energy Efficiency Exchange that began last night and continued today,

  18. Employee Spotlight: Bryant Roybal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bryant Roybal Bryant Roybal-Champion chile The Associate Directorate for Project Management's Bryant Roybal has been a chile competition contestant ever since entering the Hot Chili Days, Cool Mountain Nights Cookoff in Red River in 2011 and immediately taking first prize. February 18, 2015 Bryant Roybal Bryant Roybal's award-winning chile stew recipe features different types of chile in what he calls his Harvest Blend. "It's been a fun few years, and winning the inaugural state-wide Green

  19. Energy Department Announces Winners of Housing Innovation Awards |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy October 7, 2015 - 1:00pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy presented the 2015 Housing Innovation Awards to 24 industry leaders last night during the Energy and Environmental Building Alliance's Conference in Denver, Colorado. This distinguished recognition is being provided to 27 winning DOE Zero Energy Ready Homes, where the awards showcase the very best in business excellence required to deliver high-performance homes. The following industry professionals were

  20. Retail Replacement Lamps | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CALiPER Testing » Application Reports » Retail Replacement Lamps Retail Replacement Lamps Annual CALiPER testing of A19, G25, candelabra, night light, MR16/PAR16, PAR20, and PAR30 replacement lamps - purchased directly from store shelves - offers insights on performance trends from year to year. The report findings offer valuable insights for manufacturers and retailers alike. Retail Lamps Study 3 (48 pages, February 2014) Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality

  1. NREL's Industry Growth Forum Brings Together Energy Innovators - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL NREL's Industry Growth Forum Brings Together Energy Innovators Event recognizes the top clean energy technologies and startup businesses October 30, 2014 The Industry Growth Forum hosted by the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) this week attracted nearly 400 investors, entrepreneurs, scientists and thought leaders to Denver. Last night, three companies where honored with Best Venture and Outstanding Venture Awards. The two-day forum highlighted

  2. The Dark Energy Survey Data Management System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohr, Joseph J.; Barkhouse, Wayne; Beldica, Cristina; Bertin, Emmanuel; Dora Cai, Y.; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz A.; Darnell, J.Anthony; Daues, Gregory E.; Jarvis, Michael; Gower, Michelle; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab /Rio de Janeiro Observ.

    2008-07-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration will study cosmic acceleration with a 5000 deg2 griZY survey in the southern sky over 525 nights from 2011-2016. The DES data management (DESDM) system will be used to process and archive these data and the resulting science ready data products. The DESDM system consists of an integrated archive, a processing framework, an ensemble of astronomy codes and a data access framework. We are developing the DESDM system for operation in the high performance computing (HPC) environments at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and Fermilab. Operating the DESDM system in an HPC environment offers both speed and flexibility. We will employ it for our regular nightly processing needs, and for more compute-intensive tasks such as large scale image coaddition campaigns, extraction of weak lensing shear from the full survey dataset, and massive seasonal reprocessing of the DES data. Data products will be available to the Collaboration and later to the public through a virtual-observatory compatible web portal. Our approach leverages investments in publicly available HPC systems, greatly reducing hardware and maintenance costs to the project, which must deploy and maintain only the storage, database platforms and orchestration and web portal nodes that are specific to DESDM. In Fall 2007, we tested the current DESDM system on both simulated and real survey data. We used TeraGrid to process 10 simulated DES nights (3TB of raw data), ingesting and calibrating approximately 250 million objects into the DES Archive database. We also used DESDM to process and calibrate over 50 nights of survey data acquired with the Mosaic2 camera. Comparison to truth tables in the case of the simulated data and internal crosschecks in the case of the real data indicate that astrometric and photometric data quality is excellent.

  3. New Hope for Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Hope for Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients New Hope for Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients Print Thursday, 04 February 2016 16:26 Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of genetic disorders that affect the retina's ability to respond to light. This inherited disease causes a slow loss of vision, beginning with decreased night vision and loss of peripheral side vision. One of the causes of this disease is the misfolding and aggregation of a protein called opsin found in the retina of the eye. Using

  4. Power Metering Project

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    There are many devices around campus that use electricity, but it helps to have an understanding of how much power each type of device uses. With this information, you are better able to focus efforts on reducing power consumption. With basic power data collection and analysis, we can begin to answer questions like: how much money does it cost the school to leave all the computers on at night?

  5. Experiment Science Plan D Turner D Parsons B Geerts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) Experiment Science Plan D Turner D Parsons B Geerts December 2014 DOE/SC-ARM-14-035 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or

  6. Tsunamis warning from space :Ionosphere seismology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larmat, Carene

    2012-09-04

    Ionosphere is the layer of the atmosphere from about 85 to 600km containing electrons and electrically charged atoms that are produced by solar radiation. Perturbations - layering affected by day and night, X-rays and high-energy protons from the solar flares, geomagnetic storms, lightning, drivers-from-below. Strategic for radio-wave transmission. This project discusses the inversion of ionosphere signals, tsunami wave amplitude and coupling parameters, which improves tsunami warning systems.

  7. Deputy Secretary Poneman's Remarks at the Nuclear Energy Assembly - As

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Prepared for Delivery | Department of Energy Energy Assembly - As Prepared for Delivery Deputy Secretary Poneman's Remarks at the Nuclear Energy Assembly - As Prepared for Delivery May 11, 2011 - 6:01pm Addthis Deputy Secretary of Energy Daniel Poneman Remarks as Prepared for Delivery Nuclear Energy Assembly Wednesday, May 11, 2011 Washington, DC Introduction Good morning. Thank you Jim for the introduction, and thank you for the invitation to speak here today. I just got back last night

  8. OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Speeding access to science information from DOE and Beyond medical information Topic Mixing Science.gov, Coffee, and a Laptop by Cathey Daniels 05 Dec, 2007 in Personal Perspectives Yesterday my son had an emergency appendectomy - these days a pretty routine procedure. But far from routine was the array of drugs offered to get him through the long night ahead. Related Topics: medical information, osti, Science

  9. CREATING A STAR - THE GLOBAL ITER PARTNERSHIP US ITER Project Office

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    savannah were as mysterious to early humans as the Sun during the day and the veil of stars across the blackness of the night sky. The fact that these phenomena are closely related as an energetic state of matter- now known as plasma- would take many more millennia before being scientifically understood. Nevertheless, human recognition that a bolt of lightning striking a lone tree produced a useful fire signaled the dawn of civilization's endless pursuit of energy resources. Wood served as an

  10. Mid-infrared photodetectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe; Keuleyan, Sean E.; Lhuillier, Emmanuel

    2016-04-19

    Nanoparticles, methods of manufacture, devices comprising the nanoparticles, methods of their manufacture, and methods of their use are provided herein. The nanoparticles and devices having photoabsorptions in the range of 1.7 .mu.m to 12 .mu.m and can be used as photoconductors, photodiodes, phototransistors, charge-coupled devices (CCD), luminescent probes, lasers, thermal imagers, night-vision systems, and/or photodetectors.

  11. 2014 - 02 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Feb 2014 Thu, 2014-02-27 12:27 Teachers Invited to April 2 Science Activities Night at Jefferson Lab Wed, 2014-02-26 13:36 Jefferson Lab Hosts Virginia Middle School Science Bowl on March 1 Wed, 2014-02-26 13:30 Media Advisory - Virginia Regional Middle School Science Bowl Wed, 2014-02-05 11:49 Quarks in the looking glass

  12. Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitko, J. Jr.

    1995-04-01

    The Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) Workshop concentrated on reviewing and refining the science experiments planned for the UAV Demonstration Flights (UDF) scheduled at the Oklahoma Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) in April 1994. These experiments were focused around the following sets of parameters: Clear sky, daylight; Clear-sky, night-to-day transition; Clear sky - improve/validate the accuracy of radiative fluxes derived from satellite-based measurements; Daylight, clouds of opportunity; and, Daylight, broken clouds.

  13. Aerial testing of an N/sub 2/ laser fluorosensor system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franks, L.A.; Capelle, G.A.; Jessup, D.A.

    1983-06-01

    Results of nighttime, twilight, and daylight testing of an airborne N/sub 2/ laser fluorosensor are described. Flight tests were conducted at altitudes from 105 to 308 m on fabricated targets containing a coal solvent, quinine bisulfate, motor oil, and a detergent. Strong signals were obtained from all targets during night tests, but detectivity was reduced with increasing solar background. Based on measured signal strengths, minimum detectable concentrations are estimated for a number of substances.

  14. Remembering the long day's journey to a historic machine's Christmas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Eve first plasma | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Remembering the long day's journey to a historic machine's Christmas Eve first plasma By John Greenwald December 21, 2012 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook The big moment arrives: The successful first plasma brought cheers to the command center. (Photo by Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory) The big moment arrives: The successful first plasma brought cheers to the command center. 'Twas the night before Christmas and all through the

  15. Historic Badges

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hispanic Student Programs NNSA strives to recruit and hire a highly skilled workforce representing America's rich diversity. Are you a Hispanic high school student interested in building your leadership and technical skills? If you are just beginning the journey from college to career and are interested in learning more about jobs in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), the Hispanic Youth Symposium could be right for you. The symposium is a four-day, three-night leadership

  16. EcoCAR Challenge Profile: Virginia Tech

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gantt, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Since childhood, Lynn Gantt has had a deep seeded passion for cars and the mechanics that drive them. The Virginia native spent his weekends rebuilding antique tractors with his dad to race at tractor pulls across the state, and now the Virginia Tech graduate student is the proud team co-leader of Virginia Tech's EcoCAR Challenge team -- the winners of the three-year long competition, as announced last night at an awards ceremony in Washington, D.C..

  17. EcoCAR Challenge Profile: Virginia Tech

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Gantt, Lynn

    2013-05-29

    Since childhood, Lynn Gantt has had a deep seeded passion for cars and the mechanics that drive them. The Virginia native spent his weekends rebuilding antique tractors with his dad to race at tractor pulls across the state, and now the Virginia Tech graduate student is the proud team co-leader of Virginia Tech's EcoCAR Challenge team -- the winners of the three-year long competition, as announced last night at an awards ceremony in Washington, D.C..

  18. Most Viewed Documents - Energy Storage, Conversion, and Utilization | OSTI,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information - Energy Storage, Conversion, and Utilization Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III (2002) Continuously variable transmissions: theory and practice Beachley, N.H.; Frank, A.A. () Review of air flow measurement techniques McWilliams, Jennifer (2002) Building a secondary containment system Broder, M.F. (1994) Cost benefit analysis of the night-time ventilative cooling in

  19. Composite desiccant structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraioli, Anthony V. (Hawthorn Woods, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A composite formed of small desiccant particles retained in a dark matrix composed of a porous binder containing a transition metal oxide with pores to provide moisture transport with respect to the particles, and metallic fibers to remove the heat of condensation during dehumidification and provide heat for the removal of moisture during regeneration. The moisture absorbing properties of the composite may be regenerated by exposure of the dark matrix to solar radiation with dehumidification occurring at night.

  20. Composite desiccant structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraioli, A.V.; Schertz, W.W.

    1984-06-06

    This patent discloses a composite formed of small desiccant particles retained in a dark matrix composed of a porous binder containing a transition metal oxide with pores to provide moisture transport with respect to the particles, and metallic fibers to remove the heat of condensation during dehumidification and provide heat for the removal of moisture during regeneration. The moisture absorbing properties of the composite may be regenerated by exposure of the dark matrix to solar radiation with dehumidification occurring at night.

  1. Follow the Light | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Follow the Light Just like watching boats in the night, seeing movement at the nanoscale is easier when the object you are watching has a beacon.Dynamic three-dimensional tracking with high precision is possible with nanoscale light emitting particles known as quantum dots at better resolution than 10 nanometers in the vertical direction. This opens up the possibility for understanding three dimensional movement in nanoscale structures and biological systems. The quantum dots are followed using

  2. For your calendar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For your calendar Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue:May 2016 all issues All Issues » submit For your calendar New Frontiers in Science talk and museum activities November 1, 2013 The Bradbury Science Museum at night The Lab celebrates 50 years in space Contact Community Programs Office Director Kurt Steinhaus Email Editor Linda Anderman Email Big bang survival topic of the next Frontiers in Science talk In early November,

  3. Hispanic Student Programs | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Hispanic Student Programs NNSA strives to recruit and hire a highly skilled workforce representing America's rich diversity. Are you a Hispanic high school student interested in building your leadership and technical skills? If you are just beginning the journey from college to career and are interested in learning more about jobs in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), the Hispanic Youth Symposium could be right for you. The symposium is a four-day, three-night leadership

  4. Long lifetime, low intensity light source for use in nighttime viewing of equipment maps and other writings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.M.; Edwards, W.R.

    1982-03-23

    A long-lifetime light source is discussed with sufficiently low intensity to be used for reading a map or other writing at nightime, while not obscuring the user's normal night vision. This light source includes a diode electrically connected in series with a small power source and a lens properly positioned to focus at least a portion of the light produced by the diode.

  5. Long lifetime, low intensity light source for use in nighttime viewing of equipment maps and other writings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.M.; Edwards, W.R.

    1983-10-11

    A long-lifetime light source with sufficiently low intensity to be used for reading a map or other writing at nighttime, while not obscuring the user's normal night vision is disclosed. This light source includes a diode electrically connected in series with a small power source and a lens properly positioned to focus at least a portion of the light produced by the diode. 1 fig.

  6. ARM - Blog Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    22, 2015 [Blog, Field Notes, PECAN] But First, Public Relations Bookmark and Share Editor's Note: Ben Toms, intern from University of Oklahoma for the Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) field campaign, sent this update. The instruments are housed in this custom-designed trailer. From left to right are: Petra Klein, Matt Carney, Elizabeth Smith, Dave Turner, Joshua Gebauer, Ben Toms, and Tim Bonin. The instruments are housed in this custom-designed trailer. From left to right are: Petra

  7. ARM - Blog Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    July 21, 2015 [Blog, Field Notes, PECAN] Mission Ready Bookmark and Share Editor's Note: Ben Toms, intern from University of Oklahoma for the Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) field campaign, sent this update. The past few weeks have been adventurous for the PECAN-CLAMPS team, with a burst of meteorological conditions favorable for nocturnal convection. As of June 27, there had been 14 intensive observational periods which means about 1 out of every 2 days has been devoted to a

  8. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    August 15, 2004 [Facility News] SuomiNet-type Instruments Tested and Ready for Tropics Bookmark and Share The SuomiNet software integrates a network of global positioning systems to distribute spatially and temporally dense atmospheric data in real-time from broad and diverse regions. ARM Program scientists are concentrating on developing techniques for obtaining the best possible water vapor measurements under a wide range of conditions (clear/cloudy, day/night, etc.). In 2001, 15 SuomiNet

  9. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 24, 2013 [Education, Facility News] A Twist on TwisterTM: ARM Educational Outreach Participates in Community Science Nights Bookmark and Share This week, the U.S. Department of Energy begins its National Science Bowl competition, a nationwide academic competition that tests students' knowledge in all areas of science. Created 22 years ago in 1991, the DOE National Science Bowl strives to encourage students to excel in mathematics and science and to pursue careers in these fields and is an

  10. Horizontal Velocity and Variance Measurements in the Stable Boundary Layer Using Doppler Lidar: Sensitivity to Averaging Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichugina, Y. L.; Banta, R. M.; Kelley, N. D.; Jonkman, B. J.; Tucker, S. C.; Newsom, R. K.; Brewer, W. A.

    2008-08-01

    Quantitative data on turbulence variables aloft--above the region of the atmosphere conveniently measured from towers--have been an important but difficult measurement need for advancing understanding and modeling of the stable boundary layer (SBL). Vertical profiles of streamwise velocity variances obtained from NOAA's high-resolution Doppler lidar (HRDL), which have been shown to be approximately equal to turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) for stable conditions, are a measure of the turbulence in the SBL. In the present study, the mean horizontal wind component U and variance {sigma}2u were computed from HRDL measurements of the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity using a method described by Banta et al., which uses an elevation (vertical slice) scanning technique. The method was tested on datasets obtained during the Lamar Low-Level Jet Project (LLLJP) carried out in early September 2003, near the town of Lamar in southeastern Colorado. This paper compares U with mean wind speed obtained from sodar and sonic anemometer measurements. The results for the mean U and mean wind speed measured by sodar and in situ instruments for all nights of LLLJP show high correlation (0.71-0.97), independent of sampling strategies and averaging procedures, and correlation coefficients consistently >0.9 for four high-wind nights, when the low-level jet speeds exceeded 15 m s{sup -1} at some time during the night. Comparison of estimates of variance, on the other hand, proved sensitive to both the spatial and temporal averaging parameters. Several series of averaging tests are described, to find the best correlation between TKE calculated from sonic anemometer data at several tower levels and lidar measurements of horizontal-velocity variance {sigma}{sup 2}{sub u}. Because of the nonstationarity of the SBL data, the best results were obtained when the velocity data were first averaged over intervals of 1 min, and then further averaged over 3-15 consecutive 1-min intervals, with best results for the 10- and 15-min averaging periods. For these cases, correlation coefficients exceeded 0.9. As a part of the analysis, Eulerian integral time scales ({tau}) were estimated for the four high-wind nights. Time series of {tau} through each night indicated erratic behavior consistent with the nonstationarity. Histograms of {tau} showed a mode at 4-5 s, but frequent occurrences of larger {tau} values, mostly between 10 and 100 s.

  11. PAndromeda-FIRST RESULTS FROM THE HIGH-CADENCE MONITORING OF M31 WITH Pan-STARRS 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.-H.; Riffeser, A.; Koppenhoefer, J.; Seitz, S.; Bender, R.; Hopp, U.; Goessl, C.; Saglia, R. P.; Snigula, J.; Sweeney, W. E.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Heasley, J. N.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Morgan, J. S.; Grav, T.; Price, P. A.; Stubbs, C. W.; and others

    2012-04-15

    The Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) survey of M31 (PAndromeda) is designed to identify gravitational microlensing events, caused by bulge and disk stars (self-lensing) and by compact matter in the halos of M31 and the Milky Way (halo lensing or lensing by massive compact halo objects). With the 7 deg{sup 2} field of view (FOV) of PS1, the entire disk of M31 can be imaged with one single pointing. Our aim is to monitor M31 with this wide FOV with daily sampling (20 minutes day{sup -1}). In the 2010 season, we acquired in total 91 nights toward M31, with 90 nights in the r{sub P1} and 66 nights in the i{sub P1}. The total integration time in r{sub P1} and i{sub P1} are 70,740 s and 36,180 s, respectively. As a preliminary analysis, we study a 40' Multiplication-Sign 40' sub-field in the central region of M31, a 20' Multiplication-Sign 20' sub-field in the disk of M31, and a 20' Multiplication-Sign 20' sub-field for the investigation of astrometric precision. We demonstrate that the point-spread function is good enough to detect microlensing events. We present light curves for six candidate microlensing events. This is a competitive rate compared with previous M31 microlensing surveys. Finally, we also present one example light curve for Cepheids, novae, and eclipsing binaries in these sub-fields.

  12. IMAGING DISK DISTORTION OF BE BINARY SYSTEM {delta} SCORPII NEAR PERIASTRON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Che, X.; Monnier, J. D.; Kraus, S.; Baron, F.; Tycner, C.; Zavala, R. T.; Pedretti, E.; Ten Brummelaar, T.; McAlister, H.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N.; Ridgway, S. T.

    2012-09-20

    The highly eccentric Be binary system {delta} Sco reached periastron during early 2011 July, when the distance between the primary and secondary was a few times the size of the primary disk in the H band. This opened a window of opportunity to study how the gaseous disks around Be stars respond to gravitational disturbance. We first refine the binary parameters with the best orbital phase coverage data from the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer. Then we present the first imaging results of the disk after the periastron, based on seven nights of five telescope observations with the MIRC combiner at the CHARA array. We found that the disk was inclined 27.{sup 0}6 {+-} 6.{sup 0}0 from the plane of the sky, had a half-light radius of 0.49 mas (2.2 stellar radii), and consistently contributed 71.4% {+-} 2.7% of the total flux in the H band from night to night, suggesting no ongoing transfer of material into the disk during the periastron. The new estimation of the periastron passage is UT 2011 July 3 07:00 {+-} 4:30. Re-analysis of archival VLTI-AMBER interferometry data allowed us to determine the rotation direction of the primary disk, constraining it to be inclined either {approx}119 Degree-Sign or {approx}171 Degree-Sign relative to the orbital plane of the binary system. We also detect inner disk asymmetries that could be explained by spot-like emission with a few percent of the disk total flux moving in Keplerian orbits, although we lack sufficient angular resolution to be sure of this interpretation and cannot yet rule out spiral density waves or other more complicated geometries.

  13. NERSC Hosts Digital Stargazing Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC Hosts Digital Stargazing Portal NERSC Hosts Digital Stargazing Portal June 4, 2015 Legacy highres 1400x800 Courtesy of DECam Legacy Survey Even non-scientists can now browse sky survey images hosted at NERSC. The DECam Legacy Survey has published the first in a series of web-based catalogs that will offer an update to images of the night sky originally taken with the 15-year-old camera of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. In the spirit of the new information age, the survey will share frequent

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    What happened at WIPP in February 2014 Burned Truck Salt hauling truck after the fire Two isolated events took place at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in February. On February 5, a salt haul truck caught fire. Workers were evacuated, and the underground portion of WIPP was shut down. Six workers were treated for smoke inhalation. Nine days later, late in the evening of February 14, a second, unrelated event occurred when a continuous air monitor (CAM) alarmed during the night shift. Only

  15. 12-2015 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Vehicles and Voltage: Regulating the U.S. Power Grid With the flick of a switch, we can flood our homes with light on freezing winter nights. With a push of a button on a thermostat, we drive away the chill of snow and wind. Power-electricity-is what keeps up safe and warm when the weather outside is nothing but frightful. Yet, very rarely do we stop and think about how that energy is supplied to our homes or how we influence the complex system that is America's power grid. Power lines

  16. Energy and IAQ Implications of Residential Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, William; Walker, Iain

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluates the energy, humidity and indoor air quality (IAQ) implications of residential ventilation cooling in all U.S. IECC climate zones. A computer modeling approach was adopted, using an advanced residential building simulation tool with airflow, energy and humidity models. An economizer (large supply fan) was simulated to provide ventilation cooling while outdoor air temperatures were lower than indoor air temperatures (typically at night). The simulations were performed for a full year using one-minute time steps to allow for scheduling of ventilation systems and to account for interactions between ventilation and heating/cooling systems.

  17. Tune In To Our Online Town Hall With Sec. Chu at 12:45PM EST | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Tune In To Our Online Town Hall With Sec. Chu at 12:45PM EST Tune In To Our Online Town Hall With Sec. Chu at 12:45PM EST January 26, 2011 - 8:35am Addthis Ginny Simmons Ginny Simmons Former Managing Editor for Energy.gov, Office of Public Affairs During the State of the Union address last night, President Obama placed the national spotlight on clean energy, saying that "we need to out-innovate, out-educate, and out-build the rest of the world," and that we must invest in

  18. Hanford Site Services Contractor Receives Fiscal Year 2015 Evaluation |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Halloween (+7 Days) Halloween (+7 Days) November 7, 2011 - 1:34pm Addthis Drew Bittner Writer/Editor, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Well, it's now a week after All Hallow's Eve. If you're like my family, most of the candy's been eaten and you're down to that last half-crushed chocolate bar or licorice stick, as well as seeing the discarded bits of costume still here and there-my daughter's having a hard time giving up her night as a superhero. Walking around while my girl went

  19. Energy 101: Solar PV | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar PV Energy 101: Solar PV Addthis Description Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems can generate clean, cost-effective power anywhere the sun shines. This video shows how a PV panel converts the energy of the sun into renewable electricity to power homes and businesses. Text Version Below is the text version for the Energy 101: Solar PV video. The video opens with "Energy 101: Solar PV." This is followed by a timelapse shot of a city skyline as day turns to night. All right, we all know

  20. JOIN HERO FOR KEN GRIFFEY JR. WEEKEND

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AUGUST 6-7, 2016 JOIN HERO FOR KEN GRIFFEY JR. WEEKEND This fun-filled weekend features Junior himself: Saturday night, his jersey (#24) will be retired and at Sunday's game, Griffey replica jerseys are the giveaway to the first 20,000 fans (including us)! Email Jennifer Copeland at Jennifer_L_Copeland@rl.gov or call her at 376-5917 for availability. Seats are limited! Ride the bus over on Saturday and return Sunday after the game. Package includes bus ride and tickets to both games $130/person

  1. Cosmic Accelerators: Engines of the Extreme Universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Funk, Stefan

    2009-06-23

    The universe is home to numerous exotic and beautiful phenomena, some of which can generate almost inconceivable amounts of energy. While the night sky appears calm, it is populated by colossal explosions, jets from supermassive black holes, rapidly rotating neutron stars, and shock waves of gas moving at supersonic speeds. These accelerators in the sky boost particles to energies far beyond those we can produce on earth. New types of telescopes, including the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope orbiting in space, are now discovering a host of new and more powerful accelerators. Please come and see how these observations are revising our picture of the most energetic phenomena in the universe.

  2. A Basic Overview of the Worker Safety and Health Program | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    @ENERGY Tweets: #SOTU @ENERGY Tweets: #SOTU January 25, 2012 - 9:15am Addthis Last night, the President presented his vision for an economy that's built on American energy. The Energy Department took to Twitter to share his blueprint for an economy that's built to last - check out the @ENERGY and @EnergyPressSec tweets here and go to twitter.com/ENERGY to follow the full conversation. @ENERGY Thanks for joining us for the President's #SOTU. Visit http://energy.gov to learn about the latest

  3. DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) Workshop - Opening Remarks & Agenda |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy National Laboratory Research Projects Win 31 R&D Awards for 2007 DOE National Laboratory Research Projects Win 31 R&D Awards for 2007 October 19, 2007 - 3:21pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy's Under Secretary for Science Raymond L. Orbach today lauded researchers from ten of the Department of Energy's world-class national laboratories that last night were awarded 31 of the world's top 100 scientific and technological innovations in 2007,

  4. Our Hidden Past: The Prophet of Oak Ridge | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The ... Our Hidden Past: The Prophet of Oak Ridge The mp4 video format is not supported by this browser. Download video Captions: On Time: 4:47 min. John Hendrix, who was born in 1865 and died in 1915, is said to have slept on the ground for 40 nights in Bear Creek Valley. He later predicted that, "A huge factory will be built in Bear Creek Valley that will help win the greatest war there will ever be."

  5. PDSF Selected Announcements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February 2012 PDSF work 3/6/12 - /project down and SL4 retirement February 28, 2012 Next Tuesday, March 6, we need to remount /project. We will do this from 8-10am local time. This will only affect batch jobs and interactive use of /project. We will set projectio to 0 the night before so if your jobs specify projectio they will quit starting until after the downtime. If your jobs use /project and don't specify projectio (they should) they will fail when we unmount /project. On the same day we

  6. Venue and Travel | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Venue and Travel Venue and Travel Venue and Travel Hilton Anaheim 777 W Convention Way Anaheim, California, 92802 USA TEL: 1-714-750-4321 FAX: 1-714-740-4460 Reserving Your Room For your convenience, a limited room block has been set up at the group rate of $133 per night (plus applicable taxes). Space is limited and will sell out fast. Reservations can be made via the call center 1-877-776-4932 using the group code: SGE or you can book online: SunShot Grand Challenge Summit Room Block.

  7. Case history of implementation of conservation program in a multitude of diverse buildings in the metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, S.M.

    1982-06-01

    This paper outlines an energy conservation program undertaken by Jazco Corporation. Monitoring techniques were based on a calculated energy norm. Abnormalities, internal heat load, and switch-over temperature were also established. An actual physical audit verified the results. HVAC systems were found to be incompatible. Most boilers were derated. An electronic economizer cycle was installed. Occupied temperature setting, night temperature setback, dynamic load control, demand control, were all instrumented with savings. Microprocessor-based systems replaced main frame computers at a fraction of the cost. It was found that New York state lighting standards are good except where frequency of use is low.

  8. Slide10 | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Information How Data Citation Works Data Citation metadata submitted to DOE-OSTI Web Service API 241.6 AN DOI Assigned By DOE-OSTI DOE-OSTI submits nightly feed of new DOIs to DataCite DataCite Registers DOI Dataset Type Dataset Title Dataset Creator/Author or Principal Investigator Dataset Product Number DOE Contract/Award Number Originating Research Organization Publication/ Issue Date Sponsoring Organization URL where the Dataset is posted for access Contact information Creator/Author,

  9. Turbines in U.S. Waters Will Soon Spin Wind into Electricity | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy Tune In To Our Online Town Hall With Sec. Chu at 12:45PM EST Tune In To Our Online Town Hall With Sec. Chu at 12:45PM EST January 26, 2011 - 8:35am Addthis Ginny Simmons Ginny Simmons Former Managing Editor for Energy.gov, Office of Public Affairs During the State of the Union address last night, President Obama placed the national spotlight on clean energy, saying that "we need to out-innovate, out-educate, and out-build the rest of the world," and that we must invest in

  10. Unusual Light in Dark Space Revealed by Los Alamos, NASA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smidt, Joseph

    2014-11-07

    By looking at the dark spaces between visible galaxies and stars the NASA/JPL CIBER sounding rocket experiment has produced data that could redefine what constitutes a galaxy. CIBER, the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment, is designed to understand the physics going on between visible stars and galaxies. The relatively small, sub-orbital rocket unloads a camera that snaps pictures of the night sky in near-infrared wavelengths, between 1.2 and 1.6 millionth of a meter. Scientists take the data and remove all the known visible stars and galaxies and quantify what is left.

  11. LANL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    journey from Trinity to Trinity begins with the New Mexico desert night sky turning instantly to day at 05:29 am on July 16, 1945. An eyewitness recalled, "The effects could well be called unprecedented, magnificent, beautiful, stupendous, and terrifying. The lighting effects beggared description. The whole country was lighted by a searing light with the intensity many times that of the midday sun. It was golden, purple, violet, gray, and blue." It was the Trinity Test: the world's

  12. LANL: AOT & LANSCE The Pulse December 2012

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    I N S I D E By Diana Del Mauro ADEPS Communications Gary Holladay of Accelerator Operations & Technology (AOT- OPS) had just started the Friday night shift when the letters "DPW" turned red on a status screen in the Central Control Room of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, indicating an equipment problem. Two neutron detectors had faulted electronically. Holladay, the operations shift supervisor who runs the beam for the half-mile long linear accelerator, jumped up to fx the

  13. LCLS-schedul_run-II_10_05_6-detail.xls

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    User-Assisted Commissioning Run II Detailed Schedule, May 6-September 13, 2010 Thurs Fri Sat Sun Mon Tues Wed BL Prop# Spokesperson/ PI Planned Activity/Experiment Title POC AD Program Deputy Week 1 6-May 7-May 8-May 9-May 10-May 11-May 12-May Day SXR com SXR com SXR com SXR com SXR com MD MD SXR L805 Bill Schlotter SXR Commissioning Schlotter H-D. Nuhn Night Küpper Küpper Küpper Küpper Küpper MD ROD AMO L011 Jochen Küpper Diffractive Imaging of Oriented Molecules in the Gas Phase Bostedt

  14. LOCATION: Johnson County Sheriff's Office

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LOCATION: Johnson County Sheriff's Office Criminalistics Laboratory 11890 Sunset Drive Olathe, Kansas 66061 DATE: JULY 15TH - JULY 18TH, 2013 TUITION: MAFS MEMBERS: $550 Non-MAFS Members: $650 HOW TO ENROLL: Follow this link and complete on-line registration. Pay- ment may be made online via PayPal or a company check may be mailed to MAFS Treasurer. Payment information is all located at the registration site: http://www.mafs.net/summer-workshop LODGING AND TRAVEL: Training Rate $107.77 per night

  15. LUG 2015 | LANSCE User Group Meeting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accommodations Attendees may make their individual guest room reservations by calling our reservations department directly at 855-811-0050 or online at https://www.starwoodmeeting.com/StarGroupsWeb/res?id=1509174739&key=27EF83C0 Attendees must make their reservations by the cut-off date of Friday, October 9 16. Mention the LANSCE User Group (LUG) to receive the special group rate of $99.00 per night. Indian Market, Santa Fe NM Santa Fe Plaza - Image courtesy of The Santa Fe Convention

  16. DOE Announces up to $52.5 Million for Concentrating Solar Power Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Development | Department of Energy up to $52.5 Million for Concentrating Solar Power Research and Development DOE Announces up to $52.5 Million for Concentrating Solar Power Research and Development July 15, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy today announced plans to provide up to $52.5 million to research, develop, and demonstrate Concentrating Solar Power systems capable of providing low-cost electrical power both day and night. Today's announcement

  17. DOE National Laboratory Research Projects Win 31 R&D Awards for 2007 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy National Laboratory Research Projects Win 31 R&D Awards for 2007 DOE National Laboratory Research Projects Win 31 R&D Awards for 2007 October 19, 2007 - 3:21pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy's Under Secretary for Science Raymond L. Orbach today lauded researchers from ten of the Department of Energy's world-class national laboratories that last night were awarded 31 of the world's top 100 scientific and technological innovations in 2007,

  18. Saving Energy Down South | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Down South Saving Energy Down South December 12, 2011 - 4:54am Addthis Stephanie Price Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory I spent Thanksgiving week in Arizona with my parents, who are very energy conscious although my father says "I find my thoughts are more of efficiency than saving the planet, however the results are the same." Last year I thought he was crazy to be turning off the computer and the surge protector for the TV system (TV, DVD player, etc.) every night

  19. Spring Already? | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Spring Already? Spring Already? March 22, 2011 - 5:25pm Addthis Drew Bittner Writer/Editor, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Seems we were just hunkering down for cold weather and bundling into our big coats just last week. Well, come to think of it, it WAS last week-it got pretty darn cold here in the DC area a couple of nights back. This might make you wonder when spring is going to get here. Good question. Even though the average temperature shows an upward trend over the

  20. December 6

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 December 6 Attending: Eric, Iwona, Mike, Larry, Lisa Cluster Status/Utilization: Quite a few free cycles available recently - ALICE/STAR not as busy as usual. Upcoming Downtimes: 12/13 downtime all day. Recent Outages/Incidents: Sunday night the match manager stalled and Jay fixed it. pdsfdtn1 required a reboot, and there have been some slowness issues related to /common. Procurements/New Hardware: All new hardware is in production including pdsfdtn2. Next procurement will probably be in early

  1. Watch Energy Highlights from the State of the Union | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State of the Union Watch Energy Highlights from the State of the Union January 21, 2015 - 11:46am Addthis Matty Greene Matty Greene Former Videographer From low gas prices to growth in renewable energy sources like wind and solar, energy featured prominently in President Obama's sixth State of the Union address last night. From the way we produce energy to how we use it in our homes and businesses, the President laid out key ways that he plans to fight climate change and build the clean energy

  2. @ENERGY Tweets: #SOTU | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    @ENERGY Tweets: #SOTU @ENERGY Tweets: #SOTU January 25, 2012 - 9:15am Addthis Last night, the President presented his vision for an economy that's built on American energy. The Energy Department took to Twitter to share his blueprint for an economy that's built to last - check out the @ENERGY and @EnergyPressSec tweets here and go to twitter.com/ENERGY to follow the full conversation. @ENERGY Thanks for joining us for the President's #SOTU. Visit http://energy.gov to learn about the latest

  3. Observations of comet ISON (C/2012 S1) from Lowell observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, Matthew M.; Schleicher, David G.

