Sample records for 110-75-8 2-chloroethyl vinyl

  1. Decontamination of 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide using titanate nanoscrolls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Lu-Chang

    Decontamination of 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide using titanate nanoscrolls Alfred Kleinhammes a of TiO2 nanocrystals, are tested as reactive sorbent for chemical warfare agent (CWA) decontamination as a decontaminant for CWAs. Ó 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Hydrolysis reactions have shown promising

  2. Treatability studies of groundwater contaminated with bis(2-chloroethyl) ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, F.Y.C. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Dept. of Mineral and Environmental Engineering] [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Dept. of Mineral and Environmental Engineering; Li, K.Y.; Liu, C.C. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The groundwater aquifer underneath a chemical manufacturing plant in Southeast Texas has been contaminated with the leachate from its landfill. There are 17 major chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants found in the groundwater with concentrations ranging from 1 ppm to 1,200 ppm. An air-stripping unit followed by a thermal catalytic oxidation unit is currently operating on-site to remove all of the chlorinated compounds from the contaminated groundwater. One of the contaminants, bis(2-chloroethyl)ether (DCEE), has a fairly low Henry`s Law constant; therefore, a high air flow rate is employed in the stripping unit to improve the overall stripping efficiency. Nevertheless, the treated groundwater still contains a fair amount of DCEE. An UV-peroxidation reactor is set up to study its feasibility for oxidizing DCEE. The treatability data indicate that DCEE at a concentration of 200 ppm can be oxidized effectively in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and the effective UV wavelengths lie between 200 and 280 nm. No noticeable reduction of the oxidation rate is observed at low temperature ({approximately} 11 C). Apparent oxidation rate equations of DCEE are determined and several process design parameters are discussed.

  3. In vivo potentiation of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea by the radiation sensitizer benznidazole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siemann, D.W.; Morrissey, S.; Wolf, K.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies in mouse tumor systems have indicated a potential therapeutic advantage in combining the radiosensitizer misonidazole (MISO) with cancer chemotherapy drugs. One agent the antitumor activity of which has been enhanced to a greater extent than its hematological or gastrointestinal toxicities is the nitrosourea, 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU). Recently, sensitizers more lipophylic than MISO have been reported to give greater tumor response enhancement when combined with CCNU. The present studies compared the potential therapeutic benefit of combining MISO (partition coefficient, 0.43) or benznidazole (BENZO) (partition coefficient, 8.5) in KHT sarcoma or RIF-1 tumor-bearing C3H mice. Both sensitizers were administered i.p. and given either 30 min before (BENZO) or simultaneously with (MISO) the chemotherapeutic agent. Survival of clonogenic tumor cells assessed 22 to 24 hr after treatment or in situ tumor growth delay were used as assays of tumor response. Normal tissue toxicity was determined using the drug dose yielding 50% animal lethality in 30 days end point. When combined with CCNU, doses of MISO (5.0 mmol/kg) or BENZO (0.3 mmol/kg) were found to yield approximately equivalent increases in both the tumor effect (enhancement ratio, approximately 1.8 to 2.0) and normal tissue toxicity (enhancement ratio approximately 1.3 to 1.4). Both sensitizers therefore led to a therapeutic benefit. However, although a approximately 10-fold lower dose of the more lipophylic sensitizer BENZO proved to be as effective as MISO at enhancing the tumoricidal effects of CCNU, this dose reduction did not result in a greater therapeutic gain for BENZO.

  4. 2,6-Dithiopurine, a nucleophilic scavenger, protects against mutagenesis in mouse skin treated in vivo with 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide, a mustard gas analog

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boulware, Stephen [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States)] [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); Fields, Tammy; McIvor, Elizabeth; Powell, K. Leslie; Abel, Erika L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)] [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Vasquez, Karen M. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States)] [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); MacLeod, Michael C., E-mail: mcmacleod@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, SM] is a well-known DNA-damaging agent that has been used in chemical warfare since World War I, and is a weapon that could potentially be used in a terrorist attack on a civilian population. Dermal exposure to high concentrations of SM produces severe, long-lasting burns. Topical exposure to high concentrations of 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), a monofunctional analog of SM, also produces severe skin lesions in mice. Utilizing a genetically engineered mouse strain, Big Blue, that allows measurement of mutation frequencies in mouse tissues, we now show that topical treatment with much lower concentrations of CEES induces significant dose- and time-dependent increases in mutation frequency in mouse skin; the mutagenic exposures produce minimal toxicity as determined by standard histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis for cytokeratin 6 and the DNA-damage induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX (?-H2AX). We attempted to develop a therapeutic that would inhibit the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin. We observe that multi-dose, topical treatment with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a known chemical scavenger of CEES, beginning 1 h post-exposure to CEES, completely abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency. These findings suggest the possibility that DTP, previously shown to be non-toxic in mice, may be useful as a therapeutic agent in accidental or malicious human exposures to SM. -- Highlights: ? 200 mM 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES) induces mutations in mouse skin. ? This dose of CEES is not overtly toxic, as assayed by histopathology. ? 2,6-Dithiopurine (DTP), applied after CEES-treatment, abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ? This supports the idea that sulfur mustards exhibit long biological half-lives.

  5. Inhibition of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase by the model sulfur mustard vesicant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, Joshua P. [Department of Science, United States Coast Guard Academy, New London, CT (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Mishin, Vladimir [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Department of Environmental Health Science, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.ed [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inhalation of vesicants including sulfur mustard can cause significant damage to the upper airways. This is the result of vesicant-induced modifications of proteins important in maintaining the integrity of the lung. Cytochrome P450s are the major enzymes in the lung mediating detoxification of sulfur mustard and its metabolites. NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase is a flavin-containing electron donor for cytochrome P450. The present studies demonstrate that the sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), is a potent inhibitor of human recombinant cytochrome P450 reductase, as well as native cytochrome P450 reductase from liver microsomes of saline and {beta}-naphthoflavone-treated rats, and cytochrome P450 reductase from type II lung epithelial cells. Using rat liver microsomes from {beta}-naphthoflavone-treated rats, CEES was found to inhibit CYP 1A1 activity. This inhibition was overcome by microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase from saline-treated rats, which lack CYP 1A1 activity, demonstrating that the CEES inhibitory activity was selective for cytochrome P450 reductase. Cytochrome P450 reductase also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) via oxidation of NADPH. In contrast to its inhibitory effects on the reduction of cytochrome c and CYP1A1 activity, CEES was found to stimulate ROS formation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sulfur mustard vesicants target cytochrome P450 reductase and that this effect may be an important mechanism mediating oxidative stress and lung injury.

  6. Expression of proliferative and inflammatory markers in a full-thickness human skin equivalent following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Hayden, Patrick J. [MatTek Corporation, Ashland, MA (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health Sciences, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Gerecke, Donald R. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.ed [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur mustard is a potent vesicant that induces inflammation, edema and blistering following dermal exposure. To assess molecular mechanisms mediating these responses, we analyzed the effects of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, on EpiDerm-FT{sup TM}, a commercially available full-thickness human skin equivalent. CEES (100-1000 {mu}M) caused a concentration-dependent increase in pyknotic nuclei and vacuolization in basal keratinocytes; at high concentrations (300-1000 {mu}M), CEES also disrupted keratin filament architecture in the stratum corneum. This was associated with time-dependent increases in expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of cell proliferation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and phosphorylated histone H2AX, markers of DNA damage. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic enzymes including COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal PGE{sub 2} synthases, leukotriene (LT) A{sub 4} hydrolase and LTC{sub 4} synthase were observed in CEES-treated skin equivalents, as well as in antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferases A1-2 (GSTA1-2), GSTA3 and GSTA4. These data demonstrate that CEES induces rapid cellular damage, cytotoxicity and inflammation in full-thickness skin equivalents. These effects are similar to human responses to vesicants in vivo and suggest that the full thickness skin equivalent is a useful in vitro model to characterize the biological effects of mustards and to develop potential therapeutics.

  7. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  8. Regulation of Hsp27 and Hsp70 expression in human and mouse skin construct models by caveolae following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Hayden, Patrick J. [MatTek Corporation, Ashland, MA (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Gerecke, Donald R. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dermal exposure to the vesicant sulfur mustard causes marked inflammation and tissue damage. Basal keratinocytes appear to be a major target of sulfur mustard. In the present studies, mechanisms mediating skin toxicity were examined using a mouse skin construct model and a full-thickness human skin equivalent (EpiDerm-FT{sup TM}). In both systems, administration of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES, 100-1000 {mu}M) at the air surface induced mRNA and protein expression of heat shock proteins 27 and 70 (Hsp27 and Hsp70). CEES treatment also resulted in increased expression of caveolin-1, the major structural component of caveolae. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Hsp27, Hsp70 and caveolin-1 were localized in basal and suprabasal layers of the epidermis. Caveolin-1 was also detected in fibroblasts in the dermal component of the full thickness human skin equivalent. Western blot analysis of caveolar membrane fractions isolated by sucrose density centrifugation demonstrated that Hsp27 and Hsp70 were localized in caveolae. Treatment of mouse keratinocytes with filipin III or methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin, which disrupt caveolar structure, markedly suppressed CEES-induced Hsp27 and Hsp70 mRNA and protein expression. CEES treatment is known to activate JNK and p38 MAP kinases; in mouse keratinocytes, inhibition of these enzymes suppressed CEES-induced expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70. These data suggest that MAP kinases regulate Hsp 27 and Hsp70; moreover, caveolae-mediated regulation of heat shock protein expression may be important in the pathophysiology of vesicant-induced skin toxicity.

  9. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spormann, Alfred M. (Stanford, CA); Muller, Jochen A. (Baltimore, MD); Rosner, Bettina M. (Berlin, DE); Von Abendroth, Gregory (Nannhein, DE); Meshulam-Simon, Galit (Los Altos, CA); McCarty, Perry L (Stanford, CA)

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  10. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  11. 4-Vinyl-, 4-vinyl-, and 4'-vinyl-2,2':6',2''-terpyridinyl ligands: their synthesis and the electrochemistry of their transition-metal coordination complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potts, K.T.; Usifer, D.A.; Guadalupe, A.; Abruna, H.D.

    1987-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    4'-Vinyl-2,2':6',2''-terpyridinyl was conveniently prepared from 2-acetylpyridine via -oxoketene dithioacetal methodology, the intermediate 4'-(methylthio)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridinyl being converted into the corresponding 4'-methyl derivative with methylmagnesium bromide and bis(triphenylphosphino)nickel(II) dichloride followed by generation of the methyl anion with lithium tetramethylpiperidide, reaction of the anion with chloromethyl methyl ether, and introduction of the vinyl group by treatment of the ether with potassium tert-butoxide/THF. Analogous reactions led to the 4-vinyl- and 6-vinyl isomers by using the appropriate methyl-substituted 2-acetylpyridine except that in these instances desulfurization of the 4'-methylthio group with nickel boride was an addition step. These vinyl-substituted ligands formed a variety of readily electropolymerizable simple and mixed-ligand complex monomers with cobalt, ruthenium, and iron with polymerization rates whose magnitude varied with position and number of vinyl substituents.

  12. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85 and 200 C and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  13. Beam damage of poly(2-chloroethyl methylacrylate) [PCEMA] films...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    evaluating x-ray damage. PCEMA has been shown to be more sensitive to degradation than PVC which has also been used as a damage sensitive material useful for comparison of damage...

  14. analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    de 170 High Purity Ethyl Acetate Production with a Batch Reactive Distillation Column using Dynamic Optimization Strategy CiteSeer Summary: AbstractEthyl acetate with the...

  15. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vinyl- sunlight.html. Certainteed. 2005. “PVC Capstockon PVC Substrate. ” Material Safety Data Sheet MSDS Number:2010. “Overview of materials for PVC, Rigid Grade. ” http://

  16. Vinyl Siding Institute (VSI) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga,planningFlowmeterUtah: Energy Resources Jump to:Vinyl Kraft

  17. Beam damage of poly(vinyl chloride) [PVC] as observed by x-ray...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    damage of poly(vinyl chloride) PVC as observed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at 143 K, 303 K and 373 K. Beam damage of poly(vinyl chloride) PVC as observed by x-ray...

  18. Beam Damage of Poly(Vinyl Chloride) [PVC] Film as Observed by...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Damage of Poly(Vinyl Chloride) PVC Film as Observed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Beam Damage of Poly(Vinyl Chloride) PVC Film as Observed by X-ray Photoelectron...

  19. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2011-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  20. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. for residential buildings. To meet IECC's U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) requirements insulatingLBNL-5022E Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding Authors: R. Hart*, C. Curcija of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would

  1. Reduction of Vinyl Chloride in Metallic Iron-Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Baolin

    Reduction of Vinyl Chloride in Metallic Iron-Water Systems B A O L I N D E N G * Department to groundwater and soil contamination. In particular, VC can be produced as an intermediate in the reductive- lenging. Traditional "pump-and-treat" treatment systems have proven to be costly and ineffective in many

  2. Model Predictive Control of a Nonlinear Large-Scale Process Network Used in the Production of Vinyl Acetate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, TungSheng

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    monomer process design. Chemical Engineering Communications,design/control study for the vinyl acetate monomer process. Computers & Chemical Engineering,

  3. ORIGINAL PAPER Natural Fiber Reinforced Poly(vinyl chloride) Composites: Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL PAPER Natural Fiber Reinforced Poly(vinyl chloride) Composites: Effect of Fiber Type Science+Business Media, LLC 2008 Abstract Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and natural fiber composites were copolymer on composite properties was investigated. Mechanical analysis showed that storage modulus

  4. Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga,planningFlowmeterUtah: Energy Resources Jump to:Vinyl Kraft Windows

  5. Transition-metal pi-complexes of vinyl alcohol: platinum and palladium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ori, Masaru

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -necked flask, equipped wi th a con- denser with a drying tube on the top, dry mercuric di- acetaldehyde (40 g, 0. 147 mol) was suspended under argon in dry ether (70 ml) containing the freshly distilled N, N-dimethyl aniline (1. Z g, 0. 01 mol ). Under a... )platinum(I I) was prepared by hydrolyzing the x-trimethylsilyl vinyl ether complex, which was obtained by treating the ethyl- ene complex with trimethylsilyl vinyl ether. The vinyl alcohol complex was characterized by nmr, ir, molecular weight...

  6. Plug repairs of marine glass fiber / vinyl ester laminates subjected to uniaxial tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michelis, Alexandros

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass fiber/vinyl ester composite laminates are currently being used and proposed for the hulls, bulkheads, and superstructures of large ships. This thesis examines the effectiveness of the repair of such laminates using ...

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Hydrogels Based on Poly (N-vinyl formamide)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aziz, Vara

    2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    It is important to synthesize gels with lower toxicity and higher processibility to widen their applications. In this regard, the monomer N-vinyl formamide has an advantage over its widely used isomer acrylamide. A novel ...

  8. Pour-depressant activity of copolymers of ethylene with vinyl acetate in diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dushechkin, A.P.; Ivanov, V.I.; Elagin, A.L.; Levin, A.A.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors investigate the influence of the degree of branching of the ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers (EVAC) on the limiting filterability temperature and the solid point of diesel fuels. EVAC samples with identical contents of vinyl acetate and having a molecular weight of 4500-7200 were used. The pour-depressant activity of the copolymers was determined in diesel fuel. It is shown that the degree of branching of EVAC has a substantial influence on the depressant activity in diesel fuel.

  9. Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Potential Problems for Photovoltaic Packaging: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K. M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support, optical coupling, electrical isolation, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate, it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about ?15 C. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Because of increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL 1703.

  10. Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Potential Problems for Photovoltaic Packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K. M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support, optical coupling, electrical isolation, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate, it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about -15 degC. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Because of increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL1703.

  11. Room Temperature Copper(II)-Catalyzed Oxidative Cyclization of Enamides to 2,5-Disubstituted Oxazoles via Vinylic C–H Functionalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheung, Chi Wai

    A copper(II)-catalyzed oxidative cyclization of enamides to oxazoles via vinylic C–H bond functionalization at room temperature is described. Various 2,5-disubstituted oxazoles bearing aryl, vinyl, alkyl, and heteroaryl ...

  12. Hot Pin Welding of Thin Poly(vinyl chloride) Sheet James D. Van de Ven, Arthur G. Erdman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Ven, James D.

    Hot Pin Welding of Thin Poly(vinyl chloride) Sheet James D. Van de Ven, Arthur G. Erdman Mechanical of welding two thin sheets of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) with a heated pin, thus allowing construction of a relationship between the weld temperature and weld strength. Constructing a relationship between weld strength

  13. Near-Infrared Laser Absorption of Poly(vinyl chloride) at Elevated Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Ven, James D.

    Near-Infrared Laser Absorption of Poly(vinyl chloride) at Elevated Temperatures James D. Van de Ven polymer, pigments, and fillers. Because of the complex phase transition that occurs when heating the charac- teristics of heating owing to the laser radiation. This paper discusses an experiment measuring

  14. Fabrication and characterization of iron oxide nanoparticles reinforced vinyl-ester resin nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    reinforced with iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles were fabricated. The particle func- tionalization with a bi-functional-stability in the functionalized nanoparticles filled vinyl ester resin nanocomposites as compared to the unmodified nanoparticle acid or base. Furthermore, the functional groups of the polymer surrounding the nano- particles enable

  15. Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Sodium Dodecyl Benzenesulfonate on Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Latexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Sodium Dodecyl Benzenesulfonate on Poly(Vinyl Chloride@cpe.fr #12;2 Abstract The adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate performed to determine the area per surfactant molecule at various temperatures (20-50ºC) and the adsorption

  16. Kinetic and spectroscopic studies of vinyl acetate synthesis over Pd(100)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    ,b , M.S. Chena , and D.W. Goodmana, * a Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University, P.O. Box 30012 for the production of polymers such as, polyvinyl acetate and vinyl acetate copolymers [1]. Currently, VA), For XPS analysis, Mg­Karadiation (300 W, pass energy 58.7 eV) was used, and the spectra referenced

  17. Simultaneous measurement of laser reflection and transmission of poly,,vinyl chloride...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Ven, James D.

    , unpigmented state are highly transmissive of light in the near-infrared range, al- lowing laser transmissionSimultaneous measurement of laser reflection and transmission of poly,,vinyl chloride... James D reflection, emphasizing the light transmitted through a material. This paper presents work creating a low

  18. Unexpected Alternated Radical Copolymerization of Vinylidene cyanide with a Vinyl ether for Superhydrophobic and Highly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for Superhydrophobic and Highly Oleophobic Films Ahmed Meskini, Mustapha Raihane Laboratoire de Chimie Bioorganique et Radical Copolymerization of Vinylidene cyanide with a Vinyl ether for Superhydrophobic and Highly(VCN-alt-FAVE8) copolymers exhibit superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic characters as evidenced by high water

  19. Effect of composite microstructure on electrical and mechanical properties of poly(vinyl acetate) composites with carbon black and clay.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miriyala, Sethu M.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrical and mechanical behavior of carbon black filled poly(vinyl acetate) latex-based and solution-based polymer composites was examined. A set of experiments were performed to distinguish composites with a segregated network (emulsion...

  20. Effects of Concentration of Organically Modified Nanoclay on Properties of Sulfonated Poly(vinyl alcohol) Nanocomposite Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanglimsuwan, Apiradee

    Electrolyte nanocomposite membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells were prepared by carrying out a sulfonation of poly(vinyl alcohol) with sulfosuccinic acid and adding a type of ...

  1. The effect of temperature and relative humidity levels upon charcoal tube sampling for vinyl choloride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCaskill, Gerald Daniel

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    their cooperation, this research would not have been possible. I also wish to express my appreciation to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health which prov ided an educational grant. DEDICATION To Ann, Your love, words of encouragement... of their employees from angiosarcoma to prolonged vinyl chloride monomer (UCM) exposure. (I) The government immediately stepped in, and by Febr uary 1974, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) had issued a set of recommendations...

  2. Overall Rate Constant Measurements of the Reaction of Hydroxy-and Chloroalkylperoxy Radicals Derived from Methacrolein and Methyl Vinyl Ketone with Nitric Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elrod, Matthew J.

    and to lead to additional ozone production in regions where isoprene oxidation chemistry is dominant Derived from Methacrolein and Methyl Vinyl Ketone with Nitric Oxide Hong Yuan Hsin and Matthew J. Elrod- and chloroalkylperoxy radicals, derived from the OH- and Cl-initiated oxidation of methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone

  3. Anodic polymerization of vinyl ethylene carbonate in Li-Ion battery electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Guoying; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Gao, Liu; Ross Jr., Philip N.

    2005-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the anodic oxidation of vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC) was conducted with post-mortem analysis of reaction products by ATR-FTIR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The half-wave potential (E1/2) for oxidation of VEC is ca. 3.6 V producing a resistive film on the electrode surface. GPC analysis of the film on a gold electrode produced by anodization of a commercial Li-ion battery electrolyte containing 2 percent VEC at 4.1 V showed the presence of a high molecular weight polymer. IR analysis indicated polycarbonate with alkyl carbonate rings linked by aliphatic methylene and methyl branches.

  4. Genome Sequence of the Ethene- and Vinyl Chloride-Oxidizing Actinomycete Nocardioides sp Strain JS614

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Nicholas V [University of Sydney, Australia; Wilson, Neil L [University of Sydney, Australia; Barry, Kerrie [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Shunsheng [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Israni, Sanjay [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kim, Edwin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Richardson, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Schmutz, Jeremy [Stanford University; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Thompson, Sue [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Spain, Jim C [Georgia Institute of Technology; Gossett, James G [Cornell University; Mattes, Timothy E [University of Iowa

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nocardioides sp. strain JS614 grows on ethene and vinyl chloride (VC) as sole carbon and energy sources and is of interest for bioremediation and biocatalysis. Sequencing of the complete genome of JS614 provides insight into the genetic basis of alkene oxidation, supports ongoing research into the physiology and biochemistry of growth on ethene and VC, and provides biomarkers to facilitate detection of VC/ethene oxidizers in the environment. This is the first genome sequence from the genus Nocardioides and the first genome of a VC/ethene-oxidizing bacterium.

  5. Reactive triblock polymers from tandem ring-opening polymerization for nanostructured vinyl thermosets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amendt, Mark A.; Pitet, Louis M.; Moench, Sarah; Hillmyer, Marc A. (UMM)

    2013-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiply functional hydroxyl telechelic poly(cyclooctene-s-5-norbornene-2-methylene methacrylate) was synthesized by ring opening metathesis (co)polymerization of cis-cyclooctene and 5-norbornene-2-methylene methacrylate using the second generation Grubbs catalyst in combination with a symmetric chain transfer agent bearing hydroxyl functionality. The resulting hydroxyl-telechelic polymer was used as a macroinitiator for the ring opening transesterification polymerization of d,l-lactide to form reactive poly(lactide)-b-poly(cyclooctene-s-5-norbornene-2-methylene methacrylate)-b-poly(lactide) triblock polymers. Subsequently, the triblocks were crosslinked by free radical copolymerization with several vinyl monomers including styrene, divinylbenzene, methyl methacrylate, and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate. Certain conditions led to optically transparent thermosets with mesoscale phase separation as evidenced by small angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy. Disordered, bicontinuous structures with nanoscopic domains were generated in several cases, rendering the samples attractive for size-selective membrane applications.

  6. Endovascular Embolization of Visceral Artery Aneurysms with Ethylene-vinyl Alcohol (Onyx): A Case Series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bratby, M.J.; Lehmann, E.D. [St. George's Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Bottomley, J.; Kessel, D.O.; Nicholson, A.A.; McPherson, S.J. [Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Morgan, R.A.; Belli, A.-M. [St. George's Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Anna.Belli@stgeorges.nhs.uk

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the application of the liquid embolic agent ethylene-vinyl alcohol (Onyx; MicroTherapeutics, Irvine, CA, USA) in the management of visceral artery aneurysms. The technique and indications for using Onyx are discussed with emphasis on the management of wide-necked aneurysms and maintenance of patency of the parent vessel. None of the cases was considered suitable for stent-grafting or embolization with conventional agents. Two aneurysms of the renal artery bifurcation and one aneurysm of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery were treated. Following treatment there was complete exclusion of all aneurysms. There was no evidence of end-organ infarction. Follow-up with intervals up to 6 months has shown sustained aneurysm exclusion. Onyx is known to be effective in the management of intracranial aneurysms. Our experience demonstrates the efficacy and applicability of the use of Onyx in the treatment of complex visceral artery aneurysms.

  7. Conducting polymer blends: Polypyrrole and polythiophene blends with polystyrene, polycarbonate resin, poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinyl methyl ketone)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.L.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various aromatic compounds can be polymerized by electrochemical oxidation in solution containing a supporting electrolyte. Most studies have been devoted to polypyrrole and polythiophene. In situ doping during electrochemical polymerization yields free standing conductive polymer film. One major approach to making conducting polymer blends is electrochemical synthesis after coating the host polymer on a platinum electrode. In the electrolysis of pyrrole or thiophene monomer, using (t-Bu[sub 4]N)BF[sub 4] as supporting electrolyte, and acetonitrile as solvent, monomer can diffuse through the polymer film, to produce a polypyrrole or polythiophene blend in the film. Doping occurs along with polymerization to form a conducting polymer alloy. The strongest molecular interaction in polymers, and one that is central to phase behavior, is hydrogen bonding. This mixing at the molecular level enhances the degree of miscibility between two polymers and results in macroscopic properties indicative of single phase behavior. In this dissertation, the authors describes the syntheses of conducting polymer blends: polypyrrole and polythiophene blends with polystyrene, poly(bisphenol-A-carbonate), polyvinyl alcohol and poly(vinyl methyl ketone). The syntheses are performed both electrochemically and chemically. Characterization of these blends was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Percolating threshold conductivities occur from 7% to 20% for different polymer blends. The low threshold conductivity is attributed to blend homogeneity enhanced by hydrogen bonding between the carbonyl group in the insulating polymer and the N-H group in polypyrrole. Thermal stability, environmental stability, mechanical properties, crystallinity and morphological structure are also discussed. The authors have also engaged in the polymerization of imidazoles.

  8. Plug repairs of marine glass fiber / vinyl ester laminates subjected to in-plane shear stress or in-plane bending moment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urrutia Valenzuela, Roberto

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass fiber / vinyl ester composite laminates represent an important class of modem fiber composites being proposed or used in state-of-the-art shipbuilding. This thesis examined the effectiveness of chopped strand mat ...

  9. Control technology of vinyl chloride in EDC-VCM and PVC plants at main source points and fugitive emissions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parra, Dario Antonio

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    phase. A free radical catalyst (dibenzoil peroxide) is dissolved in the VCM feed, and is used to initiate polymerization. Suspending agents such as polyvinyl alcohol are used along with continuous agitation to keep VCM droplets small. The heat... The sources of fugitive emissions from both processes correspond to: 1. Leakage from pumps, compressors, agitator seals, relief valves, and flanges. 2. Taking samples of vinyl chloride product. 3. In process waste water. The emission sources...

  10. Mechanisms, Chemistry, and Kinetics of Anaerobic Biodegradation of cis-Dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarty, P.L.; Spormann, A.M.

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anaerobic biological processes can result in PCE and TCE destruction through conversion to cis-dichloroethene (cDCE) then to vinyl chloride (VC), and finally to ethene. Here, the chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) serve as electron acceptors in energy metabolism, requiring electron donors such as hydrogen from an external source. The purpose of this study was to learn more about the biochemistry of cDCE and VC conversion to ethene, to better understand the requirements for electron donors, and to determine factors affecting the rates of CAH degradation and organism growth. The biochemistry of reductive dehalogenation of VC was studied with an anaerobic mixed culture enriched on VC. In other studies on electron donor needs for dehalogenation of cDCE and VC, competition for hydrogen was found to occur between the dehalogenators and other microorganisms such as methanogens and homoacetogens in a benzoate-acclimated dehalogenating methanogenic mixed culture. Factors affecting the relative rates of destruction of the solvents and their intermediate products were evaluated. Studies using a mixed PCE-dehalogenating culture as well as the VC enrichment for biochemical studies suggested that the same species was involved in both cDCE and VC dechlorination, and that cDCE and VC competitively inhibited each other's dechlorination rate.

  11. Potential Problems with Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate for Photovoltaic Packaging (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K, M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support electrical isolation, optical coupling, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about -15 C. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Due to increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL 1703.

  12. Alternate fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas: Vinyl acetate monomer. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard D. Colberg; Nick A. Collins; Edwin F. Holcombe; Gerald C. Tustin; Joseph R. Zoeller

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been a long-standing desire on the part of industry and the U.S. Department of Energy to replace the existing ethylene-based vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) process with an entirely synthesis gas-based process. Although there are a large number of process options for the conversion of synthesis gas to VAM, Eastman Chemical Company undertook an analytical approach, based on known chemical and economic principles, to reduce the potential candidate processes to a select group of eight processes. The critical technologies that would be required for these routes were: (1) the esterification of acetaldehyde (AcH) with ketene to generate VAM, (2) the hydrogenation of ketene to acetaldehyde, (3) the hydrogenation of acetic acid to acetaldehyde, and (4) the reductive carbonylation of methanol to acetaldehyde. This report describes the selection process for the candidate processes, the successful development of the key technologies, and the economic assessments for the preferred routes. In addition, improvements in the conversion of acetic anhydride and acetaldehyde to VAM are discussed. The conclusion from this study is that, with the technology developed in this study, VAM may be produced from synthesis gas, but the cost of production is about 15% higher than the conventional oxidative acetoxylation of ethylene, primarily due to higher capital associated with the synthesis gas-based processes.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of redox polymers of (M(4-vinyl-4 prime -methyl-2,2 prime -bipyridine) sub 3 )(PF sub 6 ) sub 2 (M = Ru, Os)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bommarito, S.L.; Lowery-Bretz, S.P.; Abruna, H.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1992-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have prepared polymers of (M(vbpy){sub 3}(PF{sub 6}){sub 2}) (M = Ru, Os) (vbpy = 4-vinyl-4{prime}-methyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridine) in solution via free-radical polymerization and fractionated them according to molecular weight using size exclusion chromatography. Different fractions have been characterized by electrochemical and spectroscopic means. The authors find that whereas for the osmium containing polymers the relative polymer size varies in proportion to the number of vinyl groups consumed during the polymerization reaction, the same is not true for the analogous ruthenium polymers. In addition, the emission energy of both the ruthenium and osmium polymers is also related to the concentration of residual vinyl groups in the polymer. Upon polymerization, there is a shift in the emission toward higher energies. Electrochemically determined diffusion coefficients are consistent with the relative size of the various fractions.