    2015-01-01

    We observed the dynamically new sungrazing comet ISON (C/2012 S1) extensively at Lowell Observatory throughout 2013 in order to characterize its behavior prior to perihelion. ISON had typical abundances for an Oort Cloud comet. Its dust production, as measured by Af?, remained nearly constant during the apparition but its CN gas production increased by ?50 . The minimum active area necessary to support observed water production rates exceeded the likely surface area of the nucleus and suggests a population of icy grains in the coma. Together with the flattening of the dust radial profile over time, this is consistant with ejection of a large quantity of slow moving dust and icy grains in the coma at large heliocentric distance. The dust morphology was dominated by the tail, but a faint sunward dust fan was detected in March, April, May, and September. We imaged multiple gas species in September, October, and November. All gas species were more extended than the dust coma, although only CN had sufficient signal-to-noise for detailed morphological study. Excess CN signal was observed in the sunward hemisphere in September and early October. In November the excess CN signal was in the tailward hemisphere and two faint CN features appeared approximately orthogonal to the tail with position angles varying by about 20 from night to night. Using numerical modeling, we best reproduced the orientation and shape of these features as well as the bulk brightness with a pole oriented approximately toward the Sun and a single source located within ?35 of the equator. Variations in position angle and relative brightness of the CN features from night to night suggest a rotation period shorter than 24 hr. The production rates and coma morphology suggest a nucleus that was active over nearly its entire sunward facing hemisphere in September and October but which underwent a significant mass loss event, potentially including fragmentation, shortly before November 1. Significant subsequent mass loss likely continued at the same site over subsequent days/weeks and may have catastrophically weakened the nucleus prior to perihelion.

  4. Concentrated Thermoelectric Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a concentrated solar hydroelectric power project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by MIT, is working to demonstrate concentrating solar thermoelectric generators with >10% solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency while limiting optical concentration to less than a factor of 10 and potentially less than 4. When combined with thermal storage, CSTEGs have the potential to provide electricity day and night using no moving parts at both the utility and distributed scale.

  5. Long-Haul Truck Idling Burns Up Profits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-08-12

    Long-haul truck drivers perform a vitally important service. In the course of their work, they must take rest periods as required by federal law. Most drivers remain in their trucks, which they keep running to provide power for heating, cooling, and other necessities. Such idling, however, comes at a cost; it is an expensive and polluting way to keep drivers safe and comfortable. Increasingly affordable alternatives to idling not only save money and reduce pollution, but also help drivers get a better night's rest.

  6. Electrolyte additive for lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behl, W.K.; Chin, D.T.

    1988-02-08

    This invention relates in general to a rechargeable lithium organic electrolyte battery and, in particular, to an electrolyte additive for such a battery that provides overcharge protection. Rechargeable lithium-organic electrolyte batteries are being developed to provide low-cost, high-energy-density power sources for communication, night vision and various other Army applications. Typically, a rechargeable lithium organic electrolyte battery includes a lithium anode, a cathode including compounds such as titanium disulfide, molybdenum oxide, molybdenum sulfide, vanadium oxide, vanadium sulfide, chromium oxide, etc an electrolyte solution including an inorganic lithium salt such as lithium hexafluoroarsenate, lithium perchlorate, etc.

  7. NUG2013_Storage.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Systems: 2012 and beyond --- 1 --- February 1 2, 2 013 2 Astrophysics d iscover e arly n earby s upernova * Palomar T ransient F actory r uns m achine learning a lgorithms o n ~ 300GB/night delivered b y E Snet " science n etwork" * Rare g limpse o f a s upernova w ithin 1 1 h ours of e xplosion, 2 0M l ight y ears a way * Telescopes w orld---wide r edirected w ithin 1 hour Data s ystems e ssen<al t o s cience s uccess * GPFS / project fi le s ystem m ounted o n resources

  8. Distributed Solar Photovoltaics for Electric Vehicle Charging: Regulatory and Policy Considerations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    Increasing demand for electric vehicle (EV) charging provides an opportunity for market expansion of distributed solar technology. A major barrier to the current deployment of solar technology for EV charging is a lack of clear information for policy makers, utilities and potential adopters. This paper introduces the pros and cons of EV charging during the day versus at night, summarizes the benefits and grid implications of combining solar and EV charging technologies, and offers some regulatory and policy options available to policy makers and regulators wanting to incentivize solar EV charging.

  9. TTW 1-26-07

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RH Special Edition January 26, 2007 Above: The shipment departing the Idaho National Laboratory. Below: The truck arriving at WIPP. WIPP celebrates the first arrival of RH-TRU waste On Tuesday night, the temperature may have been low, but the spirits were high at WIPP. A crowd of more than 70 people, mo stly employees, braved temperatures in the 30s to welcome the first shipment of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste to WIPP. "This is a great day," said CBFO Manager Dave Moody. The crowd

  10. TTW 11-1-07

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1, 2007 WIPP Quick Facts (As of 10-31-07) 6,213 Shipments received since opening 51,604 Cubic meters of waste disposed 94,919 Containers disposed in the underground Daylight Savings Time ends Daylight Savings Time ends at 2:00 a.m. on Sunday, November 4. Turn your clocks back one hour before going to bed on Saturday night to make sure you are on schedule in the morning! WIPP Road Show travels through southern states First responders and others turned out to learn about the CNS 10-160B in Monroe,

  11. NERSC in the News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supernova to be visible for 2 nights September 8, 2011 | Author(s): David Perlman | Source: SF Gate | PTF11kly.png 'Instant Cosmic Classic' Supernova Discovered August 26, 2011 | Source: Slashdot | 3D Map To Compute Matter Distribution In Universe - SDSS Aftermath January 12, 2012 | Source: CrazyEngineers VoiCE | A Stellar Explosion In The Big Dipper's Handle September 3, 2011 | Author(s): Scott Simon | Source: NPR | fireball-particles.jpg Anti-Helium Discovered in the Heart of STAR April 25,

  12. News Archive | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    21, 2012 Remembering the long day's journey to a historic machine's Christmas Eve first plasma By John Greenwald The big moment arrives: The successful first plasma brought cheers to the command center. 'Twas the night before Christmas and all through the cell Not a creature was stirring. Just the warning bell. The diagnostics were hung on the tokamak with care In hopes that first plasma soon would be there. Read more... December 21, 2012 PPPL teams with South Korea on the forerunner of a

  13. News Releases | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Releases May 2016 Thu, 2016-05-12 11:12 Award enables research for more efficient accelerators Mon, 2016-05-02 15:00 JLab to Test its Tornado Warning Siren on Friday May 6 Mar 2016 Wed, 2016-03-30 09:55 Tornado Warning Siren Test Friday April 1 Wed, 2016-03-16 09:25 Nysmith School Wins Virginia Middle School Science Bowl Thu, 2016-03-03 10:24 Virginia Middle School Science Bowl Wed, 2016-03-02 11:47 Teachers Invited to Science Activities Night at Jefferson Lab Tue, 2016-03-01 16:49

  14. 2016 - 03 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Mar 2016 Wed, 2016-03-30 09:55 Tornado Warning Siren Test Friday April 1 Wed, 2016-03-16 09:25 Nysmith School Wins Virginia Middle School Science Bowl Thu, 2016-03-03 10:24 Virginia Middle School Science Bowl Wed, 2016-03-02 11:47 Teachers Invited to Science Activities Night at Jefferson Lab Tue, 2016-03-01 16:49 Jefferson Lab to Test its Tornado Warning Siren at 1030 on March 4

  15. 2016 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    May 2016 Thu, 2016-05-12 11:12 Award enables research for more efficient accelerators Mon, 2016-05-02 15:00 JLab to Test its Tornado Warning Siren on Friday May 6 Mar 2016 Wed, 2016-03-30 09:55 Tornado Warning Siren Test Friday April 1 Wed, 2016-03-16 09:25 Nysmith School Wins Virginia Middle School Science Bowl Thu, 2016-03-03 10:24 Virginia Middle School Science Bowl Wed, 2016-03-02 11:47 Teachers Invited to Science Activities Night at Jefferson Lab Tue, 2016-03-01 16:49 Jefferson Lab to Test

  16. Energy conservation in ice skating rinks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dietrich, B.K.; McAvoy, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    An economic and energy analysis of ice rinks was made to examine the areas in which energy could be profitably conserved. The areas where new equipment could make a major reduction in energy use are: the use of waste heat for space heating, the installation of a low emissivity false ceiling to reduce radiant heat, the use of a load cycling controller to reduce refrigeration costs, and the installation of more efficient lighting systems. Changes in rink operating procedure that could cut energy use are: higher refrigerant temperatures, thinner ice, the use of colder resurfacing water, turning the compressors and pumps off at night, and reducing ventilation.

  17. Identifying clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared satellite data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, Pedro; et al.,

    2013-12-01

    We describe a new method of identifying night-time clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared data from the Imager instruments on the GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites. We compare cloud identifications resulting from our method to those obtained by the Central Laser Facility of the Auger Observatory. Using our new method we can now develop cloud probability maps for the 3000 km^2 of the Pierre Auger Observatory twice per hour with a spatial resolution of ~2.4 km by ~5.5 km. Our method could also be applied to monitor cloud cover for other ground-based observatories and for space-based observatories.

  18. Halloween (+7 Days) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Halloween (+7 Days) Halloween (+7 Days) November 7, 2011 - 1:34pm Addthis Drew Bittner Writer/Editor, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Well, it's now a week after All Hallow's Eve. If you're like my family, most of the candy's been eaten and you're down to that last half-crushed chocolate bar or licorice stick, as well as seeing the discarded bits of costume still here and there-my daughter's having a hard time giving up her night as a superhero. Walking around while my girl went

  19. A

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    @ENERGY Tweets: #SOTU @ENERGY Tweets: #SOTU January 25, 2012 - 9:15am Addthis Last night, the President presented his vision for an economy that's built on American energy. The Energy Department took to Twitter to share his blueprint for an economy that's built to last - check out the @ENERGY and @EnergyPressSec tweets here and go to twitter.com/ENERGY to follow the full conversation. @ENERGY Thanks for joining us for the President's #SOTU. Visit http://energy.gov to learn about the latest

  20. Advanced Thermal Energy Storage: Novel Tuning of Critical Fluctuations for Advanced Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: NAVITASMAX is developing a novel thermal energy storage solution. This innovative technology is based on simple and complex supercritical fluids— substances where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist, and tuning the properties of these fluid systems to increase their ability to store more heat. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in NAVITASMAX’s system during the day and released at night—when the sun is not shining—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in NAVITASMAX’s system at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours.

  1. OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Speeding access to science information from DOE and Beyond supernovae Topic Observing Gamma-ray Bursts in Distant Galaxies by Kathy Chambers 21 Nov, 2013 in Science Communications Gamma-ray burst GRB 080319B Star gazing seems especially good on a clear autumn night. From our back deck our amateur eyes scan the sky and its wonder. We first notice Venus, our closest planetary neighbor. A beautiful harvest moon rises over the hill, lighting up jet streams that crisscross the stars and planets.

  2. Radiation Dry Bias in the TWP-ICE Radiosonde Soundings Solar Zenith Angle Correction Factor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Dry Bias in the TWP-ICE Radiosonde Soundings Solar Zenith Angle Correction Factor Figure 3: Ratio of MWR TCWV to radiosonde derived TCWV, and the solar zenith angle at the radiosonde launch time (black dots). The dry bias observed in sonde TCWV values is mainly attributable to a dry RH bias near the surface The red dots show the 1000 hPa RH correction factors suggested by Voemel et al for sondes launched near noon (10-30 degree solar zenith angle), and at night time (90 degree zenith

  3. March Events

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March March 2015 Events Don't miss Cafe Scientifique and the very popular Robo Rave Rally. Learn the night skies at Big Sky Learning at the Bradbury Science Museum. Mar 5 Thu 12:00 PM Informational meeting on new environmental health and safety master's degree program Mesa Public Library - Los Alamos, NM The two-year degree program is offered by Colorado State University and is open to anyone who has a bachelor of science or bachelor of arts degree and has completed certain prerequisite classes.

  4. Jerri McTaggart-Creating educational opportunities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jerri McTaggart Jerri McTaggart-Creating opportunities She is a scientist at the Los Alamos office in Carlsbad and helps small-quantity transuranic waste generators identify and solve problems. March 26, 2014 Jerri McTaggart Jerri McTaggart "She advises, don't get sidetracked by life: make a college degree a priority. Creating Educational Opportunities As a single mother, Jerri McTaggart pushed through 72 hours per week at her job, studying at nights to obtain her Master's degree in

  5. Los Alamos National Laboratory The

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The journey from Trinity to Trinity begins with the New Mexico desert night sky turning instantly to day at 05:29 am on July 16, 1945. An eyewitness recalled, "The effects could well be called unprecedented, magnificent, beautiful, stupendous, and terrifying. The lighting effects beggared description. The whole country was lighted by a searing light with the intensity many times that of the midday sun. It was golden, purple, violet, gray, and blue." It was the Trinity Test: the world's

  6. North Lauderdale Gets 'Smart' on Cars | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lauderdale Gets 'Smart' on Cars North Lauderdale Gets 'Smart' on Cars September 10, 2010 - 1:47pm Addthis Kevin Craft What are the key facts? Two Smart Cars to save Florida city $4,800 annually Smart Cars to be used as part of night patrols of city parks City estimates will save more than $33,000 annually through Recovery Act projects The Parks and Recreation Department of North Lauderdale, Fla., is saving money and reducing its carbon footprint, thanks to the recent addition of two energy

  7. OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Speeding access to science information from DOE and Beyond Mixing Science.gov, Coffee, and a Laptop by Cathey Daniels on Wed, Dec 5, 2007 Yesterday my son had an emergency appendectomy - these days a pretty routine procedure. But far from routine was the array of drugs offered to get him through the long night ahead. What were the side effects behind these strange-sounding names? How would they affect his recovery? Would all these drugs interact minus a negative outcome? And were they even

  8. Logistics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Logistics Logistics The review will be held at the Hyatt Regency Bethesda for all of April 29 and in the morning of April 30, finishing with lunch from 12-1pm. MAKING RESERVATIONS Please make your lodging reservation at https://resweb.passkey.com/go/LBERKLEYNL. The lodging rate is $224 per night, which is the prevailing per diem rate. You can also use the link to change or cancel your reservation. Hotel address: One Bethesda Metro Center (7400 Wisconsin Ave) Bethesda, Maryland, USA, 20814, Tel:

  9. Radical advancement in multi-spectral imaging for autonomous vehicles (UAVs, UGVs, and UUVs) using active compensation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Brian F.; Bagwell, Brett E.; Wick, David Victor

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this LDRD was to demonstrate a compact, multi-spectral, refractive imaging systems using active optical compensation. Compared to a comparable, conventional lens system, our system has an increased operational bandwidth, provides for spectral selectivity and, non-mechanically corrects aberrations induced by the wavelength dependent properties of a passive refractive optical element (i.e. lens). The compact nature and low power requirements of the system lends itself to small platforms such as autonomous vehicles. In addition, the broad spectral bandwidth of our system would allow optimized performance for both day/night use, and the multi-spectral capability allows for spectral discrimination and signature identification.

  10. William Herschel, the First Observational Cosmologist

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lemonick, Michael [Princeton University and Time Magazine, Princeton, New Jersey, United States

    2010-01-08

    In the late 1700s, a composer, orchestra director and soloist named William Herschel became fascinated with astronomy, and, having built his own reflecting telescope, went out in his garden in Bath, England, one night and discovered Uranus?the first planet in human history ever found by an individual. The feat earned him a lifetime pension from King George III. But Herschel considered the discovery to be relatively unimportant in comparison to his real work: understanding the composition, structure and evolution of the universe. In pursuing that work, he became the first observational cosmologist.

  11. Unusual Light in Dark Space Revealed by Los Alamos, NASA

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Smidt, Joseph

    2015-01-05

    By looking at the dark spaces between visible galaxies and stars the NASA/JPL CIBER sounding rocket experiment has produced data that could redefine what constitutes a galaxy. CIBER, the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment, is designed to understand the physics going on between visible stars and galaxies. The relatively small, sub-orbital rocket unloads a camera that snaps pictures of the night sky in near-infrared wavelengths, between 1.2 and 1.6 millionth of a meter. Scientists take the data and remove all the known visible stars and galaxies and quantify what is left.

  12. Project summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dungee, Ryan

    2015-08-22

    Telescope surveys have given us a great deal of information about our universe, but the images they capture carry with them an inherent limitation. The question then is how do we take this information to the next level? The answer: the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI). DESI is an instrument that will measure the distance to tens of millions of galaxies in our night sky. This information can be combined with already existing images to construct a three dimensional map of our universe providing a great deal of new opportunities for cosmological research.

  13. Graphic1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6, 2009 WIPP Quick Facts (As of 11-5-09) 8,002 Shipments received since opening (7,702 CH and 300 RH) 63,971 Cubic meters of waste disposed (63,828 CH and 143 RH) 124,386 Containers disposed in the underground (124,093 CH and 293 RH) WIPP receives 8000th TRU waste shipment The 8,000th shipment arrives at WIPP late Wednesday night. The two drivers, Phil Godin, left, and Jack Clayton stand next to the truck as it is inspected by Security. The shipment came to WIPP from Los Alamos National

  14. Halstead Extended Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Halloween (+7 Days) Halloween (+7 Days) November 7, 2011 - 1:34pm Addthis Drew Bittner Writer/Editor, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Well, it's now a week after All Hallow's Eve. If you're like my family, most of the candy's been eaten and you're down to that last half-crushed chocolate bar or licorice stick, as well as seeing the discarded bits of costume still here and there-my daughter's having a hard time giving up her night as a superhero. Walking around while my girl went

  15. Accommodations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accommodations Accommodations Los Alamos National Laboratory is situated on a mesatop on the eastern side of the Jemez Mountains, an impressive series of ancient volcanoes with extensive views. Across the valley to the east is Santa Fe, nestled in the foothills of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, where sunsets turn the western slopes a vibrant red. UPDATE 3/23/16 The block of rooms at La Fonda is now full at the group rate of $99/night. Additional rooms are available at the La Posada de Santa Fe

  16. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    July 8, 2014 [Facility News] Studying the Sky-Day and Night Bookmark and Share The Infrared Sky Imager (IRSI) may replace the Total Sky Imager (TSI) for measuring cloud fraction at the SGP. The Infrared Sky Imager (IRSI) may replace the Total Sky Imager (TSI) for measuring cloud fraction at the SGP. Clouds play a critical role in our climate system by reflecting light and heat into space and distributing precipitation. At the ARM Southern Great Plains site, a variety of instruments measure

  17. American Flyers N-I Wine Makers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flyers N-I Wine Makers WSI leads charge in local bike events. NSTec recognizes top performers in NNSS mission. Navarro employees enjoy wine making hobby. See page 8. See page 7. Do You Know Where To Find Latest NNSS Info? In late August, a rainstorm in Las Vegas caused flooding near Mt. Charleston that washed the remnants of this summer's Carpenter Fire across U.S. 95, blocking the roadway. It was 11 p.m. on a Sunday night, and the road closure threatened Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

  18. B.U. Students Talk Energy Research at Lost Dog Cafe > Archived News Stories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Archived News Stories Latest News The perfect atom sandwich requires an extra layer › Cornell boasts 22 'highly cited' researchers › Postdoc brings open access issue to the table › In This Section EMC2 News Archived News Stories B.U. Students Talk Energy Research at Lost Dog Cafe April 10th, 2014 › There was a science café at the Lost Dog Cafe in Binghamton last night. A group of Binghamton University students and professors talked about

  19. Assessment of the Impacts of Green Mountain Power Corporation's Wind Power Facility on Breeding and Migrating Birds in Searsburg, Vermont: July 1996--July 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerlinger, P.

    2002-03-01

    A 6-megawatt, 11 turbine wind power development was constructed by Green Mountain Power Corporation in Searsburg, southern Vermont, in 1996. To determine whether birds were impacted, a series of modified BA (Before, After) studies was conducted before construction (1993-1996), during (1996), and after (1997) construction on the project site. The studies were designed to monitor changes in breeding bird community (species composition and abundance) on the site, examine the behavior and numbers of songbirds migrating at night over the site and hawks migrating over the site in daylight, and search for carcasses of birds that might have collided with the turbines.

  20. Extensibility of the fission surface power (FSP) system from the moon to Mars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poston, David Irvin

    2011-01-28

    Fission reactors have great near-term potential to power human and robotic missions/outposts on the surface of the Moon and Mars (and potentially other planets, moons, and asteroids). The ability to provide a power-rich environment that is independent of solar intensity, nights, dust storms, etc., is of significant (perhaps enabling) importance to the further expansion of humans into our solar system. NASA's Reference Fission Surface Power (FSP) System is a 40 kWe system that has been primarily designed for lunar applications. This paper examines the extensibility of the FSP design and technology for potential missions on Mars. Possible impacts include the effects of changes in heat sink, gravity, day-night cycles, mission transit time, communication delay, and the chemistry of the regolith and atmosphere. One of the biggest impacts might be differences in the potential utilization of in-situ materials for shielding. Another major factor is that different missions will likely require different performance requirements, e.g. power, lifetime and mass. This paper concludes that the environmental differences between potential mission locations will not require significant changes in design and technologies, unless performance requirements for a specific mission are substantially different than those adopted for the FSP The primary basis for this conclusion is that the FSP has been designed with robust materials and design margins.

  1. CIRA: A Microcomputer-based energy analysis and auditing tool for residential applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonderegger, R.C.; Dixon, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Computerized, Instrumented, Residential Audit (CIRA) is a collection of programs for energy analysis and energy auditing of residential buildings. CIRA is written for microcomputers with a CP/M operating system and 64K RAM. Its principal features are: user-friendliness, dynamic defaults, file-oriented structure, design energy analysis capability, economic optimization of retrofits, graphic and tabular output to screen and printer. To calculate monthly energy consumptions both for design and retrofit analyses CIRA uses a modified degree-day and degree-night approach, taking into account solar gains, IR losses to the sky, internal gains and ground heat transfer; the concept of solar storage factor addresses the delayed effect of daytime solar gains while the concept of effective thermal mass ensures proper handling of changes in thermostat setting from day to night; aie infiltration is modeled using the LBL infiltration model based on effective leakage area; HVAC system performance is modeled using correlations developed for DOE-2.1. For any given budget, CIRA can also develop an optimally sequenced list of retrofits with the highest combined savings. Long run-times necessary for economic optimization of retrofits are greatly reduced by using a method based on partial derivatives of energy consumption with respect to principal building parameters. Energy calculations of CIRA compare well with those of DOE-2.1 and with measured energy consumptions from a sample of monitored houses.

  2. University of South Florida- Phase Change Materials (PCM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goswami, Yogi; Stefanakos, Lee

    2014-03-07

    USF is developing low-cost, high-temperature phase-change materials (PCMs) for use in thermal energy storage systems. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night--when the sun is not out--to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Most PCMs do not conduct heat very well. Using an innovative, electroless encapsulation technique, USF is enhancing the heat transfer capability of its PCMs. The inner walls of the capsules will be lined with a corrosion-resistant, high-infrared emissivity coating, and the absorptivity of the PCM will be controlled with the addition of nano-sized particles. USF's PCMs remain stable at temperatures from 600 to 1,000°C and can be used for solar thermal power storage, nuclear thermal power storage, and other applications.

  3. Diel patterns of water potential components for the crassulacean acid metabolism plant Opuntia ficus-indica when well-watered or droughted

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, G.; Ortega, J.K.E.; Nerd, A.; Nobel, P.S. )

    1991-01-01

    Under well-watered conditions, chlorenchyma acidity in cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica increased substantially at night, fully accounting for the 0.26-megapascal nocturnal increase in osmotic pressure in the outer 2 millimeters. Osmotic pressure in the inner part of the chlorenchyma and in the water-storage parenchyma did not change significantly over 24-hour periods. Three months of drought decreased nocturnal acid accumulation by 73% and essentially abolished transpiration; also, 27% of the chlorenchyma water and 61% of the parenchyma water was lost during such drought, but the average tissue osmotic pressure was little affected. Turgor pressure was maintained in the chlorenchyma after 3 months of drought, although it decreased sevenfold in the water-storage parenchyma compared with the well-watered condition. Moreover, the nocturnal increases in turgor pressure of about 0.08 megapascal in the outer part of the chlorenchyma was also unchanged by such drought. The water potential magnitudes favored water movement from the parenchyma to the chlorenchyma at the end of the night and in the reverse direction during the late afternoon. Experiments with tritiated water support this pattern of water movement, which is also in agreement with predictions based on electric-circuit analog models for Crassulacean acid metabolism plants.

  4. Efficient Phase-Change Materials: Development of a Low-Cost Thermal Energy Storage System Using Phase-Change Materials with Enhanced Radiation Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-05

    HEATS Project: USF is developing low-cost, high-temperature phase-change materials (PCMs) for use in thermal energy storage systems. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at nightwhen the sun is not outto drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Most PCMs do not conduct heat very well. Using an innovative, electroless encapsulation technique, USF is enhancing the heat transfer capability of its PCMs. The inner walls of the capsules will be lined with a corrosion-resistant, high-infrared emissivity coating, and the absorptivity of the PCM will be controlled with the addition of nano-sized particles. USFs PCMs remain stable at temperatures from 600 to 1,000C and can be used for solar thermal power storage, nuclear thermal power storage, and other applications.

  5. Efficient Heat Storage Materials: Metallic Composites Phase-Change Materials for High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing efficient heat storage materials for use in solar and nuclear power plants. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at nightwhen the suns not outto drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. MIT is designing nanostructured heat storage materials that can store a large amount of heat per unit mass and volume. To do this, MIT is using phase change materials, which absorb a large amount of latent heat to melt from solid to liquid. MITs heat storage materials are designed to melt at high temperatures and conduct heat wellthis makes them efficient at storing and releasing heat and enhances the overall efficiency of the thermal storage and energy-generation process. MITs low-cost heat storage materials also have a long life cycle, which further enhances their efficiency.

  6. DIESEL TRUCK IDLING EMISSIONS - MEASUREMENTS AT A PM2.5 HOT SPOT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E; Miller, Terry L.; Storey, John Morse; Fu, Joshua S.; Hromis, Boris

    2007-01-01

    The University of Tennessee and Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a 5-month long air monitoring study at the Watt Road interchange on I-40 in Knoxville Tennessee where there are 20,000 heavy-duty trucks per day traveling the interstate. In addition, there are 3 large truck stops at this interchange where as many as 400 trucks idle engines at night. As a result, high levels of PM2.5 were measured near the interchange often exceeding National Ambient Air Quality Standards. This paper presents the results of the air monitoring study illustrating the hourly, day-of-week, and seasonal patterns of PM2.5 resulting from diesel truck emissions on the interstate and at the truck stops. Surprisingly, most of the PM2.5 concentrations occurred during the night when the largest contribution of emissions was from idling trucks rather than trucks on the interstate. A nearby background air monitoring site was used to identify the contribution of regional PM2.5 emissions which also contribute significantly to the concentrations measured at the site. The relative contributions of regional background, local truck idling and trucks on the interstate to local PM2.5 concentrations are presented and discussed in the paper. The results indicate the potential significance of diesel truck idling emissions to the occurrence of hot-spots of high PM2.5 concentrations near large truck stops, ports or border crossings.

  7. Measurement and modeling of external radiation during 1985 from LAMPF (Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility) emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowen, B.M.; Olsen, W.A.; Chen, Ili; Van Etten, D.M.

    1987-11-01

    An array of three portable, pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) continued to measure external radiation levels during 1985 caused by radionuclides emitted from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). A Gaussian-type atmospheric dispersion model, using onsite meteorological and stack release data, was tested during this study. A more complex finite model, which takes into account the contribution of radiation at a receptor from different locations of the passing plume, was also tested. Monitoring results indicate that, as in 1984, a persistent wind up the Rio Grande Valley during the evening and early morning hours is largely responsible for causing the highest external radiation levels to occur to the northeast and north-northeast of LAMPF. However, because of increased turbulent mixing during the day, external radiation levels are generally much less during the day than at night. External radiation levels during 1985 show approximately a 75% reduction over 1984 levels. This resulted from a similar percentage reduction in LAMPF emissions caused by newly implemented emission controls. Comparison of predicted and measured daily external radiation levels indicates a high degree of correlation. The model also gives accurate estimates of measured concentrations over longer time periods. Comparison of predicted and measured hourly values indicates that the model generally tends to overpredict during the day and underpredict at night. 9 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED FROM AN INSTRUMENTED VAN IN SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH AS PART OF URBAN 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.J. BROWN; E.R. PARDYJAK

    2001-08-01

    Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Salt Lake City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological National Security Program URBAN 2 Field Experiment conducted in October 2000 (Shinn et al., 2000 and Allwine et al., 2001a). The instrumented van was driven over three primary routes, two including downtown, residential, and ''rural'' areas and a third that went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2001b) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 45 to 60 minutes to complete. Based on four nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 2-5 C between the urban core and nearby ''rural'' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the URBAN2000 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Salt Lake City, and to test the urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes as part of the DOE CBNP program.

  9. Climatological data for clouds over the globe from surface observations, 1982--1991: The total cloud edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, C.J.; Warren, S.G.; London, J.

    1994-10-01

    Routine, surface synoptic weather reports from ships and land stations over the entire globe, for the ten-year period December 1981 through November 1991, were processed for total cloud cover and the frequencies of occurrence of clear sky, precipitation, and sky-obscured due to fog. Archived data, consisting of various annual, seasonal and monthly averages, are provided in grid boxes that are typically 2.5{degrees} {times} 2.5{degrees} for land and 5{degrees} {times} 5{degrees} for ocean. Day and nighttime averages are also given separately for each season. Several derived quantities, such as interannual variations and annual and diurnal harmonics, are provided as well. This data set incorporates an improved representation of nighttime cloudiness by utilizing only those nighttime observations for which the illuminance due to moonlight exceeds a specified threshold. This reduction in the night-detection bias increases the computed global average total cloud cover by about 2%. The impact on computed diurnal cycles is even greater, particularly over the oceans where is found, in contrast to previous surface-based climatologies, that cloudiness is often greater at night than during the day.

  10. Residential Building Energy Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1990-09-01

    PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) provides an easy-to-use and accurate method of estimating the energy and cost savings associated with various energy conservation measures in site-built single-family homes. Measures such as ceiling, wall, and floor insulation; different window type and glazing layers; infiltration levels; and equipment efficiency can be considered. PEAR also allows the user to consider the effects of roof and wall color, movable night insulation on the windows, reflective and heatmore » absorbing glass, an attached sunspace, and use of a night temperature setback. Regression techniques permit adjustments for different building geometries, window areas and orientations, wall construction, and extension of the data to 880 U.S. locations determined by climate parameters. Based on annual energy savings, user-specified costs of conservation measures, fuel, lifetime of measure, loan period, and fuel escalation and interest rates, PEAR calculates two economic indicators; the Simple Payback Period (SPP) and the Savings-to-Investment Ratio (SIR). Energy and cost savings of different sets of conservation measures can be compared in a single run. The program can be used both as a research tool by energy policy analysts and as a method for nontechnical energy calculation by architects, home builders, home owners, and others in the building industry.« less

  11. Seismicity on the western Greenland Ice Sheet: Surface fracture in the vicinity of active moulins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmichael, Joshua D.; Joughin, Ian; Behn, Mark D.; Das, Sarah; King, Matt A.; Stevens, Laura; Lizarralde, Dan

    2015-06-25

    We analyzed geophone and GPS measurements collected within the ablation zone of the western Greenland Ice Sheet during a ~35 day period of the 2011 melt season to study changes in ice deformation before, during, and after a supraglacial lake drainage event. During rapid lake drainage, ice flow speeds increased to ~400% of winter values, and icequake activity peaked. At times >7 days after drainage, this seismicity developed variability over both diurnal and longer periods (~10 days), while coincident ice speeds fell to ~150% of winter values and showed nightly peaks in spatial variability. Approximately 95% of all detected seismicity in the lake basin and its immediate vicinity was triggered by fracture propagation within near-surface ice (<330 m deep) that generated Rayleigh waves. Icequakes occurring before and during drainage frequently were collocated with the down flow (west) end of the primary hydrofracture through which the lake drained but shifted farther west and outside the lake basin after the drainage. We interpret these results to reveal vertical hydrofracture opening and local uplift during the drainage, followed by enhanced seismicity and ice flow on the downstream side of the lake basin. This region collocates with interferometric synthetic aperture radar-measured speedup in previous years and could reflect the migration path of the meltwater supplied to the bed by the lake. The diurnal seismic signal can be associated with nightly reductions in surface melt input that increase effective basal pressure and traction, thereby promoting elevated strain in the surficial ice.

  12. GROUND-BASED DETECTIONS OF THERMAL EMISSION FROM THE DENSE HOT JUPITER WASP-43b IN THE H AND K{sub s} BANDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, W.; Zhao, G.; Van Boekel, R.; Henning, Th.; Madhusudhan, N.; Chen, G.