  14. Ionization and dissociation dynamics of vinyl bromide probed by femtosecond extreme ultraviolet transient absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Ming-Fu; Neumark, Daniel M. [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Gessner, Oliver [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Leone, Stephen R. [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Strong-field induced ionization and dissociation dynamics of vinyl bromide, CH{sub 2}=CHBr, are probed using femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption spectroscopy. Strong-field ionization is initiated with an intense femtosecond, near infrared (NIR, 775 nm) laser field. Femtosecond XUV pulses covering the photon energy range of 50-72 eV probe the subsequent dynamics by measuring the time-dependent spectroscopic features associated with transitions of the Br (3d) inner-shell electrons to vacancies in molecular and atomic valence orbitals. Spectral signatures are observed for the depletion of neutral C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br, the formation of C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br{sup +} ions in their ground (X{sup ~}) and first excited (A{sup ~}) states, the production of C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br{sup ++} ions, and the appearance of neutral Br ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) atoms by dissociative ionization. The formation of free Br ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) atoms occurs on a timescale of 330 ± 150 fs. The ionic A{sup ~} state exhibits a time-dependent XUV absorption energy shift of ?0.4 eV within the time window of the atomic Br formation. The yield of Br atoms correlates with the yield of parent ions in the A{sup ~} state as a function of NIR peak intensity. The observations suggest that a fraction of vibrationally excited C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br{sup +} (A{sup ~}) ions undergoes intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution followed by the C–Br bond dissociation. The C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br{sup +} (X{sup ~}) products and the majority of the C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br{sup ++} ions are relatively stable due to a deeper potential well and a high dissociation barrier, respectively. The results offer powerful new insights about orbital-specific electronic processes in high field ionization, coupled vibrational relaxation and dissociation dynamics, and the correlation of valence hole-state location and dissociation in polyatomic molecules, all probed simultaneously by ultrafast table-top XUV spectroscopy.

  15. 3 Micro-mechanics based derivation of the materials constitutive 4 relations for carbon-nanotube reinforced poly-vinyl-ester-epoxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    , carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer-ma- 45trix composite) materials have spurred considerable 46interest relations for carbon-nanotube reinforced poly-vinyl-ester-epoxy 5 based composites 6 Mica Grujicic Y. P. Sun mechanical reinforcements for 59lightweight composite systems. However, the material 60and the processing

  16. Journal of Materials Science, 2012, 47(14): p. 5596-5604 Thermal expansion behavior of hollow glass particle/vinyl ester composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    with the addition of glass microballoons for the twelve compositions of syntactic foams characterized using glass particle/vinyl ester composites Vasanth Chakravarthy Shunmugasamy, Dinesh Pinisetty and Nikhil filled composites (syntactic foams), the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) can be controlled by two

  17. Reactive Surfaces and Interfaces utilizing 2-Vinyl-4,4-Dimethylazlactone (VDMA): An Example of ??Click?? Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messman, Jamie M [ORNL; Kilbey, II, S Michael [ORNL; Lokitz, Bradley S [ORNL; Hinestrosa Salazar, Juan Pablo [Clemson University; Ankner, John Francis [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Creating polymer-modified interfaces decorated with biologically-relevant materials V so-called bio-interfaces V with precise control over the nanoscale structure and properties is of increasing technological importance for a large number of advanced materials applications, including adaptive and/or lubricious biomaterial coatings, electro-actuators (synthetic muscles), biosensors with amplified response, coatings for stealth drug delivery, supports for enzymatic catalysts, protein or antibody arrays, and high affinity separation agents. The ability to design and decorate interfaces with biologically-relevant molecules and understand synthesis-structure-function relationships remains a significant challenge. The overarching objective of this research program is to investigate the polymerization and functionalization of a new class of polymeric materials that are capable of serving as a versatile platform from which bio-interfaces for specific applications can be created and evaluated. Stimuli-responsive (co)polymers containing vinyl dimethyl azlactone (VDMA) have been prepared using free radical polymerization techniques (controlled and conventional). Subsequent immobilization of biomolecules (e.g., dansylcadaverine, N ,N -bis(carboxymethyl)-L-lysine hydrate) on PVDMA-containing surface scaffolds affords bio-interfaces. Reaction of nucleophiles with the azlactone moiety proceeds rapidly, quantitatively, and in the absence of byproducts, which are essential criteria governing the click-type nature of this procedure. The conversion of these materials into polyelectrolytes and bioconjugates can be monitored in real-time using infrared spectroscopy. Additionally, pVDMA polymers prepared using reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization are the basis for creating polymer brushes by a grafting to approach. We will describe how compositional differences and changes in molecular weight affect the solubility and responsiveness of pVDMA-based polymers and surface layers when functionalized with various biomolecules.

  18. Transarterial Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer Visualization and Penetration After Embolization of Life-Threatening Hemoptysis: Technical and Clinical Outcomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bommart, Sebastien, E-mail: s-bommart@chu-montpellier.fr [CHU of Montpellier, Arnaud de Villeneuve Hospital, Department of Radiology (France); Bourdin, Arnaud [CHU of Montpellier, Arnaud de Villeneuve Hospital, Department of Respiratory Diseases (France); Giroux, Marie France [Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, Notre-Dame Hospital, Department of Radiology (Canada); Klein, Francois; Micheau, Antoine; Bares, Valerie Monnin; Kovacsik, Helene [CHU of Montpellier, Arnaud de Villeneuve Hospital, Department of Radiology (France)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVAC) for bronchial artery embolization (BAE) in patients with life-threatening hemoptysis and to compare the visualization and transarterial penetration of EVAC under fluoroscopy and computed tomography (CT). Methods: Fifteen patients (mean age, 62.9 (range, 24-82) years) who were referred for life-threatening hemoptysis (27 month period) underwent BAE using EVAC. All patients had thoracic CT examination before and after BAE. Technical and clinical results were evaluated. Visibility and extent of cast penetration (graded 1-4) on fluoroscopy and postprocedure CT were assessed and compared. Results: BAE was feasible in all but one artery (due to spasm; n = 27; 96.4%). No procedure-related complications or deaths were detected. Two patients had recurrent bleeding in the following day (13.3%). Immediate clinical success was achieved in 14 cases (93.3%) after reembolization of pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm in one patient (mean follow-up, 43.5 (range, 14-148) days). Visibility of the cast was possible in 73.3% of patients (n = 11) under fluoroscopy (mean cast penetration 1.66) and in all patients under CT (mean cast penetration 2.06). The postinjection fluoroscopic visibility in 6 of 15 (40%) patients was inferior to CT (P < 0.02). Conclusions: BAE with EVAC seems to be feasible and safe with immediate control of hemoptysis in most patients. The postinjection fluoroscopic visibility of EVAC under fluoroscopy was inferior to CT.

  19. Scanning tunneling microscopy of dimeric and polymeric products of electroreduced (Re(CO) sub 3 (4-vinyl,4 prime -methyl-2,2 prime -bipyridine)Cl)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, S.R.; White, H.S. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA)); Lopez, S.; Abruna, H.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1990-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) was used to image adsorbed products resulting from electroreduction of (Re(CO){sub 3}(vbpy)Cl) (vbpy = 4-vinyl,4{prime}-methyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridine) on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). STM images, in air, of HOPG electrodes following electroreduction of (Re(CO){sub 3}(vbpy)Cl) (in acetonitrile/0.1 M tetra-n-butylammonium perchlorate) by cycling the potential between 0 and {minus}2.0 V vs a sodium saturated colomel electrode (SSCE) show molecular species uniformly distributed on the surface including approximately dumbbell shaped molecules ({approx} 40 {times} 20 {angstrom}). The size and shape of these aggregates is consistent with products derived from vinyl-vinvyl coupling of Re-Re bonded dimers: ((vbpy)(CO){sub 3}Re-Re(CO){sub 3}(vbpyH-vbpyH)(CO){sub 3}Re-Re(CO){sub 3}(vbpy)). STM images of electrodes prepared by cycling the potential between 0 and {minus}1.45 V vs SSCE (less reducing conditions) show highly nonuniform coating of the surface by polymer. Several polymer morphologies were observed with polymer nucleation preferentially occurring at step sites on HOPG.

  20. European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Valencia, Spain, 6-10 September 2010, 4AV.3.115 NON-LINEAR MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE (EVA) AND ITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    25th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Valencia, Spain, 6-10 September 2010, 4AV.3,2 1 Institute for Solar Energy Research Hamelin (ISFH), Am Ohrberg 1, D-31860 Emmerthal, Germany 2 ABSTRACT: Polymers such as ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulants are known for their non

  1. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 2012, IN PRESS DOI: 10.1007/S10853-012-6927-8 Viscoelastic properties of hollow glass particle filled vinyl ester matrix syntactic foams: effect of temperature and loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    properties of hollow glass particle filled vinyl ester matrix syntactic foams: effect of temperature compositions of syntactic foams. Storage modulus, loss modulus, and glass transition temperature (Tg@poly.edu Abstract Viscoelastic properties of hollow particle reinforced composites called syntactic foams

  2. Synthesis and characterization of redox copolymers of (Ru(4-vinyl-4 prime -methyl-2,2 prime -bipyridine) sub 3 ) sup 2+ and (Os(4-vinyl-4 prime -methyl-2,2 prime -bipyridine) sub 3 ) sup 2+ : Unusual energy-transfer dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bommarito, S.L.; Lowery-Bretz, S.P.; Abruna, H.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1992-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Copolymers of (Ru(vbpy){sub 3}(PF{sub 6}){sub 2}) and (Os(vbpy){sub 3}(PF{sub 6}){sub 2}) (vbpy = 4-vinyl-4{prime}-methyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridine) have been prepared in solution and by electropolymerization. The ruthenium and osmium monomers were incorporated in the copolymers in different ratios depending on the polymerization method. These results point to fundamental differences between solution polymerization and electropolymerization. In addition, luminescence experiments at liquid-nitrogen temperature and room temperature point to a significant degree of energy transfer from ruthenium to osmium states in the polymer.

  3. Process for the polymerization of vinyl chloride in aqueous suspension utilizing an oil-soluble initiator and subsequently a water-soluble initiator and use of the powders obtained thereby

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petit, A.

    1981-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for the polymerization of vinyl chloride in aqueous suspension in the presence of a dispersing system comprising a cellulosic derivative and an anionic emulsifying agent wherein the polymerizaton is initiated by an oil-soluble initiator and a water-soluble free radical polymerization initiator is added in the course of polymerization. The thus obtained polyvinyl chloride powders are particularly suitable for the production of battery separators.

  4. The germination and development of seedlings from seeds treated with growth regulators: (2-chloroethyl) trimethylammonium chloride, succinic acid 2,2 dimethylhydrazide and 2,3-dihydro-5-6-diphenyl-1,4 oxathiin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamp, Marihelen

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    intensity, demonstrate any significant reduction in leaf width (Table II). Leaf length was not significantly affected by these treatments under either light level (Table III). Because the influence of growth retarding chemicals is in the subapical meris...

  5. Public health assessment for tri-county landfill waste management of Illinois, South Elgin, Kane County, Illinois, Region 5. Cerclis No. ILD048306183. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tri-County and Elgin Landfills pose a public health hazard because the concentrations of lead in downgradient private wells are high enough to be a long-term health concern. Completed exposure pathways include the exposure to contaminated water from on- and off-site private wells (inhalation, ingestion, dermal contact; past, present, future). Contaminants of concern in on-site groundwater include bis(2-chloroethyl)ether, vinyl chloride, antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, fluoride, lead, manganese, nickel, nitrate + nitrite, and thallium. Chemicals of concern in on-site surface soil and sediments include PCBs, arsenic, cadmium, and nickel. Contaminants of concern in on-site subsurface soil include PCBs, arsenic, cadmium, lead, and nickel. This public health assessment recommends health professionals education and community health education be conducted for the community impacted by the landfills.

  6. Density functional theory study of the interaction of vinyl radical, ethyne, and ethene with benzene, aimed to define an affordable computational level to investigate stability trends in large van der Waals complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maranzana, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.maranzana@unito.it, E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it, E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it, E-mail: mipavone@unina.it; Giordana, Anna, E-mail: andrea.maranzana@unito.it, E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it, E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it, E-mail: mipavone@unina.it; Indarto, Antonius, E-mail: antonius.indarto@che.itb.ac.id; Tonachini, Glauco, E-mail: glauco.tonachini@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Torino, Corso Massimo D’Azeglio 48, I-10125 Torino (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Torino, Corso Massimo D’Azeglio 48, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Barone, Vincenzo, E-mail: andrea.maranzana@unito.it, E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it, E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it, E-mail: mipavone@unina.it [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126, Pisa (Italy)] [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126, Pisa (Italy); Causà, Mauro, E-mail: andrea.maranzana@unito.it, E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it, E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it, E-mail: mipavone@unina.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli “Federico II,” Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli “Federico II,” Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Pavone, Michele, E-mail: andrea.maranzana@unito.it, E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it, E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it, E-mail: mipavone@unina.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Napoli “Federico II,” Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Napoli “Federico II,” Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Our purpose is to identify a computational level sufficiently dependable and affordable to assess trends in the interaction of a variety of radical or closed shell unsaturated hydro-carbons A adsorbed on soot platelet models B. These systems, of environmental interest, would unavoidably have rather large sizes, thus prompting to explore in this paper the performances of relatively low-level computational methods and compare them with higher-level reference results. To this end, the interaction of three complexes between non-polar species, vinyl radical, ethyne, or ethene (A) with benzene (B) is studied, since these species, involved themselves in growth processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot particles, are small enough to allow high-level reference calculations of the interaction energy ?E{sub AB}. Counterpoise-corrected interaction energies ?E{sub AB} are used at all stages. (1) Density Functional Theory (DFT) unconstrained optimizations of the A?B complexes are carried out, using the B3LYP-D, ?B97X-D, and M06-2X functionals, with six basis sets: 6-31G(d), 6-311 (2d,p), and 6-311++G(3df,3pd); aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ; N07T. (2) Then, unconstrained optimizations by Møller-Plesset second order Perturbation Theory (MP2), with each basis set, allow subsequent single point Coupled Cluster Singles Doubles and perturbative estimate of the Triples energy computations with the same basis sets [CCSD(T)//MP2]. (3) Based on an additivity assumption of (i) the estimated MP2 energy at the complete basis set limit [E{sub MP2/CBS}] and (ii) the higher-order correlation energy effects in passing from MP2 to CCSD(T) at the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set, ?E{sub CC-MP}, a CCSD(T)/CBS estimate is obtained and taken as a computational energy reference. At DFT, variations in ?E{sub AB} with basis set are not large for the title molecules, and the three functionals perform rather satisfactorily even with rather small basis sets [6-31G(d) and N07T], exhibiting deviation from the computational reference of less than 1 kcal mol{sup ?1}. The zero-point vibrational energy corrected estimates ?(E{sub AB}+ZPE), obtained with the three functionals and the 6-31G(d) and N07T basis sets, are compared with experimental D{sub 0} measures, when available. In particular, this comparison is finally extended to the naphthalene and coronene dimers and to three ??? associations of different PAHs (R, made by 10, 16, or 24 C atoms) and P (80 C atoms)

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of the Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC) for Sampling Attribution Signatures from Building Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, Scott D.; He, Lijian; Wahl, Jon H.

    2012-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This study provides a preliminary evaluation of the Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC) for its suitability for sampling building materials for toxic compounds and their associated impurities and residues that might remain after a terrorist chemical attack. Chemical warfare (CW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals were represented by a range of test probes that included CW surrogates. The test probes encompassed the acid-base properties, volatilities, and polarities of the expected chemical agents and residual compounds. Results indicated that dissipation of the test probes depended heavily on the underlying material. Near complete dissipation of almost all test probes occurred from galvanized stainless steel within 3.0 hrs, whereas far stronger retention with concomitant slower release was observed for vinyl composition floor tiles. The test probes displayed immediated permanence on Teflon. FLEC sampling was further evaluated by profiling residues remaining after the evaporation of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, a sulfur mustard simulant. This study lays the groundwork for the eventual goal of applying this sampling approach for collection of forensic attribution signatures that remain after a terrorist chemical attack.

  8. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Department of Energy and model energy codes have madethe most commonly adopted model energy code in the U.S. for

  9. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    irradiance on a vertical, solar tracking, surface in Golden,irradiance on a vertical solar tracking surface in Golden,

  10. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces,transfer at the siding surface. Direct solar radiation tosiding, reflected solar radiation from nearby surfaces,

  11. Synthesis of vinyl acetate on palladium-based catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Dheeraj

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    ...................................................................................8 Surface Science Techniques..............................................................................................10 X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)...................................................................11 Auger... the energy level diagram of Auger electron emission process............................................................................................................................15 Fig. 5. Schematic diagram of the Michelson interferometer used...

  12. Methods for the synthesis of deuterated vinyl pyridine monomers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hong, Kunlun; Yang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V

    2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for synthesizing deuterated vinylpyridine compounds of the Formula (1), wherein the method includes: (i) deuterating an acyl pyridine of the Formula (2) in the presence of a metal catalyst and D.sub.2O, wherein the metal catalyst is active for hydrogen exchange in water, to produce a deuterated acyl compound of Formula (3); (ii) reducing the compound of Formula (3) with a deuterated reducing agent to convert the acyl group to an alcohol group, and (iii) dehydrating the compound produced in step (ii) with a dehydrating agent to afford the vinylpyridine compound of Formula (1). The resulting deuterated vinylpyridine compounds are also described.

  13. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature International Energy Conservation Codeof the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), the

  14. The Palladium-Catalyzed Trifluoromethylation of Vinyl Sulfonates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Eun Jin

    A method for the palladium-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of cyclohexenyl sulfonates has been developed. Various cyclohexenyl triflates and nonaflates underwent trifluoromethylation under mild reaction conditions using a ...

  15. acid vinyl ester: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    stable thermodynamically and hydration free energies obtained Yu, Fangqun 280 ANTIBODY PURIFICATION USING CAPRYLIC ACID In mildly acidic conditions, the addition of short-chain...

  16. Annual Survey of Biological and Chemical Agents regulated by Homeland Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Portman, Douglas

    is different than dinitrobenze, which is not regulated) Nitrogen mustard hydrochloride [Bis(2-chloroethyl)methylamine hydrochloride] Nitrogen trioxide Phosphorus oxychloride Phosphorus trichloride Propylphosphonothioic dichloride Thiodiglycol [Bis(2- hydroxyethyl)sulfide] Titanium tetrachloride Triethyl phosphite Trimethyl phosphite Gases

  17. Natural attenuation of organophosphates in river systems: Chattahoochee River case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, Matthew B. (Matthew Bryan), 1981-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three organophosphoric acid triesters, tributyl phosphate (TBP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP) have been detected in surface waters across the world, primarily the result ...

  18. Studies of Various Hydrocarbon Conversion Reactions on Pt Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaneko, Shinji

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with various reactants. Acrolein, methyl vinyl ketone,hydrogenation products. Acrolein, methyl vinyl ketone,

  19. Effect of thermal history on the molecular orientation in polystyrene/poly(vinyl methyl ether) blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezolet, Michel

    ether) (PS/PVME) has been studied using polarization modulation infrared linear dichroism (PM to an increased orientation if the heating time at 51 8C is kept short. Moreover, PS and PVME develop a larger) blends; Thermal history; Polarization modulation infrared linear dichroism 1. Introduction The influence

  20. Vinyl Ester Resin: Rheological Behaviors, Curing Kinetics, Thermomechanical, and Tensile Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    , Integrated Composites Laboratory (ICL), Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710 Xi Zhang and Suying Wei Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710 Henry A. Colorado Dept. of Mechanical

  1. anhydride-vinyl methyl ether: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TREAT METHYL- TERT-BUTYL ETHER CONTAMINATED CiteSeer Summary: Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a commonly used gasoline additive. Leaking underground storage tank systems,...

  2. Rate-dependent deformation behavior of poss-filled and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soong, Sharon Yu-Wen

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymers are known to exhibit strong time-dependent mechanical behavior. In different temperatures or frequency regimes, the rate sensitivities of polymers change as various primary and secondary molecular mobility mechanisms ...

  3. Electron Beam Damage in Poly(Vinyl Chloride) and Poly(Acrylonitrile...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the PVC film as a function of dose (time). It takes a dose of approximately 7.0x10-5 Ccm-5 for the chlorine concentration to fall from its original value by 10% (one definition...

  4. Poly (vinyl alcohol)/3-(trimethylammonium) propyl-functionalized silica hybrid membranes for alkaline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. As a result, the overall cost of the fuel cell system can for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells E.D. Wang, T.S. Zhao*, W.W. Yang Department of Mechanical Engineering Accepted 29 December 2009 Available online 8 January 2010 Keywords: Fuel cell Direct ethanol fuel cell

  5. CuO nanoparticle filled vinyl-ester resin nanocomposites: Fabrication, characterization and property analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    Angeles, CA 90095, USA Received 28 August 2006; received in revised form 4 November 2006; accepted 30 such as photovoltaic (solar) cells [11,12] and magnetic data storage. The func- tional groups of the polymer are normally steric interaction forces, van der Waals forces, or Lewis acid­base interactions. However, in situ

  6. aerobic vinyl chloride-assimilating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    organic sulfides,6 and perfluorinated polyesters,7,8 have been used to create release coatings Chaudhury, Manoj K. 425 1283J. Blumel, F. H. Kohler Metallated...

  7. Degradation of Vinyl Chloride and 1,2-Dichloroethane by Advanced Reduction Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xu

    2013-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    UV with dithionite, sulfite, sulfide or ferrous iron. Complete degradation of both target compounds was achieved by all ARP and the reactions were found to follow pseudo-first-order decay kinetics. The effects of pH, sulfite dose, UV light intensity...

  8. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-based buffering membranes for isoelectric trapping separations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craver, Helen C.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ?.????????????.?. 149 A-3 Excel spreadsheet used to calculate the recipes for the MORPH-ASP-PVA membranes buffering on the lower pK a in the MORPH-ASP mixture?.???????????????.?. 150 A-4 Excel spreadsheet used to calculate the recipes for the MORPH...-ASP-PVA membranes buffering on the higher pK a in the MORPH-ASP mixture ?.????????????????. 151 A-5 Excel spreadsheet used to calculate the recipes for the TRIS-ASP-PVA membranes?.????????????.?. 152 A-6 Excel spreadsheet used to calculate...

  9. Synthetic Approaches to Skeletally Diverse Sultams Using Vinyl- and ?-Halo Benzenesulfonamides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeon, KyuOk

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ,?-unsaturated 5- and 6-membered sultams. These 5- and 6-membered sultams were prepared and applied to further diversifications using aza-Michael reactions, cycloadditions, alkylation/benzylations and propargylation-[3+2]-cycloadditions. Utilizing the aza...

  10. Monodisperse SiC/vinyl ester nanocomposites: Dispersant formulation, synthesis, and characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yong, Virginia; Hahn, H. Thomas

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and composites with epoxy resins: Topography, fractographyreinforced polypropylene and epoxy resin composites. Compos.filled polypropylene and epoxy resin com- posites, 22 carbon

  11. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700419 Autonomic Healing of Epoxy Vinyl Esters via Ring Opening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sottos, Nancy R.

    the Grubbs' catalyst is encapsulated in paraffin wax microspheres.[5] These wax micro- spheres serve the dual. Protecting the catalyst from aggressive curing agents by encapsulation in wax microspheres increases chemistry, and demonstrate a viable healing system follow- ing wax protection of the catalyst. The size

  12. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (sPOSS) hybrid membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    transport of methanol from the anode side of the fuel cell, through the membrane, to the cathode side for direct methanol fuel cell applications Young-Wook Chang1*, Erdong Wang1y , Geumsig Shin1 , Jung-Eun Han1 polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (sPOSS); membrane; direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) INTRODUCTION Fuel cell

  13. Localized Plasticity in the Streamlined Genomes of Vinyl Chloride Respiring Dehalococcoides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMurdie, Paul J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conceived and designed the experiments: PJM SFB FEL AMS.Performed the experiments: PJM SFB KMR.Analyzed the data: PJM SFB JAM JG KMR RW EG AL SH FEL AMS.

  14. anhydride-methyl vinyl ether: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Band Gap Polymers" Weibin Cui and Fred Wudl Macromolecules, 46 (18): 7232-7238 (2013). DOI Link "A Montarnal, Nancy D. Eisenmenger, Sung-Yu Ku, Michael L....

  15. acid-methyl vinyl ether: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Band Gap Polymers" Weibin Cui and Fred Wudl Macromolecules, 46 (18): 7232-7238 (2013). DOI Link "A Montarnal, Nancy D. Eisenmenger, Sung-Yu Ku, Michael L....

  16. Localized Plasticity in the Streamlined Genomes of Vinyl Chloride Respiring Dehalococcoides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMurdie, Paul J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    package [75] of the R language for statistical computing [R Development Core Team (2009) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical

  17. Synthesis and Modification of Alternating Copolymers Based on Vinyl Ethers, Chlorotrifluoroethylene, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , in dynamic mode, under air, showed decomposition temperatures (Td,10%) higher than 200 °C. Electrochemical recent fuel cells technology, combining the best of both alkaline batteries and solid polymer electrolyte-exchange membranes, do not require noble metals (Pt, Ru...) as catalysts to function, which is one of the main

  18. alpha-tosyloxy ketones applications: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    methyl vinyl ketone, ethyl vinyl ketone, phenyl vinyl sulfone, phenyl vinylsulfonate, acrolein and acrylonitrile, under Baylis-Hillman (more) Nocanda, Xolani Wittleton 2001-01-01...

  19. Chemico-Biological Interactions 166 (2007) 264276 Chemical process-based reconstruction of exposures for an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Keywords: Chloroprene; Vinyl chloride; Plastics; Synthetic rubber; Exposure reconstruction; Occupational

  20. Open Archive TOULOUSE Archive Ouverte (OATAO) OATAO is an open access repository that collects the work of Toulouse researchers and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailhes, Corinne

    Chimique, Toulouse, France 2 Ineos ChlorVinyls, Mazingarbe, France On-line Monitoring of Vinyl Chloride

  1. Ambipolar Behavior in All-Carbon-Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors by Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Coating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    parameter analyzer (Agilent 4156C) at room temperature under ambient conditions. Fig. 1 Schematic of device including SWNT diameter distribution, capacitances of PVA film, and I-V characteristics when coating. Wang, M. Shim, K. Roy, M. A. Alam and J. A. Rogers, Nature 454, 495 (2008). 2. D. M. Sun, M. Y

  2. An investigation in the hygrothermal degradation of an E- glass/vinyl-ester composite in humid and immersion environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svetlik, Stephanie Laura

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water transport in epoxy resins. ” Progress in PolymerWater transport in epoxy resins. ” Prog. Polym. Sci. Vol.Diffusion Studies in an Epoxy Resin System. ” J. of Polymer

  3. Model Predictive Control of a Nonlinear Large-Scale Process Network Used in the Production of Vinyl Acetate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, TungSheng

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    operation. Journal of Process Control, [10] C. E. Garcia, D.sys- tems. Journal of Process Control, 23:404–414, 2013. [processes. Journal of Process Control, 21:501–509, 2011. [

  4. Highly nucleophilic acetylide, vinyl, and vinylidene complexes. Final progress report, 1 January 1991--31 March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geoffroy, G.L.

    1994-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In the course of this research the authors found that the anionic alkynyl complex [Cp{prime}(CO)(PPh{sub 3})Mn-C{triple_bond}C-CH{sub 3}]{sup {minus}} can be generated in situ by the addition of two equivalents of n-BuLi to a solution of the carbene complex Cp{prime}(CO)(PPh{sub 3})Mn{double_bond}C(OMe)CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}. It was also found that the highly nucleophilic propynyl complex [Cp(CO)(PPh{sub 3})Mn-C{triple_bond}C-Me]{sup {minus}} reacts with a variety of aldehydes and ketones in the presence of BF{sub 3}{center_dot}Et{sub 2}O to give, after quenching with MeOH, a series of cationic vinylcarbyne complexes of the general form [Cp(CO)(PPh{sub 3})Mn{triple_bond}C-C(Me){double_bond}C(R)(R{prime})]BF{sub 4}. The cationic alkylidyne complexes [Cp(CO){sub 2}M{triple_bond}C-CH{sub 2}R]{sup +} [M = Re, R = H, M = Mn, R = H, Me, Ph] have been found to undergo facile deprotonation to give the corresponding neutral vinylidene complexes Cp(CO){sub 2}M{double_bond}C{double_bond}C(H)R. The authors have also investigated reactions relevant to the halide promoted Fe and Ru catalyzed carbonylation of nitroaromatics. The final part of this work has involved investigations of metal-oxo complexes.

  5. Effect of composite microstructure on electrical and mechanical properties of poly(vinyl acetate) composites with carbon black and clay. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miriyala, Sethu M.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    -based case, fully solvated polymer results in a random dispersion of carbon black. The segregated network composite also shows significant improvement in both electrical conductivity and storage modulus with low carbon black loading, while the solution...

  6. Control technology of vinyl chloride in EDC-VCM and PVC plants at main source points and fugitive emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parra, Dario Antonio

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in a boiler and the combustion gases scrubbed with water or a caustic solution to remove the hydrogen chloride to form hydrochloric acid or sodium chloride. According to the Trane Thermal Company, thermal incineration is a basic proven process... and fugitive emissions, (b) collection of data by using a questionaire ? survey from industries located in the United States, and (c) a statistical analysis of the data. It was found that thermal incineration is considered the best approach to control...

  7. Model Predictive Control of a Nonlinear Large-Scale Process Network Used in the Production of Vinyl Acetate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, TungSheng

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    kcal/kg ? C a ¯ i Liquid heat capacity/enthalpy coefficientkg ? C 2 ¯ b i Liquid heat capacity/enthalpy coefficient fori kmol/m 3 c ? i Liquid heat capacity of species i kcal/

  8. Materials Science and Engineering A317 (2001) 128134 Mechanical and microstructural properties of notched E-glass/vinyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    strand mat. The composites were fabricated by Seemann's composite resin infusion molding process (SCRIMP

  9. Photoredox Vinylation of Amino Acids and NAryl Amines Adam Noble and David W. C. MacMillan*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacMillan, David W. C.

    -tert- butoxycarbonyl (N-Boc) -amino acids,7,8 a CO2-extrusion mechanism that has implications for the use of biomass feedstocks in conjugate additions and organometallic couplings. Allylic amines have long been attractive

  10. Guidance Document Peroxide-FormingChemicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    months. Acrylic acid Tetrafluoroethylene Acrylonitrile Vinyl acetate 1,3-Butadiene Vinyl acetylene months. Acetal Diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (diglyme) Isopropyl alcohol Acetaldehyde Diethyl ether Isopropyl propyl ether Acrylamide Diethyl fumatate Isopropyl vinyl ether Allyl ethyl ether Diethylketene 2

  11. aqueous polyvinyl alcohol: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fuel cell Activated carbon Separator Cathode Poly(vinyl alcohol) High for the oxygen reduction cathode catalyst and the electrode separator. A poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA 9...