    2013-06-10

    We report new detections of thermal emission from the transiting hot Jupiter WASP-43b in the H and K{sub s} bands as observed at secondary eclipses. The observations were made with the WIRCam instrument on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We obtained a secondary eclipse depth of 0.103{sub -0.017}{sup +0.017}%$ and 0.194{sub -0.029}{sup +0.029} in the H and K{sub s} bands, respectively. The K{sub s}-band depth is consistent with the previous measurement in the narrow band centered at 2.09 {mu}m by Gillon et al. Our eclipse depths in both bands are consistent with a blackbody spectrum with a temperature of {approx}1850 K, slightly higher than the dayside equilibrium temperature without day-night energy redistribution. Based on theoretical models of the dayside atmosphere of WASP-43b, our data constrain the day-night energy redistribution in the planet to be {approx}< 15%-25%, depending on the metal content in the atmosphere. Combined with energy balance arguments, our data suggest that a strong temperature inversion is unlikely in the dayside atmosphere of WASP-43b. However, a weak inversion cannot be strictly ruled out at the current time. Future observations are required to place detailed constraints on the chemical composition of the atmosphere.

  13. Comparison of Battery Life Across Real-World Automotive Drive-Cycles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Earleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2011-11-01

    Laboratories run around-the-clock aging tests to try to understand as quickly as possible how long new Li-ion battery designs will last under certain duty cycles. These tests may include factors such as duty cycles, climate, battery power profiles, and battery stress statistics. Such tests are generally accelerated and do not consider possible dwell time at high temperatures and states-of-charge. Battery life-predictive models provide guidance as to how long Li-ion batteries may last under real-world electric-drive vehicle applications. Worst-case aging scenarios are extracted from hundreds of real-world duty cycles developed from vehicle travel surveys. Vehicles examined included PHEV10 and PHEV40 EDVs under fixed (28 degrees C), limited cooling (forced ambient temperature), and aggressive cooling (20 degrees C chilled liquid) scenarios using either nightly charging or opportunity charging. The results show that battery life expectancy is 7.8 - 13.2 years for the PHEV10 using a nightly charge in Phoenix, AZ (hot climate), and that the 'aggressive' cooling scenario can extend battery life by 1-3 years, while the 'limited' cooling scenario shortens battery life by 1-2 years. Frequent (opportunity) charging can reduce battery life by 1 year for the PHEV10, while frequent charging can extend battery life by one-half year.

  14. Metal Hydride Thermal Storage: Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Storage for High-Temperature Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-05

    HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a thermal energy storage system based on a Reversible Metal Hydride Thermochemical (RMHT) system, which uses metal hydride as a heat storage material. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at nightwhen the sun is not outto drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. PNNLs metal hydride material can reversibly store heat as hydrogen cycles in and out of the material. In a RHMT system, metal hydrides remain stable in high temperatures (600- 800C). A high-temperature tank in PNNLs storage system releases heat as hydrogen is absorbed, and a low-temperature tank stores the heat until it is needed. The low-cost material and simplicity of PNNLs thermal energy storage system is expected to keep costs down. The system has the potential to significantly increase energy density.

  15. Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to Electrified Vehicle Charging Loads Using Monte-Carlo Method: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuss, M.; Markel, T.; Kramer, W.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrated purchasing patterns of plug-in vehicles may result in localized distribution transformer overload scenarios. Prolonged periods of transformer overloading causes service life decrements, and in worst-case scenarios, results in tripped thermal relays and residential service outages. This analysis will review distribution transformer load models developed in the IEC 60076 standard, and apply the model to a neighborhood with plug-in hybrids. Residential distribution transformers are sized such that night-time cooling provides thermal recovery from heavy load conditions during the daytime utility peak. It is expected that PHEVs will primarily be charged at night in a residential setting. If not managed properly, some distribution transformers could become overloaded, leading to a reduction in transformer life expectancy, thus increasing costs to utilities and consumers. A Monte-Carlo scheme simulated each day of the year, evaluating 100 load scenarios as it swept through the following variables: number of vehicle per transformer, transformer size, and charging rate. A general method for determining expected transformer aging rate will be developed, based on the energy needs of plug-in vehicles loading a residential transformer.

  16. WEATHER ON THE NEAREST BROWN DWARFS: RESOLVED SIMULTANEOUS MULTI-WAVELENGTH VARIABILITY MONITORING OF WISE J104915.57531906.1AB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biller, Beth A.; Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Mancini, Luigi; Ciceri, Simona; Kopytova, Taisiya G.; Bonnefoy, Mickal; Deacon, Niall R.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Buenzli, Esther; Brandner, Wolfgang; Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L.; Henning, Thomas; Goldman, Bertrand; Southworth, John; Allard, France; Homeier, Derek; Freytag, Bernd; Greiner, Jochen

    2013-11-20

    We present two epochs of MPG/ESO 2.2m GROND simultaneous six-band (r'i'z' JHK) photometric monitoring of the closest known L/T transition brown dwarf binary WISE J104915.57531906.1AB. We report here the first resolved variability monitoring of both the T0.5 and L7.5 components. We obtained 4 hr of focused observations on the night of 2013 April 22 (UT), as well as 4 hr of defocused (unresolved) observations on the night of 2013 April 16 (UT). We note a number of robust trends in our light curves. The r' and i' light curves appear to be anti-correlated with z' and H for the T0.5 component and in the unresolved light curve. In the defocused dataset, J appears correlated with z' and H and anti-correlated with r' and i', while in the focused dataset we measure no variability for J at the level of our photometric precision, likely due to evolving weather phenomena. In our focused T0.5 component light curve, the K band light curve displays a significant phase offset relative to both H and z'. We argue that the measured phase offsets are correlated with atmospheric pressure probed at each band, as estimated from one-dimensional atmospheric models. We also report low-amplitude variability in i' and z' intrinsic to the L7.5 component.

  17. Structure of the nocturnal boundary layer over a complex terrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, M.J. ); Raman, S. . Dept. of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The complex nature of the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) has been shown extensively in the literature Project STABLE was conducted in 1988 to study NBL turbulence and diffusion over the complex terrain of the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Augusta, Georgia. The third night of the study was particularly interesting because of the unusual phenomena observed in the structure of the NBL. Further analyses of microscale and mesoscale data from this night are presented using data from SRS network of eight 61 m towers over 900 km{sup 2}, from six launches of an instrumented tethersonde, from permanent SRL meteorological instrumentation at seven levels of the 304 m (1,000 ft) WJBF-TV tower near SRS, and additional data collected at 36 m (CC) by North Carolina State University (NCSU) including a one dimensional sonic anemometer, fine wire thermocouple, and a three dimensional propeller anemometer. Also, data from the nearby Plant Vogtle nuclear power plant observation tower and the National Weather Service at Augusta's Bush Field (AGS) are presented. The passage of a mesoscale phenomenon, defined as a microfront (with an explanation of the nomenclature used), and a vertical composite schematic of the NBL which shows dual low level wind maxima, dual inversions, and a persistent, elevated turbulent layer over a complex terrain are described.

  18. Structure of the nocturnal boundary layer over a complex terrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, M.J.; Raman, S.

    1992-08-01

    The complex nature of the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) has been shown extensively in the literature Project STABLE was conducted in 1988 to study NBL turbulence and diffusion over the complex terrain of the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Augusta, Georgia. The third night of the study was particularly interesting because of the unusual phenomena observed in the structure of the NBL. Further analyses of microscale and mesoscale data from this night are presented using data from SRS network of eight 61 m towers over 900 km{sup 2}, from six launches of an instrumented tethersonde, from permanent SRL meteorological instrumentation at seven levels of the 304 m (1,000 ft) WJBF-TV tower near SRS, and additional data collected at 36 m (CC) by North Carolina State University (NCSU) including a one dimensional sonic anemometer, fine wire thermocouple, and a three dimensional propeller anemometer. Also, data from the nearby Plant Vogtle nuclear power plant observation tower and the National Weather Service at Augusta`s Bush Field (AGS) are presented. The passage of a mesoscale phenomenon, defined as a microfront (with an explanation of the nomenclature used), and a vertical composite schematic of the NBL which shows dual low level wind maxima, dual inversions, and a persistent, elevated turbulent layer over a complex terrain are described.

  19. PRE-DISCOVERY OBSERVATIONS OF CoRoT-1b AND CoRoT-2b WITH THE BEST SURVEY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauer, H.; Erikson, A.; Kabath, P.; Hedelt, P.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Paris, P. v.; Renner, S.; Titz, R.; Voss, H.; Boer, M.; Tournois, G.; Carone, L.; Eigmueller, P.

    2010-01-15

    The Berlin Exoplanet Search Telescope (BEST) wide-angle telescope installed at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence and operated in remote control from Berlin by the Institut fuer Planetenforschung, DLR, has observed the CoRoT target fields prior to the mission. The resulting archive of stellar photometric light curves is used to search for deep transit events announced during CoRoT's alarm mode to aid in fast photometric confirmation of these events. The 'initial run' field of CoRoT (IRa01) was observed with BEST in 2006 November and December for 12 nights. The first 'long run' field (LRc01) was observed from 2005 June to September for 35 nights. After standard CCD data reduction, aperture photometry has been performed using the ISIS image subtraction method. About 30,000 light curves were obtained in each field. Transits of the first detected planets by the CoRoT mission, CoRoT-1b and CoRoT-2b, were found in archived data of the BEST survey and their light curves are presented here. Such detections provide useful information at the early stage of the organization of follow-up observations of satellite alarm-mode planet candidates. In addition, no period change was found over {approx}4 years between the first BEST observation and last available transit observations.

  20. Dworshak Kokanee Population and Entrainment Assessment 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, Eric J.

    2008-11-06

    During this contract, we continued testing underwater strobe lights to determine their effectiveness at repelling kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka away from Dworshak Dam. We tested one set of nine strobe lights flashing at a rate of 360 flashes/min in front of turbine 3 while operating at higher discharges than previously tested. The density and distribution of fish, (thought to be mostly kokanee), were monitored with a split-beam echo sounder. We then compared fish counts and densities during nights when the lights were flashing to counts and densities during adjacent nights without the lights on. On five nights between January 31 and February 28, 2006, when no lights were present, fish counts near turbine 3 averaged eight fish and densities averaged 91 fish/ha. When strobe lights were turned on during five adjacent nights during the same period, mean counts dropped to four fish and densities dropped to 35 fish/ha. The decline in counts (49%) was not statistically significant (p = 0.182), but decline in densities (62%) was significant (p = 0.049). There appeared to be no tendency for fish to habituate to the lights during the night. Test results indicated that strobe lights were able to reduce fish densities by at least 50% in front of turbines operating at higher discharges, which would be sufficient to improve sportfish harvest. We also used split-beam hydroacoustics to monitor the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir during 2005. Estimated abundance of kokanee decreased from the 2004 population estimate. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated 3,011,626 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 15.2%) in Dworshak Reservoir, July 2005. This included 2,135,986 age-0 (90% CI {+-} 15.9%), 769,175 age-1 (90% CI {+-} 16.0%), and 107,465 age-2 (90% CI {+-} 15.2%). Poor survival of kokanee from age-1 to age-2 continued to keep age-2 densities below the management goal of 30-50 adults/ha. Entrainment sampling was conducted with fixed-site split-beam hydroacoustics a minimum of two days per month for a continuous 24 h period when dam operations permitted. The highest fish detection rates from entrainment assessments were again found during nighttime periods and lowest during the day. Fish detection rates were low during high discharges throughout the spring and summer and highest during low discharges in September and November. High discharge during drawdowns for anadromous fish flows in July and August again resulted in low detection rates and susceptibility to entrainment. Index counts of spawning kokanee in four tributary streams totaled 12,742 fish. This data fits the previously developed relationship between spawner counts and adult kokanee abundance in the reservoir.

  1. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, M.; Johnson, Robert; McKinstry, C.

    2006-03-01

    The construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams on the Columbia River resulted in the complete extirpation of the anadromous fishery upstream of these structures. Today, this area is totally dependent upon resident fish resources to support local fisheries. The resident fishing is enhanced by an extensive stocking program for target species in the existing fishery, including kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss). The kokanee fishery in Lake Roosevelt has not been meeting the return goals set by fisheries managers despite the stocking program. Investigations of physical and biological factors that could affect the kokanee population found predation and entrainment had a significant impact on the fish population. In 1999 and 2000, walleye (Sander vitreum) consumed between 15% and 9%, respectively, of the hatchery kokanee within 41 days of their release, while results from a study in the late 1990s estimated that entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam could account for up to 30% of the total mortality of the stocked fish. To address the entrainment loss, the Bonneville Power Administration commissioned a study to determine if fish would avoid areas illuminated by strobe lights in the forebay of the third powerplant. This work was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in conjunction with the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes). From 2002 through 2004, six strobe lights were suspended in the center of the opening to the third powerplant forebay during summer months. Results from those studies indicated that fish appeared to be attracted to the illuminated area but only at night and when flow conditions within the third powerplant forebay were minimal. However, small but consistent results from these studies indicated that under high flow conditions, fish might be avoiding the lights. The 2005 study was designed to examine whether, under high flow conditions near the penstock openings, fish would avoid the lighted regions. Four omnidirectional strobe lights were deployed on the one trash rack directly in front of one turbine penstock. Seven splitbeam transducers were deployed to monitor fish approaching three penstock openings either from in front of the trash racks or moving down the dam behind the trash racks. Four key results emerged from the 2005 study. The results provide insight into the current level of entrainment and how fish respond to strobe lights under high flow conditions. First, very few fish were detected inside the trash racks. Of the more than 3,200 targets identified by the data processing, less than 100 were detected inside the trash racks. Only 23 fish were found inside the trash racks behind the strobe lights. Of those 21 fish, 13 were detected when the lights were on. Most of the fish detected behind the trash racks were above the turbine penstock but were headed downward. No fish were detected at night when minimal flows occurred between midnight and 4:00 a.m. Second, significantly more fish (P < 0.001) were detected in front of the trash racks when the lights were on at night. On a count-per-hour basis, the difference between lights off and lights on was apparent in the early morning hours at depths between 25 m and 50 m from the transducers. The lights were approximately 34 m below the splitbeam transducers, and fish detected at night with lights on were found at a median depth of approximately 35 m, compared to a median depth of from 20.6 to 23.5 m when the lights were off. The differences in depth between lights on and off at night were also significant (P < 0.001). Additionally, the increase in fish occurred only in front of the trash rack where the strobe lights were mounted; there was no increase in the number of detections by the transducers aimed away from the lights. Third, fish clearly manifested a behavioral response to the strobe lights during the day. When the lights were on, fish detected by three of the four transducers generally were swimming north, parallel to the face of the dam. However, the distribution of swimming directions for fish detected by the transducer immediately to the north of the lights was bimodal, with some fish swimming south toward the lighted region. This behavior was similar to that seen at night when the lights were on. Fourth, kokanee, rainbow trout, and walleye were detected near the strobe lights. Data were obtained from three sources: fish size from the hydroacoustic sensors and fish species from gill netting and video recording. Fish ranging in length from 30 to 600 mm (averaging 125 mm) were detected by the splitbeam transducers. There was little difference in target strength for fish detected above 25 m depth with respect to time of day or light treatment. Below 25 m and closer to the strobe lights, larger fish were present when the lights were on during the night, and smaller fish were present during the day.

  2. Interaction of Nocturnal Low-Level Jets with Urban Geometries as seen in Joint URBAN 2003 Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.Lundquist, J; D.Mirocha, J

    2006-09-06

    As accurate modeling of atmospheric flows in urban environments requires sophisticated representation of complex urban geometries, much work has been devoted to treatment of the urban surface. However, the importance of the larger-scale flow impinging upon the urban complex to the flow, transport and dispersion within it and downwind has received less attention. Building-resolving computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are commonly employed to investigate interactions between the flow and three-dimensional structures comprising the urban environment, however such models are typically forced with simplified boundary conditions that fail to include important regional-scale phenomena that can strongly influence the flow within the urban complex and downwind. This paper investigates the interaction of an important and frequently occurring regional-scale phenomenon, the nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ), with urban-scale turbulence and dispersion in Oklahoma City using data from the Joint URBAN 2003 (JU2003) field experiment. Two simulations of nocturnal tracer release experiments from JU2003 using Lawrence Livermore National laboratory's FEM3MP CFD model yield differing levels of agreement with the observations in wind speed, turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and concentration profiles in the urban wake, approximately 750m downwind of the central business district. Profiles of several observed turbulence parameters at this location indicate characteristics of both bottom-up and top-down boundary layers during each of the experiments. These data are consistent with turbulence production due to at least two sources, the complex flow structures of the urban area and the region of strong vertical wind shear occurring beneath the LLJs present each night. While strong LLJs occurred each night, their structures varied considerably, resulting in significant differences in the magnitudes of the turbulence parameters observed during the two experiments. As FEM3MP was forced only with an upwind velocity profile that did not adequately represent the LLJ, the downward propagation of TKE observed during the experiments was absent from the simulations. As such, the differing levels of agreement between the simulations and observations during the two experiments can, in part, be explained by their exclusion of this important larger-scale influence. We demonstrate the ability of the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) to simulate accurate velocity fields during each night, and identify the use of regional-scale simulation data as a promising approach for representing the effects of important regional-scale phenomena such as the LLJ, on urban-scale simulations.

  3. Microclimatic performance of a free-air warming and CO₂ enrichment experiment in windy Wyoming, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCain, Daniel; Smith, David; Morgan, Jack; Kimball, Bruce A.; Pendall, Elise; Miglietta, Franco; Liang, Wenju

    2015-02-06

    In order to plan for global changing climate experiments are being conducted in many countries, but few have monitored the effects of the climate change treatments (warming, elevated CO₂) on the experimental plot microclimate. During three years of an eight year study with year-round feedback-controlled infra-red heater warming (1.5/3.0°C day/night) and growing season free-air CO₂ enrichment (600 ppm) in the mixed-grass prairie of Wyoming, USA, we monitored soil, leaf, canopy-air, above-canopy-air temperatures and relative humidity of control and treated experimental plots and evaluated ecologically important temperature differentials. Leaves were warmed somewhat less than the target settings (1.1 & 1.5°C day/night) but soil was warmed more creating an average that matched the target settings extremely well both during the day and night plus the summer and winter. The site typically has about 50% bare or litter covered soil, therefore soil heat transfer is more critical than in dense canopy ecosystems. The Wyoming site commonly has strong winds (5 ms⁻¹ average) and significant daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations (as much as 30°C daily) but the warming system was nearly always able to maintain the set temperatures regardless of abiotic variation. The within canopy-air was only slightly warmed and above canopy-air was not warmed by the system, therefore convective warming was minor. Elevated CO₂ had no direct effect nor interaction with the warming treatment on microclimate. Relative humidity within the plant canopy was only slightly reduced by warming. Soil water content was reduced by warming but increased by elevated CO₂. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring the microclimate in manipulative field global change experiments so that critical physiological and ecological conclusions can be determined. Highly variable energy demand fluctuations showed that passive IR heater warming systems will not maintain desired warming for much of the time.

  4. Microclimatic performance of a free-air warming and CO₂ enrichment experiment in windy Wyoming, USA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    LeCain, Daniel; Smith, David; Morgan, Jack; Kimball, Bruce A.; Pendall, Elise; Miglietta, Franco; Liang, Wenju

    2015-02-06

    In order to plan for global changing climate experiments are being conducted in many countries, but few have monitored the effects of the climate change treatments (warming, elevated CO₂) on the experimental plot microclimate. During three years of an eight year study with year-round feedback-controlled infra-red heater warming (1.5/3.0°C day/night) and growing season free-air CO₂ enrichment (600 ppm) in the mixed-grass prairie of Wyoming, USA, we monitored soil, leaf, canopy-air, above-canopy-air temperatures and relative humidity of control and treated experimental plots and evaluated ecologically important temperature differentials. Leaves were warmed somewhat less than the target settings (1.1 & 1.5°C day/night)more » but soil was warmed more creating an average that matched the target settings extremely well both during the day and night plus the summer and winter. The site typically has about 50% bare or litter covered soil, therefore soil heat transfer is more critical than in dense canopy ecosystems. The Wyoming site commonly has strong winds (5 ms⁻¹ average) and significant daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations (as much as 30°C daily) but the warming system was nearly always able to maintain the set temperatures regardless of abiotic variation. The within canopy-air was only slightly warmed and above canopy-air was not warmed by the system, therefore convective warming was minor. Elevated CO₂ had no direct effect nor interaction with the warming treatment on microclimate. Relative humidity within the plant canopy was only slightly reduced by warming. Soil water content was reduced by warming but increased by elevated CO₂. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring the microclimate in manipulative field global change experiments so that critical physiological and ecological conclusions can be determined. Highly variable energy demand fluctuations showed that passive IR heater warming systems will not maintain desired warming for much of the time.« less

  5. WIND VARIABILITY IN BZ CAMELOPARDALIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honeycutt, R. K.; Kafka, S.; Robertson, J. W. E-mail: skafka@dtm.ciw.edu

    2013-02-01

    Sequences of spectra of the nova-like cataclysmic variable (CV) BZ Cam were acquired on nine nights in 2005-2006 in order to study the time development of episodes of wind activity known to occur frequently in this star. We confirm the results of Ringwald and Naylor that the P-Cygni absorption components of the lines mostly evolve from higher expansion velocity to lower velocity as an episode progresses. We also commonly find blueshifted emission components in the H{alpha} line profile, whose velocities and durations strongly suggest that they are also due to the wind. Curiously, Ringwald and Naylor reported common occurrences of redshifted H{alpha} emission components in their BZ Cam spectra. We have attributed these emission components in H{alpha} to occasions when gas concentrations in the bipolar wind (both front side and back side) become manifested as emission lines as they move beyond the disk's outer edge. We also suggest, based on changes in the P-Cygni profiles during an episode, that the progression from larger to smaller expansion velocities is due to the higher velocity portions of a wind concentration moving beyond the edge of the continuum light of the disk first, leaving a net redward shift of the remaining absorption profile. We derive a new orbital ephemeris for BZ Cam, using the radial velocity of the core of the He I {lambda}5876 line, finding P = 0.15353(4). Using this period, the wind episodes in BZ Cam are found to be concentrated near the inferior conjunction of the emission line source. This result helps confirm that the winds in nova-like CVs are often phase dependent, in spite of the puzzling implication that such winds lack axisymmetry. We argue that the radiation-driven wind in BZ Cam receives an initial boost by acting on gas that has been lifted above the disk by the interaction of the accretion stream with the disk, thereby imposing flickering timescales onto the wind events, as well as leading to an orbital modulation of the wind due to the non-axisymmetric nature of the stream/disk interaction. Simultaneous photometry and spectroscopy were acquired on three nights in order to test the possible connection between flickering continuum light and the strength of the front-side wind. We found strong agreement on one night, some agreement on another, and no agreement on the third. We suggest that some flickering events lead to only back-side winds which will not have associated P-Cygni profiles.

  6. How Science, Innovation, and Mikayla Nelson are Changing the State of Our Union

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The faces of America’s future success in science and engineering are everywhere. She might be the friendly employee at a neighborhood store... or be seated with the First Lady at the State of the Union. In the case of Mikayla Nelson, she’s both. Last night, the high school freshman from Billings, Montana was seated next to the First Lady. Mikayla earned her place there – as well as personal recognition from the President – by leading her team to a first place finish at the Department of Energy’s National Science Bowl for the design document of their solar car. During her visit to D.C., Mikayla came by the Department's headquarters and met with Secretary Steven Chu and Director of Science Bill Brinkman. She also answered a few questions about her experiences and inspirations.

  7. Natural sulfur flux from the Gulf of Mexico: dimethyl sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, and sulfur dioxide. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Valin, C.C.; Luria, M.; Wellman, D.L.; Gunter, R.L.; Pueschel, R.F.

    1987-06-01

    Atmospheric measurements of natural sulfur compounds were performed over the northern Gulf of Mexico during the late summer months of 1984. Air samples were collected with an instrumented aircraft at elevations of 30-3500 m, during both day and night. Most air samples were representative of the clean maritime atmosphere, although some were from continental contaminated air during periods of offshore flow at the coastline. In all samples, carbonyl sulfide concentrations were within the range of 400-500 pptv. Conversely, the dimethyl sulfide concentrations showed significant variability: during clean atmospheric conditions the average of all measurements was 27 pptv, whereas under polluted conditions the average was 7 pptv. Measureable quantities of dimethyl sulfide (>5 pptv) were not observed above the boundary layer. The average sulfur dioxide concentration measured in the marine (clean) atmosphere was 215 pptv, which is consistent with the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide being its major source.

  8. Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    /2015 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Day LJ54 Gessner LJ67 Khalil IH LJ49 Fromme Night LK21 Sension IH LJ41 Fennel LJ43 Fiuza DS 11/1/2015 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu

  9. Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Day LL41 He DD Day IH Night LK86 Albert SPI 4/1/2016 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Day DD - SPI IH Coffee LL72

  10. Video monitoring of atmospheric icing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wareing, J.B.; Chetwood, P.A.

    1995-12-31

    Over the past six years, EA Technology has been involved in the remote monitoring of test spans and samples of overhead transmission line conductors in the UK in areas chosen for their severe winter weather. The sites are unmanned and regularly suffer gales, blizzards and severe icing conditions. Test samples at the sites are monitored day and night using automate, computer and remotely controlled video and still cameras using both the visible and near infrared spectrum. Video and still picture data is stored on site for periodic collection. Meteorological and load force data is collected and also stored at these remote sites and is sent automatically by mobile phone link to a computer at the EA Technology center. All this data can also be monitored at any time at the center over 200 miles away.

  11. C-105 heel pit removed and C-105 dome cut paves way for new retrieval technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, Thomas C.; Sutey, Michael J.

    2013-06-10

    For just the second time, crews have cut a hole in the top of an active radioactive waste storage tank at Hanford. Workers began cutting a 55-inch hole in the top of Tank C-105 last Tuesday night on graveyard shift, completing the cut early Wednesday. The hole will allow for installation of the Mobile Arm Retrieval System (MARS) Vacuum into the tank. The cut was made through 17 inches of concrete and rebar using the newly developed rotary-core cutting system, which uses a laser-guided steel canister with teeth on the bottom to drill a round hole into the tank dome. The project was completed safely and successfully in a high-rad area without contamination or significant dose to workers.

  12. Space reactor/Stirling cycle systems for high power Lunar applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitz, P.D.; Mason, L.S.

    1994-09-01

    NASA`s Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) has proposed the use of high power nuclear power systems on the lunar surface as a necessary alternative to solar power. Because of the long lunar night ({approximately} 14 earth days) solar powered systems with the requisite energy storage in the form of regenerative fuel cells or batteries becomes prohibitively heavy at high power levels ({approximately} 100 kWe). At these high power levels nuclear power systems become an enabling technology for variety of missions. One way of producing power on the lunar surface is with an SP-100 class reactor coupled with Stirling power converters. In this study, analysis and characterization of the SP-100 class reactor coupled with Free Piston Stirling Power Conversion (FPSPC) system will be performed. Comparison of results with previous studies of other systems, particularly Brayton and Thermionic, are made.

  13. Dual LED/incandescent security fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gauna, Kevin Wayne

    2005-06-21

    A dual LED and incandescent security lighting system uses a hybrid approach to LED illumination. It combines an ambient LED illuminator with a standard incandescent lamp on a motion control sensor. The LED illuminator will activate with the onset of darkness (daylight control) and typically remain on during the course of the night ("always on"). The LED illumination, typically amber, is sufficient to provide low to moderate level lighting coverage to the wall and ground area adjacent to and under the fixture. The incandescent lamp is integrated with a motion control circuit and sensor. When movement in the field of view is detected (after darkness), the incandescent lamp is switched on, providing an increased level of illumination to the area. Instead of an "always on" LED illuminator, the LEDs may also be switched off when the incandescent lamp is switched on.

  14. Applications for space power by laser transmission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landis, G.A.

    1994-12-31

    A new method for providing power to space consists of using high-power CW lasers on the ground to beam power to photovoltaic receivers in space. Such large lasers could be located at cloud-free sites at one or more ground locations, and use large mirrors with adaptive optical correction to reduce the beam spread due to diffraction or atmospheric turbulence. This can result in lower requirements for battery storage, due to continuous illumination of arrays even during periods of shadow by the Earth, and higher power output, due to the higher efficiency of photovoltaic arrays under laser illumination compared to solar and the ability to achieve higher intensities of illumination. Applications include providing power for satellites during eclipse, providing power to resurrect satellites which are failing due to solar array degradation, powering orbital transfer vehicles or lunar transfer shuttles, and providing night power to a solar array on the moon.

  15. LCLS-scheduling-run_6_Ver4.xlsx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Day IH L431 Frank Com HR CXI inhouse L456 Krasniqi L481/ L481/ Com. IH MEC L525 Night Feng RD Timing L481/494 Com L481/494 L406 Berrah L434 Fuchs June 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu

  16. LCLS-scheduling-run_V_Ver9c.xlsx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Day Com Com Com Com Com L421 Coffee Night L477 Robinson Gruebel (L304, run 4) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Thur Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Day L498

  17. Diurnal heat storage in direct-gain passive-solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Neeper, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a simplified method for predicting temperature swings in direct-gain buildings. It is called the DHC method due to the use of a diurnal heat capacity (DHC). Diurnal heat capacity is a measure of the effective amount of heat stored during a sunny day and then released at night - the typical 24-hour diurnal cycle. This enables prediction of the maximum temperature swings experienced in the building and can be calculated using a single 24-hour harmonic. The advantage is that closed-form analytic solutions can be obtained for a variety of simple and layered-wall configurations. Higher harmonic components are accounted for by a correction factor. The method is suitable for us by hand or on a programmable calculator.

  18. Passive solar design handbooks: Vol III: passive solar design analysis and supplement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Jones, R.W.; Kosciewicz, C.E.; Lazarus, G.S.; McFarland, R.D.; Wray, W.O.

    1983-01-01

    This book applies the Los Alamos Solar Load Ratio (SLR) method to the design of passive solar heating systems, with an emphasis on the average annual heating energy consumption. Recommendations are given on minimizing heating energy consumption by appropriate choices of conservation level and solar system parameters. Analytical methods and supporting tables are presented which enable simple, fast estimates of the heating energy consumption as part of the design process. Topics considered include SLR correlations, the load collector ratio (LCR) method, sensitivity data, cooling considerations, conservation formulas, design procedure, life-cycle costs, high-mass direct gain buildings, low-mass sun-tempered buildings, sunspaces, off-reference night insulation, correlation equations, and mixed systems.

  19. Toxicity of materials used in the manufacture of lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1994-05-01

    The growing interest in battery systems has led to major advances in high-energy and/or high-power-density lithium batteries. Potential applications for lithium batteries include radio transceivers, portable electronic instrumentation, emergency locator transmitters, night vision devices, human implantable devices, as well as uses in the aerospace and defense programs. With this new technology comes the use of new solvent and electrolyte systems in the research, development, and production of lithium batteries. The goal is to enhance lithium battery technology with the use of non-hazardous materials. Therefore, the toxicity and health hazards associated with exposure to the solvents and electrolytes used in current lithium battery research and development is evaluated and described.

  20. Combined Modular Pumped Hydro Energy Storage Plus Solar PV Proposal for Rio Rancho High School, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibeault, Mark Leonide

    2015-08-25

    This is a proposal to locate a combined Modular Pumped Hydro (MPH) Energy Storage plus PV solar facility at Rio Rancho High School, NM. The facility will functionally provide electricity at night derived from renewable solar energy. Additionally the facility will provide STEM related educational opportunities for students and staff of the school, public community outreach, and validation of an energy storage approach applicable for the Nation (up to 1,000,000 kWh per installation). The proposal will summarize the nature of electricity, why energy storage is useful, present the combined MPH and solar PV production design, present how the actual design will be built and operated in a sustainable manner, how the project could be funded, and how the project could be used in STEM related activities.

  1. What oilheat merketers should look for when purchasing commercial insurance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, P.

    1997-02-01

    Choosing the right insurance policy is important. It is not only a matter of saving money; it could mean the company`s survival. The first task in putting together an insurance and risk management program is to identify the company`s risks. One way to understand the exposures is to ask, {open_quotes}What keeps me up at night?{close_quotes} Is it the possibility of a truck turning over on the highway, a driver over-pumping or making an erroneous delivery, or misuse of a terminal access key? Or perhaps all of the above. Once risks are identified, a company has several ways to handle them. One option is to eliminate or at least limit them. Companies in more rural areas may decide not to diversify into liquid gas, for example, for the extra risk that type of fuel brings with it.

  2. Inversion Breakup in Small Rocky Mountain and Alpine Basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whiteman, Charles D.; Pospichal, Bernhard; Eisenbach, Stefan; Weihs, P.; Clements, Craig B.; Steinacker, Reinhold; Mursch-Radlgruber, Erich; Dorninger, Manfred

    2004-08-01

    Comparisons are made between the post-sunrise breakup of temperature inversions in two similar closed basins in quite different climate settings, one in the eastern Alps and one in the Rocky Mountains. The small, high-altitude, limestone sinkholes have both experienced extreme temperature minima below -50C. On undisturbed clear nights, temperature inversions reach to 120 m heights in both sinkholes, but are much stronger in the drier Rocky Mountain basin (24K versus 13K). Inversion destruction takes place 2.6 to 3 hours after sunrise and is accomplished primarily by subsidence warming associated with the removal of air from the base of the inversion by the upslope flows that develop over the sidewalls. Differences in inversion strengths and post-sunrise heating rates are caused by differences in the surface energy budget, with drier soil and a higher sensible heat flux in the Rocky Mountain sinkhole.