  12. Open Archive TOULOUSE Archive Ouverte (OATAO) OATAO is an open access repository that collects the work of Toulouse researchers and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , Université de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, Toulouse, France 2 Ineos ChlorVinyls, Mazingarbe

  13. 168 JOURNAL OF VINYL & ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY, DECEMBER 2004, Vol. 10, No. 4 Thirty-Year Durability of a 20-Mil PVC Geomembrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a 20-Mil PVC Geomembrane E. J. NEWMAN and T. D. STARK* Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Michigan. The 30.5-m-diameter re- search ponds were lined using a 0.51-mm-thick fish-grade PVC geomembrane behavior of the nearly 30-year-old PVC geomembrane is within current specifications for new 0.51-mm

  14. Photoproduct Channels from BrCD2CD2OH at 193 nm and the HDO + Vinyl Products from the CD2CD2OH Radical Intermediate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, Laurie J.

    for the undeuterated system. However, because the vibrational energy distribution of the deuterated radicals is lower, Illinois 60637, United States National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan, Republic of China *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: We present the results of our product branching

  15. Examination of the New r-(2Z-Fluoro)vinyl Trigger with Lysine Decarboxylase: The Absolute Stereochemistry Dictates the Reaction Course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berkowitz, David

    , and - and -replacement enzymes), and (ii) promoting the requisite errant protonation. We chose lysine decarboxylase (LDC of the Hafnia alVei LDC.16 Furthermore, this class of bacterial LDC was reported to be resistant to covalent

  16. The formation of PdCx over Pd-based catalysts in vapor-phase vinyl acetate synthesis: does a PdAu alloy catalyst resist carbide formation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    a Pd­Au/SiO2 mixed-metal catalyst. XRD data show that PdCx was produced in the pure Pd catalysts after greater resistance to the formation of PdCx. The XRD and XPS data are consistent with formation of a Pd in a micro-reactor using online GC; before reaction the catalysts were pretreated (oxidized in a 20 m

  17. European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Valencia, Spain, 6-10 September 2010, 4AV.3.25 MODELLING THE CURING DYNAMICS OF ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    25th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Valencia, Spain, 6-10 September 2010, 4AV.3. Alshuth2 , M. Köntges1 and R. Brendel1,3 1 Institute for Solar Energy Research Hamelin (ISFH), Am Ohrberg 1, D-31860 Emmerthal, Germany 2 German Institute of Rubber Technology, Eupener Stra�e 33, D-30519

  18. Poly(vinyl alcohol) based hydrogen-bonded multilayers : from pH-controlled multi-stage dissolution to zwitter-wettable surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hyomin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the mechanisms that govern the structure and function of synthetic polymer thin films is of fundamental and practical significance for developing a diverse range of functional surfaces including antifogging ...

  19. activity-dependent polyadenylation site: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 37 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  20. alpine site jungfraujoch: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 166 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  1. allosteric site: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 69 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  2. affect redd site: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 62 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  3. allosteric citalopram-binding site: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 69 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  4. atp-binding site lesions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 107 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  5. agnostic splice site: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 279 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  6. agent dumping site: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 357 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  7. adenine dinucleotide-binding site: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 43 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  8. Model Estimates of the Contributions of Environmental Tobacco Smoke to Volatile Organic Compound Exposures in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisey, J.M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vinyl ketone 2,3-Butadione Acrolein Limonene 1,3-Butadieneconcentrations for for acrolein, acetaldehyde and 1,3-

  9. HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: A SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE WITH CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS, FY 78 FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeRoos, R.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ESTIMATED LITERS/NONTH TLV (EEm) NIOSH ACGIH ACGIH ACGIHPainters - Solvent TLV (EEm) ACGIH Vinyl Chloride (Monomer)

  10. Highly Enantioselective Syntheses of Functionalized r-Methylene--butyrolactones via Rh(I)-catalyzed Intramolecular Alder Ene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xumu

    the utility of our methodology, we introduced various functional groups at the allylic position (Table 3). If R2 is an acetyl group, the desired product is a vinyl acetate-substituted -lactone. If R2 is an alkyl group, a vinyl ether is the corresponding product. Due to the wide applications of vinyl acetates

  11. Antithrombogenic and antibiotic compositions and methods of preparation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hermes, R.E.

    1988-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Antithrombogenic and antibiotic composition of matter and method of preparation thereof. A random copolymer of a component of garlic and a biocompatible polymer has been prepared and found to exhibit antithrombogenic and antibiotic properties. Polymerization occurs selectively at the vinyl moiety in 2-vinyl-4H-1,3-dithiin when copolymerized with N-vinyl pyrrolidone. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Antithrombogenic and antibiotic composition and methods of preparation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hermes, R.E.

    1990-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Antithrombogenic and antibiotic composition of matter and method of preparation are disclosed. A random copolymer of a component of garlic and a biocompatible polymer has been prepared and found to exhibit antithrombogenic and antibiotic properties. Polymerization occurs selectively at the vinyl moiety in 2-vinyl-4H-1,3-dithiin when copolymerized with N-vinyl pyrrolidone. 4 figs.

  13. Northern Tool + Equipment Find the Right Fitting for Your Pressure Washer at Northern Tool! NorthernTool.com/PressureWashers Pristine Pressure Pressure/power washing in Maryland Vinyl siding cleaned, decks cleaned www.pristinepressure.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    and microchips; and poor construction -- from shipbuilding to space shuttles -- since dirty surfaces do not bond.LifeIonizers.com/Alkaline-Water... Braun® Official Site Braun® Series Premium Shavers. Try Risk Free: Money Back Guaranteed. www

  14. Observation and Nature of Non-statistical Dynamic Effects in Ordinary Organic Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quijano, Larisa Mae Mangaliman 1984-

    2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    of vinyl ethers. Ozonolysis of a homologous series of vinyl ethers in solution exhibit experimental product ratios wherein the selectivity among cleavage pathways increases with the size of the alkyl group to an extent that is far less than RRKM theory.... DYNAMIC EFFECTS ON PRODUCT SELECTIVITY IN OZONOLYSIS REACTIONS OF VINYL ETHERS ??????????? 12 2.1 Introduction ???????????????????????... 12 2.2 Design of Experiment and Experimental Results ?????????.. 13 2.3 NMR Peak Assignments...

  15. Specimen-Specific Method for Quantifying Glenohumeral Joint Kinematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Yeon Soo; Lee, Thay Q.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    poly- vinyl chloride (PVC) cylinder using screws and plasteraxial center line of the PVC pipe was matched to thewas determined with two PVC cylinder circumferences formed

  16. Techniques and Technologies for Field Detection of Asbestos Containing Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Asbestos has been used in numerous applications at DOE sites including sprayed-on fireproofing, asphalt and vinyl floor tile, and asbestos-cement(transite) siding.

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - asymmetric hetero-diels-alder reactions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Correction Paper No. b927076k Summary: . The classic hetero-Diels Alder reaction of acrolein with methyl vinyl ketone (Scheme 3) was examined in great... is unsymmetrically...

  18. Focused Safety Management Evaluation of the Oak Ridge National...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    permit (RWP) did not prescribe adequate personal protective equipment, monitoring, or tooling for ALARA considerations (i.e., leaded vinyl gloves, extremity dosimetry, andor...

  19. acetal benzoic acids: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blend. Inthe present investigation, densities and viscosities have been measured in 4 % solution of polyAcrylic Acid and Poly vinyl Acetate in DMSO using calculated and reduced...

  20. acetic acid allyl: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blend. Inthe present investigation, densities and viscosities have been measured in 4 % solution of polyAcrylic Acid and Poly vinyl Acetate in DMSO using calculated and reduced...

  1. acetic acid cyano: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blend. Inthe present investigation, densities and viscosities have been measured in 4 % solution of polyAcrylic Acid and Poly vinyl Acetate in DMSO using calculated and reduced...

  2. acetic acid injection: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blend. Inthe present investigation, densities and viscosities have been measured in 4 % solution of polyAcrylic Acid and Poly vinyl Acetate in DMSO using calculated and reduced...

  3. acetic acid esters: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blend. Inthe present investigation, densities and viscosities have been measured in 4 % solution of polyAcrylic Acid and Poly vinyl Acetate in DMSO using calculated and reduced...

  4. acetic acids: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blend. Inthe present investigation, densities and viscosities have been measured in 4 % solution of polyAcrylic Acid and Poly vinyl Acetate in DMSO using calculated and reduced...

  5. acetic acid exemption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blend. Inthe present investigation, densities and viscosities have been measured in 4 % solution of polyAcrylic Acid and Poly vinyl Acetate in DMSO using calculated and reduced...

  6. acetic acid bacterium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blend. Inthe present investigation, densities and viscosities have been measured in 4 % solution of polyAcrylic Acid and Poly vinyl Acetate in DMSO using calculated and reduced...

  7. acetic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blend. Inthe present investigation, densities and viscosities have been measured in 4 % solution of polyAcrylic Acid and Poly vinyl Acetate in DMSO using calculated and reduced...

  8. acetic acid ability: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blend. Inthe present investigation, densities and viscosities have been measured in 4 % solution of polyAcrylic Acid and Poly vinyl Acetate in DMSO using calculated and reduced...

  9. acetic acid trichloro: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blend. Inthe present investigation, densities and viscosities have been measured in 4 % solution of polyAcrylic Acid and Poly vinyl Acetate in DMSO using calculated and reduced...

  10. acetate sedimentation concentration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blend. Inthe present investigation, densities and viscosities have been measured in 4 % solution of polyAcrylic Acid and Poly vinyl Acetate in DMSO using calculated and reduced...

  11. Novel mixed organoboranes for the reductive alkylation of p-benzoquinone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hincapié, Gloria

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with methyl vinyl ketone or acrolein 20 was found to beWhen this is reacted with acrolein, 15% of the product is 4-

  12. Laboratory Hazard Assessment Questionnaire EH&S is available to assist with the recognition, evaluation and control of laboratory hazards. This form is to be used to help evaluate possible hazards reported by members of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    Chloroform Chromium (VI) Ethylene oxide Formaldehyde Isoflurane Lead Mercury Acrylonitrile Crystalline silica Methyl methacrylate Methylene chloride Nitrous oxide Vinyl chloride Other Brief Description

  13. Glove Selection Guideline

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    working molten materials. Chemical Resistance Gloves. These gloves may be made of rubber, neoprene, polyvinyl alcohol or vinyl, etc. The gloves protect hands from corrosives,...

  14. Roll Printed Electronics: Development and Scaling of Gravure Printing Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Fuente Vornbrock, Alejandro

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    effect transistors with polyimide gate dielectric layers."methacrylate (PMMA), polyimide (PI), poly(vinyl-alcohol) (styrene, PMMA, and polyimide were the earliest materials to

  15. aldosterone modulates cell: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable Energy Websites Summary: the benefit of using optically superior silicone encapsulant materials over the incumbent ethylene vinyl in the UV region of the solar...

  16. Epoxy Resin-Photopolymer Composites for Volume Timothy J. Trentler, Joel E. Boyd, and Vicki L. Colvin*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epoxy Resin-Photopolymer Composites for Volume Holography Timothy J. Trentler, Joel E. Boyd by mixing photopo- lymerizable vinyl monomers with a liquid epoxy resin and an amine hardener. A solid matrix is formed in situ as the epoxy cures at room temperature. The unreacted vinyl monomers

  17. N-Heterocyclic Carbene Metal Complexes: Synthesis, Kinetics, Reactivity, and Recycling With Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Haw-Lih

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Page Polymer-supported Vinyl Ethers as Sequestrants for Metathesis Catalysts ......................................................................................... 68 Conclusion...-supported scavenger and (b) an insoluble resin to support scavenger ...................................................... 70 17 The reaction between PIB vinyl ether 47 and 2nd generation Grubbs catalyst 18 was monitored with 1H NMR spectroscopy...

  18. Electrophilic Metal Alkyl Chemistry in New Ligand Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, Richard F. [University of Chicago] University of Chicago

    2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of this project were to design new electrophilic metal alkyl complexes and to exploit these systems in fundamental studies of olefin polymerization and other important and new catalytic reactions. A key target reaction is insertion copolymerization of olefins and polar CH2=CHX vinyl monomers such as vinyl halides and vinyl ethers. During the period covered by this report we (i) investigated the properties of ortho-alkoxy-arylphosphine ligands in Ni-based olefin polymerization catalysts, (ii) studied the synthesis of double-end-capped polyethylene using group 4 metal catalysts that contain tris-pyrazolylborate ligands, (iii) explored the ethylene insertion reactivity of group 4 metal tris-pyrazolyl-borate complexes, (iv) showed that (?-diimine)PdMe{sup +} species undergo multiple insertion of silyl vinyl ethers, (v) synthesized and explored the reactivity of base-free Ni benzyl complexes that contain ortho-phosphino-arene sulfonate ligands, (vi) established the mechanism of the reaction of vinyl chloride with (?-diimine)PdMe{sup +} catalysts, (vii) explored the role of cationic polymerization and insertion chemistry in the reactions of vinyl ethers with (?-diimine)PdMe{sup +} species, (viii) discovered a new class of self-assembled tetranuclear Pd catalysts that produce high molecular weight linear polyethylene and copolymerize ethylene and vinyl fluoride, and (ix) developed model systems that enabled investigation of cis-trans isomerization of {phosphine-sulfonate}Pd(II) complexes.

  19. RECORDINGS OF THE CHAPEL CHOIR OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE This is a list of recordings made by the Choir under the direction of Richard Marlow, and issued on vinyl LP and/or cassette tape. It also includes two recordings of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lasenby, Joan

    RECORDINGS OF THE CHAPEL CHOIR OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE This is a list of recordings made by Richard Marlow on the new Metzler organ in Trinity Chapel. Includes Toccata, Adagio and Fugue in C Parry's 'Songs of Farewell', together with Stanford's three motets written for Trinity and his double

  20. Effect in the KHT sarcoma of CCNU and MISO on cell cycle progression evaluated by flow-cytometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, S.A.; Bauer, K.D.; Keng, P.C.; Siemann, D.W.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous studies using the KHT sarcoma have shown that misonidazole (MISO) enhances the cytotoxicity of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU) by as much as a factor of 2.0. In the present study flow cytometry was used to monitor the changing DNA distributions of cells dissociated from solid tumors at successive times following treatment with CCNU, applied either alone or in combination with 0.5 mg/g MISO. The proportion of cells in late S and the G/sub 2/M phases of the cell cycle increased gradually after CCNU treatment. MISO did not significantly change this block in cell progression, which persisted for at least 48 hr after treatment in all cases. CCNU shows marked carbamoylating activity, which has been associated with inhibition of RNA processing and with the degree of chemopotentiation achieved with MISO. By 24 hr after treatment, CCNU clearly altered the distribution of RNA, but no significant differences could be detected between results obtained from drug and drug plus sensitizer treated groups. These studies demonstrate the effect of CCNU on cell cycle progression in vivo. The addition of MISO did not result in further perturbation of the total tumor population, suggesting that cell cycle redistribution does not play a major role in chemopotentiation by MISO.

  1. Survival in subpopulations of cells derived from solid KHT sarcomas by centrifugal elutriation following treatment with CCNU and MISO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, S.A.; Keng, P.C.; Siemann, D.W.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Misonidazole (MISO) has been shown to enhance the cytotoxicity of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU) in a number of different animal tumor systems. The authors have investigated the response to therapy of the various subpopulations of cells comprising the KHT sarcoma, to determine whether chemopotentiation occurred as a preferential enhancement of killing in one subpopulation of cells. Twenty-four hr after drug treatment, cells dissociated from solid tumors were separated into homogeneous populations based on cell size by the technique of centrifugal elutriation. Clonogenic cell survival was measured for each elutriated fraction. In vivo treatment with MISO produced no measurable cell-kill across the cell cycle. Those cells in late G/sub 1/ and S phase 24 hr after treatment were most sensitive to CCNU alone. The enhancement of CCNU cytotoxicity by MISO occurred primarily in the early G/sub 1/ and S fractions. These data suggest that chemopotentiation does not occur equally in all tumor cell subpopulations and that some specificity of enhanced cell killing exists.

  2. Enhanced tumor responses through therapies combining CCNU, MISO and radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siemann, D.W.; Hill, S.A.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies were performed to determine whether the radiation sensitizer misonidazole (MISO) could enhance the tumor control probability in a treatment strategy combining radiation and the nitrosourea 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU). In initial experiments KHT sarcoma-bearing mice were injected with 1.0 mg/g of MISO simultaneously with a 20 mg/kg dose of CCNU 30-40 min prior to irradiation (1500 rad). With this treatment protocol approximately 60% of the mice were found to be tumor-free 100 days post treatment. By comparison all 2 agent combinations led to 0% cures. To evaluate the relative importance of chemopotentiation versus radiosensitization in the 3 agent protocol, tumors were treated with MISO plus one anti-tumor agent (either radiation of CCNU) and then at times ranging from 0 to 24 hr later exposed to the other agent. When the time between treatments was 0 to 6 hr, a 60 to 80% tumor control rate was achieved for both MISO plus radiation followed by CCNU and MISO plus CCNU followed by radiation. However if the time interval was increased to 18 or 24 hr, the cure rate in the former treatment regimen dropped to 10% while that of the latter remained high at 40%. The data therefore indicate that (1) improved tumor responses may be achieved when MISO is added to a radiation-chemotherapy combination and (2) MISO may be more effective in such a protocol when utilized as a chemopotentiator.