  3. Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1/2016 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Day LO35 X114 SPI X115 LO58 Kong LO63 Staub LN34 Westenhoff Day LM95 Wang LN17 Cherezov LO47 Pollack Day PCS PCS PCS PCS PCS PCS PCS PCS PCS Night PCS LO46 Chen LN43 Pontius LO08 Datt. LO63 LO08 Dattlebaum 9/1/2016 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

  4. Solar-powered cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2015-07-28

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system that uses nanostructural materials such as aerogels, zeolites, and sol gels as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material while the material is at a relatively low temperature, perhaps at night. During daylight hours, when the nanostructural materials is heated by the sun, the refrigerant are thermally desorbed from the surface of the aerogel, thereby creating a pressurized gas phase in the vessel that contains the aerogel. This solar-driven pressurization forces the heated gaseous refrigerant through a condenser, followed by an expansion valve. In the condenser, heat is removed from the refrigerant, first by circulating air or water. Eventually, the cooled gaseous refrigerant expands isenthalpically through a throttle valve into an evaporator, in a fashion similar to that in more conventional vapor recompression systems.

  5. Session: What have studies of communications towers suggested regarding the impact of guy wires and lights on birds and bats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerlinger, Paul

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of one presentation followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The paper ''Wind turbines and Avian Risk: Lessons from Communications Towers'' was given by Paul Kerlinger. The presenter outlined lessons that have been learned from research on communications (not cell) towers and about the impacts of guy wires and lights on birds and bats and how they could be useful to wind energy developers. The paper also provided specific information about a large 'fatality' event that occurred at the Mountaineer, WC wind energy site in May 2003, and a table of Night Migrant Carcass search findings for various wind sites in the US.

  6. Hodges residence: performance of a direct gain passive solar home in Iowa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, L.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for the performance of the Hodges residence, a 2200-square-foot earth-sheltered direct gain passive solar home in Ames, Iowa, during the 1979-80 heating season, its first occupied season. No night insulation was used on its 500 square feet of double-pane glass. Total auxiliary heat required was 43 GJ (41 MBtu) gross and 26 GJ (25 MBtu) net, amounting, respectively, to 60 and 36 kJ/C/sup 0/-day-m/sup 2/ (2.9 and 1.8 Btu/F/sup 0/-day-ft/sup 2/). The heating season was unusually cloudy and included the cloudiest January in the 21 years of Ames insolation measurements. Results are also presented for the performance of the hollowcore floor which serves as the main storage mass and for the comfort range in the house.

  7. Hodges residence: performance of a direct gain passive solar home in Iowa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, L.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for the performance of the Hodges Residence, a 2200-square-foot earth-sheltered direct gain passive solar home in Ames, Iowa, during the 1979-80 heating season, its first occupied season. No night insulation was used on its 500 square feet of double-pane glass. Total auxiliary heat required was 43 GJ (41 MBTU) gross and 26 GJ (25 MBTU) net, amounting, respectively, to 60 and 36 kJ/C/sup 0/-day-m/sup 2/ (2.9 and 1.8 BTU/F/sup 0/-day-ft/sup 2/). The heating season was unusually cloudy and included the cloudiest January in the 21 years of Ames insolation measurements. Results are also presented for the performance of the hollow-core floor which serves as the main storage mass and for the comfort range in the house.

  8. Cost-Effective Solar Thermal Energy Storage: Thermal Energy Storage With Supercritical Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: UCLA and JPL are creating cost-effective storage systems for solar thermal energy using new materials and designs. A major drawback to the widespread use of solar thermal energy is its inability to cost-effectively supply electric power at night. State-of-the-art energy storage for solar thermal power plants uses molten salt to help store thermal energy. Molten salt systems can be expensive and complex, which is not attractive from a long-term investment standpoint. UCLA and JPL are developing a supercritical fluid-based thermal energy storage system, which would be much less expensive than molten-salt-based systems. The teams design also uses a smaller, modular, single-tank design that is more reliable and scalable for large-scale storage applications.

  9. Field surveys of office equipment operating patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webber, Carrie A.; Roberson, Judy A.; Brown, Richard E.; Payne, Christopher T.; Nordman, Bruce; Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2001-09-05

    This paper presents the results of 11 after-hours walk-throughs of offices in the San Francisco CA and Washington D.C. areas. The primary purpose of these walk-throughs was to collect data on turn-off rates for various types of office equipment (computers, monitors, printers, fax machines, copiers, and multifunction products). Each piece of equipment observed was recorded and its power status noted (e.g. on, off, low power). Whenever possible, we also recorded whether power management was enabled on the equipment. The floor area audited was recorded as well, which allowed us to calculate equipment densities. We found that only 44 percent of computers, 32 percent of monitors, and 25 percent of printers were turned off at night. Based on our observations we estimate success rates of 56 percent for monitor power management and 96 percent for enabling of power management on printers.

  10. Thermal and Electrical Analysis of Mars Rover RTGs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred; Or, Chuen T; Skrabek, Emanuel A

    2012-01-19

    The RTG designs described in the preceding paper in these proceedings were analyzed for their thermal and electrical performance. Each analysis consisted of coupled thermal, thermoelectric, and electrical analyses, using Fairchild-generated specialized computer codes. These were supplemented with preliminary structural and mass analyses. For each design, various cases representing different operating conditions (water-cooled/radiation-cooled, BOM/EOM, summer/winter, day/night) and different thermoelectric performance assumptions (from conservative to optimistic) were analyzed; and for every case, the heat flow rates, temperatures and electrical performance of each layer of thermoelectric elements and of the overall RTG were determined. The analyses were performed in great detail, to obtain accurate answers permitting meaningful comparisons between different designs. The results presented show the RTG performance achievable with current technology, and the performance improvements that would be achievable with various technology developments.

  11. Sustainable Retrofit of Residential Roofs Using Metal Roofing Panels, Thin-Film Photovoltaic Laminates, and PCM Heat Sink Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, Jan; Miller, William A; Childs, Phillip W; Biswas, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    During September-October 2009, research teams representing Metal Construction Association (the largest North American trade association representing metal building manufacturers, builders, and material suppliers), CertainTeed (one of the largest U.S. manufacturers of thermal insulation and building envelope materials), Unisolar (largest U.S. producer of amorphous silicone photo-voltaic (PV) laminates), Phase Change Energy (manufacturer of bio-based PCM), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) installed three experimental attics utilizing different roof retrofit strategies in the ORNL campus. The main goal of this project was experimental evaluation of a newly-developed sustainable re-roofing technology utilizing amorphous silicone PV laminates integrated with metal roof and PCM heat sink. The experimental attic with PV laminate was expected to work during the winter time as a passive solar collector with PCM storing solar heat, absorbed during the day, and increasing overall attic air temperature during the night.

  12. Storm-induced changes of the topside ionosphere as deduced from incoherent-scatter radars. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunn, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    Incoherent scatter radar observations from Millstone Hill, Saint Santin, and Arecibo are used to illustrate changes of the topside ionosphere during a geomagnetic storm. These observations consist of electron density, electron and ion temperatures, and ion velocity components parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. These parameters can further describe changes in ion composition, electric fields, and neutral winds. Attention is given to a specific storm during the Equinox Transition Study (ETS) of September 1984. In order to isolate the storm effects in the topside ionosphere, a comparison will be made between a disturbed and quiet day. A novel result from this study is the finding of correlated oscillations between parallel and perpendicular ion velocity components which are apparently storm induced. Previously, these oscillations have been observed primarily at night, but now it's noticed that during storm conditions there are prominent oscillations during the day.

  13. Study of magnetic activity effects on the thermospheric winds in the low ionosphere. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davila, R.C.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine the effects of magnetic activity on the low latitude F-region thermospheric winds. The F-region (120-1600 km) is a partially ionized medium where O+ and O are the major ion and neutral species, respectively. The thermospheric winds at these altitudes are driven primarily by pressure gradient forces resulting from the solar heating during the day and cooling at night. For this study, the author used measured Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) winds at Arequipa (16.5 deg S, 71.5 deg W) and measured FPI and incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) winds at Arecibo (18.6 deg N, 66.8 deg W).

  14. Technology Solutions Case Study: Hydronic Systems: Designing for Setback Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-05-01

    For years, conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has specified two points: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads, and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. Determining the appropriateness of setback for a particular project is the first step. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step-by-step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  15. Electric rate that shifts hourly may foretell spot-market kWh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, N.

    1985-11-25

    Four California industrial plants have cut their electricity bills up to 16% by shifting from the traditional time-of-use rates to an experimental real-time program (RTP) that varies prices hourly. The users receive a price schedule reflecting changing generating costs one day in advance to encourage them to increase power consumption during the cheapest time periods. Savings during the pilot program range between $11,000 and $32,000 per customer. The hourly cost breakdown encourages consumption during the night and early morning. The signalling system could be expanded to cogenerators and independent small power producers. If an electricity spot market develops, forecasters think a place on the stock exchanges for future-delivery contracts could develop in the future.

  16. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2006-12-21

    Despite a small storm that came through the area last night with wind gusts peaking at 45 MPH, progress continues to be made in restoring power to customers who lost power during the December 14-15 storms which hit the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 95,971 customers remain without power, down from 1.8 million customers. The wind storm which affected the area yesterday was not as bad as previously expected, with the majority of the customer outages in the BC Hydro region, and 3,000 additional customer outages in the Puget Sound Energy service area. The customers without power represent 5 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Washington. The majority of customers without power are served by Puget Sound Energy, BC Hydro, and Seattle City Light.

  17. WEIGHING THE NON-TRANSITING HOT JUPITER {tau} Boo b

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodler, F.; Ribas, I.; Lopez-Morales, M.

    2012-07-01

    We report the detection of the orbital velocity of non-transiting hot Jupiter {tau} Boo b. By employing high-resolution ground-based spectroscopy around 2.3 {mu}m during one half-night, we are able to detect carbon monoxide absorption lines produced in the planet atmosphere, which shift significantly in wavelength during the course of the observations due to the orbital motion of the planet. This detection of the planetary signal results in the determination of the orbital inclination as being i = 47{sup +7}{sub -6} deg and, furthermore, allows us to solve for the exact planetary mass, m{sub p} 5.6 {+-} 0.7 M{sub Jup}. This clearly confirms the planetary nature of the non-transiting companion to {tau} Boo.

  18. SECURITY MODELING FOR MARITIME PORT DEFENSE RESOURCE ALLOCATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, S.; Dunn, D.

    2010-09-07

    Redeployment of existing law enforcement resources and optimal use of geographic terrain are examined for countering the threat of a maritime based small-vessel radiological or nuclear attack. The evaluation was based on modeling conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory that involved the development of options for defensive resource allocation that can reduce the risk of a maritime based radiological or nuclear threat. A diverse range of potential attack scenarios has been assessed. As a result of identifying vulnerable pathways, effective countermeasures can be deployed using current resources. The modeling involved the use of the Automated Vulnerability Evaluation for Risks of Terrorism (AVERT{reg_sign}) software to conduct computer based simulation modeling. The models provided estimates for the probability of encountering an adversary based on allocated resources including response boats, patrol boats and helicopters over various environmental conditions including day, night, rough seas and various traffic flow rates.

  19. Macrophysical and optical properties of midlatitude cirrus clouds from four ground-based lidars and collocated CALIOP observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, M.; Morille, Y.; Noel, V.; Keckhut, P.; Winker, D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Chervet, P.; Roblin, A.

    2010-05-27

    Ground-based lidar and CALIOP datasets gathered over four mid-latitude sites, two US and two French sites, are used to evaluate the consistency of cloud macrophysical and optical property climatologies that can be derived by such datasets. The consistency in average cloud height (both base and top height) between the CALIOP and ground datasets ranges from -0.4km to +0.5km. The cloud geometrical thickness distributions vary significantly between the different datasets, due in part to the original vertical resolutions of the lidar profiles. Average cloud geometrical thicknesses vary from 1.2 to 1.9km, i.e. by more than 50%. Cloud optical thickness distributions in subvisible, semi-transparent and moderate intervals differ by more than 50% between ground and space-based datasets. The cirrus clouds with 2 optical thickness below 0.1 (not included in historical cloud climatologies) represent 30-50% of the non-opaque cirrus class. The differences in average cloud base altitude between ground and CALIOP datasets of 0.0-0.1 km, 0.0-0.2 km and 0.0-0.2 km can be attributed to irregular sampling of seasonal variations in the ground-based data, to day-night differences in detection capabilities by CALIOP, and to the restriction to situations without low-level clouds in ground-based data, respectively. The cloud geometrical thicknesses are not affected by irregular sampling of seasonal variations in the ground-based data, while up to 0.0-0.2 km and 0.1-0.3 km differences can be attributed to day-night differences in detection capabilities by CALIOP, and to the restriction to situations without lowlevel clouds in ground-based data, respectively.

  20. Dimethyl sulfide in the Amazon rain forest: DMS in the Amazon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jardine, K.; Yañez-Serrano, A. M.; Williams, J.; Kunert, N.; Jardine, A.; Taylor, T.; Abrell, L.; Artaxo, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.; et al

    2015-01-08

    Surface-to-atmosphere emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) may impact global climate 44 through the formation of gaseous sulfuric acid, which can yield secondary sulfate 45 aerosols and contribute to new particle formation. While oceans are generally 46 considered the dominant source of DMS, a shortage of ecosystem observations prevents 47 an accurate analysis of terrestrial DMS sources. Using mass spectrometry, we quantified 48 ambient DMS mixing ratios within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem in the 49 central Amazon Basin in real-time (2010-2011) and at high vertical resolution (2013-50 2014). Elevated but highly variable DMS mixing ratios were observed within themore » 51 canopy, showing clear evidence of a net ecosystem source to the atmosphere during 52 both day and night in both the dry and wet seasons. Periods of high DMS mixing ratios 53 lasting up to 8 hours (up to 160 ppt) often occurred within the canopy and near the 54 surface during many evenings and nights. Daytime gradients showed mixing ratios (up 55 to 80 ppt) peaking near the top of the canopy as well as near the ground following a rain 56 event. The spatial and temporal distribution of DMS suggests that ambient levels and 57 their potential climatic impacts are dominated by local soil and plant emissions. A soil 58 source was confirmed by measurements of DMS emission fluxes from Amazon soils as 59 a function of temperature and soil moisture. Furthermore, light and temperature 60 dependent DMS emissions were measured from seven tropical tree species. Our study 61 has important implications for understanding terrestrial DMS sources and their role in 62 coupled land-atmosphere climate feedbacks. 63« less

  1. Seismicity on the western Greenland Ice Sheet: Surface fracture in the vicinity of active moulins

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carmichael, Joshua D.; Joughin, Ian; Behn, Mark D.; Das, Sarah; King, Matt A.; Stevens, Laura; Lizarralde, Dan

    2015-06-25

    We analyzed geophone and GPS measurements collected within the ablation zone of the western Greenland Ice Sheet during a ~35 day period of the 2011 melt season to study changes in ice deformation before, during, and after a supraglacial lake drainage event. During rapid lake drainage, ice flow speeds increased to ~400% of winter values, and icequake activity peaked. At times >7 days after drainage, this seismicity developed variability over both diurnal and longer periods (~10 days), while coincident ice speeds fell to ~150% of winter values and showed nightly peaks in spatial variability. Approximately 95% of all detected seismicitymore » in the lake basin and its immediate vicinity was triggered by fracture propagation within near-surface ice (<330 m deep) that generated Rayleigh waves. Icequakes occurring before and during drainage frequently were collocated with the down flow (west) end of the primary hydrofracture through which the lake drained but shifted farther west and outside the lake basin after the drainage. We interpret these results to reveal vertical hydrofracture opening and local uplift during the drainage, followed by enhanced seismicity and ice flow on the downstream side of the lake basin. This region collocates with interferometric synthetic aperture radar-measured speedup in previous years and could reflect the migration path of the meltwater supplied to the bed by the lake. The diurnal seismic signal can be associated with nightly reductions in surface melt input that increase effective basal pressure and traction, thereby promoting elevated strain in the surficial ice.« less

  2. Dimethyl sulfide in the Amazon rain forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jardine, Kolby; Yanez-Serrano, A. M.; Williams, J.; Kunert, N.; Jardine, A.; Taylor, T.; Abrell, L.; Artaxo, Paulo; Guenther, Alex B.; Hewitt, C. N.; House, E.; Florentino, A. P.; Manzi, A.; Higuchi, N.; Kesselmeier, J.; Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Derstroff, B.; Fuentes, J.; Martin, Scot T.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-to-atmosphere emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) may impact global climate 44 through the formation of gaseous sulfuric acid, which can yield secondary sulfate 45 aerosols and contribute to new particle formation. While oceans are generally 46 considered the dominant source of DMS, a shortage of ecosystem observations prevents 47 an accurate analysis of terrestrial DMS sources. Using mass spectrometry, we quantified 48 ambient DMS mixing ratios within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem in the 49 central Amazon Basin in real-time (2010-2011) and at high vertical resolution (2013-50 2014). Elevated but highly variable DMS mixing ratios were observed within the 51 canopy, showing clear evidence of a net ecosystem source to the atmosphere during 52 both day and night in both the dry and wet seasons. Periods of high DMS mixing ratios 53 lasting up to 8 hours (up to 160 ppt) often occurred within the canopy and near the 54 surface during many evenings and nights. Daytime gradients showed mixing ratios (up 55 to 80 ppt) peaking near the top of the canopy as well as near the ground following a rain 56 event. The spatial and temporal distribution of DMS suggests that ambient levels and 57 their potential climatic impacts are dominated by local soil and plant emissions. A soil 58 source was confirmed by measurements of DMS emission fluxes from Amazon soils as 59 a function of temperature and soil moisture. Furthermore, light and temperature 60 dependent DMS emissions were measured from seven tropical tree species. Our study 61 has important implications for understanding terrestrial DMS sources and their role in 62 coupled land-atmosphere climate feedbacks. 63

  3. THERMAL PROCESSES GOVERNING HOT-JUPITER RADII

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spiegel, David S.; Burrows, Adam E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu

    2013-07-20

    There have been many proposed explanations for the larger-than-expected radii of some transiting hot Jupiters, including either stellar or orbital energy deposition deep in the atmosphere or deep in the interior. In this paper, we explore the important influences on hot-Jupiter radius evolution of (1) additional heat sources in the high atmosphere, the deep atmosphere, and deep in the convective interior; (2) consistent cooling of the deep interior through the planetary dayside, nightside, and poles; (3) the degree of heat redistribution to the nightside; and (4) the presence of an upper atmosphere absorber inferred to produce anomalously hot upper atmospheres and inversions in some close-in giant planets. In particular, we compare the radius expansion effects of atmospheric and deep-interior heating at the same power levels and derive the power required to achieve a given radius increase when night-side cooling is incorporated. We find that models that include consistent day/night cooling are more similar to isotropically irradiated models when there is more heat redistributed from the dayside to the nightside. In addition, we consider the efficacy of ohmic heating in the atmosphere and/or convective interior in inflating hot Jupiters. Among our conclusions are that (1) the most highly irradiated planets cannot stably have uB {approx}> 10 km s{sup -1} G over a large fraction of their daysides, where u is the zonal wind speed and B is the dipolar magnetic field strength in the atmosphere, and (2) that ohmic heating cannot in and of itself lead to a runaway in planet radius.

  4. BROAD-LINE REVERBERATION IN THE KEPLER-FIELD SEYFERT GALAXY Zw 229-015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, Aaron J.; Nguyen, My L.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Cenko, S. Bradley; Choi, Jieun; Duchene, Gaspard; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Gorjian, Varoujan; Joner, Michael D.; Bennert, Vardha Nicola; Botyanszki, Janos; Childress, Michael; Cucciara, Antonino; Comerford, Julia M.; Da Silva, Robert; Gates, Elinor L.; Gerke, Brian F.

    2011-05-10

    The Seyfert 1 galaxy Zw 229-015 is among the brightest active galaxies being monitored by the Kepler mission. In order to determine the black hole mass in Zw 229-015 from H{beta} reverberation mapping, we have carried out nightly observations with the Kast Spectrograph at the Lick 3 m telescope during the dark runs from 2010 June through December, obtaining 54 spectroscopic observations in total. We have also obtained nightly V-band imaging with the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope at Lick Observatory and with the 0.9 m telescope at the Brigham Young University West Mountain Observatory over the same period. We detect strong variability in the source, which exhibited more than a factor of two change in broad H{beta} flux. From cross-correlation measurements, we find that the H{beta} light curve has a rest-frame lag of 3.86{sup +0.69}{sub -0.90} days with respect to the V-band continuum variations. We also measure reverberation lags for H{alpha} and H{gamma} and find an upper limit to the H{delta} lag. Combining the H{beta} lag measurement with a broad H{beta} width of {sigma}{sub line} = 1590 {+-} 47 km s{sup -1} measured from the rms variability spectrum, we obtain a virial estimate of M{sub BH} = 1.00{sup +0.19}{sub -0.24} x 10{sup 7} M{sub sun} for the black hole in Zw 229-015. As a Kepler target, Zw 229-015 will eventually have one of the highest-quality optical light curves ever measured for any active galaxy, and the black hole mass determined from reverberation mapping will serve as a benchmark for testing relationships between black hole mass and continuum variability characteristics in active galactic nuclei.

  5. Analysis of climatic conditions and preliminary assessment of alternative cooling strategies for houses in California transition climate zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Y.J.; Zhang, H.

    1995-07-01

    This is a preliminary scoping study done as part of the {open_quotes}Alternatives to Compressive Cooling in California Transition Climates{close_quotes} project, which has the goal of demonstrating that houses in the transitional areas between the coast and the Central Valley of California do not require air-conditioning if they are properly designed and operated. The first part of this report analyzes the climate conditions within the transitional areas, with emphasis on design rather than seasonal conditions. Transitional climates are found to be milder but more variable than those further inland. The design temperatures under the most stringent design criteria, e.g. 0.1 % annual, are similar to those in the Valley, but significantly lower under more relaxed design criteria, e.g., 2% annual frequency. Transition climates also have large day-night temperature swings, indicating significant potential for night cooling, and wet-bulb depressions in excess of 25 F, indicating good potential for evaporative cooling. The second part of the report is a preliminary assessment using DOE-2 computer simulations of the effectiveness of alternative cooling and control strategies in improving indoor comfort conditions in two conventional Title-24 houses modeled in various transition climate locations. The cooling measures studied include increased insulation, light colors, low-emissivity glazing, window overhangs, and exposed floor slab. The control strategies studied include natural and mechanical ventilation, and direct and two-stage evaporative cooling. The results indicate the cooling strategies all have limited effectiveness, and need to be combined to produce significant improvements in indoor comfort. Natural and forced ventilation provide similar improvements in indoor conditions, but during peak cooling periods, these will still be above the comfort zone. Two-stage evaporative coolers can maintain indoor comfort at all hours, but not so direct evaporative coolers.

  6. Andromeda (M31) optical and infrared disk survey. I. Insights in wide-field near-IR surface photometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sick, Jonathan; Courteau, Stphane; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; McDonald, Michael; De Jong, Roelof; Tully, R. Brent

    2014-05-01

    We present wide-field near-infrared J and K{sub s} images of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) taken with WIRCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope as part of the Andromeda Optical and Infrared Disk Survey. This data set allows simultaneous observations of resolved stars and near-infrared (NIR) surface brightness across M31's entire bulge and disk (within R = 22 kpc), permitting a direct test of the stellar composition of near-infrared light in a nearby galaxy. Here we develop NIR observation and reduction methods to recover a uniform surface brightness map across the 3 1 disk of M31 with 27 WIRCam fields. Two sky-target nodding strategies are tested, and we find that strictly minimizing sky sampling latency cannot improve background subtraction accuracy to better than 2% of the background level due to spatio-temporal variations in the NIR skyglow. We fully describe our WIRCam reduction pipeline and advocate using flats built from night-sky images over a single night, rather than dome flats that do not capture the WIRCam illumination field. Contamination from scattered light and thermal background in sky flats has a negligible effect on the surface brightness shape compared to the stochastic differences in background shape between sky and galaxy disk fields, which are ?0.3% of the background level. The most dramatic calibration step is the introduction of scalar sky offsets to each image that optimizes surface brightness continuity. Sky offsets reduce the mean surface brightness difference between observation blocks from 1% to <0.1% of the background level, though the absolute background level remains statistically uncertain to 0.15% of the background level. We present our WIRCam reduction pipeline and performance analysis to give specific recommendations for the improvement of NIR wide-field imaging methods.

  7. A study of the Oklahoma City urban heat island using ground measurements and remote sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, M. J.; Ivey, A.; McPherson, T. N.; Boswell, D.; Pardyjak, E. R.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Oklahoma City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Joint URBAN 2003 Tracer Field Experiment conducted in Oklahoma City from June 29, 2003 to July 30, 2003 (Allwine et al., 2004). The instrumented van was driven over four primary routes that included legs from the downtown core to four different 'rural' areas. Each route went through residential areas and most often went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2004) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 20 to 40 minutes to complete. Based on seven nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 0.5-6.5 C between the urban core and nearby 'rural' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the Joint URBAN 2003 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Oklahoma City, and to test new urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes (e.g., Chin et al., 2000; Holt and Shi, 2004). In addition to the ground measurements, skin temperature measurements were also analyzed from remotely sensed images taken from the Earth Observing System's Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). A surface kinetic temperature thermal infrared image captured by the ASTER of the Oklahoma City area on July 21, 2001 was analyzed within ESRI's ArcGIS 8.3 to correlate variations in temperature with land use type. Analysis of this imagery suggests distinct variations in temperature across different land use categories. Through the use of remotely sensed imagery we hope to better understand the development of the urban heat island analysis.

  8. Control Strategies for Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Using Renewables and Local Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castello, Charles C; LaClair, Tim J; Maxey, L Curt

    2014-01-01

    The increase of electric vehicle (EV) and plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle (PHEV) adoption creates a need for more EV supply equipment (EVSE) infrastructure (i.e., EV chargers). The impact of EVSE installations could be significant due to limitations in the electric grid and potential demand charges for residential and commercial customers. The use of renewables (e.g., solar) and local storage (e.g., battery bank) can mitigate loads caused by EVSE on the electric grid. This would eliminate costly upgrades needed by utilities and decrease demand charges for consumers. This paper aims to explore control systems that mitigate the impact of EVSE on the electric grid using solar energy and battery banks. Three control systems are investigated and compared in this study. The first control system discharges the battery bank at a constant rate during specific times of the day based on historical data. The second discharges the battery bank based on the number of EVs charging (linear) and the amount of solar energy being generated. The third discharges the battery bank based on a sigmoid function (non-linear) in response to the number of EVs charging, and also takes into consideration the amount of renewables being generated. The first and second control systems recharge the battery bank at night when demand charges are lowest. The third recharges the battery bank at night and during times of the day when there is an excess of solar. Experiments are conducted using data from a private site that has 25 solar-assisted charging stations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, TN and 4 at a public site in Nashville, TN. Results indicate the third control system having better performance, negating up to 71% of EVSE load, compared with the second control system (up to 61%) and the first control system (up to 58%).

  9. Dimethyl sulfide in the Amazon rain forest: DMS in the Amazon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jardine, K.; Yaez-Serrano, A. M.; Williams, J.; Kunert, N.; Jardine, A.; Taylor, T.; Abrell, L.; Artaxo, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.; House, E.; Florentino, A. P.; Manzi, A.; Higuchi, N.; Kesselmeier, J.; Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Derstroff, B.; Fuentes, J. D.; Martin, S. T.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-01-08

    Surface-to-atmosphere emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) may impact global climate 44 through the formation of gaseous sulfuric acid, which can yield secondary sulfate 45 aerosols and contribute to new particle formation. While oceans are generally 46 considered the dominant source of DMS, a shortage of ecosystem observations prevents 47 an accurate analysis of terrestrial DMS sources. Using mass spectrometry, we quantified 48 ambient DMS mixing ratios within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem in the 49 central Amazon Basin in real-time (2010-2011) and at high vertical resolution (2013-50 2014). Elevated but highly variable DMS mixing ratios were observed within the 51 canopy, showing clear evidence of a net ecosystem source to the atmosphere during 52 both day and night in both the dry and wet seasons. Periods of high DMS mixing ratios 53 lasting up to 8 hours (up to 160 ppt) often occurred within the canopy and near the 54 surface during many evenings and nights. Daytime gradients showed mixing ratios (up 55 to 80 ppt) peaking near the top of the canopy as well as near the ground following a rain 56 event. The spatial and temporal distribution of DMS suggests that ambient levels and 57 their potential climatic impacts are dominated by local soil and plant emissions. A soil 58 source was confirmed by measurements of DMS emission fluxes from Amazon soils as 59 a function of temperature and soil moisture. Furthermore, light and temperature 60 dependent DMS emissions were measured from seven tropical tree species. Our study 61 has important implications for understanding terrestrial DMS sources and their role in 62 coupled land-atmosphere climate feedbacks. 63

  10. The 4.5 ?m full-orbit phase curve of the hot Jupiter HD 209458b

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zellem, Robert T.; Griffith, Caitlin A.; Showman, Adam P.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Knutson, Heather A.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Agol, Eric; Burrows, Adam; Charbonneau, David; Deming, Drake; Langton, Jonathan

    2014-07-20

    The hot Jupiter HD 209458b is particularly amenable to detailed study as it is among the brightest transiting exoplanet systems currently known (V-mag = 7.65; K-mag = 6.308) and has a large planet-to-star contrast ratio. HD 209458b is predicted to be in synchronous rotation about its host star with a hot spot that is shifted eastward of the substellar point by superrotating equatorial winds. Here we present the first full-orbit observations of HD 209458b, in which its 4.5 ?m emission was recorded with Spitzer/IRAC. Our study revises the previous 4.5 ?m measurement of HD 209458b's secondary eclipse emission downward by ?35% to 0.1391%{sub ?0.0069%}{sup +0.0072%}, changing our interpretation of the properties of its dayside atmosphere. We find that the hot spot on the planet's dayside is shifted eastward of the substellar point by 40.9 6.0, in agreement with circulation models predicting equatorial superrotation. HD 209458b's dayside (T{sub bright} = 1499 15 K) and nightside (T{sub bright} = 972 44 K) emission indicate a day-to-night brightness temperature contrast smaller than that observed for more highly irradiated exoplanets, suggesting that the day-to-night temperature contrast may be partially a function of the incident stellar radiation. The observed phase curve shape deviates modestly from global circulation model predictions potentially due to disequilibrium chemistry or deficiencies in the current hot CH{sub 4} line lists used in these models. Observations of the phase curve at additional wavelengths are needed in order to determine the possible presence and spatial extent of a dayside temperature inversion, as well as to improve our overall understanding of this planet's atmospheric circulation.

  11. Quantifying the Behavioral Response of Spawning Chum Salmon to Elevated Discharges from Bonneville Dam, Columbia River : Annual Report 2005-2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Haskell, Craig A.; Kock, Tobias J.

    2008-12-01

    In unimpounded rivers, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) typically spawn under relatively stable stream flows, with exceptions occurring during periodic precipitation events. In contrast, hydroelectric development has often resulted in an artificial hydrograph characterized by rapid changes in discharge and tailwater elevation that occur on a daily, or even an hourly basis, due to power generation (Cushman 1985; Moog 1993). Consequently, populations of Pacific salmon that are known to spawn in main-stem habitats below hydroelectric dams face the risks of changing habitat suitability, potential redd dewatering, and uncertain spawning success (Hamilton and Buell 1976; Chapman et al. 1986; Dauble et al. 1999; Garland et al. 2003; Connor and Pflug 2004; McMichael et al. 2005). Although the direct effects of a variable hydrograph, such as redd dewatering are apparent, specific effects on spawning behavior remain largely unexplored. Chum salmon (O. keta) that spawn below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River are particularly vulnerable to the effects of water level fluctuations. Although chum salmon generally spawn in smaller tributaries (Johnson et al. 1997), many fish spawn in main-stem habitats below Bonneville Dam near Ives Island (Tomaro et al. 2007; Figure 1). The primary spawning area near Ives Island is shallow and sensitive to changes in water level caused by hydroelectric power generation at Bonneville Dam. In the past, fluctuating water levels have dewatered redds and changed the amount of available spawning habitat (Garland et al. 2003). To minimize these effects, fishery managers attempt to maintain a stable tailwater elevation at Bonneville Dam of 3.5 m (above mean sea level) during spawning, which ensures adequate water is provided to the primary chum salmon spawning area below the mouth of Hamilton Creek (Figure 1). Given the uncertainty of winter precipitation and water supply, this strategy has been effective at restricting spawning to a specific riverbed elevation and providing minimum spawning flows that have the greatest chance of being maintained through egg incubation and fry emergence. However, managing the lower Columbia River for a stable tailwater elevation does not provide much operational flexibility at Bonneville Dam, which has little storage capacity. When river discharges increase due to rain events, the traditional approach has been to pass excess water at night to maintain stable tailwater elevations during the daytime. The underlying assumption of this strategy, referred to as reverse load following, is that fish do not spawn at night. However, Tiffan et al. (2005) showed that this assumption is false by documenting nighttime spawning by chum salmon in the Ives Island area. Similarly, McMichael et al. (2005) reported nighttime spawning by Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the Columbia River, indicating that diel spawning may be a common occurrence in Pacific salmon. During the latter portion of the chum spawning period in December 2003 and 2004, discharges from Bonneville Dam increased from an average of 3,398 m3/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 3.5 m above mean sea level) during the day to over 5,664 m3/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 5.1 m) at night, with peak discharges of 7,080 m{sup 3}/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 6.1 m). This caused concern among fishery managers regarding the potential effects of these high discharges on this population of spawning chum salmon, which is listed under the Endangered Species Act (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1999). We hypothesized that increased water velocities associated with elevated tailwaters might alter chum salmon spawning behavior if water velocities at redd locations increased beyond the range of suitability (>0.8 m/s; Salo 1991). In 2005, we investigated the movement and behavioral responses of spawning chum salmon at Ives Island to increased tailwater elevations at Bonneville Dam. We used acoustic telemetry to determine if the higher velocities associated with increased tailwater elevations caused fish to leave their re

  12. PROGRESS REPORT OF FY 2004 ACTIVITIES: IMPROVED WATER VAPOR AND CLOUD RETRIEVALS AT THE NSA/AAO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. R. Westwater; V. V. Leuskiy; M. Klein; A. J. Gasiewski; and J. A. Shaw

    2004-11-01

    The basic goals of the research are to develop and test algorithms and deploy instruments that improve measurements of water vapor, cloud liquid, and cloud coverage, with a focus on the Arctic conditions of cold temperatures and low concentrations of water vapor. The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. Although several technologies have been investigated to measure these column amounts, microwave radiometers (MWR) have been used operationally by the ARM program for passive retrievals of these quantities: precipitable water vapor (PWV) and integrated water liquid (IWL). The technology of PWV and IWL retrievals has advanced steadily since the basic 2-channel MWR was first deployed at ARM CART sites Important advances are the development and refinement of the tipcal calibration method [1,2], and improvement of forward model radiative transfer algorithms [3,4]. However, the concern still remains that current instruments deployed by ARM may be inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and IWL. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important because of the possibility of scaling and/or quality control of radiosondes by the water amount. Extremely dry conditions, with PWV less than 3 mm, commonly occur in Polar Regions during the winter months. Accurate measurements of the PWV during such dry conditions are needed to improve our understanding of the regional radiation energy budgets. The results of a 1999 experiment conducted at the ARM North Slope of Alaska/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site during March of 1999 [5] have shown that the strength associated with the 183 GHz water vapor absorption line makes radiometry in this frequency regime suitable for measuring low amounts of PWV. As a portion of our research, we conducted another millimeter wave radiometric experiment at the NSA/AAO in March-April 2004. This experiment relied heavily on our experiences of the 1999 experiment. Particular attention was paid to issues of radiometric calibration and radiosonde intercomparisons. Our theoretical and experimental work also supplements efforts by industry (F. Solheim, Private Communication) to develop sub-millimeter radiometers for ARM deployment. In addition to quantitative improvement of water vapor measurements at cold temperature, the impact of adding millimeter-wave window channels to improve the sensitivity to arctic clouds was studied. We also deployed an Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI) during this experiment, both for measuring continuous day-night statistics of the study of cloud coverage and identifying conditions suitable for tipcal analysis. This system provided the first capability of determining spatial cloud statistics continuously in both day and night at the NSA site and has been used to demonstrate that biases exist in inferring cloud statistics from either zenith-pointing active sensors (lidars or radars) or sky imagers that rely on scattered sunlight in daytime and star maps at night [6].

  13. Spatial Estimation of Populations at Risk from Radiological Dispersion Device Terrorism Incidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regens, J.L.; Gunter, J.T.

    2008-07-01

    Delineation of the location and size of the population potentially at risk of exposure to ionizing radiation is one of the key analytical challenges in estimating accurately the severity of the potential health effects associated with a radiological terrorism incident. Regardless of spatial scale, the geographical units for which population data commonly are collected rarely coincide with the geographical scale necessary for effective incident management and medical response. This paper identifies major government and commercial open sources of U.S. population data and presents a GIS-based approach for allocating publicly available population data, including age distributions, to geographical units appropriate for planning and implementing incident management and medical response strategies. In summary: The gravity model offers a straight-forward, empirical tool for estimating population flows, especially when geographical areas are relatively well-defined in terms of accessibility and spatial separation. This is particularly important for several reasons. First, the spatial scale for the area impacted by a RDD terrorism event is unlikely to match fully the spatial scale of available population data. That is, the plume spread typically will not uniformly overlay the impacted area. Second, the number of people within the impacted area varies as a function whether an attack occurs during the day or night. For example, the population of a central business district or industrial area typically is larger during the day while predominately residential areas have larger night time populations. As a result, interpolation techniques that link population data to geographical units and allocate those data based on time-frame at a spatial scale that is relevant to enhancing preparedness and response. The gravity model's main advantage is that it efficiently allocates readily available, open source population data to geographical units appropriate for planning and implementing incident management and medical monitoring strategies. The importance of being able to link population estimates to geographic areas during the course of an RDD incident can be understood intuitively: - The spatial distribution of actual total dose equivalents of ionizing radiation is likely to vary due to changes in meteorological parameters as an event evolves over time; - The size of the geographical area affected also is likely to vary as a function of the actual release scenario; - The ability to identify the location and size of the populations that may be exposed to doses of ionizing radiation is critical to carrying out appropriate treatment and post-event medical monitoring; - Once a spatial interaction model has been validated for a city or a region, it can then be used for simulation and prediction purposes to assess the possible human health consequences of different release scenarios. (authors)

  14. THE PAN-STARRS 1 PHOTOMETRIC REFERENCE LADDER, RELEASE 12.01

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magnier, E. A.; Tonry, J. L.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H. A.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Sweeney, W. E.; Schlafly, E.; Finkbeiner, D.; Juric, M.; Stubbs, C. W.; Price, P. A.

    2013-04-01

    As of 2012 January 21, the Pan-STARRS 1 3{pi} Survey has observed the 3/4 of the sky visible from Hawaii with a minimum of 2 and mean of 7.6 observations in five filters, g {sub P1}, r {sub P1}, i {sub P1}, z {sub P1}, y {sub P1}. Now at the end of the second year of the mission, we are in a position to make an initial public release of a portion of this unprecedented data set. This article describes the PS1 Photometric Ladder, Release 12.01. This is the first of a series of data releases to be generated as the survey coverage increases and the data analysis improves. The Photometric Ladder has rungs every hour in right ascension and at four intervals in declination. We will release updates with increased area coverage (more rungs) from the latest data set until the PS1 survey and the final re-reduction are completed. The currently released catalog presents photometry of {approx}1000 objects per square degree in the rungs of the ladder. Saturation occurs at g {sub P1}, r {sub P1}, i {sub P1} {approx} 13.5; z {sub P1} {approx} 13.0; and y {sub P1} {approx} 12.0. Photometry is provided for stars down to g {sub P1}, r {sub P1}, i {sub P1} {approx} 19.1 in the AB system. This data release depends on the rigid 'Ubercal' photometric calibration using only the photometric nights, with systematic uncertainties of (8.0, 7.0, 9.0, 10.7, 12.4) mmag in (g {sub P1}, r {sub P1}, i {sub P1}, z {sub P1}, y {sub P1}). Areas covered only with lower quality nights are also included, and have been tied to the Ubercal solution via relative photometry; photometric accuracy of the non-photometric regions is lower and should be used with caution.

  15. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, Ville; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, Alex B.; Hellen, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-11

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa) that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours 1 during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass 2 selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the 3 monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. 4 Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant 5 species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant 6 differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal cycles could be attributed to patterns determining the origin of the air masses sampled. Aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were in general significantly higher in air masses that passed over anthropocentrically impacted regions. Interspecies correlations and ratios gave some indications of the possible sources for the different aromatic hydrocarbons in the source regions defined in the paper. The highest contribution of aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations to ozone formation potential was also observed in plumes passing over anthropocentrically impacted regions.

  16. Statistical assessment of fish behavior from split-beam hydro-acoustic sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinstry, Craig A.; Simmons, Mary Ann; Simmons, Carver S.; Johnson, Robert L.

    2005-04-01

    Statistical methods are presented for using echo-traces from split-beam hydro-acoustic sampling to assess fish behavior in response to a stimulus. The data presented are from a study designed to assess the response of free-ranging, lake-resident fish, primarily kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to high intensity strobe lights, and was conducted at Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River in Northern Washington State. The lights were deployed immediately upstream from the turbine intakes, in a region exposed to daily alternating periods of high and low flows. The study design included five down-looking split-beam transducers positioned in a line at incremental distances upstream from the strobe lights, and treatments applied in randomized pseudo-replicate blocks. Statistical methods included the use of odds-ratios from fitted loglinear models. Fish-track velocity vectors were modeled using circular probability distributions. Both analyses are depicted graphically. Study results suggest large increases of fish activity in the presence of the strobe lights, most notably at night and during periods of low flow. The lights also induced notable bimodality in the angular distributions of the fish track velocity vectors. Statistical summaries are presented along with interpretations on fish behavior.

  17. Using 3D Acoustic Telemetry to Assess the Response of Resident Salmonids to Strobe Lights in Lake Roosevelt, Washington; Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Feasibility Study, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, Russlee; Farley, M.; Hansen, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    In 1995, the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was established to mitigate the loss of anadromous fish due to the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee dams. The objectives of the Chief Joseph Enhancement Project are to determine the status of resident kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee dams and to enhance kokanee and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations. Studies conducted at Grand Coulee Dam documented substantial entrainment of kokanee through turbines at the third powerhouse. In response to finding high entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam, the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) recommended investigating the use of strobe lights to repel fish from the forebay of the third powerhouse. Therefore, our study focused on the third powerhouse and how strobe lights affected fish behavior in this area. The primary objective of our study was to assess the behavioral response of kokanee and rainbow trout to strobe lights using 3D acoustic telemetry, which yields explicit spatial locations of fish in three dimensions. Our secondary objectives were to (1) use a 3D acoustic system to mobile track tagged fish in the forebay and upriver of Grand Coulee Dam and (2) determine the feasibility of detecting fish using a hydrophone mounted in the tailrace of the third powerhouse. Within the fixed hydrophone array located in the third powerhouse cul-de-sac, we detected 50 kokanee and 30 rainbow trout, accounting for 47% and 45% respectively, of the fish released. Kokanee had a median residence time of 0.20 h and rainbow trout had a median residence time of 1.07 h. We detected more kokanee in the array at night compared to the day, and we detected more rainbow trout during the day compared to the night. In general, kokanee and rainbow trout approached along the eastern shore and the relative frequency of kokanee and rainbow trout detections was highest along the eastern shoreline of the 3D array. However, because we released fish near the eastern shore, this approach pattern may have resulted from our release location. A high percentage of rainbow trout (60%) approached within 35 m of the eastern shore, while fewer kokanee (40%) approached within 35 m of the eastern shore and were more evenly distributed across the entrance to the third powerhouse cul-de-sac area. During each of the strobe light treatments there were very few fish detected within 25 m of the strobe lights. The spatial distribution of fish detections showed relatively few tagged fish swam through the center of the array where the strobe lights were located. We detected 11 kokanee and 12 rainbow trout within 25 m of the strobe lights, accounting for 10% and 18% respectively, of the fish released. Both species exhibited very short residence times within 25 m of the strobe lights No attraction or repulsion behavior was observed within 25 m of the strobe lights. Directional vectors of both kokanee and rainbow trout indicate that both species passed the strobe lights by moving in a downstream direction and slightly towards the third powerhouse. We statistically analyzed fish behavior during treatments using a randomization to compare the mean distance fish were detected from the strobe lights. We compared treatments separately for day and night and with the data constrained to three distances from the strobe light (< 85m, < 50 m, and < 25 m). For kokanee, the only significant randomization test (of 10 tests) occurred with kokanee during the day for the 3-On treatment constrained to within 85 m of the strobe lights, where kokanee were significantly further away from the strobe lights than during the Off treatment (randomization test, P < 0.004, Table 1.5). However, one other test had a low P-value (P = 0.064) where kokanee were closer to the lights during the 3-On treatment at night within 85 m of the strobe lights compared to the Off treatment. For rainbow trout, none of the 11 tests were significant, but one test had a low P-value (P = 0.04), and fish were further away from the strobe lights during

  18. A fast contour descriptor algorithm for supernova imageclassification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Aragon, David Bradburn

    2006-07-16

    We describe a fast contour descriptor algorithm and its application to a distributed supernova detection system (the Nearby Supernova Factory) that processes 600,000 candidate objects in 80 GB of image data per night. Our shape-detection algorithm reduced the number of false positives generated by the supernova search pipeline by 41% while producing no measurable impact on running time. Fourier descriptors are an established method of numerically describing the shapes of object contours, but transform-based techniques are ordinarily avoided in this type of application due to their computational cost. We devised a fast contour descriptor implementation for supernova candidates that meets the tight processing budget of the application. Using the lowest-order descriptors (F{sub 1} and F{sub -1}) and the total variance in the contour, we obtain one feature representing the eccentricity of the object and another denoting its irregularity. Because the number of Fourier terms to be calculated is fixed and small, the algorithm runs in linear time, rather than the O(n log n) time of an FFT. Constraints on object size allow further optimizations so that the total cost of producing the required contour descriptors is about 4n addition/subtraction operations, where n is the length of the contour.

  19. Standard Methods of Characterizing Performance of Fan FilterUnits, Version 3.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tengfang

    2007-01-01

    We describe a fast contour descriptor algorithm and its application to a distributed supernova detection system (the Nearby Supernova Factory) that processes 600,000 candidate objects in 80 GB of image data per night. Our shape detection algorithm reduced the number of false positives generated by the supernova search pipeline by 41% while producing no measurable impact on running time. Fourier descriptors are an established method of numerically describing the shapes of object contours, but transform-based techniques are ordinarily avoided in this type of application due to their computational cost. We devised a fast contour descriptor implementation for supernova candidates that meets the tight processing budget of the application. Using the lowest-order descriptors (F{sub 1} and F{sub -1}) and the total variance in the contour, we obtain one feature representing the eccentricity of the object and another denoting its irregularity. Because the number of Fourier terms to be calculated is fixed and small, the algorithm runs in linear time, rather than the O(n log n) time of an FFT. Constraints on object size allow further optimizations so that the total cost of producing the required contour descriptors is about 4n addition/subtraction operations, where n is the length of the contour.

  20. Solar energy collector including a weightless balloon with sun tracking means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Frederick F.

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy collector having a weightless balloon, the balloon including a transparent polyvinylfluoride hemisphere reinforced with a mesh of ropes secured to its outside surface, and a laminated reflector hemisphere, the inner layer being clear and aluminized on its outside surface and the outer layer being opaque, the balloon being inflated with lighter-than-air gas. A heat collection probe extends into the balloon along the focus of reflection of the reflective hemisphere for conducting coolant into and out of the balloon. The probe is mounted on apparatus for keeping the probe aligned with the sun's path, the apparatus being founded in the earth for withstanding wind pressure on the balloon. The balloon is lashed to the probe by ropes adhered to the outer surface of the balloon for withstanding wind pressures of 100 miles per hour. Preferably, the coolant is liquid sodium-potassium eutectic alloy which will not normally freeze at night in the temperate zones, and when heated to 4,000.degree. R exerts a pressure of only a few atmospheres.

  1. First detection of a noctilucent cloud by lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, G.; Serwazi, M.; von Zahn, U. )

    1989-12-01

    During the night of August 5/6, 1989 for the first time a noctilucent cloud (NLC) was detected and measured by a lidar instrument. The observations were made with ground-based narrow-band Na lidar located at Andenes, Norway (69{degree}N, 16{degree}E geographic coordinates). In wavelength the lidar was operated both at the Na D{sub 2} resonance line of 589 nm as well as 5 Doppler widths shifted away. The altitude resolution was 200 m. The NLC developed at about 22:20 UT, reached its maximum backscatter cross section at 23:05 UT and became unobservable at around 00:10 UT. During this period the NLC exhibited the following properties: (a) its altitude ranged between 83.4 and 82.2 km; (b) its full width at half maximum ranged between 1.4 and 0.3 km; (c) the ratio of measured backscatter intensity from the NLC to the calculated Rayleigh signal from 82.6 km reached 450; (d) its volume backscatter cross section maximized at 6.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} m{sup {minus}1} sr{sup {minus}1}.

  2. The VTMX 2000 Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doran, J C.; Fast, Jerome D.; Horel, John D.

    2002-04-01

    A month-long meteorological field campaign sponsored by the Department of Energy's Environmental Meteorology Program was conducted during October 2000 in the Salt Lake Valley to study vertical transport and mixing (VTMX) processes. The goals of the program are to increase our understanding of these processes, to improve our ability to measure and characterize them, and to incorporate that improved knowledge into conceptual and numerical models that can be used to describe and predict them. The program is currently concentrating on nocturnal stable periods and morning and evening transition periods, and it is further focused on urban areas located in valleys, basins, or other settings affected by nearby elevated terrain. Approximately 75 people participated in the campaign. The campaign featured a wide range of remote sensing and in situ measurements, including those from six radar wind profilers, six sodars, five radio acoustic sounding systems, a Doppler lidar, two aerosol lidars, and a water vapor lidar, as many as 22 rawinsonde soundings per Intensive Observing Period (IOP), and the simultaneous release of up to seven perfluorocarbon tracers. Preliminary results show the existence of strong cold pools forming over the valley center with significant wind shear aloft and intermittent turbulence close to the surface, a heat island over the downtown area at night and areas with substantially cooler temperatures nearby, regions of strong convergence and divergence affected by a narrow jet through a gap in the mountains to the south and flows out of the canyons to the east, and extensive wave activity.

  3. Molten Glass for Thermal Storage: Advanced Molten Glass for Heat Transfer and Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: Halotechnics is developing a high-temperature thermal energy storage system using a new thermal-storage and heat-transfer material: earth-abundant and low-melting-point molten glass. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Halotechnics new thermal storage material targets a price that is potentially cheaper than the molten salt used in most commercial solar thermal storage systems today. It is also extremely stable at temperatures up to 1200°C—hundreds of degrees hotter than the highest temperature molten salt can handle. Being able to function at high temperatures will significantly increase the efficiency of turning heat into electricity. Halotechnics is developing a scalable system to pump, heat, store, and discharge the molten glass. The company is leveraging technology used in the modern glass industry, which has decades of experience handling molten glass.

  4. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogawa, K.; Iijima, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Sakatani, N.; Otake, H.

    2014-03-15

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime ?200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a regolith mound. Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system.

  5. Metal Hydrides for High-Temperature Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronnebro, Ewa; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powell, Michael R.; Westman, Matthew P.; Zheng, Feng; Fang, Zhigang Zak

    2015-08-10

    Metal hydrides can be utilized for hydrogen storage and for thermal energy storage (TES) applications. By using TES with solar technologies, heat can be stored from sun energy to be used later which enables continuous power generation. We are developing a TES technology based on a dual-bed metal hydride system, which has a high-temperature (HT) metal hydride operating reversibly at 600-800°C to generate heat as well as a low-temperature (LT) hydride near room temperature that is used for hydrogen storage during sun hours until there is a need to produce electricity, such as during night time, a cloudy day, or during peak hours. We proceeded from selecting a high-energy density, low-cost HT-hydride based on performance characterization on gram size samples, to scale-up to kilogram quantities and design, fabrication and testing of a 1.5kWh, 200kWh/m3 bench-scale TES prototype based on a HT-bed of titanium hydride and a hydrogen gas storage instead of a LT-hydride. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to make performance predictions for cylindrical hydride beds with varying diameters and thermal conductivities. Based on experimental and modeling results, a bench-scale prototype was designed and fabricated and we successfully showed feasibility to meet or exceed all performance targets.

  6. The NASA CSTI High Capacity Power Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winter, J.; Dudenhoefer, J.; Juhasz, A.; Schwarze, G.; Patterson, R.; Ferguson, D.; Titran, R.; Schmitz, P.; Vandersande, J.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 Space Nuclear Power Program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop technology for military and civil applications. Starting in 1986, NASA has funded a technology program to maintain the momentum of promising aerospace technology advancement started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the changes for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for a wide range of future space applications. The elements of the CSTI High Capacity Power Project include Systems Analysis, Stirling Power Conversion, Thermoelectric Power Conversion, Thermal Management, Power Management, Systems Diagnostics, Environmental Interactions, and Material/Structural Development. Technology advancement in all elements is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall project with develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems compatible with the SP-100 reactor which facilitates operation during lunar and planetary day/night cycles as well as allowing spacecraft operation at any attitude or distance from the sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the project elements will be presented, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed.

  7. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, Michael B.; Dennison, Deborah; Kane, Jave; Walker, Hoyt; Miller, Paul

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  8. Aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  9. Uncooled thin film pyroelectric IR detector with aerogel thermal isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruffner, J.A.; Clem, P.G.; Tuttle, B.A. [and others

    1998-01-01

    Uncooled pyroelectric IR imaging systems, such as night vision goggles, offer important strategic advantages in battlefield scenarios and reconnaissance surveys. Until now, the current technology for fabricating these devices has been limited by low throughput and high cost which ultimately limit the availability of these sensor devices. We have developed and fabricated an alternative design for pyroelectric IR imaging sensors that utilizes a multilayered thin film deposition scheme to create a monolithic thin film imaging element on an active silicon substrate for the first time. This approach combines a thin film pyroelectric imaging element with a thermally insulating SiO{sub 2} aerogel thin film to produce a new type of uncooled IR sensor that offers significantly higher thermal, spatial, and temporal resolutions at a substantially lower cost per unit. This report describes the deposition, characterization and optimization of the aerogel thermal isolation layer and an appropriate pyroelectric imaging element. It also describes the overall integration of these components along with the appropriate planarization, etch stop, adhesion, electrode, and blacking agent thin film layers into a monolithic structure. 19 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's Report. Annex 1. 12. Long-distance measurement of energy yield of an atomic explosion. Nuclear explosions 1951

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudgins, A.J.

    1984-10-31

    The energy yield of an atomic explosion was determined at logn distance by measuring the time variation of the light from the explosion and applying an empirical formula that relates this to the energy yield. The light was detected by an RCA 5819 photomultiplier tube and was recorded on a magnetic-tape recorder. Measurements at Shot Easy were made from A C-54 airplane flying at 12,500 ft at a distance of 630 miles northwest of Eniwetok. The time to the minimum of light intensity was 23.5 + or - 0.8 msec, corresponding to a yield of 53 + or - 4 kt. The yield calculated from the radiochemical measurements was 46.8 + or - 1.0 kt. The peak intensity of the flash above the ambient was measured to be 1.7 millicandles/sq ft. This experiment indicated that energy yield can be measured at a distance greater than 630 miles at night. Possible propagation mechanisms are discussed. Studies of the maximum range in daylight and of improvements in technique are suggested.

  11. Batch crystallization of rhodopsin for structural dynamics using an X-ray free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Wenting; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Rheinberger, Jan; Kick, Leonhard M.; Gati, Cornelius; Nelson, Garrett; Deupi, Xavier; Standfuss, Jrg; Schertler, Gebhard; Panneels, Valrie

    2015-06-27

    A new batch preparation method is presented for high-density micrometre-sized crystals of the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin for use in time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography at an X-ray free-electron laser using a liquid jet. Rhodopsin is a membrane protein from the G protein-coupled receptor family. Together with its ligand retinal, it forms the visual pigment responsible for night vision. In order to perform ultrafast dynamics studies, a time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography method is required owing to the nonreversible activation of rhodopsin. In such an approach, microcrystals in suspension are delivered into the X-ray pulses of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) after a precise photoactivation delay. Here, a millilitre batch production of high-density microcrystals was developed by four methodical conversion steps starting from known vapour-diffusion crystallization protocols: (i) screening the low-salt crystallization conditions preferred for serial crystallography by vapour diffusion, (ii) optimization of batch crystallization, (iii) testing the crystal size and quality using second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging and X-ray powder diffraction and (iv) production of millilitres of rhodopsin crystal suspension in batches for serial crystallography tests; these crystals diffracted at an XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source using a liquid-jet setup.

  12. Singularities and Topological Phase Transitions in Fluids: Breaking Away, Selective Withdrawal, and Islets in the Stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagel, Sidney

    2007-01-17

    The exhilarating spray from waves crashing into the shore, the distressing sound of a faucet leaking in the night, and the indispensable role of bubbles dissolving gas into the oceans are but a few examples of the ubiquitous presence and profound importance of drop formation and splashing in our lives. During fission, a fluid forms a neck that becomes vanishingly thin at the point of breakup. This topological transition is accompanied by a dynamic singularity in which physical properties such as pressure diverge. Singularities of this sort often organize the overall dynamical evolution of nonlinear systems. I will first discuss the role of singularities in the breakup of droplets. I will then present a second experiment, selective withdrawal, in which we study the steady-state shape of a liquid as it is withdrawn by a nozzle through a surrounding fluid. Here, a change in topology may again be accompanied by a singularity. Applications of this geometry that rely on singular dynamical behavior are relevant for the coating of biological particles that may be of particular use in medical transplantation technologies.

  13. In-Cab Air Quality of Trucks Air Conditioned and Kept in Electrified Truck Stop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Doh-Won; Zietsman, Josias; Farzaneh, Mohamadreza; Li, Wen-Whai; Olvera, Hector; Storey, John Morse; Kranendonk, Laura

    2009-01-01

    At night, long-haul truck drivers rest inside the cabins of their vehicles. Therefore, the in-cab air quality while air conditioning (A/C) is being provided can be a great concern to the drivers health. The effect of using different A/C methods [truck's A/C, auxiliary power unit (APU), and truck stop electrification (TSE) unit] on in-cab air quality of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle was investigated at an electrified truck stop in the El Paso, Texas, area. The research team measured the in-cabin and the ambient air quality adjacent to the parked diesel truck as well as emissions from the truck and an APU while it was providing A/C. The measured results were compared and analyzed. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that the TSE unit provided better in-cab air quality while supplying A/C. Furthermore, the truck and APU exhaust emissions were measured, and fuel consumption of the truck (while idling) and the APU (during operation) were compared. The results led to the finding that emissions from the APU were less than those from the truck's engine idling, but the APU consumed more fuel than the engine while providing A/C under given conditions.

  14. Passive environmental temperature control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corliss, John M.; Stickford, George H.

    1981-01-01

    Passive environmental heating and cooling systems are described, which utilize heat pipes to transmit heat to or from a thermal reservoir. In a solar heating system, a heat pipe is utilized to carry heat from a solar heat absorber plate that receives sunlight, through a thermal insulation barrier, to a heat storage wall, with the outer end of the pipe which is in contact with the solar absorber being lower than the inner end. The inclining of the heat pipe assures that the portion of working fluid, such as Freon, which is in a liquid phase will fall by gravity to the outer end of the pipe, thereby assuring diode action that prevents the reverse transfer of heat from the reservoir to the outside on cool nights. In a cooling system, the outer end of the pipe which connects to a heat dissipator, is higher than the inner end that is coupled to a cold reservoir, to allow heat transfer only out of the reservoir to the heat dissipator, and not in the reverse direction.

  15. Experimental study of a fiber absorber-suppressor modified Trombe wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhury, D; Birkebak, R C

    1982-12-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to ascertain the effects of introducing fiber bed absorbers on Trombe wall passive solar collectors. Two identical, Trombe wall passive solar units were constructed that incorporate the basic components of masonry collector-storage walls: glazings, masonry and thermal insulation. Both units were extensively instrumented with thermocouples and heat flux transducers. Ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and insolation are also measured. In the first part of the study the two Trombe wall units were tested with a single glass cover. The thermal performance of both units was found to be virtually identical. In the second part of the study a single cover Trombe wall unit was compared with a double cover unit and the latter was found to have higher air gap and masonry wall temperatures and heat fluxes. In the final phase of the experiment, an absorbing, scattering and emitting fiberglass-like material was placed in the air gap of the single gazed wall. Tests were conducted to compare the solar-thermal performance, heat loss and gain characteristics between the units with and without the fiber absorber-suppressor. This experiment showed that the fiber bed served to decouple the wall at night from its exterior environment and to reduce the heat losses. The modified Trombe wall with the fiber absorber-suppressor out-performed the double glazed Trombe wall system by approximately ten percent gain in useable thermal energy. Also, the fiber bed eliminates one glazing thereby reducing system cost as well.

  16. Physiological and ecological consequences of sleeping-site selection by the Galapagos land iguana (Conolophus pallidus)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, K.A.; Tracy, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Field observations and biophysical models were combined to analyze sleeping-site selection by Galapagos land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus). Iguanas slept in different kinds of sleeping sites during different seasons. In the coolest season (garua), adult land iguanas were found in sleeping sites that were warmer than the coolest sites available. This may be because the garua season (cool, overcast, and foggy) is a time when environmental conditions mitigate against rapid warm-up in the mornings, so lizards may regulate nighttime body temperatures so that it is easier to warm up to preferred daytime body temperatures. In the warmest season, adult iguanas were found in the coolest sleeping sites available. This observation is consistent with hypotheses of voluntary hypothermia, which can be advantageous in energy conservation and in avoiding detrimental effects associated with maintenance of constant body temperatures throughout the day and night. Juvenile iguanas were found sleeping in rock crevices regardless of the ambient thermal environments. Such sites are likely to be important as refugia for this life stage, which, unlike the adult stage, is vulnerable to predation. It was concluded that selection of sleeping sites is a process that may help in avoidance of predation, optimization of body temperature at the end of the sleeping period, and reduction of metabolic costs during sleeping. The importance of some of these factors may change with the thermal milieu (e.g., season).

  17. A survey of urban noise annoyance in a large Brazilian city: the importance of a subjective analysis in conjunction with an objective analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zannin, Paulo H.T.; Calixto, Alfredo; Diniz, Fabiano B.; Ferreira, Jose A.C

    2003-03-01

    This study describes the reaction to environmental noise of the population of Curitiba ({approx}1.6 million inhabitants). Out of 1000 distributed forms, 860 were returned. The main isolated noise sources revealed by the survey as disturbing were traffic (73%) and neighbors (38%). As a class, neighborhood noise was pointed out as the most disturbing type of noise as 100% of the surveyed people indicated at least one of the items belonging to this class: neighbors, animals, sirens, civil construction, religion temples, night clubs, toys and domestic electric appliances. The main outcomes of exposure to noise were: irritability (58%), difficulty to concentrate (42%), sleeping disorders (20%) and headaches (20%). In this survey, the importance of the realization of objective surveys, in other words, noise emission measurements in conjunction with the subjective evaluation of the reaction of the urban population to the environmental noise, is also discussed. The present survey shows that in the subjective evaluation performed in the city of Curitiba, the perception of the population is that the urban noise has increased. On the other hand, another study conducted in the same city, where only the noise emission levels were evaluated, has showed a decrease on the urban noise.

  18. Solar skylight

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adamson, James C.

    1984-01-01

    A reflective shutter rotates within a skylight housing in such a fashion as to control solar energy thereby providing a combination of heating, lighting, and ventilation. The skylight housing has three faces: a glazed southern face, a glazed northern face, and an open downwardly oriented face to the interior of the structure. Counter-weighted pivot arms support the shutter at either end causing the center of rotation to pass through the center of gravity. The shutter has three basic positions: In the first position, during the winter day, the shutter closes off the northern face, allowing solar energy to enter directly into the supporting structure providing heat gain and daylighting. In the second position, during the winter night, the shutter closes off the open face to the interior, providing insulation between the structure and the skylight housing. In the third position, during the non-heating season, the shutter closes off the southern face blocking unwanted heat gain but allowing diffuse northern light to penetrate for daylighting. In this last position, a means is provided for ventilating by natural convection. The apparatus can be operated either manually or by motor.

  19. Thermodynamic Characterization of Mexico City Aerosol during MILAGRO 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fountoukis, C.; Nenes, A.; Sullivan, A.; Weber, R.; VanReken, T.; Fischer, M.; Matias, E.; Moya, M.; Farmer, D.; Cohen, R.C.

    2008-12-05

    Fast measurements of aerosol and gas-phase constituents coupled with the ISORROPIA-II thermodynamic equilibrium model are used to study the partitioning of semivolatile inorganic species and phase state of Mexico City aerosol sampled at the T1 site during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign. Overall, predicted semivolatile partitioning agrees well with measurements. PM{sub 2.5} is insensitive to changes in ammonia but is to acidic semivolatile species. For particle sizes up to 1 {micro}m diameter, semi-volatile partitioning requires 30-60 min to equilibrate; longer time is typically required during the night and early morning hours. When the aerosol sulfate-to-nitrate molar ratio is less than unity, predictions improve substantially if the aerosol is assumed to follow the deliquescent phase diagram. Treating crustal species as 'equivalent sodium' (rather than explicitly) in the thermodynamic equilibrium calculations introduces important biases in predicted aerosol water uptake, nitrate and ammonium; neglecting crustals further increases errors dramatically. This suggests that explicitly considering crustals in the thermodynamic calculations is required to accurately predict the partitioning and phase state of aerosols.

  20. On the spatial decorrelation of stochastic solar resource variability at long timescales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, Marc J. R.; Fthenakis, Vasilis M.

    2015-05-16

    Understanding the spatial and temporal characteristics of solar resource variability is important because it helps inform the discussion surrounding the merits of geographic dispersion and subsequent electrical interconnection of photovoltaics as part of a portfolio of future solutions for coping with this variability. The unpredictable resource variability arising from the stochastic nature of meteorological phenomena (from the passage of clouds to the movement of weather systems) is of most concern for achieving high PV penetration because unlike the passage of seasons or the shift from day to night, the uncertainty makes planning a challenge. A suitable proxy for unpredictable solar resource variability at any given location is the series of variations in the clearness index from one time period to the next because the clearness index is largely independent of the predictable influence of solar geometry. At timescales shorter than one day, the correlation between these variations in clearness index at pairs of distinct geographic locations decreases with spatial extent and with timescale. As the aggregate variability across N decorrelated locations decreases as 1/√N, identifying the distance required to achieve this decorrelation is critical to quantifying the expected reduction in variability from geographic dispersion.

  1. Hydronic Heating Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings: Boiler Control Replacement and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Henderson, H.; Varshney, K.

    2014-09-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  2. Measurement of the nue and Total 8B Solar Neutrino Fluxes with theSudbury Neutrino Observatory Phase I Data Set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aharmim, B.; Ahmad, Q.R.; Ahmed, S.N.; Allen, R.C.; Andersen,T.C.; Anglin, J.D.; Buehler, G.; Barton, J.C.; Beier, E.W.; Bercovitch,M.; Bergevin, M.; Bigu, J.; Biller, S.D.; Black, R.A.; Blevis, I.; Boardman, R.J.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.; Boulay, M.G.; Bowler, M.G.; Bowles, T.J.; Brice, S.J.; Browne, M.C.; Bullard, T.V.; Burritt, T.H.; Cameron, J.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, H.H.; Chen, M.; Chen, X.; Cleveland, B.T.; Cowan, J.H.M.; Cowen, D.F.; Cox, G.A.; Currat, C.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Davidson, W.F.; Deng, H.; DiMarco, M.; Doe, P.J.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky, M.R.; Duba, C.A.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J.A.; Earle, E.D.; Elliott, S.R.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Ferraris, A.P.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Fowler, M.M.; Frame, K.; Frank, E.D.; Frati, W.; Gagnon,N.; Germani, J.V.; Gil, S.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goon, J.T.M.; Graham, K.; Grant, D.R.; Guillian, E.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Hamer, A.S.; Hamian, A.A.; Handler, W.B.; Haq, R.U.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Henning, R.; Hepburn, J.D.; Heron, H.; Hewett, J.; Hime,A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M.A.; Huang, M.; Hykawy, J.G.; Isaac, M.C.P.; Jagam, P.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N.A.; Jillings, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kazkaz, K.; Keener, P.T.; Kirch, K.; Klein, J.R.; Knox, A.B.; Komar,R.J.; Kormos, L.L.; Kos, M.; Kouzes, R.; Krueger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss,C.B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Labranche, H.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lay, M.; Lee, H.W.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J.C.; Locke, W.; Luoma, S.; Lyon, J.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A.D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald,A.B.; McDonald, D.S.; McFarlane, K.; McGee, S.; McGregor, G.; MeijerDrees, R.; Mes, H.; Mifflin, C.; Miknaitis, K.K.S.; Miller, M.L.; Milton,G.; Moffat, B.A.; Monreal, B.; Moorhead, M.; Morrissette, B.; Nally,C.W.; Neubauer, M.S.; et al.