  3. Characterization of Arsenic Contamination on Rust from Ton Containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary S. Groenewold; Recep Avci; Robert V. Fox; Muhammedin Deliorman; Jayson Suo; Laura Kellerman

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The speciation and spatial distribution of arsenic on rusted steel surfaces affects both measurement and removal approaches. The chemistry of arsenic residing in the rust of ton containers that held the chemical warfare agents bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (sulfur mustard) and 2-chlorovinyldichloroarsine (Lewisite) is of particular interest, because while the agents have been decontaminated, residual arsenic could pose a health or environmental risk. The chemistry and distribution of arsenic in rust samples was probed using imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). Arsenic in the +3 and or +5 oxidation state is homogeneously distributed at the very top-most layer of the rust samples, and is intimately associated with iron. Sputter depth profiling followed by SIMS and XPS shows As at a depth of several nm, in some cases in a reduced form. The SEM/EDX experiments show that As is present at a depth of several microns, but is inhomogeneously distributed; most locations contained oxidized As at concentrations of a few percent, however several locations showed very high As in a metallic form. These results indicate that the rust material must be removed if the steel containers are to be cleared of arsenic.

  4. All-Weather Hydrogen Peroxide-Based Decontamination of CBRN Contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, George W.; Procell, Lawrence R.; Sorrick, David C.; Lawson, Glenn E.; Wells, Claire M.; Reynolds, Charles M.; Ringelberg, D. B.; Foley, Karen L.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Blanchard, David L.

    2010-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen peroxide-based decontaminant, Decon Green, is efficacious for the decontamination of chemical agents VX (S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate), GD (Soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and HD (mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide); the biological agent anthrax (Bacillus anthracis); and radiological isotopes Cs-137 and Co-60; thus demonstrating the ability of this decontamination approach to ameliorate the aftermath of all three types of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Reaction mechanisms afforded for the chemical agents are discussed as are rationales for the enhanced removal efficacy of recalcitrant 60Co on certain surfaces. Decontaminants of this nature can be deployed, and are effective, at very low temperatures (-32 ?C), as shown for studies done with VX and HD simulants, without the need for external heat sources. Finally, the efficacy of a lower-logistics, dry decontaminant powder concentrate (utilizing the solid active-oxygen compounds peracetyl borate and Peroxydone) which can be reconstituted with water in the field prior to use, is presented.

  5. Mesoporous titanium-manganese dioxide for sulphur mustard and soman decontamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic)] [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Bludska, Jana [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic)] [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)] [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: {yields} New nano-dispersive materials for warfare agents decontamination. {yields} 95% decontamination activities for sulphur mustard. {yields} New materials base on titanium and manganese oxides. -- Abstract: Titanium(IV)-manganese(IV) nano-dispersed oxides were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and titanium(IV) oxo-sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide. Synthesised samples were characterised using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide) and soman (GD or (3,3'-dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate). Mn{sup 4+} content affects the decontamination activity; with increasing Mn{sup 4+} content the activity increases for sulphur mustard and decreases for soman. The best decontamination activities for sulphur mustard and soman were observed for samples TiMn{sub 3}7 with 18.6 wt.% Mn and TiMn{sub 5} with 2.1 wt.% Mn, respectively.

  6. Zinc oxide nanoparticle-polymeric thin films for dynamic strain sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loh, Kenneth J.; Chang, Donghee

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    onto poly(vinyl chloride) PVC Type I plates (McMaster- Carr)cm wide, and 0.3-cm thick PVC plate. It should be noted thatduring free vibration of the PVC cantilevered beam the CN-Y

  7. INHIBITION EFFECTS ON EXTINCTION OF POLYMER BURNING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitz, W.J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) in N /0 2 mixtures . Thesein comparison to Cl being added to the fuel side of PVC .Impurities in this commercial PVC and PE may have had an

  8. BEESE ET AL. VOL. 7 ' NO. 4 ' 34343446 ' 2013 www.acsnano.org

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    , spinning from CNT aerogel, and twisting or rolling of CNT films, as summarized in a recent review article coating on the surface of the DWNT bundles interacts strongly with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) through

  9. Allyl Sulfides Are Privileged Substrates in Aqueous Cross-Metathesis: Application to Site-Selective Protein Modification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Ben G.

    likely to be compatible with protein disulfides than other conventional catalysts. A simple test a similar "relay effect" of appropriately positioned heteroa- toms in RCM macrocycle synthesis.11 Vinyl

  10. Any correspondence concerning this service should be sent to the repository administrator: staff-oatao@inp-toulouse.fr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailhes, Corinne

    Toulouse, France 3 INEOS - Société Artésienne de Vinyle, Chemin des soldats 62670 Mazingarbe, France Tel.: +33 3 21 72 83 17, E-mail: Thierry.lasuye@ineos.com Abstract: A one-dimensional steady-state model

  11. Expensive Moisture/Insulation System Problems at Several Central Florida and South Texas Nursing Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lotz, W. A.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    where temperaturs reach 150° F. increases condensation due to inadequate details in mechanical insulation on ducts and pipes Vinyl wall covering is well known to be a disaster in this climate but interior decorators continue to specify it on various...

  12. A MILD OXIDJ.TION OF ALDEHYDES TO ir,B-LMATURATEU ALDEHYDES David K. Willm~s"' and Klyoshl Nishltani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, David R.

    led to mixtures. - Notably enol acetates and ethers have been recognized as excellent substrates-hydroxy selenldes which are conven- iently transformed into vinyl selenides, epoxldes, olefins, and allylic alcohols

  13. eddy on the Georgia continental shelf, April, 1977. Deep-MENZIES, R., AND W KRUCZYNSKI.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    maladies? Worms, germs and other sym- bionts from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Blossman Print. Co., Inc from either hardware or plumbing supply houses and are interconnected using poly- vinyl chloride (PVC

  14. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study 2013: Transformation, Inc...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0.21 and solar heat gain coefficients of 0.19. All exterior doors are insulated vinyl panel doors. Air leakage testing was conducted and showed that the home had a very air-tight...

  15. Direct synthesis of pyridine and pyrimidine derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Matthew D. (Matthew Dennis)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I. Synthesis of Substituted Pyridine Derivatives via the Ruthenium-Catalyzed Cycloisomerization of 3-Azadienynes. The two-step conversion of various N-vinyl and N-aryl amides to the corresponding substituted pyridines and ...

  16. Mohamed, Tarek Said. Fabrication and Behavior of Three-Dimensionally Woven Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Bridge Deck. (Under the direction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    deck. The use of epoxy resin versus vinyl ester resin in the fabrication process was examined a textile machine and resin infusion process. The research investigated the mechanical properties of 3-D

  17. ambipolar nanotube field: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in All-Carbon-Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors by Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Coating Materials Science Websites Summary: Ambipolar Behavior in All-Carbon-Nanotube Field-Effect...

  18. GENERAL SUPPLIES Required Optional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    HB H F 2H 3H Vinyl Gloves Other CHEMISTRY Stealth Safety Goggles MUSIC Col-erase Pencil (specifyNumber Professor EstimatedEnrollment DateSignature Specialized Course Materials Adoption Form FAX: (905) 572

  19. Comparison of QM-Only and QM/MM Models for the Mechanism of Tungsten-Dependent Acetylene Hydratase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liao, Rongzhen

    Comparison of QM-Only and QM/MM Models for the Mechanism of Tungsten-Dependent Acetylene Hydratase study on the formation of vinyl alcohol in the catalytic cycle of tungsten-dependent acetylene hydratase

  20. The development of palladium-catalysts for organic synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinelli, Joseph R

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 1. Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions of aryl and heteroaryl halides with aryl-, heteroaryl and vinyl boronic acids proceed in very good to excellent yield with the use of 2-(2',6'-dimethoxybiphenyl)-dicyclohexylphosphine, ...

  1. This article was published in an Elsevier journal. The attached copy is furnished to the author for non-commercial research and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkataraman, Dhandapani "DV"

    and distribution, or selling or licensing copies, or posting to personal, institutional or third party websites,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane). Although reactions of phenyl vinyl sulfoxide were complicated

  2. About Ply Gem Headquartered in Cary, North Carolina, Ply Gem is a leading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    . After expanding into wood paneling and vacuum bags, Ply Gem's next big move was to aluminum and vinyl to increase energy efficiency, including its low-energy windows and insulated siding. Community

  3. affect dielectric membrane: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    how relaxation dynamics of a poly-vinyl-acetate ultra-thin film is influenced by inorganic nano-inclusions of a layered silicate (montmorillonite). Dielectric loss spectra are...

  4. Cathodic disbondment resistance with reactive ethylene terpolymer blends and composite coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Love, Corey T.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EPDM EVA ethylene vinyl acetate FBE fusion-bonded epoxy GMACoating Thickness on FBE ………………. Figure 7.13: NormalizedWhen XANES was applied to FBE-coated iron, the cathodically

  5. EAST CAROLINA UNIVERSITY HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL USE GRANT REVIEW FORM ECU policy requires that all grant proposals involving the use of hazardous chemicals be reviewed by an institutional review committee or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -benezene 4-Aminodiphenyl Asbestos Coal tar pitch volatiles Methyl chloromethyl ether Formaldehyde Vinyl chloride Coke oven emissions 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane Lead Cadmium Benzene Cotton dust Chromium VI

  6. Green chemistry : dense carbon dioxide and water as environmentally benign reaction media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Andrew J. (Andrew John), 1978-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) was investigated in scCO?, and the cycloaddition between cyclopentadiene and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) was studied in an scCO?/liquid water environment. Nitrogen chemistry, specifically the synthesis of nitrogen ...

  7. An analysis of residential window waterproofing systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parsons, Austin, 1959-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The prevalence of vinyl nail-on windows in the North American new home construction market has prompted ASTM International to write ASTM E2112-01 "Standard Practice for Installation of Exterior Windows, Doors and Skylights". ...

  8. Syntheses and applications of soluble polyisobutylene (PIB)-supported transition metal catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Jianhua

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    catalysts using liquid/liquid biphasic separations after a homogeneous reaction. Our work has shown that PIB-supported Ni(II) and Co(II) ?-diketonates prepared from commercially available vinyl terminated PIB oligomers possess catalytic activity like...

  9. A Versatile Catalyst System for Suzuki?Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reactions of C(sp[superscript 2])-Tosylates and Mesylates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhayana, Brijesh

    A catalyst system for the Suzuki?Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of aryl and vinyl tosylates and mesylates has been developed. This catalyst displays excellent functional group tolerance and allows the coupling of ...

  10. Asymmetric Hydrogenations of Chiral Acyclic Alkenes for Important Chiron Syntheses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Ye

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    -?-hydroxy-?-methyl chiron, ?-methyl- ?-alkyl-?-amino acid can be obtained with high stereoselectivities. With those well- developed methodologies, (-)-dihydromyoporone, (-)-spongidepsin, (-)-invictolide have been prepared with high effiency. Not like the vinyl acetate...

  11. Next-generation sequencing reveals the biological significance of the N[superscript 2],3-ethenoguanine lesion in vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Shiou-chi

    Etheno DNA adducts are a prevalent type of DNA damage caused by vinyl chloride (VC) exposure and oxidative stress. Etheno adducts are mutagenic and may contribute to the initiation of several pathologies; thus, elucidating ...

  12. Accelerated Wear Tests on Common Floor-covering Materials.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, B. R.; Kunze, O. R.; Hobgood, Price.

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    *'r** qd** ""~c- web*- !,* . flccelerated Wear Tests e" f loor-couering materials AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. D. LEWIS, DIRECTOR, COLLEGE STATION. TEXAS SUMMARY I .. - " : 5: Accelerated wear tests made on six common floor covering... materials indicated there are variations in the changes of appearance and wear in these materials. Solid sheet vinyls and rubber tiles showed significantly less wear than asphalt tiles, vinyl- asbestos tiles, linoleums and cork. Asphalt tiles showed...

  13. Nonaqueous composition for slip casting or cold forming refractory material into solid shapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montgomery, L.C.

    1993-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition is described for slip casting or cold forming non-oxide refractory material(s) into solid shape comprising finely divided solid refractory materials selected from the group consisting of metal boride, refractory carbide, nitride, silicide and a refractory metal of tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum and chromium suspended in a nonaqueous liquid slip composition consisting essentially of a deflocculent composed of a vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate resin dissolved in an organic solvent.

  14. Repair of O sup 6 -ethylguanine in DNA protects rat 208F cells from tumorigenic conversion by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomale, J.; Huh, Namho; Nehls, P.; Eberle, G.; Rajewsky, M.F. (Univ. of Essen Medical School (West Germany))

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    O{sup 6}-Ethylguanine (O{sup 6}-EtGua) is one of about a dozen different alkylation products formed in the DNA of cells exposed to the alkylating N-nitroso carcinogen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNU). The authors have evaluated selectively the relative capacity of cells for the specific enzymatic repair of O{sup 6}-EtGua as a determinant for the probability of malignant conversion. Eleven O{sup 6}-EtGua-repair-proficient (R{sup +}) variant subclones were isolated from the O{sup 6}-EtGua-repair-deficient (R{sup {minus}}) clonal rat fibroblast line 208F by selection for resistance to 1,3-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea. Contrary to the 208F wild-type cells, all variants expressed O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity, while both kinds of cells were deficient for repair of the DNA ethylation products O{sup 2}- and O{sup 4}-ethylthymine. After exposure to EtNU cells were analyzed for the formation of piled-up foci in monolayer culture and of anchorage-independent colonies in semisolid agar medium. No significant differences in the frequencies of piled-up foci were found between wild-type and variant cells after exposure to the major reactive metabolite of benzo(a)pyrene, (+)-7{beta},8{alpha}-dihydroxy-9,10{alpha}-epoxy7,8,9,10{alpha}-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene, for which stable binding to guanine O{sup 6} in cellular DNA has not been observed. The relative capacity of cells for repair of O{sup 6}-alkylguanine is, therefore, a critical determinant for their risk of malignant conversion by N-nitroso carcinogens.

  15. Method for making carbon films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, M.X.

    1999-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area ([approx equal]1000 m[sup 2] /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160 C for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750 C in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750--850 C for between 1--6 hours. 2 figs.

  16. Radionuclides in the terrestrial ecosystem near a Canadian uranium mill -- Part 3: Atmospheric deposition rates (pilot test)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, P.A.

    2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric deposition rates of uranium series radionuclides were directly measured at three sites near the operating Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan. Sites impacted by windblown tailings and mill dusts had elevated rates of uranium deposition near the mill and elevated {sup 226}Ra deposition near the tailings compared to a control site. Rainwater collectors, dust jars, and passive vinyl collectors previously used at the Ranger Mine in Australia were pilot-tested. Adhesive vinyl surfaces (1 m{sup 2}) were oriented horizontally, vertically, and facing the ground as a means of measuring gravitational settling, wind impaction, and soil resuspension, respectively. Although the adhesive glue on the vinyls proved difficult to digest, relative differences in deposition mode were found among radionuclides and among sites. Dry deposition was a more important transport mechanism for uranium, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb than rainfall, while more {sup 210}Po was deposited with rainfall.