    2007-02-01

    This article provides the complete description of resultsfrom the Phase I data set of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). ThePhase I data set is based on a 0.65 kt-year exposure of heavy water tothe solar 8B neutrino flux. Included here are details of the SNO physicsand detector model, evaluations of systematic uncertainties, andestimates of backgrounds. Also discussed are SNO's approach tostatistical extraction of the signals from the three neutrino reactions(charged current, neutral current, and elastic scattering) and theresults of a search for a day-night asymmetry in the ?e flux. Under theassumption that the 8B spectrum is undistorted, the measurements fromthis phase yield a solar ?e flux of ?(?e) =1.76+0.05?0.05(stat.)+0.09?0.09 (syst.) x 106 cm?2 s?1, and a non-?ecomponent ?(? mu) = 3.41+0.45?0.45(stat.)+0.48?0.45 (syst.) x 106 cm?2s?1. The sum of these components provides a total flux in excellentagreement with the predictions of Standard Solar Models. The day-nightasymmetry in the ?e flux is found to be Ae = 7.0 +- 4.9 (stat.)+1.3?1.2percent (sys.), when the asymmetry in the total flux is constrained to bezero.

  3. On the spatial decorrelation of stochastic solar resource variability at long timescales

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Perez, Marc J. R.; Fthenakis, Vasilis M.

    2015-05-16

    Understanding the spatial and temporal characteristics of solar resource variability is important because it helps inform the discussion surrounding the merits of geographic dispersion and subsequent electrical interconnection of photovoltaics as part of a portfolio of future solutions for coping with this variability. The unpredictable resource variability arising from the stochastic nature of meteorological phenomena (from the passage of clouds to the movement of weather systems) is of most concern for achieving high PV penetration because unlike the passage of seasons or the shift from day to night, the uncertainty makes planning a challenge. A suitable proxy for unpredictable solarmore » resource variability at any given location is the series of variations in the clearness index from one time period to the next because the clearness index is largely independent of the predictable influence of solar geometry. At timescales shorter than one day, the correlation between these variations in clearness index at pairs of distinct geographic locations decreases with spatial extent and with timescale. As the aggregate variability across N decorrelated locations decreases as 1/√N, identifying the distance required to achieve this decorrelation is critical to quantifying the expected reduction in variability from geographic dispersion.« less

  4. Geographical distribution of benzene in air in northwestern Italy and personal exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilli, G.; Scursatone, E.; Bono, R.

    1996-12-01

    Benzene is a solvent strictly related to some industrial activities and to automotive emissions. After the reduction in lead content of fuel gasoline, and the consequent decrease in octane number, an increase in benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline occurred. Therefore, an increase in the concentration of these chemicals in the air as primary pollutants and as precursors of photochemical smog could occur in the future. The objectives of this study were to describe the benzene air pollution at three sites in northwestern Italy throughout 1991 and 1994; to examine the relationship between benzene air pollution in indoor, outdoor, and personal air as measured by a group of nonsmoking university students; and to determine the influence of environmental tobacco smoke on the level of benzene exposure in indoor air environments. The results indicate a direct relationship between population density and levels of contamination; an indoor/outdoor ratio of benzene air pollution higher than 1 during day and night; a similar level of personal and indoor air contamination; and a direct relationship between levels of personal exposure to benzene and intensity of exposure to tobacco smoke. Human exposure to airborne benzene has been found to depend principally on indoor air contamination not only in the home but also in many other confined environments. 29 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Measure Guideline: Condensing Boilers-Optimizing Efficiency and Response Time During Setback Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.

    2014-02-01

    Conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has consistently stated two things: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads, and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. The implication of this is that, for setback to be successfully implemented, the heating system must be oversized. This issue is exacerbated further when an outdoor reset control is used with a condensing boiler, because not only is the system matched to the load at design, the outdoor reset control matches the output to the load under varying outdoor temperatures. Under these circumstances, the home may never recover from setback. Special controls to bypass the outdoor reset sensor are then needed. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. The first step is to determine the appropriateness of setback for a particular project. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step-by-step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  6. Measure Guideline: Condensing Boilers - Optimizing Efficiency and Response Time During Setback Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.

    2014-02-01

    Conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has told us a couple of things consistently for several years now: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. The implication of this is that, for setback to be successfully implemented, the heating system must be oversized. This issue is exacerbated further when an outdoor reset control is used with a condensing boiler, because not only is the system matched to the load at design, the outdoor reset control matches the output to the load under varying outdoor temperatures. Under these circumstances, the home may never recover from setback. Special controls to bypass the outdoor reset sensor are then needed. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. Determining the appropriateness of setback for a particular project is the first step. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step by step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  7. Hydronic Systems: Designing for Setback Operation, Ithaca, New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    Conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has told us a couple of things consistently for several years now: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. The implication of this is that, for setback to be successfully implemented, the heating system must be oversized. This issue is exacerbated further when an outdoor reset control is used with a condensing boiler, because not only is the system matched to the load at design, the outdoor reset control matches the output to the load under varying outdoor temperatures. Under these circumstances, the home may never recover from setback. Special controls to bypass the outdoor reset sensor are then needed. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. Determining the appropriateness of setback for a particular project is the first step. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step by step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  8. Design and testing of a control strategy for a large naturallyventilated office building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrilho da Graca, Guilherme; Linden, Paul F.; Haves, Philip

    2004-03-16

    The design for the new Federal Building for San Franciscoincludes an office tower that is to be naturally ventilated. Each flooris designed to be cross-ventilated, through upper windows that arecontrolled by the building management system (BMS). Users have controlover lower windows, which can be as much as 50 percent of the totalopenable area. There are significant differences in the performance andthe control of the windward and leeward sides of the building, andseparate monitoring and control strategies are determined for each side.The performance and control of the building has been designed and testedusing a modified version of EnergyPlus. Results from studies withEnergyPlus and CFD are used in designing the control strategy. EnergyPluswas extended to model a simplified version of the airflow patterndetermined using CFD. Wind-driven cross-ventilation produces a main jetthrough the upper openings of the building, across the ceiling from thewindward to the leeward side. Below this jet, the occupied regions aresubject to a recirculating air flow. Results show that temperatureswithin the building are predicted to be satisfactory, provided a suitablecontrol strategy is implemented uses night cooling in periods of hotweather. The control strategy has 10 window opening modes. EnergyPlus wasextended to simulate the effects of these modes, and to assess theeffects of different forms of user behavior. The results show how userbehavior can significantly influence the buildingperformance.

  9. Integrated solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tchernev, Dimiter I.

    1985-01-01

    A solar collector having a copper panel in a contiguous space relationship with a condenser-evaporator heat exchanger located under the panel, the panel having a honeycomb-like structure on its interior defining individual cells which are filled with zeolite loaded, in its adsorbed condition, with 18 to 20% by weight of water. The interior of the panel and heat exchanger are maintained at subatmospheric pressure of about 0.1 to 1 psia. The panel and heat exchanger are insulated on their lateral sides and bottoms and on the top of the heat exchange. The panel has a black coating on its top which is exposed to and absorbs solar energy. Surrounding the insulation (which supports the panel) is an extruded aluminum framework which supports a pair of spaced-apart glass panels above the solar panel. Water in conduits from a system for heating or cooling or both is connected to flow into an inlet and discharge from outlet of a finned coil received within the heat exchanger. The collector panel provides heat during the day through desorption and condensing of water vapor from the heated solar panel in the heat exchanger and cools at night by the re-adsorption of the water vapor from the heat exchanger which lowers the absolute pressure within the system and cools the heat exchange coils by evaporation.

  10. A comparison of Nannochloropsis salina growth performance in two outdoor pond designs: conventional raceways versus the ARID pond with superior temperature management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe, Braden J.; Attalah, Said; Agrawal, Shweta; Waller, Peter; Ryan, Randy; Van Wagenen, Jonathan M.; Chavis, Aaron R.; Kyndt, John; Kacira, Murat; Ogden, Kimberly L.; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2012-10-01

    The present study examines how climatic conditions and pond design affect the growth performance of microalgae. From January to April of 2011, outdoor batch cultures of Nannochloropsis salina were grown in three replicate 780 L conventional raceways, as well as in an experimental 7500 L ARID (Algae Raceway Integrated Design) pond. The ARID culture system utilizes a series of 8 to 20 cm deep basins and a 1.5 m deep canal to enhance light exposure and mitigate temperature variations and extremes. The ARID culture reached the stationary phase 27 days earlier than the conventional raceways, which can be attributed to its superior temperature management and shallower basins. On a night when the air temperature dropped to -9 C, the water temperature was 18 C higher in the ARID pond than in the conventional raceways. Lipid and fatty acid content ranged from 16 - 25 % and 5 - 15 %, respectively, as a percentage of AFDW. Palmitic, palmitoleic, and eicosapentaenoic acid comprised the majority of fatty acids. While the ARID culture system achieved nearly double the volumetric productivity relative to the conventional raceways (0.023 vs 0.013 g L-1day-1), areal biomass productivities were of similar magnitude in both pond systems (3.34 vs. 3.47 g m-2day-1), suggesting that the ARID pond design has to be further optimized, most likely by increasing the culture depth or operating at higher cell densities while maintaining adequate mixing.

  11. Cold-Air-Pool Structure and Evolution in a Mountain Basin: Peter Sinks, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, Craig B.; Whiteman, Charles D.; Horel, John D.

    2003-06-01

    The evolution of potential temperature and wind structure during the buildup of nocturnal cold-air pools was investigated during clear, dry, September nights in Utah's Peter Sinks basin, a 1-km-diameter limestone sinkhole that holds the Utah minimum temperature record of -56 C. The evolution of cold-pool characteristics depended on the strength of prevailing flows above the basin. On an undisturbed day, a 30 C diurnal temperature range and a strong nocturnal potential temperature inversion (22 K in 100 m) were observed in the basin. Initially, downslope flows formed on the basin sidewalls. As a very strong potential temperature jump (17 K) developed at the top of the cold pool, however, the winds died within the basin and over the sidewalls. A persistent turbulent sublayer formed below the jump. Turbulent sensible heat flux on the basin floor became negligible shortly after sunset while the basin atmosphere continued to cool. Temperatures over the slopes, except for a 1 to 2-m-deep layer, became warmer than over the basin center at the same altitude. Cooling rates for the entire basin near sunset were comparable to the 90 W m-2 rate of loss of net longwave radiation at the basin floor, but these rates decreased to only a few watts per square meter by sunrise. This paper compares the observed cold-pool buildup in basins with inversion buildup in valleys.

  12. OzDES multifibre spectroscopy for the Dark Energy Survey: First-year operation and results

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yuan, Fang; Plazas, A. A.; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.; Childress, M.; Abdalla, F. B.

    2015-07-29

    OzDES is a five-year, 100-night, spectroscopic survey on the Anglo-Australian Telescope, whose primary aim is to measure redshifts of approximately 2,500 Type Ia supernovae host galaxies over the redshift range 0.1 morehelp calibrate photometric redshifts. Here we present an overview of the OzDES program and our first-year results. Between Dec 2012 and Dec 2013, we observed over 10,000 objects and measured more than 6,000 redshifts. Our strategy of retargeting faint objects across many observing runs has allowed us to measure redshifts for galaxies as faint as mr = 25 mag. We outline our target selection and observing strategy, quantify the redshift success rate for different types of targets, and discuss the implications for our main science goals. Finally, we highlight a few interesting objects as examples of the fortuitous yet not totally unexpected discoveries that can come from such a large spectroscopic survey.less

  13. Refined rotational period, pole solution, and shape model for (3200) Phaethon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ansdell, Megan; Meech, Karen J.; Kaluna, Heather; Hainaut, Olivier; Buie, Marc W.; Bauer, James; Dundon, Luke

    2014-09-20

    (3200) Phaethon exhibits both comet- and asteroid-like properties, suggesting it could be a rare transitional object such as a dormant comet or previously volatile-rich asteroid. This justifies detailed study of (3200) Phaethon's physical properties as a better understanding of asteroid-comet transition objects can provide insight into minor body evolution. We therefore acquired time series photometry of (3200) Phaethon over 15 nights from 1994 to 2013, primarily using the Tektronix 2048 2048 pixel CCD on the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope. We utilized light curve inversion to (1) refine (3200) Phaethon's rotational period to P = 3.6032 0.0008 hr; (2) estimate a rotational pole orientation of ? = +85 13 and ? = 20 10; and (3) derive a shape model. We also used our extensive light curve data set to estimate the slope parameter of (3200) Phaethon's phase curve as G ? 0.06, consistent with C-type asteroids. We discuss how this highly oblique pole orientation with a negative ecliptic latitude supports previous evidence for (3200) Phaethon's origin in the inner main asteroid belt as well as the potential for deeply buried volatiles fueling impulsive yet rare cometary outbursts.

  14. Impact Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles on the U.S. Power Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Nguyen, Tony B.; Jin, Chunlian; Balducci, Patrick J.; Secrest, Thomas J.

    2010-09-30

    The US electricity grid is a national infrastructure that has the potential to deliver significant amounts of the daily driving energy of the US light duty vehicle (cars, pickups, SUVs, and vans) fleet. This paper discusses a 2030 scenario with 37 million plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on the road in the US demanding electricity for an average daily driving distance of about 33 miles (53 km). The paper addresses the potential grid impacts of the PHEVs fleet relative to their effects on the production cost of electricity, and the emissions from the electricity sector. The results of this analysis indicate significant regional difference on the cost impacts and the CO2 emissions. Battery charging during the day may have twice the cost impacts than charging during the night. The CO2 emissions impacts are very region-dependent. In predominantly coal regions (Midwest), the new PHEV load may reduce the CO2 emission intensity (ton/MWh), while in others regions with significant clean generation (hydro and renewable energy) the CO2 emission intensity may increase. Discussed will the potential impact of the results with the valuation of carbon emissions.

  15. Degradation of Photovoltaic Modules Under High Voltage Stress in the Field: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    del Cueto, J. A.; Rummel, S. R.

    2010-08-01

    The degradation in performance for eight photovoltaic (PV) modules stressed at high voltage (HV) is presented. Four types of modules--tandem-junction and triple-junction amorphous thin-film silicon, plus crystalline and polycrystalline silicon modules--were tested, with a pair of each biased at opposite polarities. They were deployed outdoors between 2001 and 2009 with their respective HV leakage currents through the module encapsulation continuously monitored with a data acquisition system, along with air temperature and relative humidity. For the first 5 years, all modules were biased continuously at fixed 600 VDC, day and night. In the last 2 years, the modules were step-bias stressed cyclically up and down in voltage between 10 and 600 VDC, in steps of tens to hundreds of volts. This allowed characterization of leakage current versus voltage under a large range of temperature and moisture conditions, facilitating determination of leakage paths. An analysis of the degradation is presented, along with integrated leakage charge. In HV operation: the bulk silicon modules degraded either insignificantly or at rates of 0.1%/yr higher than modules not biased at HV; for the thin-film silicon modules, the added loss rates are insignificant for one type, or 0.2%/yr-0.6%/yr larger for the other type.

  16. On the spatial decorrelation of stochastic solar resource variability at long timescales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, Marc J. R.; Fthenakis, Vasilis M.

    2015-05-16

    Understanding the spatial and temporal characteristics of solar resource variability is important because it helps inform the discussion surrounding the merits of geographic dispersion and subsequent electrical interconnection of photovoltaics as part of a portfolio of future solutions for coping with this variability. The unpredictable resource variability arising from the stochastic nature of meteorological phenomena (from the passage of clouds to the movement of weather systems) is of most concern for achieving high PV penetration because unlike the passage of seasons or the shift from day to night, the uncertainty makes planning a challenge. A suitable proxy for unpredictable solar resource variability at any given location is the series of variations in the clearness index from one time period to the next because the clearness index is largely independent of the predictable influence of solar geometry. At timescales shorter than one day, the correlation between these variations in clearness index at pairs of distinct geographic locations decreases with spatial extent and with timescale. As the aggregate variability across N decorrelated locations decreases as 1/?N, identifying the distance required to achieve this decorrelation is critical to quantifying the expected reduction in variability from geographic dispersion.

  17. Sensitivity analysis of ozone formation and transport for a Central California air pollution episode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Ling; Tonse, Shaheen; Cohan, Daniel S.; Mao, Xiaoling; Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2009-05-15

    CMAQ-HDDM is used to determine spatial and temporal variations in ozone limiting reagents and local vs upwind source contributions for an air pollution episode in Central California. We developed a first- and second- order sensitivity analysis approach with the Decoupled Direct Method to examine spatial and temporal variations of ozone-limiting reagents and the importance of local vs upwind emission sources in the San Joaquin Valley of central California for a five-day ozone episode (29th July-3rd Aug, 2000). Despite considerable spatial variations, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emission reductions are overall more effective than volatile organic compound (VOC) control for attaining the 8-hr ozone standard in this region for this episode, in contrast to the VOC control that works better for attaining the prior 1-hr ozone standard. Inter-basin source contributions of NO{sub x} emissions are limited to the northern part of the SJV, while anthropogenic VOC (AVOC) emissions, especially those emitted at night, influence ozone formation in the SJV further downwind. Among model input parameters studied here, uncertainties in emissions of NO{sub x} and AVOC, and the rate coefficient of the OH + NO{sub 2} termination reaction, have the greatest effect on first-order ozone responses to changes in NO{sub x} emissions. Uncertainties in biogenic VOC emissions only have a modest effect because they are generally not collocated with anthropogenic sources in this region.

  18. Field Operations Program Chevrolet S-10 (Lead-Acid) Accelerated Reliability Testing - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort; J. Argueta; M. Wehrey; D. Karner; L. Tyree

    1999-07-01

    This report summarizes the Accelerated Reliability testing of five lead-acid battery-equipped Chevrolet S-10 electric vehicles by the US Department of Energy's Field Operations Program and the Program's testing partners, Electric Transportation Applications (ETA) and Southern California Edison (SCE). ETA and SCE operated the S-10s with the goal of placing 25,000 miles on each vehicle within 1 year, providing an accelerated life-cycle analysis. The testing was performed according to established and published test procedures. The S-10s' average ranges were highest during summer months; changes in ambient temperature from night to day and from season-to-season impacted range by as much as 10 miles. Drivers also noted that excessive use of power during acceleration also had a dramatic effect on vehicle range. The spirited performance of the S-10s created a great temptation to inexperienced electric vehicle drivers to ''have a good time'' and to fully utilize the S-10's acceleration capability. The price of injudicious use of power is greatly reduced range and a long-term reduction in battery life. The range using full-power accelerations followed by rapid deceleration in city driving has been 20 miles or less.

  19. Outmigration of landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts and effectiveness of an angled trash rack/fish bypass structure at a small scale hydroelectric facility. [Salmo salar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nettles, D.C.; Gloss, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    Modes of downstream passage (penstock, spillway, diversion chute) by Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts were monitored using radio telemetry to assess the effectiveness of an angled trash rack/fish bypass structure at a small hydroelectric dam on the Boquet River, New York. Telemetry of 170 Atlantic salmon smolts and visual observations of stocked smolts were used to determine aspects of Atlantic salmon outmigration behavior. Smolts initiated mass migrations after river temperatures reached or exceeded 10/sup 0/C. Many radio-tagged smolts interrupted movements upon reaching ponded waters and/or the dam. River flow did not (P > .05) affect the frequency of migratory movements, passages, or rate of movement. Migrations were of approximately 30 days duration. Passages at the dam occurred primarily at night (61%) with diurnal passages (17%) and crepuscular passages (17%) of secondary importance. Timing of 5% of the passages was undetermined. All passages which occurred when angled trash racks were in place were through the bypass or over the spillway. Six (6) passages occurred when trash racks perpendicular to the penstock were in place: 3 of these were penstock passages. The angled trash rack and bypass structure served to reduce entrainment.

  20. Large Hybrid Energy Systems for Making Low CO2 Load-Following Power and Synthetic Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S. Cherry; Richard D. Boardman; Steven Aumeier

    2012-02-01

    Hybrid energy systems using nuclear heat sources can economically produce load-following electrical power by exploiting the surplus generation capacity available at night or seasonally to make synthetic fuel. Vehicle fuel is the only current energy use large enough to absorb all the energy capacity that might be diverted from the power industry, and its ease of storage obviates problems with discontinuous synfuel production. The potential benefits and challenges of synfuels integration are illustrated by the production of methanol from natural gas (as a source of carbon) using steam from a light water nuclear power reactor which is assumed to be available in accord with a year's worth of power demand data. Methanol's synthesis process is easily adapted to using 300 C heat from a light water reactor and this simple compound can be further processed into gasoline, biodiesel, or dimethyl ether, fuels which can be used with the current vehicle fleet. A supplemental feed to the methanol process of natural gas (for energy) allows operation at constant full rate when the nuclear heat is being used to produce electrical power. The higher capital costs of such a system are offset by a lower cost of heat and power production from a large base load type of plant and by reduced costs associated with much lower CO2 emissions. Other less tangible economic benefits of this and similar hybrid systems include better use of natural resource for fuels and greater energy services security from the domestic production of vehicle fuel.

  1. Summary proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    A public meeting was convened by the Department of Energy (DOE) on February 10 and 11, 1994 in order to discuss government plans for the export of clean coal technologies -- The ``Clean Coal International Technology Transfer Program.`` In the sections that follow, brief descriptions are provided of the background to the solicitation and the public meeting, and how the meeting was conducted. Subsequent chapters of this report present the discussions that ensued at the meeting, and the views, recommendations, and concerns that were expressed by attendees. Chapter 4 consists of the actual text used for presentations, where such text was provided by the presenter. It should be noted that the agenda for the second day, the session on financing issues, differs from the agenda that was published prior to the meeting. This is due to the fact that a severe snowstorm occurred on the night of February 10 and into February 11. Many of the scheduled speakers were not able to get to the meeting and substitute speakers actually gave presentations. The revised agenda was quite successful. Again, presentations are included in Chapter 4 where the text was provided. Finally, an appendix contains attendee registration data.

  2. Aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  3. Environmental assessment of air quality, noise and cooling tower drift from the Jersey City Total Energy Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, W.T.; Kolb, J.O.

    1980-06-01

    This assessment covers three specific effects from the operation of the Total Energy (TE) demonstration: (1) air quality from combustion emissions of 600 kW diesel engines and auxiliary boilers fueled with No. 2 distillate oil, (2) noise levels from TE equipment operation, (3) cooling tower drift from two, 2220 gpm, forced-draft cooling towers. For the air quality study, measurements were performed to determine both the combustion emission rates and ground-level air quality at the Demonstration site. Stack analysis of NO/sub x/, SO/sub 2/, CO, particulates, and total hydrocarbons characterized emission rates over a range of operating conditions. Ground-level air quality was monitored during two six-week periods during the summer and winter of 1977. The noise study was performed by measuring sound levels in db(A) in the area within approximately 60 m of the CEB. The noise survey investigated the effects on noise distribution of different wind conditions, time of day or night, and condition of doors - open or closed - near the diesel engines in the CEB. In the cooling tower study, drift emission characteristics were measured to quantify the drift emission before and after cleaning of the tower internals to reduce fallout of large drift droplets in the vicinity of the CEB.

  4. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey: Technical Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew; Choi, Changsu; Cinabro, David; DeJongh, Don Frederic; Depoy, Darren L.; Doi, Mamoru; Garnavich, Peter M.; Hogan, Craig J.; Holtzman, Jon; Im, Myungshin; Jha, Saurabh; Konishi, Kohki; Lampeitl, Hubert; Marriner, John; Marshall, Jennifer L.; McGinnis, David; Miknaitis, Gajus; Nichol, Robert C.; Prieto, Jose Luis; /Ohio State U. /Rochester Inst. Tech. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Pennsylvania U. /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /Portsmouth U. /Tokyo U. /Tokyo U. /South African Astron. Observ. /Tokyo U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Fermilab /Fermilab /Ohio State U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Fermilab /Bristol U. /Apache Point Observ. /Liverpool John Moores U., ARI /Columbia U., CBA /Apache Point Observ. /Ohio State U. /Durham U. /Portsmouth U. /South African Astron. Observ. /Naval Academy, Annapolis /UC, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Ohio State U. /Stockholm U. /New Mexico State U. /Princeton U. Observ. /Tokyo U. /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Jefferson Lab /Apache Point Observ. /Gottingen U. /Chicago U. /San Francisco State U. /DARK Cosmology Ctr. /Fermilab /Apache Point Observ. /Durham U. /Princeton U. Observ. /Apache Point Observ. /Apache Point Observ. /Apache Point Observ. /Barcelona U. /Stockholm U. /Apache Point Observ. /Lick Observ. /Sussex U. /Barcelona U. /Apache Point Observ. /Ohio State U. /Apache Point Observ. /Fermilab /DARK Cosmology Ctr. /Chicago U. /Fermilab /South African Astron. Observ. /Ohio State U. /Apache Point Observ. /Texas U., McDonald Observ. /Fermilab

    2007-09-14

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) has embarked on a multi-year project to identify and measure light curves for intermediate-redshift (0.05 < z < 0.35) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using repeated five-band (ugriz) imaging over an area of 300 sq. deg. The survey region is a stripe 2.5 degrees wide centered on the celestial equator in the Southern Galactic Cap that has been imaged numerous times in earlier years, enabling construction of a deep reference image for discovery of new objects. Supernova imaging observations are being acquired between 1 September and 30 November of 2005-7. During the first two seasons, each region was imaged on average every five nights. Spectroscopic follow-up observations to determine supernova type and redshift are carried out on a large number of telescopes. In its first two three-month seasons, the survey has discovered and measured light curves for 327 spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia, 30 probable SNe Ia, 14 confirmed SNe Ib/c, 32 confirmed SNe II, plus a large number of photometrically identified SNe Ia, 94 of which have host-galaxy spectra taken so far. This paper provides an overview of the project and briefly describes the observations completed during the first two seasons of operation.

  5. Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is a series of three interlocking imaging and spectroscopic surveys, carried out over an eight-year period with a dedicated 2.5m telescope located at Apache Point Observatory in Southern New Mexico. The SDSS Supernova Survey was one of those three components of SDSS and SDSS-II, a 3-year extension of the original SDSS that operated from July 2005 to July 2008. The Supernova Survey was a time-domain survey, involving repeat imaging of the same region of sky every other night, weather permitting. The primary scientific motivation was to detect and measure light curves for several hundred supernovae through repeat scans of the SDSS Southern equatorial stripe 82 (about 2.5? wide by ~120? long). Over the course of three 3-month campaigns SDSS-II SN discovered and measured multi-band lightcurves for ~500 spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia supernovae in the redshift range z=0.05-0.4. In addition, the project harvested a few hundred light curves for SNe Ia and discovered about 80 spectroscopically confirmed core-collapse supernovae (supernova types Ib/c and II).

  6. Pilot-plant automation for catalytic hydrotreating of heavy residua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akimoto, O.; Iwamoto, Y.; Kodama, S.; Takeuchi, C.

    1983-08-01

    The research and development center of Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and Construction Co. has been investigating the catalytic hydrotreating of heavy residua via pilot plant technology. Chiyoda's 52 microreactors. bench-scale test units and pilot plants are each used depending on the purpose of the process development for heavy oil upgrading. The microreactors are effective for catalyst screening. Heavier fractions such as asphaltene and sludge materials often disturbed steady state operation. Many unique devices for the test units and improvement of operation procedures make extended operation easy as well as increasing reliability. The computerized data acquisition and data filing systems minimize the work not only for operators but for all research personnel. Currently, about 40 pilot plant units are continuously running while the others are in preparation. Fully automated operation requires only three for data checking at night. In the daytime, seven operators take care of feed supply, product removal and condition changes. For start-up and shut-down, one operator can handle three microreactos, but only one bench-scale unit or pilot plant. Planning is underway for an improved start-up system for the pilot plants using personal computers. This system automatically sets feed rate and raises reactor temperature. (JMT)

  7. Pilot-plant automation for catalytic hydrotreating of heavy residua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akimoto, O.; Iwamoto, Y.; Kodama, S.; Takeuchi, C.

    1983-08-01

    Chiyoda's 52 microreactors, bench-scale test units and pilot plants are each used depending on the purpose of the process development for heavy oil upgrading. The microreactors are effective for catalyst screening. Heavier fractions such as asphaltene and sludge materials often disturbed steady state operation. Many unique devices for the test units and improvement of operation procedures make extended operation easy as well as increasing reliability. The computerized data acquisition and data filing systems minimize the work not only for operators but for all research personnel. Currently, about 40 pilot plant units are continuously running while the others are in preparation. Fully automated operation requires only three for data checking at night. In the daytime, seven operators take care of feed supply, product removal and condition changes. For start-up and shut-down, one operator can handle three microreactors, but only one bench-scale unit or pilot plant. Planning is underway for an improved start-up system for the pilot plants using personal computers. This system automatically sets feed rate and raises reactor temperature.

  8. First detection of multi-shocks in RR Lyrae stars from Antarctica : A possible explanation of the Blazhko effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chadid, M.; Vernin, J.; Zalian, C.; Pouzenc, C.; Abe, L.; Agabi, A.; Aristidi, E.; Mkarnia, D.; Preston, G.; Liu, L.Y.; Trinquet, H.

    2014-11-01

    We present the first detection of multi-shocks propagating through the atmosphere of the Blazhko star S Arae using uninterrupted, accurate optical photometric data collected during one polar night, 150 days from Antarctica at Dome C, with the Photometer AntarctIca eXtinction (PAIX). We acquired 89,736 CCD frames during 323 pulsation cycles and 3 Blazhko cycles. We detected two new light curve properties in the PAIX light curve, jump and rump, which we associated with two new post-maximum shock waves Sh{sub PM1} and Sh{sub PM2}. jump, lump, rump, bump, and hump are induced by five shock waves, with different amplitudes and origins, Sh{sub PM1}, Sh{sub PM}, Sh{sub PM2}, Sh{sub PM3}, and the main shock Sh{sub H+He}. Correlations between the length of rise time and light amplitude and Sh{sub PM3} are monotonous during three Blazhko cycles, but the pulsation curve is double peaked. We discuss the physical mechanisms driving the modulation of these quantities. Finally, we hypothesize that the origin of the Blazhko effect is a dynamical interaction between a multi-shock structure and an outflowing wind in a coronal structure.

  9. Fine localization of the locus for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa on chromosome 17p

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goliath, R.; Janssens, P.; Beighton, P.

    1995-10-01

    The term {open_quotes}retintis pigmentosa{close_quotes} (RP) refers to a group of inherited retinal degenerative disorders. Clinical manifestations include night-blindness, with variable age of onset, followed by constriction of the visual field that may progress to total loss of sight in later life. Previous studies have shown that RP is caused by mutations within different genes and may be inherited as an X-linked recessive (XLRRP), autosomal recessive (ARRP), or autosomal dominant (ADRP) trait. The AD form of this group of conditions has been found to be caused by mutations within the rhodopsin gene in some families and the peripherin/RDS gene in others. In addition, some ADRP families have been found to be linked to anonymous markers on 8cen, 7p, 7q,19q, and, more recently, 17p. The ADRP gene locus on the short arm of chromosome 17 was identified in a large South African family (ADRP-SA) of British origin. The phenotypic expression of the disorder, which has been described elsewhere is consistent in the pedigree with an early onset of disease symptoms. In all affected subjects in the family, onset of symptoms commenced before the age of 10 years. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. FREQUENCY LIMITS ON NAKED-EYE OPTICAL TRANSIENTS LASTING FROM MINUTES TO YEARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamir, Lior; Nemiroff, Robert J. E-mail: nemiroff@mtu.edu

    2009-09-15

    How often do bright optical transients occur on the sky but go unreported? To constrain the bright end of the astronomical transient function, a systematic search for transients that become bright enough to be noticed by the unaided eye was conducted using the all-sky monitors of the Night Sky Live network. Two fisheye CONtinuous CAMeras operating over three years created a database that was searched for transients that appeared in time-contiguous CCD frames. Although a single candidate transient was found, the lack of more transients is used here to deduce upper limits to the general frequency of bright transients. To be detected, a transient must have increased by over three visual magnitudes to become brighter than visual magnitude 5.5 on the timescale of minutes to years. It is concluded that, on the average, fewer than 0.0040 (t {sub dur}/60 s) transients with duration t {sub dur} between minutes and hours, occur anywhere on the sky at any one time. For transients on the order of months to years, fewer than 160 (t {sub dur}/1 year) occur, while for transients on the order of years to millennia, fewer than 50 (t {sub dur}/1 year){sup 2} occur.

  11. MACHO (MAssive Compact Halo Objects) Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The primary aim of the MACHO Project is to test the hypothesis that a significant fraction of the dark matter in the halo of the Milky Way is made up of objects like brown dwarfs or planets: these objects have come to be known as MACHOs, for MAssive Compact Halo Objects. The signature of these objects is the occasional amplification of the light from extragalactic stars by the gravitational lens effect. The amplification can be large, but events are extremely rare: it is necessary to monitor photometrically several million stars for a period of years in order to obtain a useful detection rate. For this purpose MACHO has a two channel system that employs eight CCDs, mounted on the 50 inch telescope at Mt. Stromlo. The high data rate (several GBytes per night) is accommodated by custom electronics and on-line data reduction. The Project has taken more than 27,000 images with this system since June 1992. Analysis of a subset of these data has yielded databases containing light curves in two colors for 8 million stars in the LMC and 10 million in the bulge of the Milky Way. A search for microlensing has turned up four candidates toward the Large Magellanic Cloud and 45 toward the Galactic Bulge. The web page for data provides links to MACHO Project data portals and various specialized interfaces for viewing or searching the data. (Specialized Interface)

  12. Study of mid-latitude 5577A CI dayglow emissions. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hume, E.E.

    1992-01-01

    Summary of thesis: The green line (5577angstroms) is a bright, persistent component of the visible airglow. It is produced by an electric quadruple transition from the metastable second excited state (1So) to the first excited state (1D2) of atomic oxygen. These two excited states all lie in the same electron shell of the atom and have the same electron configuration as the ground state of 1s22s22p4, which is the 3P2,1,0. This emission is present in both the daytime and night airglow and in the aurora, and despite a long history of study it is still not fully understood. The emission in the dayglow and the nightglow is relatively homogeneous spatially and global in coverage. In the aurora, the emission is much brighter than the airglow, high structured and very localized being restricted to higher latitudes. The structure of the 5577angstroms emission with altitude and the chemistry responsible for the production of the emission are complex. The vertical structure for the emission has two distinct layers in the airglow each with its own set of production and loss mechanisms. the chemistry for either of these layers is not completely known. The auroral emission is not understood either since it overlaps the upper and lower layer altitudes and it tends to contain some parts of the chemistry of both layers as sources and losses.

  13. Comparison of optically measured and radar-derived horizontal neutral winds. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christie, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    Nighttime thermospheric winds for Sondrestrom, Greenland from 11 nights between 1983 and 1988, have been compared to learn about the O(+)-O collision cross section and the high-latitude atomic oxygen density. The horizontal winds in the magnetic meridian were derived indirectly from incoherent-scatter radar (ISR) measurements on ion velocities antiparallel to the magnetic field and directly from Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) measurements of Doppler shifts of the (6300-A) emission of atomic oxygen. In deriving the radar winds, the O(+)-O collision cross section, was scaled by a factor of f what was varied from 0.5 to 5.1. On the basis of several arguments the altitude of the 6300-A emission was assumed to be 230 km. The best agreement between the ISR and FPI winds was obtained when f was increased substantially, to between 1.7 and 3.4. If the average peak emission altitude were higher, these factors would be larger; if it were lower, they would be somewhat smaller. However, if the average altitude were substantially lower it would have been more difficult to have obtained agreement between the two techniques.

  14. Extremely organic-rich coma of comet C/2010 G2 (Hill) during its outburst in 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawakita, Hideyo; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Russo, Neil Dello; Vervack, Ron Jr.; Weaver, Harold A.; DiSanti, Mike A.; Opitom, Cyrielle; Jehin, Emmanuel; Manfroid, Jean; Gillon, Michael; Cochran, Anita L.; Harris, Walter M.; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Biver, Nicolas; Crovisier, Jacques; McKay, Adam J.

    2014-06-20

    We performed high-dispersion near-infrared spectroscopic observations of comet C/2010 G2 (Hill) at 2.5 AU from the Sun using NIRSPEC (R ≈ 25,000) at the Keck II Telescope on UT 2012 January 9 and 10, about a week after an outburst had occurred. Over the two nights of our observations, prominent emission lines of CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, along with weaker emission lines of H{sub 2}O, HCN, CH{sub 3}OH, and CO were detected. The gas production rate of CO was comparable to that of H{sub 2}O during the outburst. The mixing ratios of CO, HCN, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, and CH{sub 3}OH with respect to H{sub 2}O were higher than those for normal comets by a factor of five or more. The enrichment of CO and CH{sub 4} in comet Hill suggests that the sublimation of these hypervolatiles sustained the outburst of the comet. Some fraction of water in the inner coma might exist as icy grains that were likely ejected from nucleus by the sublimation of hypervolatiles. Mixing ratios of volatiles in comet Hill are indicative of the interstellar heritage without significant alteration in the solar nebula.

  15. Molecular Characterization of Organic Aerosol Using Nanospray Desorption/Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: CalNex 2010 field study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Brien, Rachel E.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Liu, Shang; Weber, Robin; Russell, Lynn; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2013-04-01

    Aerosol samples from the CalNex 2010 field study were analyzed using high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) coupled to a nanospray-desorption/electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) source. The samples were collected in Bakersfield, CA on June 22-23, 2010. The chemical formulas of over 1300 unique molecular species were detected in the mass range of 50-800 m/z. Our analysis focused on identification of two main groups: compounds containing only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO only), and nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NOC). The NOC accounted for 35% (by number) of the compounds observed in the afternoon, and for 59% in the early morning samples. By comparing plausible reactant-product pairs, we propose that over 50% of the NOC in each sample could have been formed through reactions transforming carbonyls into imines. The CHO only compounds were dominant in the afternoon suggesting a photochemical source. The average O:C ratios of all observed compounds were fairly consistent throughout the day, ranging from 0.34 in the early morning to 0.37 at night. We conclude that both photooxidation and ammonia chemistry play important roles in forming the compounds observed in this mixed urban-rural environment.

  16. Molecular Characterization of S- and N-containing Organic Constituents in Ambient Aerosols by negative ion mode High-Resolution Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: CalNex 2010 field study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Brien, Rachel E.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Rubitschun, Caitlin L.; Surratt, Jason D.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2014-11-27

    Samples of ambient aerosols from the 2010 California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field study were analyzed using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (nano-DESI/MS). Four samples per day were collected in Bakersfield, CA on June 20-24 with a collection time of 6 hours per sample. Four characteristic groups of organic constituents were identified in the samples: compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen only (CHO), sulfur- (CHOS), nitrogen-(CHON), and both nitrogen- and sulfur-containing organics (CHONS). Within the groups, organonitrates, organosulfates, and nitroxy organosulfates were assigned based on accurate mass measurements and elemental ratio comparisons. Changes in the chemical composition of the aerosol samples were observed throughout the day. The number of observed CHO compounds increased in the afternoon samples, suggesting regional photochemical processing as a source. The average number of CHOS compounds had the smallest changes throughout the day, consistent with a more broadly distributed source. Both of the nitrogen-containing groups (CHON and CHONS) had greater numbers of compounds in the night and morning samples, indicating that nitrate radical chemistry was likely a source for those compounds. Most of the compounds were found in submicron particles. The size distribution of CHON compounds was bimodal. We conclude that the majority of the compounds observed were secondary in nature with both biogenic and anthropogenic sources.

  17. Mexico City air quality research initiative, volume 3, modeling and simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mauzy, A.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the modeling and simulation task was to develop, test, and apply an appropriate set of models that could translate emission changes into air quality changes. Specifically, we wanted to develop models that could describe how existing measurements of ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) would be expected to change if their emissions were changed. The modeling must be able to address the effects of difference in weather conditions and changes in land use as well as the effects of changes in emission levels. It must also be able to address the effects of changes in the nature and distribution of the emissions as well as changes in the total emissions. A second objective was to provide an understanding of the conditions that lead to poor air quality in Mexico City. We know in a general sense that Mexico City`s poor air quality is the result of large quantities of emissions in a confined area that is subject to light winds, but we did not know much about many aspects of the problem. For example, is the air quality on a given day primarily the result of emissions on that day...or is there an important carryover from previous nights and days? With a good understanding of the important meteorological circumstances that lead to poor air quality, we learn what it take duce an accurate forecast of impending quality so that we can determine the advisability of emergency measures.

  18. The use of a receptor model for fine particulate in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vega, E.; Garcia, I.; Ruiz, M.E.

    1997-12-31

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) faces severe pollution problems typical of large urban areas all over the world. The city is in an elevated basin (2,240 m) at a subtropical latitude (19.5N), with a high mountain chain at the West and South. This basin setting inhibits dispersion of pollution and contributes to the frequent wintertime thermal inversions which further trap pollutants near the surface. The study of atmospheric pollution and its control have been carried out using physico-chemical dispersion models, and the type known as receptor models often finds favor. The main objective of this paper is to present the results of a chemical mass balance receptor model applied to two different data sets of particulate matter. The twelve-hour samples were collected during day and night periods in the winter of 1989, previous to the introduction of catalytic converters in automobiles, and the other after 1991, since the catalytic converters are compulsory in all the new model vehicles. Samples of particulate matter were collected using a denuder and a Hi-Vol systems for the fine fraction (aerosols with diameter less than 2.5 {micro}m) and total suspended particles respectively. The results show that the major source contributions to the inhalable particulate matter for the first period are: automobiles (44%); secondary aerosols (19%); dust (10%).

  19. Building America Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  20. Technology Solutions Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency, which faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68°F) than day (73° F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  1. ATMOSPHERIC MODELING IN SUPPORT OF A ROADWAY ACCIDENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, R.; Hunter, C.

    2010-10-21

    The United States Forest Service-Savannah River (USFS) routinely performs prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. This facility covers {approx}800 square kilometers and is mainly wooded except for scattered industrial areas containing facilities used in managing nuclear materials for national defense and waste processing. Prescribed fires of forest undergrowth are necessary to reduce the risk of inadvertent wild fires which have the potential to destroy large areas and threaten nuclear facility operations. This paper discusses meteorological observations and numerical model simulations from a period in early 2002 of an incident involving an early-morning multicar accident caused by poor visibility along a major roadway on the northern border of the SRS. At the time of the accident, it was not clear if the limited visibility was due solely to fog or whether smoke from a prescribed burn conducted the previous day just to the northwest of the crash site had contributed to the visibility. Through use of available meteorological information and detailed modeling, it was determined that the primary reason for the low visibility on this night was fog induced by meteorological conditions.

  2. Studies of planetary boundary layer by infrared thermal imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albina, Bogdan; Dimitriu, Dan Gheorghe Gurlui, Silviu Octavian; Cazacu, Marius Mihai; Timofte, Adrian

    2014-11-24

    The IR camera is a relatively novel device for remote sensing of atmospheric thermal processes from the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) based on measurements of the infrared radiation. Infrared radiation is energy radiated by the motion of atoms and molecules on the surface of aerosols, when their temperature is more than absolute zero. The IR camera measures directly the intensity of radiation emitted by aerosols which is converted by an imaging sensor into an electric signal, resulting a thermal image. Every image pixel that corresponds to a specific radiance is pre-processed to identify the brightness temperature. The thermal infrared imaging radiometer used in this study, NicAir, is a precision radiometer developed by Prata et al. The device was calibrated for the temperature range of 270–320 K and using a calibration table along with image processing software, important information about variations in temperature can be extracted from acquired IR images. The PBL is the lowest layer of the troposphere where the atmosphere interacts with the ground surfaces. The importance of PBL lies in the fact that it provides a finite but varying volume in which pollutants can disperse. The aim of this paper is to analyze the PBL altitude and thickness variations over Iasi region using the IR imaging camera as well as its behavior from day to night and thermal processes occurring in PBL.

  3. OzDES multifibre spectroscopy for the Dark Energy Survey: First-year operation and results

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yuan, Fang

    2015-07-29

    The Australian Dark Energy Survey (OzDES) is a five-year, 100-night, spectroscopic survey on the Anglo-Australian Telescope, whose primary aim is to measure redshifts of approximately 2500 Type Ia supernovae host galaxies over the redshift range 0.1 < z < 1.2, and derive reverberation-mapped black hole masses for approximately 500 active galactic nuclei and quasars over 0.3 < z < 4.5. This treasure trove of data forms a major part of the spectroscopic follow-up for the Dark Energy Survey for which we are also targeting cluster galaxies, radio galaxies, strong lenses, and unidentified transients, as well as measuring luminous red galaxiesmore » and emission line galaxies to help calibrate photometric redshifts. Here, we present an overview of the OzDES programme and our first-year results. Between 2012 December and 2013 December, we observed over 10 000 objects and measured more than 6 000 redshifts. Our strategy of retargeting faint objects across many observing runs has allowed us to measure redshifts for galaxies as faint as mr = 25 mag. We outline our target selection and observing strategy, quantify the redshift success rate for different types of targets, and discuss the implications for our main science goals. In conclusion, we highlight a few interesting objects as examples of the fortuitous yet not totally unexpected discoveries that can come from such a large spectroscopic survey.« less

  4. Coal mining in the United States: SMCRA`s successful blueprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, K.L.

    1997-06-01

    In his forward in Night Comes to the Cumberlands, former Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall observed that Caudill`s constructive proposals for rehabilitation of the coal counties {open_quotes}will take deep concern by people in Washington and Frankfort to bring them to fruition.{close_quotes} Deep concern for the impacts that poorly regulated surface coal mining were having on the human and natural environment animated a decade-long struggle to establish national policy for surface coal mining. The result was the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, P.L. 95-97 (SMCRA). Enacted to implement a national framework for regulating the environmental effects of surface coal mining, the law established a national program for controlling environmental impacts and ensuring the reclamation of lands affected by surface mining activity. From the perspective of nearly two decades, most observers would conclude that SMCRA is an example of successful policy implementation. Few national environmental laws have succeeded as well in terms of on-the-ground results: coal production has increased dramatically and industry has made significant gains in productivity while incorporating environmental and reclamation requirements in its daily operations, lowering the cost of reclamation and environmental protection. This article discusses and evaluates the SMCRA and its effect on surface coal mining. 2 tabs.

  5. Metal Hydrides for High-Temperature Power Generation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ronnebro, Ewa; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powell, Michael R.; Westman, Matthew P.; Zheng, Feng; Fang, Zhigang Zak

    2015-08-10

    Metal hydrides can be utilized for hydrogen storage and for thermal energy storage (TES) applications. By using TES with solar technologies, heat can be stored from sun energy to be used later which enables continuous power generation. We are developing a TES technology based on a dual-bed metal hydride system, which has a high-temperature (HT) metal hydride operating reversibly at 600-800°C to generate heat as well as a low-temperature (LT) hydride near room temperature that is used for hydrogen storage during sun hours until there is a need to produce electricity, such as during night time, a cloudy day, ormore » during peak hours. We proceeded from selecting a high-energy density, low-cost HT-hydride based on performance characterization on gram size samples, to scale-up to kilogram quantities and design, fabrication and testing of a 1.5kWh, 200kWh/m3 bench-scale TES prototype based on a HT-bed of titanium hydride and a hydrogen gas storage instead of a LT-hydride. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to make performance predictions for cylindrical hydride beds with varying diameters and thermal conductivities. Based on experimental and modeling results, a bench-scale prototype was designed and fabricated and we successfully showed feasibility to meet or exceed all performance targets.« less

  6. DETECTION OF THERMAL EMISSION FROM A SUPER-EARTH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; Seager, Sara; Benneke, Bjoern; Gillon, Michaeel; Deming, Drake; Jackson, Brian

    2012-06-01

    We report on the detection of infrared light from the super-Earth 55 Cnc e, based on four occultations obtained with Warm Spitzer at 4.5 {mu}m. Our data analysis consists of a two-part process. In a first step, we perform individual analyses of each data set and compare several baseline models to optimally account for the systematics affecting each light curve. We apply independent photometric correction techniques, including polynomial detrending and pixel mapping, that yield consistent results at the 1{sigma} level. In a second step, we perform a global Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis, including all four data sets that yield an occultation depth of 131 {+-} 28 ppm, translating to a brightness temperature of 2360 {+-} 300 K in the IRAC 4.5 {mu}m channel. This occultation depth suggests a low Bond albedo coupled to an inefficient heat transport from the planetary day side to the night side, or else possibly that the 4.5 {mu}m observations probe atmospheric layers that are hotter than the maximum equilibrium temperature (i.e., a thermal inversion layer or a deep hot layer). The measured occultation phase and duration are consistent with a circular orbit and improves the 3{sigma} upper limit on 55 Cnc e's orbital eccentricity from 0.25 to 0.06.

  7. Chronomodulation of topotecan or X-radiation treatment increases treatment efficacy without enhancing acute toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullins, Dana; Proulx, Denise; Saoudi, A.; Ng, Cheng E. . E-mail: cng@ohri.ca

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: Topotecan (TPT), a camptothecin analog, is currently used to treat human ovarian and small-cell lung cancer and is in clinical trials for other tumor sites. However, it is unknown whether chronomodulation of TPT treatment is beneficial. We examined the effects of administering TPT or X-radiation (XR) alone at different times of the day or night. Methods: We treated mice bearing human colorectal tumor xenografts at four different times representing the early rest period (9 AM or 3 HALO [hours after light onset]), late rest period (3 PM or 9 HALO), early active period (9 PM or 15 HALO), and late active period (3 AM or 21 HALO) of the mice. We gave either TPT (12 mg/kg, injected i.p.) or XR (4 Gy, directed to the tumor) twice weekly on Days 0, 4, 7, 10 within 2 weeks. Results: Treatment with either TPT or XR at 3 AM demonstrated the greatest efficacy (measured by a tumor regrowth assay) without significantly increasing acute toxicity (assessed by a decrease in leukocyte counts or body weight). Conversely, treatment at 3 PM, in particular, showed increased toxicity without any enhanced efficacy. Conclusions: Our study provided the first evidence that chronomodulation of TPT treatments, consistent with the findings of other camptothecin analogs, is potentially clinically beneficial. Additionally, our findings suggest that chronomodulation of fractionated XR treatments is also potentially clinically beneficial.

  8. Short-duration radio bursts with apparent extragalactic dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saint-Hilaire, P.; Benz, A. O.; Monstein, C.

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of the longest yet undertaken search for apparently extragalactic radio bursts at the Bleien Radio Observatory covering 21,000 hr (898 days). The data were searched for events of less than 50 ms FWHM duration showing a ?{sup 2} drift in the spectrogram characteristic of the delay of radio waves in plasma. We have found five cases suggesting dispersion measures between 350 and 400 cm{sup 3} pc while searching in the range of 75-2000 cm{sup 3} pc. Four of the five events occurred between 10:27 and 11:24 a.m. local civil time. The only exception occurred at night with the full Moon in the beam. It was an event that poorly fits plasma dispersion, but had the characteristics of a solar Type III burst. However, we were not able to confirm that it was a lunar reflection. All events were observed with a log-periodic dipole within 6800 hr, but none with a more directional horn antenna observing the rest of the time. These properties suggest a terrestrial origin of the 'peryton' type reported before. However, the cause of these events remains ambiguous.

  9. Demonstration of an advanced solar garden with a water ceiling. Final technical report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maes, R.; Riseng, C.; Thomas, G.; Mandeville, M.

    1980-09-01

    A history of the solar garden with the addition of the transparent water ceiling is presented, and a statement of the overall goals of the program is given. The objectives of the water ceiling grant are detailed. The rationale of the transparent water ceiling is developed and its implementation in the solar garden is described. The experimental procedures for evaluating the water ceiling as an integral part of an ongoing garden agricultural experiment are discussed and the results presented. The water ceiling has proven useful in providing extra thermal capacity to the solar garden. It provides heat at night after the water has been warmed during the day and retards overheating in the daytime by absorbing infrared energy into the water. In growing non-flowering plants, such as lettuce and Chinese cabbage, the water ceiling showed no noticeable degradation in yield or maturation rate. In flowering plants, such as tomatoes, the reduced light levels delayed yields by a couple of weeks but the total yield was only slightly diminished. In geographic areas where there is less cloud cover than in Michigan the water ceiling could be much more effective.

  10. THE SIMULATION OF FINE SCALE NOCTURNAL BOUNDARY LAYER MOTIONS WITH A MESO-SCALE ATMOSPHERIC MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werth, D.; Kurzeja, R.; Parker, M.

    2009-04-02

    A field project over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement-Clouds and Radiation Testbed (ARM-CART) site during a period of several nights in September, 2007 was conducted to explore the evolution of the low-level jet (LLJ). Data was collected from a tower and a sodar and analyzed for turbulent behavior. To study the full range of nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) behavior, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) was used to simulate the ARM-CART NBL field experiment and validated against the data collected from the site. This model was run at high resolution, and is ideal for calculating the interactions among the various motions within the boundary layer and their influence on the surface. The model reproduces adequately the synoptic situation and the formation and dissolution cycles of the low-level jet, although it suffers from insufficient cloud production and excessive nocturnal cooling. The authors suggest that observed heat flux data may further improve the realism of the simulations both in the cloud formation and in the jet characteristics. In a higher resolution simulation, the NBL experiences motion on a range of timescales as revealed by a wavelet analysis, and these are affected by the presence of the LLJ. The model can therefore be used to provide information on activity throughout the depth of the NBL.

  11. SWiFT site atmospheric characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, Christopher Lee; Ennis, Brandon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Historical meteorological tall tower data are analyzed from the Texas Tech University 200 m tower to characterize the atmospheric trends of the Scaled Wind Farm Technologies (SWiFT) site. In this report the data are analyzed to reveal bulk atmospheric trends, temporal trends and correlations of atmospheric variables. Through this analysis for the SWiFT turbines the site International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) classification is determined to be class III-C. Averages and distributions of atmospheric variables are shown, revealing large fluctuations and the importance of understanding the actual site trends as opposed to simply using averages. The site is significantly directional with the average wind speed from the south, and particularly so in summer and fall. Site temporal trends are analyzed from both seasonal (time of the year) to daily (hour of the day) perspectives. Atmospheric stability is seen to vary most with time of day and less with time of year. Turbulence intensity is highly correlated with stability, and typical daytime unstable conditions see double the level of turbulence intensity versus that experienced during the average stable night. Shear, veer and atmospheric stability correlations are shown, where shear and veer are both highest for stable atmospheric conditions. An analysis of the Texas Tech University tower anemometer measurements is performed which reveals the extent of the tower shadow effects and sonic tilt misalignment.

  12. Substantial Contribution of Anthropogenic Air Pollution to Catastrophic Floods in Southwest China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Jiwen; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Yang, Yan; Zhao, Chun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Li, Zhanqing

    2015-07-20

    Extreme events such as heat waves, floods, and droughts, have become more frequent since the 1950s1-2. This is likely caused through changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols that perturb the radiative balance and alter cloud processes3-8. On 8-9 July, 2013 a catastrophic flood devastated several metropolitan areas at the foothills of the Sichuan Basin. Using a high-resolution coupled atmosphere-chemistry model, we show that this disaster was not entirely natural. Ensemble simulations robustly show that the severe anthropogenic pollution in the Sichuan Basin significantly enhanced rainfall intensity over the mountainous area northwest of the basin. The heavy air pollution (mainly black carbon) absorbs solar radiation in the lower atmosphere at the expense of surface cooling, which stabilizes the atmosphere and suppresses convection and precipitation over the basin. The enhanced moisture and moist static energy over the basin are then transported by the prevailing winds towards the mountains during daytime. As the excessive moist air that reaches the foothills at night is orographically lifted, very strong convection develops and produces extremely heavy precipitation. Reducing black carbon (BC) emissions in the basin can effectively mitigate the extreme precipitation in the mountains. Unfortunately, BC emissions have been increasing in many developing countries including China9, making them more vulnerable to enhanced disasters as reported here.

  13. AmeriFlux US-Blo Blodgett Forest

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Goldstein, Allen [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Blo Blodgett Forest. Site Description - The flux tower site at Blodgett Forest is on a 1200 ha parcel of land owned by Sierra Pacific Industries in the Sierra Nevada range near Georgetown, California. The field site was established in May 1997 with continuous operation since May 1999. The site is situated in a ponderosa pine plantation, mixed-evergreen coniferous forest, located adjacent to Blodgett Forest Research Station. The Mediterranean-type climate of California is characterized by a protracted summer drought, with precipitation occurring mainly from October through May. The infrastructure for the ecosystem scale flux measurements includes a walkup measurement tower, two temperature controlled instrument buildings, and an electrical generation system powered by a diesel generator. Typical wind patterns at the site include upslope flow during the day (from the west) and downslope flow at night (from the east). The plantation is relatively flat, and contains a homogenous mixture of evenly aged ponderosa pine with other trees and shrubs scattered throughout the ecosystem making up less than 30% of the biomass. The daytime fetch for the tower measurements extends approximately 200 m to the southwest of the tower (this region contributes ~90% of the daytime flux), thus remote sensing images to be used for modeling should probably be centered approximately 100 m from the tower at an angle of 225 deg.

  14. Introducing an Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer for Improving the Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Measurement (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Hansen, L.; Zeng, J.

    2012-08-01

    Advancing climate change research requires accurate and traceable measurement of the atmospheric longwave irradiance. Current measurement capabilities are limited to an estimated uncertainty of larger than +/- 4 W/m2 using the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). WISG is traceable to the Systeme international d'unites (SI) through blackbody calibrations. An Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) is being developed to measure absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to SI using the temperature scale (ITS-90) and the sky as the reference source, instead of a blackbody. The ACP was designed by NREL and optically characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Under clear-sky and stable conditions, the responsivity of the ACP is determined by lowering the temperature of the cavity and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance is then calculated with an uncertainty of +/- 3.96 W/m2 with traceability to SI. The measured irradiance by the ACP was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the WISG. A total of 408 readings was collected over three different clear nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m2 lower than that measured by the two pyrgeometers that are traceable to WISG. Further development and characterization of the ACP might contribute to the effort of improving the uncertainty and traceability of WISG to SI.

  15. OzDES multifibre spectroscopy for the Dark Energy Survey: First-year operation and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Fang

    2015-07-29

    The Australian Dark Energy Survey (OzDES) is a five-year, 100-night, spectroscopic survey on the Anglo-Australian Telescope, whose primary aim is to measure redshifts of approximately 2500 Type Ia supernovae host galaxies over the redshift range 0.1 < z < 1.2, and derive reverberation-mapped black hole masses for approximately 500 active galactic nuclei and quasars over 0.3 < z < 4.5. This treasure trove of data forms a major part of the spectroscopic follow-up for the Dark Energy Survey for which we are also targeting cluster galaxies, radio galaxies, strong lenses, and unidentified transients, as well as measuring luminous red galaxies and emission line galaxies to help calibrate photometric redshifts. Here, we present an overview of the OzDES programme and our first-year results. Between 2012 December and 2013 December, we observed over 10 000 objects and measured more than 6 000 redshifts. Our strategy of retargeting faint objects across many observing runs has allowed us to measure redshifts for galaxies as faint as mr = 25 mag. We outline our target selection and observing strategy, quantify the redshift success rate for different types of targets, and discuss the implications for our main science goals. In conclusion, we highlight a few interesting objects as examples of the fortuitous yet not totally unexpected discoveries that can come from such a large spectroscopic survey.

  16. Observations of summer roosting and foraging behavior of a hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) in southern New Hampshire.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veillieux, J. P.; Moosman, P. R.; Reynolds, D. S.; LaGory, K. E.; Walston, L. J.; Environmental Science Division; Franklin Pierce Univ.; Fitchburg State Coll.; St. Paul's School

    2009-01-01

    Few data are available that describe the roosting and foraging ecology of the Hoary Bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and no such data are available for the northeastern United States. We captured a juvenile Hoary Bat in south-central New Hampshire during July of 2007 and monitored its roosting behavior for ten days and its foraging behavior for one night. The bat roosted with two other bats, which we presumed were its mother and sibling. These bats roosted exclusively in Tsuga canadensis (Eastern Hemlock Tree) and tended to roost near tree tops in the forest canopy. The radiotagged bat used at least six roost trees and changed roost location eight times during the ten-day observation period. Although roost-tree fidelity was low, all roost trees were located within a maximum circular area of 0.5 ha. The bat foraged over an estimated 156-ha area of mostly forest habitat (68%), with additional open habitats (15%) and wetlands (17%). These data are the first observations of roosting and foraging behaviors by the Hoary Bat in the northeastern region of its geographic range.

  17. Analysis of Doppler Lidar Data Acquired During the Pentagon Shield Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newsom, Rob K.

    2011-04-14

    Observations from two coherent Doppler lidars deployed during the Pentagon Shield field campaign are analyzed in conjunction with other sensors to characterize the overall boundary-layer structure, and identify the dominant flow characteristics during the entire two-week field campaign. Convective boundary layer (CBL) heights and cloud base heights (CBH) are estimated from an analysis of the lidar signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), and mean wind profiles are computed using a modified velocity-azimuth-display (VAD) algorithm. Three-dimensional wind field retrievals are computed from coordinated overlapping volume scans, and the results are analyzed by visualizing the flow in horizontal and vertical cross sections. The VAD winds show that southerly flows dominate during the two-week field campaign. Low-level jets (LLJ) were evident on all but two of the nights during the field campaign. The LLJs tended to form a couple hours after sunset and reach maximum strength between 03 and 07 UTC. The surface friction velocities show distinct local maxima during four nights when strong LLJs formed. Estimates of the convective boundary layer height and residual layer height are obtained through an analysis of the vertical gradient of the lidar signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). Strong minimum in the SNR gradient often develops just above the surface after sunrise. This minimum is associated with the developing CBL, and increases rapidly during the early portion of the daytime period. On several days, this minimum continues to increase until about sunset. Secondary minima in the SNR gradient were also observed at higher altitudes, and are believed to be remnants of the CBL height from previous days, i.e. the residual layer height. The dual-Doppler analysis technique used in this study makes use of hourly averaged radial velocity data to produce three-dimensional grids of the horizontal velocity components, and the horizontal velocity variance. Visualization of horizontal and vertical cross sections of the dual-Doppler wind retrievals often indicated a jet-like flow feature over the Potomac River under southerly flow conditions. This linear flow feature is roughly aligned with the Potomac River corridor to the south of the confluence with the Anatostia River, and is most apparent at low levels (i.e. below ~150 m MSL). It is believed that this flow arises due to reduced drag over the water surface and when the large scale flow aligns with the Potomac River corridor. A so-called area-constrained VAD analysis generally confirmed the observations from the dual-Doppler analysis. When the large scale flow is southerly, wind speeds over the Potomac River are consistently larger than the at a site just to the west of the river for altitudes less than 100 m MSL. Above this level, the trend is somewhat less obvious. The data suggest that the depth of the wind speed maximum may be reduced by strong directional shear aloft.

  18. Predictive Optimal Control of Active and Passive Building Thermal Storage Inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregor P. Henze; Moncef Krarti

    2005-09-30

    Cooling of commercial buildings contributes significantly to the peak demand placed on an electrical utility grid. Time-of-use electricity rates encourage shifting of electrical loads to off-peak periods at night and weekends. Buildings can respond to these pricing signals by shifting cooling-related thermal loads either by precooling the building's massive structure or the use of active thermal energy storage systems such as ice storage. While these two thermal batteries have been engaged separately in the past, this project investigated the merits of harnessing both storage media concurrently in the context of predictive optimal control. To pursue the analysis, modeling, and simulation research of Phase 1, two separate simulation environments were developed. Based on the new dynamic building simulation program EnergyPlus, a utility rate module, two thermal energy storage models were added. Also, a sequential optimization approach to the cost minimization problem using direct search, gradient-based, and dynamic programming methods was incorporated. The objective function was the total utility bill including the cost of reheat and a time-of-use electricity rate either with or without demand charges. An alternative simulation environment based on TRNSYS and Matlab was developed to allow for comparison and cross-validation with EnergyPlus. The initial evaluation of the theoretical potential of the combined optimal control assumed perfect weather prediction and match between the building model and the actual building counterpart. The analysis showed that the combined utilization leads to cost savings that is significantly greater than either storage but less than the sum of the individual savings. The findings reveal that the cooling-related on-peak electrical demand of commercial buildings can be considerably reduced. A subsequent analysis of the impact of forecasting uncertainty in the required short-term weather forecasts determined that it takes only very simple short-term prediction models to realize almost all of the theoretical potential of this control strategy. Further work evaluated the impact of modeling accuracy on the model-based closed-loop predictive optimal controller to minimize utility cost. The following guidelines have been derived: For an internal heat gain dominated commercial building, reasonable geometry simplifications are acceptable without a loss of cost savings potential. In fact, zoning simplification may improve optimizer performance and save computation time. The mass of the internal structure did not show a strong effect on the optimization. Building construction characteristics were found to impact building passive thermal storage capacity. It is thus advisable to make sure the construction material is well modeled. Zone temperature setpoint profiles and TES performance are strongly affected by mismatches in internal heat gains, especially when they are underestimated. Since they are a key factor in determining the building cooling load, efforts should be made to keep the internal gain mismatch as small as possible. Efficiencies of the building energy systems affect both zone temperature setpoints and active TES operation because of the coupling of the base chiller for building precooling and the icemaking TES chiller. Relative efficiencies of the base and TES chillers will determine the balance of operation of the two chillers. The impact of mismatch in this category may be significant. Next, a parametric analysis was conducted to assess the effects of building mass, utility rate, building location and season, thermal comfort, central plant capacities, and an economizer on the cost saving performance of optimal control for active and passive building thermal storage inventory. The key findings are: (1) Heavy-mass buildings, strong-incentive time-of-use electrical utility rates, and large on-peak cooling loads will likely lead to attractive savings resulting from optimal combined thermal storage control. (2) By using economizer to take advantage of the cool fresh air during the night, the bu

  19. Use Patterns of LED Flashlights in Kenya and a One-Year Cost Analysis of Flashlight Ownership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tracy, Jennifer; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-02-16

    Flashlight usage is widespread across much of sub-Saharan Africa.1 In Kenya in particular, over half of all households report owning a flashlight (Kamfor, 2002). Aside from household use, flashlights are also widely used to perform income-earning jobs in Kenya. Lumina Research Note No.4, the first report in this series documenting flashlight use in Kenya, highlights flashlight use patterns of night watchmen and bicycle taxi drivers. Both of these are occupations that rely on the use of flashlights on a nightly basis (Tracy et al., 2009). Also highlighted by Research Note No.4, flashlight users in Kenya have reported being highly dissatisfied with the quality of the low-cost LED flashlights that are available, and they identify several reoccurring problems they have faced as flashlight end-users (Tracy et al., 2009). The fact that there exists a substantial dependency upon flashlights in Kenya and that users are disgruntled with the available products suggests reasons for concern about flashlight quality. This concern is present despite two recent technological transitions in the flashlight market. First, LED technology has quickly emerged as the dominant source of portable lighting in Kenya, outpacing incandescent flashlights (Johnstone et al., 2009). LED technology has the potential to provide efficiency and performance benefits relative to incandescent bulbs, and low-cost LEDs have achieved price levels that make them cost competitive with conventional lighting sources for a number of applications (Mills, 2005). Second, rechargeable sealed-lead acid (SLA) batteries are also becoming more prevalent alternatives to disposable dry cell batteries. Flashlights using rechargeable SLA batteries tend to have a lower total cost of ownership over a two-year period than a flashlight using dry cell batteries (Radecsky, 2009); however, as this current report highlights, this may vary depending on the intensity of use patterns. To avoid a potential market spoiling effect for off-grid lighting products based on LED technology (Mills and Jacobson, 2008; Lighting Africa, 2007) a better understanding of flashlight use-patterns is crucial (Tracy et al., 2009). In addition, the economic implications faced by rural flashlight end-users provide further incentive for a move toward higher quality low-cost flashlights. In this report, our team uses interviews with 46 end users of flashlights to collect information about their use patterns and costs associated with owning and operating flashlight products. While flashlights used in their portable mode typically do not represent a substitute for kerosene or other forms of fuel-based lighting, at times they are used in stationary applications in place of a fuel-based lamp. In either case, these products often represent end users first exposure to LED technology and rechargeable dry cell batteries, and thus stand to either provide a positive or negative impression of these technologies for a diversity of lighting applications.