  17. Incorporation of radiohalogens via versatile organometallic reactions: applications in radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, P.C.; Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Factors that must be considered for the design of radiohalogenated radio-pharmaceuticals include the stability and availability of the substrate, the physical half-life of the radiohalogen and the in vivo stability of the radiolabel. Vinyl and phenyl radiohalogen bonds show more in vivo stability than the alkyl radiohalogen bonds. Consequently, a variety of methods suitable for the synthesis of tissue specific radiopharmaceuticals bearing a vinyl or phenyl radiohalogen have been developed involving the synthesis and halogenation of metallovinyl and phenyl intermediates. The halogens and metallation reactions include iodine and bromine and alanation, boronation, mercuration, stannylation, and thallation, respectively. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. In-situ stabilization of radioactive zirconium swarf

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hess, C.C.

    1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The method for treating ignitable cutting swarf in accordance with the present invention involves collecting cutting swarf in a casting mold underwater and injecting a binder mixture comprising vinyl ester styrene into the vessel to fill void volume; and form a mixture comprising swarf and vinyl ester styrene; and curing the mixture. The method is especially useful for stabilizing the ignitable characteristics of radioactive zirconium cutting swarf, and can be used to solidify zirconium swarf, or other ignitable finely divided material, underwater. The process could also be performed out of water with other particulate wastes. 6 figs.

  19. Synthesis of Dihydrobenzofurans via Palladium-Catalyzed Heteroannulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roman Vladimirovich Rozhkov

    2004-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Palladium-catalyzed heteroannulation of 1,3-dienes with 3-iodo-2-alkenols, and 2-iodo-2-alkenols, as well as their amino analogs, affords the corresponding cyclic ethers and amines respectively. The presence of a {beta}-hydrogen in the vinylic halide results in {beta}-hydride elimination giving the corresponding alkyne. The presence of a bulky group in the {alpha}-position of the vinylic halide results in failure or reduced amounts of annulation products. A chloride source, pyridine base and electron-rich phosphine are essential for this reaction.

  20. Electronic effects in the Diels-Alder reactions of vinylboranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Jose Vernon

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    &H NMR spectrum of the oxidized products in the competitive reaction of 4a and 4b with vinyl-9-BBN 10 tH NMR spectrum of the oxidized products in the competitive reaction of 4b and 4c with vinyl-9-BBN 11 tH NMR spectrum of trivinylborane. 12 t...~C NMR spectrum of trivinylborane . 13 Plot of the reaction ratio versus time 17 21 22 26 27 in the reaction of 4a with trivinylborane 31 LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) 14 Plot of the reaction ratio versus time in the reaction of cyclopentadiene...

  1. Synthesis of selected aminohexanols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stout, Jack Lynn

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -hexanol 2- a min o - 3-he xano1 The previously unreported 5-amino-2-hexanol was prepared in a three step synthesis. Nitroethane in ether was treated with methyl vinyl ketone in the presence of a catalytic amount of Triton 9 B to give 5-nitro-2.... For the synthesis of the previously unreported 6-amino-3- hexanol a procedure similar to that required for 5-amino-2-hexanol r was used. A large excess of nitromethane in ether was treated with ethyl vinyl ketone in the pr'esence of a catalytic amount of Triton...

  2. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Peramunage, D.

    1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiCoO{sub 2}, LiNiO{sub 2} and LiV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and their derivatives. 5 figs.

  3. An investigation in the wake of a symmetric airfoil with riblets at zero angle of attack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caram, Jose Miguel

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the test section. The vertical and longitudinal a. ) b. ) c. ) Fig. 4 Riblet micrographerc a). 0229 mm, b). 076 mm, and c). 152 mm. 14 TSI l lot Film X Probe Moda No. 124 t. 20 Serial No. 7274 A. A Lab Systems- 1 sr rei , ' l lull t... with three different riblet sizes at freestream Reynolds numbers of 2. 5 x 10 and 5. 0 x 10 . The riblets were the vinyl symmetric v-grooved type of heights . 0229, . 076, and . 152 mm, respectively. The clean airfoil and the airfoil with a vinyl base...

  4. Separation of gases through gas enrichment membrane composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swedo, R.J.; Kurek, P.R.

    1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film composite membranes having as a permselective layer a film of a homopolymer of certain vinyl alkyl ethers are useful in the separation of various gases. Such homopolymers have a molecular weight of greater than 30,000 and the alkyl group of the vinyl alkyl monomer has from 4 to 20 carbon atoms with branching within the alkyl moiety at least at the carbon atom bonded to the ether oxygen or at the next adjacent carbon atom. These membranes show excellent hydrolytic stability, especially in the presence of acidic or basic gaseous components.

  5. Separation of gases through gas enrichment membrane composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swedo, Raymond J. (Mt. Prospect, IL); Kurek, Paul R. (Schaumburg, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film composite membranes having as a permselective layer a film of a homopolymer of certain vinyl alkyl ethers are useful in the separation of various gases. Such homopolymers have a molecular weight of greater than 30,000 and the alkyl group of the vinyl alkyl monomer has from 4 to 20 carbon atoms with branching within the alkyl moiety at least at the carbon atom bonded to the ether oxygen or at the next adjacent carbon atom. These membranes show excellent hydrolytic stability, especially in the presence of acidic or basic gaseous components.

  6. Composites: Part B 41 (2010) 8693 86 Analysis of flexural properties of hollow-particle filled composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    Composites: Part B 41 (2010) 86­93 86 Analysis of flexural properties of hollow-particle filled composites G. Tagliavia, M. Porfiri1 , and N. Gupta Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering properties of vinyl ester-glass hollow-particle filled composites, which are used in marine applications

  7. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Bryan Major, Frederick Lee, Ibnul Hussain, Peter Wittstock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Ibnul Hussain, Peter Wittstock An Investigation Into Alternatives to PVC Flooring Vinyl Chloride (PVC) within UBC buildings. PVC has been a common choice for flooring material around the years it has become more apparent that PVC is not the miracle material it was hailed as. We now know

  8. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C3, supplement au n6, Tome 44, juin 1983 page C3-701

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DECOMPOSED PVC G. Vancso, T.T. Nagy, B. Turcsanyi, T. Kelen and F. Tiidos Central Research Institute in thermally decomposed poly(vinyl chloride), PVC. Experimental - Ongrovil S 470, a suspension polymerized PVC powder (Borsod Chemical Works, Hungary), was used for preparation of the samples. PVC powder was degraded

  9. Polymerizable 2(2-hydroxynaphthyl)2H-benzotriazole compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gomez, P.M.; Neidlinger, H.H.

    1991-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Benzotriazole compounds having the formula: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is H, Cl, or OCH.sub.3 ; R.sub.2 is a hydroxynaphthyl group; and R.sub.3 is a vinyl unsaturated polymerizable group. Homopolymers or copolymers thereof are effective as UV light stabilizers and absorbers.

  10. High temperature polymer concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Reams, W.

    1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is concerned with a polymer concrete composition, which is a two-component composition useful with many bases including metal. Component A, the aggregate composition, is broadly composed of silica, silica flour, portland cement, and acrylamide, whereas Component B, which is primarily vinyl and acrylyl reactive monomers, is a liquid system.

  11. MATURITY, SEX RATIO, AND SIZE COMPOSITION OF THE NATURAL POPULATION OF AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS A MERICANUS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The following types of gear were used: (1) rectangular vinyl-coated lobster traps (1- X 2-inch and 1- X 1-inch supplemental data were obtained for our maturity studies. Of the aforementioned types of gear, consid- erably Whaler.' Sub- sequently, only 67 (2.6 %) of 2,582 lobsters were captured with the other types of gear

  12. Enhanced biodegradation of phenol by a microbial consortium in a solidliquid two phase partitioning bioreactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugulis, Andrew J.

    partitioning bioreactor George P. Prpich & Andrew J. Daugulis* Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen@chee.queensu.ca) Accepted 10 August 2004 Key words: biodegradation, bioreactor, ethylene vinyl acetate, microbial consortium, phenol Abstract Two phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPBs) operate by partitioning toxic substrates

  13. An Analysis of a Spreader Bar Crane Mounted Gamma-Ray Radiation Detection System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grypp, Matthew D

    2013-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    photoelectric effect PMT photomultiplier tube PNNL Pacific Northwest National Laboratory viii PoT Port of Tacoma PVT poly-vinyl toluene R resolution RT real time RPM radiation portal monitor s second SBC spreader.... LITERATURE REVIEW ......................................................................................... 9 3.1 Radiation Portal Monitors ............................................................................ 9 3.2 General Areas...

  14. SCINTILLATOR DIAGNOSTICS FOR THE DETECTION OF LASER ACCELERATED ION BEAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    (Chromox), CsI:Tl, and polyvinyl toluene (PVT) screens to protons in the 2 - 8 MeV range using a CCD camera resolution to determine bunch size, and should be relatively inexpensive and robust when exposed to high is a low Z organic compound com- prised of covalently bonded vinyl toluene chains, and as such it is easily

  15. Synthesis and characterization of reactive PEOPMCL polymersomes Matthew A. Petersen, Ligeng Yin, Efrosini Kokkoli and Marc A. Hillmyer*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kokkoli, Efie

    as a balance between energy associated with core chain stretching, corona chain repulsion and interfacial polymersomes containing the vinyl sulfone electrophile at the poly(ethylene oxide) corona terminus. Following tension between core blocks and solvent.3,4 Varying block lengths adjusts this balance and results

  16. RIKEN Advanced Science Institute 2011-2012 Working beyond disciplinary, organizational and national boundaries026 027 R Staff scientist P Postdoctoral fellow J Student trainee T Technical staff O Assistant, visiting staff, and others

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fukai, Tomoki

    , 10, 805. Core Members R Masahiro Fujita, Tomohiro Hiraishi, Kazuo Hosokawa, Kazunari Ozasa, Tohru nanoparticles with a nanometer-sized vinyl polymer core or a colloidal gold core surrounded by a single-stranded DNA corona. The DNA nanoparticles disperse completely in an aqueous medium due to electrostatic

  17. J. Am. Chem. SOC.1992, 114, 4265-4268 4265 allyl alcohol vs that of acrolein). Alternatively, one could argue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helgaker, Trygve

    J. Am. Chem. SOC.1992, 114, 4265-4268 4265 allyl alcohol vs that of acrolein). Alternatively, one could argue that acrolein liberates vinyl groups and allyl alcohol liberates acetylene; the former would The principal influences of the C = C group of allyl alcohol and acrolein are on the bonding configuration

  18. Carbon-Oxygen Bond Activation in Esters by Platinum(0): Cleavage of the Less Reactive Bond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    esters in the presence of trialkylphosphines to give -allyl addition products.2 Acetate and benzoate-O oxidative addition to give -allyl products. Vinyl esters (acetate and benzoate) were also reported of the solution. Reaction with Allyl Acetate. Treatment of 1 with 10 equiv of allyl acetate in p-xylene-d10 at 160

  19. ARIZONA COOPERATIVE FISH AND WILDLIFE RESEARCH UNIT SEPTEMBER 2005 TTrraannssppoorrtt aanndd CCaarree ooff SSmmaallll

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonar, Scott A.

    into the #12;field, drill a hole through the lid of the cooler for vinyl aquarium tubing to pass through-iodized salt and Stresscoat® 2 prior to adding fish. We used 0.6% salt solution for transport. Fish tolerate

  20. Glass Transition in Ultrathin Polymer Films: Calorimetric Study Mikhail Yu. Efremov, Eric A. Olson, Ming Zhang, Zishu Zhang, and Leslie H. Allen*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Leslie H.

    Glass Transition in Ultrathin Polymer Films: Calorimetric Study Mikhail Yu. Efremov, Eric A. Olson is used to observe the glass transition in thin (1­400 nm) spin-cast films of polystyrene, poly (2-vinyl pyridine) and poly (methyl methacrylate) on a platinum surface. A pronounced glass transition is observed

  1. Catalytic studies of supported Pd-Au catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boopalachandran, Praveenkumar

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    . This surface modification is an important factor in the altered reaction kinetics for vinyl acetate (VA) synthesis and CO oxidation reactions. Promoted and unpromoted Pd-Au/SiO2/K+ catalyst were used for VA synthesis and the effect of pre-adsorbed O2, acetic...

  2. (N-heterocyclic-carbene)Copper(I)-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond formation using carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sirokman, Gergely

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents work towards the development of a new catalytic C-C bond forming reaction. Alkynes and olefins insert into [(IPr)CuH]2 (IPr = N,N-bis-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-1,3-imidazol-2-ylidene) to give copper vinyl ...

  3. Thermochemical study of liquid and solid organosilicon compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voronkov, M.G.; Klyuchnikov, V.A.; Danilova, T.F.; Korchagina, A.N.; Baryshok, V.P.; Landa, L.M.

    1987-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Simple and reliable methods of combustion of liquid and solid organosilicon compounds which ensure a high degree of completeness of combustion were proposed. The standard enthalpies of combustion and formation of 11 tetraalkyl(vinyl)silanes and 15 silatranes were determined.

  4. The effect of a carbon-nanotube forest-mat strike face on the ballistic-protection performance of E-glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    . Keywords: vinyl ester epoxy, carbon nanotubes, composite materials, armour 1 INTRODUCTION Recent efforts on the in-plane and the through-the-thickness properties of fibre-mat/polymer-matrix composite materials-weight materials development and multi-functional integration of armour. The earliest reports of composite light

  5. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN); Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  6. Radioiodinated glucose analogues for use as imaging agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN); Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  7. Treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders using GVG

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to the use of gamma vinyl-GABA (GVG) to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders, and to reduce or eliminate behaviors associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders.

  8. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of fluoropolymer coatings for the surface modification of complex geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Malancha, 1980-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a one-step, soventless process that can be used to produce polymeric thin films. The iCVD technique has been used to polymerize a wide variety of vinyl monomers such as glycidyl ...

  9. Analysis of 2x2 braided composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goyal, Deepak

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    parametric studies were conducted for two material systems: 1). Glass (S2) fiber / epoxy (SC-15) matrix and 2). Carbon (AS4) fiber / Vinyl Ester (411-350) matrix. Equivalent laminated materials with angle plies and a resin layer were also analyzed to compare...

  10. oceanservice.noaa.gov Activity 6: I Didn't Do It...Did I?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    plastic drinking water bottles, about 500 ml (1 pt) capacity 1 ­Vinyl tubing, about 3 mm (1/8 in) inside to use the scratch awl to punch a hole in the caps of the drinking water bottles. The holes in two large enough to fit the plastic tubing. Ask your partner to also punch a hole in the side of one

  11. Soluble Synthetic Analogs of Malaria Pigment: Structure of Mesohematin Anhydride [FeIII(MP-IX)]2 and Solution Interaction with Chloroquine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D Bohle; E Dodd; A Kosar; L Sharma; P Stephens; L Suarez; D Tazoo

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Changing the vinyl groups of hematin anhydride to either ethyl or hydrogen groups results in increased solubility (Por=porphyrin). Determination of the weak binding constants of the antimalarial drug chloroquine to dimers of these hematin anhydride analogues suggests that solution-phase heme/drug interactions alone are unlikely to be the origin of the action of the drug.

  12. Measure Your Sew - How: Thread Tips.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vanderpoorten, Ann

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -9 14/85-90 fabrics, double knits, gabardine, terry cloth, T-shirt knits, denim, synthetic suedes Heavy weight denim, quilted, coatings, 4-6 16/100 fake fur, sailcloth Vinyl Core-spun 14/85-90 or 1-5 16/100 spun polyester Use polyester buttonhole...