  20. Potential Impacts of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Regional Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, Stanton W; Tsvetkova, Alexandra A

    2008-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed around the world, with much work aiming to optimize engine and battery for efficient operation, both during discharge and when grid electricity is available for recharging. However, the general expectation has been that the grid will not be greatly affected by the use of PHEVs because the recharging will occur during off-peak hours, or the number of vehicles will grow slowly enough so that capacity planning will respond adequately. This expectation does not consider that drivers will control the timing of recharging, and their inclination will be to plug in when convenient, rather than when utilities would prefer. It is important to understand the ramifications of adding load from PHEVs onto the grid. Depending on when and where the vehicles are plugged in, they could cause local or regional constraints on the grid. They could require the addition of new electric capacity and increase the utilization of existing capacity. Usage patterns of local distribution grids will change, and some lines or substations may become overloaded sooner than expected. Furthermore, the type of generation used to meet the demand for recharging PHEVs will depend on the region of the country and the timing of recharging. This paper analyzes the potential impacts of PHEVs on electricity demand, supply, generation structure, prices, and associated emission levels in 2020 and 2030 in 13 regions specified by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), and on which the data and analysis in EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2007 are based (Figure ES-1). The estimates of power plant supplies and regional hourly electricity demand come from publicly available sources from EIA and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Electricity requirements for PHEVs are based on analysis from the Electric Power Research Institute, with an optimistic projection of 25% market penetration by 2020, involving a mixture of sedans and sport utility vehicles. The calculations were done using the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) model, a model developed over the past 12 years to evaluate a wide variety of critical electricity sector issues. Seven scenarios were run for each region for 2020 and 2030, for a total of 182 scenarios. In addition to a base scenario of no PHEVs, the authors modeled scenarios assuming that vehicles were either plugged in starting at 5:00 p.m. (evening) or at 10:00 p.m.(night) and left until fully charged. Three charging rates were examined: 120V/15A (1.4 kW), 120V/20A (2 kW), and 220V/30A (6 kW). Most regions will need to build additional capacity or utilize demand response to meet the added demand from PHEVs in the evening charging scenarios, especially by 2030 when PHEVs have a larger share of the installed vehicle base and make a larger demand on the system. The added demands of evening charging, especially at high power levels, can impact the overall demand peaks and reduce the reserve margins for a region's system. Night recharging has little potential to influence peak loads, but will still influence the amount and type of generation.

  1. RECOMMENDED TRITIUM OXIDE DEPOSITION VELOCITY FOR USE IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE SAFETY ANALYSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, P.; Murphy, C.; Viner, B.; Hunter, C.; Jannik, T.

    2012-04-03

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has recently questioned the appropriate value for tritium deposition velocity used in the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System Ver. 2 (Chanin and Young 1998) code when estimating bounding dose (95th percentile) for safety analysis (DNFSB 2011). The purpose of this paper is to provide appropriate, defensible values of the tritium deposition velocity for use in Savannah River Site (SRS) safety analyses. To accomplish this, consideration must be given to the re-emission of tritium after deposition. Approximately 85% of the surface area of the SRS is forested. The majority of the forests are pine plantations, 68%. The remaining forest area is 6% mixed pine and hardwood and 26% swamp hardwood. Most of the path from potential release points to the site boundary is through forested land. A search of published studies indicate daylight, tritiated water (HTO) vapor deposition velocities in forest vegetation can range from 0.07 to 2.8 cm/s. Analysis of the results of studies done on an SRS pine plantation and climatological data from the SRS meteorological network indicate that the average deposition velocity during daylight periods is around 0.42 cm/s. The minimum deposition velocity was determined to be about 0.1 cm/s, which is the recommended bounding value. Deposition velocity and residence time (half-life) of HTO in vegetation are related by the leaf area and leaf water volume in the forest. For the characteristics of the pine plantation at SRS the residence time corresponding to the average, daylight deposition velocity is 0.4 hours. The residence time corresponding to the night-time deposition velocity of 0.1 cm/s is around 2 hours. A simple dispersion model which accounts for deposition and re-emission of HTO vapor was used to evaluate the impact on exposure to the maximally exposed offsite individual (MOI) at the SRS boundary (Viner 2012). Under conditions that produce the bounding, 95th percentile MOI exposure, i.e., low wind speed, weak turbulence, night, low deposition velocity, the effect of deposition and re-emission on MOI exposure was found to be very small. The exposure over the two hour period following arrival of the plume was found to be decreased by less than 0.05 %. Furthermore the sensitivity to deposition velocity was low. Increasing deposition velocity to 0.5 cm/s reduced exposure to 0.3 %. After a 24 hour period, an MOI would have been exposed to all of the released material. Based on the low sensitivity of MOI exposure to the value of deposition velocity when re-emission is considered, it is appropriately conservative to use a 0.0 cm/s effective deposition velocity for safety analysis in the MACCS2 code.

  2. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Detroit Dam, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Ham, Kenneth D.

    2012-11-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Detroit Dam (DET) on the North Santiam River, Oregon for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at DET and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to regulatory requirements necessitated by the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. The goal of the study was to provide information of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at DET from February 2011 through February 2012. The results of the hydroacoustic study provide new and, in some cases, first-ever data on passage estimates, run timing, distributions, and relationships between fish passage and environmental variables at the dam. This information will inform management decisions on the design and development of surface passage and collection devices to help restore Chinook salmon populations in the North Santiam River watershed above DET. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 182,526 smolt-size fish (±4,660 fish, 95% CI) passed through turbine penstock intakes. Run timing peaked in winter and early spring months. Passage rates were highest during late fall, winter and early spring months and low during summer. Horizontal distribution for hours when both turbine units were operated simultaneously indicated Unit 2 passed almost twice as much fish as Unit 1. Diel distribution for smolt-size fish during the study period was fairly uniform, indicating fish were passing the turbines at all times of the day. A total of 5,083 smolt-size fish (± 312 fish, 95% CI) were estimated passed via the spillway when it was open between June 23 and September 27, 2011. Daily passage was low at the spillway during the June-August period, and increased somewhat in September 2011. When the spillway was operated simultaneously with the turbines, spillway efficiency (efficiency is estimated as spillway passage divided by total project passage) was 0.72 and effectiveness (fish:flow ratio—proportion fish passage at a route (e.g., spillway) divided by proportion water through that route out of the total project) was 2.69. That is, when the spillway was open, 72% of the fish passing the dam used the spillway and 28% passed into the turbine penstocks. Diel distribution for smolt-size fish at the spillway shows a distinct peak in passage between mid-morning and mid-afternoon and low passage at night. We estimated that 23,339 smolt-size fish (± 572 fish, 95% CI) passed via the Regulating Outlet (RO) when it was open from October 29 through November 12, 2011, January 2-6, and January 20 through February 3, 2012. During the October–November period, RO passage peaked at 1,086 fish on November 5, with a second peak on November 7 (1,075 fish). When the RO was operated simultaneously with the turbines, RO efficiency was 0.33 and effectiveness was 0.89. In multiple regression analyses, a relatively parsimonious model was selected that predicted the observed fish passage data well. The best model included forebay temperature at depth, forebay elevation, total discharge, hours of daylight, and the operation period. The vertical distribution of fish in the forebay near the face of the dam where the transducers sampled showed fish were generally distributed throughout the water column during all four operational periods. During the refill and full pool periods, vertical distribution was bi-modal with surface-layer and mid-water modes. Patterns for day and night distributions were variable. Fish were distributed above and below the thermocline when it was present (full pool and drawdown periods).

  3. Light extinction in the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laulainen, N.

    1992-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles originating from natural sources, such as volcanos and sulfur-bearing gas emissions from the oceans, and from human sources, such as sulfur emissions from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, strongly affect visual air quality and are suspected to significantly affect radiative climate forcing of the planet. During the daytime, aerosols obscure scenic vistas, while at night they diminish our ability to observe stellar objects. Scattering of light is the main means by which aerosols attenuate and redistribute light in the atmosphere and by which aerosols can alter and reduce visibility and potentially modify the energy balance of the planet. Trends and seasonal variability of atmospheric aerosol loading, such as column-integrated light extinction or optical depth, and how they may affect potential climate change have been difficult to quantify because there have been few observations made of important aerosol optical parameters, such as optical depth, over the globe and over time and often these are of uneven quality. To address questions related to possible climate change, there is a pressing need to acquire more high-quality aerosol optical depth data. Extensive deployment of improved solar radiometers over the next few years will provide higher-quality extinction data over a wider variety of locations worldwide. An often overlooked source of turbidity data, however, is available from astronomical observations, particularly stellar photoelectric photometry observations. With the exception of the Project ASTRA articles published almost 20 years ago, few of these data ever appear in the published literature. This paper will review the current status of atmospheric extinction observations, as highlighted by the ASTRA work and augmented by more recent solar radiometry measurements.

  4. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: Measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bon, D.M.; Springston, S.; M.Ulbrich, I.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D.; Fall, R.; Jimenez, J. L., Herndon, S. C.; Huey, L. G.; Knighton, W. B.; Ortega, J.; Vargas, O.

    2011-03-16

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS) to evaluate PIT-MS measurements and to aid in the identification of unknown VOCs. The VOC measurements are also compared to simultaneous canister samples and to two independent proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS) deployed on a mobile and an airborne platform during MILAGRO. VOC diurnal cycles demonstrate the large influence of vehicle traffic and liquid propane gas (LPG) emissions during the night and photochemical processing during the afternoon. Emission ratios for VOCs and OVOCs relative to CO are derived from early-morning measurements. Average emission ratios for non-oxygenated species relative to CO are on average a factor of {approx}2 higher than measured for US cities. Emission ratios for OVOCs are estimated and compared to literature values the northeastern US and to tunnel studies in California. Positive matrix factorization analysis (PMF) is used to provide insight into VOC sources and processing. Three PMF factors were distinguished by the analysis including the emissions from vehicles, the use of liquid propane gas and the production of secondary VOCs + long-lived species. Emission ratios to CO calculated from the results of PMF analysis are compared to emission ratios calculated directly from measurements. The total PIT-MS signal is summed to estimate the fraction of identified versus unidentified VOC species.

  5. Investigating broadband variability of the TeV blazar 1ES 1959+650

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Barnacka, A.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; et al

    2014-12-03

    We summarize broadband observations of the TeV-emitting blazar 1ES 1959 650, including optical R-band observations by the robotic telescopes Super-LOTIS and iTelescope, UV observations by Swift UVOT, X-ray observations by the Swift X-ray Telescope, high-energy gamma-ray observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope, and very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations by VERITAS above 315 GeV, all taken between 2012 April 17 and 2012 June 1 (MJD 56034 and 56079). The contemporaneous variability of the broadband spectral energy distribution is explored in the context of a simple synchrotron self Compton (SSC) model. In the SSC emission scenario, we find that the parameters requiredmore » to represent the high state are significantly different than those in the low state. Motivated by possible evidence of gas in the vicinity of the blazar, we also investigate a reflected emission model to describe the observed variability pattern. This model assumes that the non-thermal emission from the jet is reflected by a nearby cloud of gas, allowing the reflected emission to re-enter the blob and produce an elevated gamma-ray state with no simultaneous elevated synchrotron flux. The model applied here, although not required to explain the observed variability pattern, represents one possible scenario which can describe the observations. As applied to an elevated VHE state of 66% of the Crab Nebula flux, observed on a single night during the observation period, the reflected emission scenario does not support a purely leptonic non-thermal emission mechanism. The reflected model does, however, predict a reflected photon field with sufficient energy to enable elevated gamma-ray emission via pion production with protons of energies between 10 and 100 TeV.« less

  6. None

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-10-01

    This application consists of both client-side and server-side code that can be used to identify unauthorized relocation and use of portable computer equipment. In the client side, the program is called from the system registry and sends the computer identification and current IP address to a corporate server when the client is used to connect to the Intenet. This code can also be used on desktop workstations, and works both off-site and on-site. The client-sidemore » code is installed in a common Windows directory. When the machine is started up, the program is called from the system registry and attempts to connect to a corporate-managed web servedr every two minutes until successful. This process is transparent to the user. The server communicates with a database that contains all the last known (authorized) locations of equipment. If the client has been moved or has an unauthorized (off0site) address, the server will request current location information from the client. The client obtains information from the hardware configuration including network information, previous Ethernet connections, and any dial-in (per session) information. Once this information has been submitted to the server, the client-side program shuts down and unloads itself from memory. If the server identifies that the client has been moved to an unauthorized location, an email is sent immediately to a predetermined person. Each night, the server archives the database of equipment locations and sends and email to a predetermined person.« less

  7. Clues to the nature of SN 2009ip from photometric and spectroscopic evolution to late times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, M. L. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sand, D. J. [Physics Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Valenti, S.; Howell, D. A.; Parrent, J. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Halford, M.; Zaritsky, D. [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bianco, F. [Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Rest, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dilday, B., E-mail: melissagraham@berkeley.edu [North Idaho College, 1000 W. Garden Avenue, Coeur d'Alene, ID 83814 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We present time series photometric and spectroscopic data for the transient SN 2009ip from the start of its outburst in 2012 September until 2013 November. These data were collected primarily with the new robotic capabilities of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, a specialized facility for time domain astrophysics, and includes supporting high-resolution spectroscopy from the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope, Kitt Peak National Observatory, and Gemini Observatory. Based on our nightly photometric monitoring, we interpret the strength and timing of fluctuations in the light curve as interactions between fast-moving ejecta and an inhomogeneous circumstellar material (CSM) produced by past eruptions of this massive luminous blue variable (LBV) star. Our time series of spectroscopy in 2012 reveals that, as the continuum and narrow H? flux from CSM interactions declines, the broad component of H? persists with supernova (SN)-like velocities that are not typically seen in LBVs or SN impostor events. At late times, we find that SN 2009ip continues to decline slowly, at ? 0.01 mag day{sup 1}, with small fluctuations in slope similar to Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn) or SN impostors but no further LBV-like activity. The late-time spectrum features broad calcium lines similar to both late-time SNe and SN impostors. In general, we find that the photometric and spectroscopic evolution of SN 2009ip is more similar to SNe IIn than either continued eruptions of an LBV star or SN impostors but we cannot rule out a nonterminal explosion. In this context, we discuss the implications for episodic mass loss during the late stages of massive star evolution.

  8. A First Look at the Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on the Electric Grid in the EV Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen L. Schey; John G. Smart; Don R. Scoffield

    2012-05-01

    ECOtality was awarded a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to lead a large-scale electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstration, called The EV Project. ECOtality has partnered with Nissan North America, General Motors, the Idaho National Laboratory, and others to deploy and collect data from over 5,000 Nissan LEAFsTM and Chevrolet Volts and over 10,000 charging systems in 18 regions across the United States. This paper summarizes usage of residential charging units in The EV Project, based on data collected through the end of 2011. This information is provided to help analysts assess the impact on the electric grid of early adopter charging of grid-connected electric drive vehicles. A method of data aggregation was developed to summarize charging unit usage by the means of two metrics: charging availability and charging demand. Charging availability is plotted to show the percentage of charging units connected to a vehicle over time. Charging demand is plotted to show charging demand on the electric gird over time. Charging availability for residential charging units is similar in each EV Project region. It is low during the day, steadily increases in evening, and remains high at night. Charging demand, however, varies by region. Two EV Project regions were examined to identify regional differences. In Nashville, where EV Project participants do not have time-of-use electricity rates, demand increases each evening as charging availability increases, starting at about 16:00. Demand peaks in the 20:00 hour on weekdays. In San Francisco, where the majority of EV Project participants have the option of choosing a time-of-use rate plan from their electric utility, demand spikes at 00:00. This coincides with the beginning of the off-peak electricity rate period. Demand peaks at 01:00.

  9. Supplementary Feeding, Plumage Documentation and Early Season Prey of Peregrine Falcons at the New Mexico Alpha Eyrie

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponton, David A.

    2015-03-20

    A review of what is known about avian physiology and the biological effects of DDE suggests that some benefit to peregrine falcon egg condition could be attained by artificially feeding DDE free prey to the female from the time of her arrival on the nesting grounds until completion of egg laying; the magnitude of potential benefit is unknown. Sporadic efforts in the past demonstrated the need for precision methods of prey delivery. Two methods were developed and tried; providing dead prey items by dropping them in a day perch, and delivery of live prey by remotely controlled release from compartments positioned at the top of the cliff occupied by the falcons. Maintaining quail in the day perch for 21 days resulted in at least one and probably two meals for the female peregrine. Of 16 live birds released (mostly pigeons) 13 were pursued and three caught. Blinding the pigeons with tape proved to be necessary to enable capture. Also, some reluctance of the male peregrine to attack pigeons was observed, and problems with equipment, visibility, and the proximity of the falcons to the release box were encountered. Manpower was the most significant resource requirement. Baiting of great-horned owls, possibly leading to owl attack on the falcons, is judged to be the largest detrimental effect of supplemental feeding. It is recommended that supplemental feeding be reserved for falcons or eyries where complete reproductive failure is expected. Plumage documentation photography was successfully conducted by a remotely controlled camera as an aid to identification of individual falcons. American robin, red-winged blackbird, starling, white-throated swift, bluebird, and mourning dove were among natural prey consumed by the peregrines before completion of egg laying. All activities in close proximity to the cliff were conducted at night to preclude direct disturbance of the falcons.

  10. SCENARIOS FOR DEEP CARBON EMISSION REDUCTIONS FROM ELECTRICITY BY 2050 IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICA USING THE SWITCH ELECTRIC POWER SECTOR PLANNING MODEL California's Carbon Challenge Phase II Volume II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, James; Mileva, Ana; Johnston, Josiah; Kammen, Daniel; Wei, Max; Greenblatt, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This study used a state-of-the-art planning model called SWITCH for the electric power system to investigate the evolution of the power systems of California and western North America from present-day to 2050 in the context of deep decarbonization of the economy. Researchers concluded that drastic power system carbon emission reductions were feasible by 2050 under a wide range of possible futures. The average cost of power in 2050 would range between $149 to $232 per megawatt hour across scenarios, a 21 to 88 percent increase relative to a business-as-usual scenario, and a 38 to 115 percent increase relative to the present-day cost of power. The power system would need to undergo sweeping change to rapidly decarbonize. Between present-day and 2030 the evolution of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council power system was dominated by implementing aggressive energy efficiency measures, installing renewable energy and gas-fired generation facilities and retiring coal-fired generation. Deploying wind, solar and geothermal power in the 2040 timeframe reduced power system emissions by displacing gas-fired generation. This trend continued for wind and solar in the 2050 timeframe but was accompanied by large amounts of new storage and long-distance high-voltage transmission capacity. Electricity storage was used primarily to move solar energy from the daytime into the night to charge electric vehicles and meet demand from electrified heating. Transmission capacity over the California border increased by 40 - 220 percent by 2050, implying that transmission siting, permitting, and regional cooperation will become increasingly important. California remained a net electricity importer in all scenarios investigated. Wind and solar power were key elements in power system decarbonization in 2050 if no new nuclear capacity was built. The amount of installed gas capacity remained relatively constant between present-day and 2050, although carbon capture and sequestration was installed on some gas plants by 2050.

  11. Monitoring energy use of copiers to determine program design and potential savings for the Energy Star Copier program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dandridge, C.B.; Norford, L.K.; Nordman, B.

    1996-08-01

    In the past five years, considerable attention has been focused on the electricity use of office equipment in commercial office buildings. Several groups have monitored energy use of PCs, monitors, printers and fax machines. However, little attention has been paid to monitoring energy use of copiers. Procedures for testing energy usage and usage profiles of copiers are needed to make valid comparisons between machines and to determine overall energy use and potential energy savings. In this paper, the authors present a method to analyze the energy use and usage profiles of copiers. This method is determined through long-term measurements from a Watt-hour meter connected to the copier and by measuring light flashes from the copier. Energy use from the copier can also be estimated by using a test procedure developed by Dandridge. Results from using the long term monitoring methods will be presented for several different sized copiers, and compared to the estimated energy use derived from the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) method. After summarizing these results, the authors determine criteria for a program to recognize energy-efficient copiers. These criteria were submitted as an Energy Star Copier program to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The new Energy Star Copier Program was announced in July 1995, with criteria based on these suggestions. Using the final Energy Star Copier program criteria and this data, the authors determine potential future savings for the program. The ability to automatically turn the copier off at night is the greatest energy-saving feature most copiers can have. The best way to reduce overall office costs is to have the copier set automatically to make double-sided copies.

  12. NSTX-U Control System Upgrades

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Erickson, K. G.; Gates, D. A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Lawson, J. E.; Mozulay, R.; Sichta, P.; Tchilinguirian, G. J.

    2014-06-01

    The National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) is undergoing a wealth of upgrades (NSTX-U). These upgrades, especially including an elongated pulse length, require broad changes to the control system that has served NSTX well. A new fiber serial Front Panel Data Port input and output (I/O) stream will supersede the aging copper parallel version. Driver support for the new I/O and cyber security concerns require updating the operating system from Redhat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) v4 to RedHawk (based on RHEL) v6. While the basic control system continues to use the General Atomics Plasma Control System (GA PCS), the effort to forwardmore » port the entire software package to run under 64-bit Linux instead of 32-bit Linux included PCS modifications subsequently shared with GA and other PCS users. Software updates focused on three key areas: (1) code modernization through coding standards (C99/C11), (2) code portability and maintainability through use of the GA PCS code generator, and (3) support of 64-bit platforms. Central to the control system upgrade is the use of a complete real time (RT) Linux platform provided by Concurrent Computer Corporation, consisting of a computer (iHawk), an operating system and drivers (RedHawk), and RT tools (NightStar). Strong vendor support coupled with an extensive RT toolset influenced this decision. The new real-time Linux platform, I/O, and software engineering will foster enhanced capability and performance for NSTX-U plasma control.« less

  13. DOE-2 supplement: Version 2.1E

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkelmann, F.C.; Birdsall, B.E.; Buhl, W.F.; Ellington, K.L.; Erdem, A.E.; Hirsch, J.J.; Gates, S.

    1993-11-01

    This publication updates the DOE-2 Supplement form version 2.1D to version to 2.1E. It contains detailed discussions and instructions for using the features and enhancements introduced into the 2.1B, 2.1C, 2.1D, and 2.1E versions of the program. The building description section contains information on input functions in loads and systems, hourly report frequencies, saving files of hourly output for post processing, sharing hourly report data among program modules, the metric option, and input macros and general library features. The loads section contains information on sunspaces, sunspace modeling, window management and solar radiation, daylighting, trombe walls, fixed shades, fins and overhangs, shade schedules, self shades, heat distribution from lights, the Sherman-Grimsrud infiltrations method. terrain and height modification to wind speed, floor multipliers and interior wall types, improved exterior infrared radiation loss calculation, improved outside air film conductance calculation, window library, window frames, and switchable glazing. The systems section contains information on energy end use and meters, powered induction units, a packaged variable volume -- variable temperature system, a residential variable volume -- variable temperature system, air source heat pump enhancements, water loop heat pump enhancements, variable speed electric heat pump, gas heat pumps, hot water heaters, evaporative cooling, total gas solid-desiccant systems, add on desiccant cooling, water cooled condensers, evaporative precoolers outside air economizer control, optimum fan start, heat recovery from refrigerated case work, night ventilation, baseboard heating, moisture balance calculations, a residential natural ventilation algorithm, improved cooling coil model, system sizing and independent cooling and heating sizing ratios. The plant section contains information on energy meters, gas fired absorption chillers, engine driven compressor chillers, and ice energy storage.

  14. A Comparison of Nannochloropsis salina Growth Performance in Two Outdoor Pond Designs: Conventional Raceways versus the ARID Pond with Superior Temperature Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe, Braden; Attalah, Said; Agrawal, Shweta; Waller, Peter; Ryan, Randy; Van Wagenen, Jon; Chavis, Aaron; Kyndt, John; Kacira, Murat; Ogden, Kim L.; Huesemann, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines how climatic conditions and pond design affect the growth performance of microalgae. From January to April of 2011, outdoor batch cultures of Nannochloropsis salina were grown in three replicate 780 L conventional raceways, as well as in an experimental 7500 L algae raceway integrated design (ARID) pond. The ARID culture system utilizes a series of 8-20 cm deep basins and a 1.5 m deep canal to enhance light exposure and mitigate temperature variations and extremes. The ARID culture reached the stationary phase 27 days earlier than the conventional raceways, which can be attributed to its superior temperature management and shallower basins. On a night when the air temperature dropped to -9C, the water temperature was 18C higher in the ARID pond than in the conventional raceways. Lipid and fatty acid content ranged from 16 to 25% and from 5 to15%, respectively, as a percentage of AFDW. Palmitic, palmitoleic, and eicosapentaenoic acids comprised the majority of fatty acids. While the ARID culture system achieved nearly double the volumetric productivity relative to the conventional raceways (0.023 versus 0.013 g L-1day-1), areal biomass productivities were of similar magnitude in both pond systems (3.47 versus 3.34 g m-2day-1), suggesting that the ARID pond design has to be further optimized, most likely by increasing the culture depth or operating at higher cell densities while maintaining adequate mixing.

  15. ENERGY PRODUCTIVITY OF THE HIGH VELOCITY ALGAE RACEWAY INTEGRATED DESIGN (ARID-HV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attalah, Said; Waller, Peter; Khawam, G.; Ryan, Randy; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2015-01-31

    The original Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID) raceway was an effective method to increase algae culture temperature in open raceways. However, the energy input was high and flow mixing was poor. Thus, the High Velocity Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID-HV) raceway was developed to reduce energy input requirements and improve flow mixing in a serpentine flow path. A prototype ARID-HV system was installed in Tucson, Arizona. Based on algae growth simulation and hydraulic analysis, an optimal ARID-HV raceway was designed, and the electrical energy input requirement (kWh ha-1 d-1) was calculated. An algae growth model was used to compare the productivity of ARIDHV and conventional raceways. The model uses a pond surface energy balance to calculate water temperature as a function of environmental parameters. Algae growth and biomass loss are calculated based on rate constants during day and night, respectively. A 10 year simulation of DOE strain 1412 (Chlorella sorokiniana) showed that the ARID-HV raceway had significantly higher production than a conventional raceway for all months of the year in Tucson, Arizona. It should be noted that this difference is species and climate specific and is not observed in other climates and with other algae species. The algae growth model results and electrical energy input evaluation were used to compare the energy productivity (algae production rate/energy input) of the ARID-HV and conventional raceways for Chlorella sorokiniana in Tucson, Arizona. The energy productivity of the ARID-HV raceway was significantly greater than the energy productivity of a conventional raceway for all months of the year.

  16. Quantifying the performance of charge-coupled devices in ambient conditions - Oral presentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dungee, Ryan

    2015-08-22

    Telescope surveys have given us a great deal of information about our universe, but the images they capture carry with them an inherent limitation. The question then is how do we take this information to the next level? The answer: the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI). DESI is an instrument that will measure the distance to tens of millions of galaxies in our night sky. This information can be combined with already existing images to construct a three dimensional map of our universe providing a great deal of new opportunities for cosmological research. The DESI guidance system consists of 10 detectors called charge-coupled devices (CCDs). Each CCD is made of silicon atoms that emit electrons when struck with light, the electrons are counted and then used to reconstruct an image. But, CCDs suffer from an issue known as dark current which are false counts that come from thermal motions of the silicon atoms. This is particularly problematic since they contribute to the uncertainty of a measurement without contributing to our signal. This causes a drop in the signal to noise ratio, a value that needs to be maximized in order to meet DESIs high precision requirements. This summer was spent ensuring the DESI guidance system would meet its specifications. Data was collected using a CCD of the same type that would be used on DESI and the effectiveness of dark current removal was tested. Exposures were taken for a wide range of temperatures and exposure lengths and a number of dark current removal methods were implemented. While further testing is required, the initial results are quite promising and the DESI guidance system is on track to meet its specifications

  17. GROUND-BASED INFRARED DETECTIONS OF CO IN THE CENTAUR-COMET 29P/SCHWASSMANN-WACHMANN 1 AT 6.26 AU FROM THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paganini, Lucas; Mumma, Michael J.; DiSanti, Michael A.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.; Bonev, Boncho P.; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Lippi, Manuela; Kaeufl, Hans U.; Blake, Geoffrey A.

    2013-04-01

    We observed Comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 (hereafter, 29P) in 2012 February and May with CRIRES/VLT and NIRSPEC/Keck-II, when the comet was at 6.26 AU from the Sun and about 5.50 AU from Earth. With CRIRES, we detected five CO emission lines on several nights in each epoch, confirming the ubiquitous content and release of carbon monoxide from the nucleus. This is the first simultaneous detection of multiple lines from any (neutral) gaseous species in comet 29P at infrared wavelengths. It is also the first extraction of a rotational temperature based on the intensities of simultaneously measured spectral lines in 29P, and the retrieved rotational temperature is the lowest obtained in our infrared survey to date. We present the retrieved production rates ({approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 28} molecules s{sup -1}) and remarkably low ({approx}5 K) rotational temperatures for CO, and compare them with results from previous observations at radio wavelengths. Along with CO, we pursued detections of other volatiles, namely H{sub 2}O, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, HCN, NH{sub 3}, and CH{sub 3}OH. Although they were not detected, we present sensitive upper limits. These results establish a new record for detections by infrared spectroscopy of parent volatiles in comets at large heliocentric distances. Until now considered to be a somewhat impossible task with IR ground-based facilities, these discoveries demonstrate new opportunities for targeting volatile species in distant comets.

  18. OUTGASSING BEHAVIOR OF C/2012 S1 (ISON) FROM 2011 SEPTEMBER TO 2013 JUNE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meech, Karen J.; Yang, Bin; Kleyna, Jan; Chiang, Hsin-Fang; Riesen, Timm; Keane, Jacqueline V.; Reipurth, Bo; Hsieh, Henry H.; Ansdell, Megan; Hainaut, Olivier; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Rector, Travis; Michaud, Peter; Milani, Giannantonio; Bryssinck, Erik; Ligustri, Rolando; Trabatti, Roberto; Tozzi, Gian-Paolo; and others

    2013-10-20

    We report photometric observations for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) obtained during the time period immediately after discovery (r = 6.28 AU) until it moved into solar conjunction in mid-2013 June using the UH2.2 m, and Gemini North 8 m telescopes on Mauna Kea, the Lowell 1.8 m in Flagstaff, the Calar Alto 1.2 m telescope in Spain, the VYSOS-5 telescopes on Mauna Loa Hawaii and data from the CARA network. Additional pre-discovery data from the Pan STARRS1 survey extends the light curve back to 2011 September 30 (r = 9.4 AU). The images showed a similar tail morphology due to small micron sized particles throughout 2013. Observations at submillimeter wavelengths using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on 15 nights between 2013 March 9 (r = 4.52 AU) and June 16 (r = 3.35 AU) were used to search for CO and HCN rotation lines. No gas was detected, with upper limits for CO ranging between 3.5-4.5 10{sup 27} molecules s{sup 1}. Combined with published water production rate estimates we have generated ice sublimation models consistent with the photometric light curve. The inbound light curve is likely controlled by sublimation of CO{sub 2}. At these distances water is not a strong contributor to the outgassing. We also infer that there was a long slow outburst of activity beginning in late 2011 peaking in mid-2013 January (r ? 5 AU) at which point the activity decreased again through 2013 June. We suggest that this outburst was driven by CO injecting large water ice grains into the coma. Observations as the comet came out of solar conjunction seem to confirm our models.

  19. Spitzer observations of the thermal emission from WASP-43b

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Hardy, Ryan A.; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Hardin, Matthew; Bowman, Oliver; Nymeyer, Sarah; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Anderson, David R.; Hellier, Coel; Smith, Alexis M. S.; Cameron, Andrew Collier

    2014-02-01

    WASP-43b is one of the closest-orbiting hot Jupiters, with a semimajor axis of a = 0.01526 ± 0.00018 AU and a period of only 0.81 days. However, it orbits one of the coolest stars with a hot Jupiter (T {sub *} = 4520 ± 120 K), giving the planet a modest equilibrium temperature of T {sub eq} = 1440 ± 40 K, assuming zero Bond albedo and uniform planetary energy redistribution. The eclipse depths and brightness temperatures from our jointly fit model are 0.347% ± 0.013% and 1670 ± 23 K at 3.6 μm and 0.382% ± 0.015% and 1514 ± 25 K at 4.5 μm. The eclipse timings improved the estimate of the orbital period, P, by a factor of three (P = 0.81347436 ± 1.4 × 10{sup –7} days) and put an upper limit on the eccentricity (e=0.010{sub −0.007}{sup +0.010}). We use our Spitzer eclipse depths along with four previously reported ground-based photometric observations in the near-infrared to constrain the atmospheric properties of WASP-43b. The data rule out a strong thermal inversion in the dayside atmosphere of WASP-43b. Model atmospheres with no thermal inversions and fiducial oxygen-rich compositions are able to explain all the available data. However, a wide range of metallicities and C/O ratios can explain the data. The data suggest low day-night energy redistribution in the planet, consistent with previous studies, with a nominal upper limit of about 35% for the fraction of energy incident on the dayside that is redistributed to the nightside.

  20. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep

    2014-10-24

    Under the 10{sup th} Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.