  13. IMPROVED SPECTRAL RESPONSE OF SILICONE ENCAPSULANTED PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IMPROVED SPECTRAL RESPONSE OF SILICONE ENCAPSULANTED PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES Nick E. Powell 1* , Byung the benefit of using optically superior silicone encapsulant materials over the incumbent ethylene vinyl in the UV region of the solar spectrum. Single cell mini-modules were prepared using two different

  14. Synthesis of Mixed Ceramic MgxZn1-xO Nanofibers via Mg2+ Using Sol-Gel Electrospinning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Saad A.

    acetate (MgAc) and zinc acetate (ZnAc) with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), electrospinning is performed and then as- spun nanofibers are calcined in an air atmosphere at 600 °C for 3 h. As-spun and calcined are promising candidates for various usage, from batteries to solar cells and catalysts. Sol-gel electrospinning

  15. California Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research Program Case Study PIER Buildings Program Research Powers the Future www.energy.ca.gov/research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    envelope. The Solution Aeroseal is a cost effective method to seal leaks in ducts; it uses a vinyl polymer adhesive sprayed into the duct as an aerosol. Developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Aeroseal reduce heating and cooling by 20%. Demonstration Results University of California, Davis Aeroseal

  16. The Dalhousie Employee Guide to Materials Management on Campus Look for the 4 system bins around campus designated for recyclables, paper/cardboard, organics and garbage.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    , straws, and dvd cases (garbage) Foams & soft # 6 plastics (garbage) Broken glass (garbage) What belongs cans, liquor/beer containers Milk containers Glass bottles and containers Tin, steel, and aluminum sweepings Broken glass (must be boxed & taped) Disposable gloves (latex, vinyl, etc.) Ceramics Packaging

  17. Prediction of the dynamic response of composite sandwich beams under shock loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleck, Norman A.

    reported measured response of end-clamped sandwich beams, made from face sheets of glass fibre reinforced vinyl ester and a core of PVC foam or balsa wood (Tagarielli V.L., Deshpande V.S. and Fleck N core, such as polymer foams or balsa wood, are extensively employed in marine structures

  18. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Modified Dominant Lethal Study of Sulfur Mustard in Rats Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasser, L. B.; Cushing, J. A.; Kalkwarf, D. R.; Buschbom, R. L.

    1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard (HD) [bis{2-chloroethyl)-sulfide) ' a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Little, however, is known about the mutagenic activity of HD in mammalian species and data regarding the dominant lethal effects of HD are ambiguous. The purpose of this study was to determine the dominant lethal effect in male and female rats orally exposed to HD. The study was conducted in two phases; a female dominant lethal phase and a male dominant lethal phase. Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex were administered 0.08, 0.20, or 0.50 mg/kg HD in sesame oil 5 days/week for 10 weeks. For the female phase, treated or untreated males were mated with treated females and their fetuses were evaluated at approximately 14 days after copulation. For the male dominant lethal phase, treated males cohabited with untreated femal (during 5 days of each week for 10 weeks) and females were sacrificed for fetal evaluation 14 days after the midweek of cohabitation during each of the 10 weeks. The appearance and behavior of the rats were unremarkable throughout the experiment and there were no treatment-related deaths. Growth rates were reduced in both female and male rats treated with 0.50 mg/kg HD. Indicators of reproductive performance did not demonstrate significant female dominant lethal effects, although significant male dominant lethal effects were observed at 2 and 3 week post-exposure. These effects included increases of early fetal resorptions and preimplantation losses and decreases of total live embryo implants. These effects were most consistently observed at a dose of 0.50 mg/kg, but frequently occurred at the lower doses. Although no treatment-related effects on male reproductive organ weights or sperm motility were found, a significant increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm was detected in males exposed to 0. 50 mg/kg HD. The timing of these effects is consistent with an effect during the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis, possibly involving the generally sensitive spermatids.

  19. Comparative laboratory selection and field testing of polymers for selective control of water production in gas wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ranjbar, M. [Technical Univ., Clausthal (Germany); Czolbe, P. [DBI-GUT, Freiberg (Germany); Kohler, N. [IFP, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intensive comparative feasibility studies were performed in different laboratories in order to select the most promising polymer based technology for water control in gas production and storage wells exhibiting low matrix permeability, high temperature and high produced brine salinity. Core flow experiments performed under reservoir conditions with different commercially available chemical systems have pointed to the superiority of two relatively low-molecular-weight vinyl sulfonated/vinyl amide/acrylamide terpolymers over other polymers to decrease selectively and effectively the water permeability without affecting the gas flow. These polymers have excellent compatibility with all types of reservoir brines and good thermal stability up to 150 C. Furthermore, because of their high shear resistance, and excellent injectability even in low permeability cores, solutions of these polymers can be pumped at high injection rates with a moderate wellhead pressure.

  20. Spatially resolved mineral deposition on patterned self-assembled monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rieke, P.C.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Wood, L.L.; Engelhard, M.H.; Baer, D.R.; Fryxell, G.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); John, C.M. (Charles Evans Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States)); Laken, D.A.; Jaehnig, M.C. (FEI Corp., Beaverton, OR (United States))

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron and ion beam lithographic techniques were used to pattern self-assembled monolayers with organic functional groups. Nucleation and growth of minerals from aqueous solution were confined to the patterned regions. A vinyl-terminated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was selectively deposited in ion and electron beam etched regions of a methyl-terminated SAM. Sulfonation of the vinyl groups produced a surface patterned in either hydrophobic methyl groups or hydrophilic sulfonate groups. Subsequent growth of FeOOH films was confined to the sulfonated regions. Condensation images were used to image each step in the lithographic scheme. Resolution of the SAM patterning step was 1-3 [mu]m, while resolution of the mineral deposition step was 10-15 [mu]m. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Microbial based chlorinated ethene destruction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bagwell, Christopher E. (Aiken, SC); Freedman, David L. (Clemson, SC); Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Bratt, William B. (Atlanta, GA); Wood, Elizabeth A. (Marietta, GA)

    2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A mixed culture of Dehalococcoides species is provided that has an ability to catalyze the complete dechlorination of polychlorinated ethenes such as PCE, TCE, cDCE, 1,1-DCE and vinyl chloride as well as halogenated ethanes such as 1,2-DCA and EDB. The mixed culture demonstrates the ability to achieve dechlorination even in the presence of high source concentrations of chlorinated ethenes.

  2. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Hughes, R.C.; Kepler, R.G.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1984-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10/sup 15/ to 10/sup 21/ molecules of dopant/cm/sup 3/. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  3. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1990-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  4. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhong, Yuanzhen (Wayne, NJ), Parikh, Hemant (Harriman, NY); Smith, Terry E. (Murray, KY)

    2002-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for making homogeneous copolymers of vinylpyrrolidone (VP) and vinyl acetate (VA) which form clear aqueous solutions and have high cloud points. The process involves precharging VP and VA monomers in a predetermined ratio, and then feeding VP and VA at a predetermined rate, the ratio of the components in the initial charge and the feeding rates for the monomer being selected in accordance with the reactivity rates of the monomers towards copolymerization as opposed to homopolymerization.

  5. Supplementary Material Ultrahigh-Resolution Mass Spectroscopic Analysis of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    -9] H O O methylglyoxal pyruvic acid O OH O H H O formaldehyde H O O methylglyoxal H H O formaldehyde H H O O H acetaldehyde formaldehyde O OH acetic acid O O OH pyruvic acid H H O formaldehyde O3 O3O3O3 + OH + O H OH H vinyl alcohol O3 H OH O formic acid H H O formaldehyde + O H O2 . O H O H glyoxal + O

  6. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., Charles (Albuquerque, NM); Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Kepler, R. Glen (Albuquerque, NM); Kurtz, Steven R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10.sup.15 to 10.sup.21 molecules of dopant/cm.sup.3. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  7. Heavy metals emission from controlled combustion of PVC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Ayyoubi, Mohammed A.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Malave (Mem er) G. mble Bennett (Head of Depar tment) August 1989 ABSTRACT Heavy Metals Emission from Combustion of PVC. (August 1989) Mohammed A. El-Ayyoubi, B. S. , Texas ASM University; Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. John P. Wagner... The primary purpose of this research paper is the identification of heavy metals and other potentially harmful smoke components emitted to the atmosphere as a result of Poly(vinyl chloride) combustion in municipal incinerators . In addition, analysis...

  8. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, Jack J. (Shirley, NY); Elling, David (Centereach, NY); Reams, Walter (Shirley, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  9. Packaging and fabrication systems for extending storage life and subsequent retail caselife of pork

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rape, Steven Wayne

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These chops were changes were (1973) further reported that bacterial counts (log ) from cuts stored in poly- vinyl chloride film were 100 to 1, 000 fold higher than those from vacuum packaged cuts. Ashby and James (1973 b) compared the effects of certain... was created by use of a stationary nozzle type vacuum n&n- Table l. Experimental design for comparisons of packaging systems for fresh pork cuts Packaging treatment Cut Number of samples Storage temperature (' C) Storage intervals (days) Retail...

  10. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1988-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical and overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt% calcined coke breeze, 40 wt% vinyl ester resin with 3.5 wt% modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag. 4 tabs.

  11. Method of making carbon nanotube composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a method of making a composite polymeric material by dissolving a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes and optionally additives in a solvent to make a solution and removing at least a portion of the solvent after casting onto a substrate to make thin films. The material has enhanced conductivity properties due to the blending of the un-functionalized and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes.

  12. Composite bipolar plate for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM); Busick, Deanna N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A bipolar separator plate for fuel cells consists of a molded mixture of a vinyl ester resin and graphite powder. The plate serves as a current collector and may contain fluid flow fields for the distribution of reactant gases. The material is inexpensive, electrically conductive, lightweight, strong, corrosion resistant, easily mass produced, and relatively impermeable to hydrogen gas. The addition of certain fiber reinforcements and other additives can improve the properties of the composite material without significantly increasing its overall cost.

  13. Cyanoethylated compounds as additives in lithium/lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

  14. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Choe, Hyoun S. (Waltham, MA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  15. Evaluation of Rexene polymers in hot mixed asphalt concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Mary Anne Reese

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -- polyethylene, polypropylene, ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) and ethylene-propylene rubbers -- show increased stability and stiffness modulus, increased resistance to permanent deformation and lower temperature susceptibility. Carpenter and VanDam (14... five asphalt additives: block copolymer rubber, SBR latex, EVA, polyethylene and carbon black. Mixture stability, stiffness, tensile strength and resistance to fatigue, thermal cracking, permanent deformation and moisture damage were tested. Three...

  16. Metabolism of the geometric isomers of phosphamidon in insects and rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grabbe, Rolland Ralph

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metabolism of the Geometric Isomers of Phosphamldon ln Insects and Rats, Nay 1955. Rolland R, Grabbe, B. S. , Iowa State Dnlverslty Directed by: Dr. Don L, Bull Abstract Phosphamldon (2-chloro 2 dlethylcarbamoyl I methylvlnyl dimethyl phosphate) ls a... with phosphamldon that was radlolabeled either with C at the methyl-vinyl and carbonyl carbon atoms or with P 32 Slightly more N deethyl phosphamldon (2 ohloro 2-ethylcarbamoyl I-methylvlnyl dimethyl phosphate) was formed ln Insects treated with cls...

  17. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  18. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Alamgir, M.; Choe, H.S.

    1995-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li{sup +}) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}, LiAsF{sub 6}, and LiClO{sub 4}. 2 figs.

  19. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  20. CuC1 thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, Qinbai (Chicago, IL); Liu, Renxuan (Chicago, IL)

    2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical cell for producing copper having a dense graphite anode electrode and a dense graphite cathode electrode disposed in a CuCl solution. An anion exchange membrane made of poly(ethylene vinyl alcohol) and polyethylenimine cross-linked with a cross-linking agent selected from the group consisting of acetone, formaldehyde, glyoxal, glutaraldehyde, and mixtures thereof is disposed between the two electrodes.

  1. INVENTORY -EDITED SARA TITLE III TOXIC CHEMICALS Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    -07-5 Lubricating Oil 64742-54-7 Methyl vinyl ketone 78-94-4 Nickel carbonyl 13463-39-3 Nitric acid 7697) 75-71-8 Dielectric Oil 64742-53-6 Emetine Dihydrochloride 316-42-7 Formaldehyde 50-00-0 Fuel Oil, #2 (Inside) 68476-30-2 Fuel Oil, #4 68476-31-3 Fuel Oil, #4 (Underground) 68476-31-3 Fuel Oil, #6 68553

  2. Biomimetic Hydrogel Materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bertozzi, Carolyn (Albany, CA), Mukkamala, Ravindranath (Houston, TX), Chen, Oing (Albany, CA), Hu, Hopin (Albuquerque, NM), Baude, Dominique (Creteil, FR)

    2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel biomimetic hydrogel materials and methods for their preparation. Hydrogels containing acrylamide-functionalized carbohydrate, sulfoxide, sulfide or sulfone copolymerized with a hydrophilic or hydrophobic copolymerizing material selected from the group consisting of an acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylate, methacrylate, vinyl and a derivative thereof present in concentration from about 1 to about 99 wt %. and methods for their preparation. The method of use of the new hydrogels for fabrication of soft contact lenses and biomedical implants.

  3. Biomimetic hydrogel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bertozzi, Carolyn (Albany, CA); Mukkamala, Ravindranath (Houston, TX); Chen, Qing (Albany, CA); Hu, Hopin (Albuquerque, NM); Baude, Dominique (Creteil, FR)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel biomimetic hydrogel materials and methods for their preparation. Hydrogels containing acrylamide-functionalized carbohydrate, sulfoxide, sulfide or sulfone copolymerized with a hydrophilic or hydrophobic copolymerizing material selected from the group consisting of an acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylate, methacrylate, vinyl and a derivative thereof present in concentration from about 1 to about 99 wt %. and methods for their preparation. The method of use of the new hydrogels for fabrication of soft contact lenses and biomedical implants.

  4. Complex Nanoscopic Objects from Well-defined Polymers that Contain Functional Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ang 1982-

    2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    MPS Mononuclear phagocyte system NB Norbornene x NMP Nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization NMR Nuclear magnetic resonance PAA Poly(acrylic acid) PCB Poly(carboxybetaine) PCEVE Poly(chloroethyl vinyl ethyl) PDI Polydispersity index PEG... polymerization (CRP), such as nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization (NMP),37 atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP)38 and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT),39 have attracted tremendous attention over the past two decades, due...

  5. Sanitary Landfill 1991 annual groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, C.Y.; Norrell, G.T.; Bennett, C.B.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Sanitary Landfill is an approximately seventy acre site located just south of SRS Road C between the Savannah River Site`s B-Area and Upper Three Runs Creek. Results from the first through third quarter 1991 groundwater monitoring date continue to show evidence of elevated levels of several hazardous constituents beneath the Sanitary Landfill: tritium, vinyl chloride, total radium, cadmium, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,4 dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1 dichloroethylene in excess of the primary drinking water standards were observed in at least one well monitoring the Sanitary Landfill during the third quarter of 1991. All of these constituents, except radium, were observed in the lower half of the original thirty-two acre site or the southern expansion site. Trichloroethylene and vinyl chloride are the primary organic contaminants in groundwater beneath the Sanitary Landfill. Vinyl chloride has become the primary contaminant during 1991. Elevated levels of benzene were consistently detected in LFW 7 in the past, but were not present in any LFW wells during the third quarter of 1991. A minor tritium plume is present in the central part of original thirty-two acre landfill. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were consistently present in LFW 10A through 1991. This well has exhibited elevated tritium activities since the second quarter of 1989. Contaminant concentrations in the Sanitary Landfill are presented and discussed in this report.

  6. Sanitary Landfill 1991 annual groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, C.Y.; Norrell, G.T.; Bennett, C.B.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Sanitary Landfill is an approximately seventy acre site located just south of SRS Road C between the Savannah River Site's B-Area and Upper Three Runs Creek. Results from the first through third quarter 1991 groundwater monitoring date continue to show evidence of elevated levels of several hazardous constituents beneath the Sanitary Landfill: tritium, vinyl chloride, total radium, cadmium, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,4 dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1 dichloroethylene in excess of the primary drinking water standards were observed in at least one well monitoring the Sanitary Landfill during the third quarter of 1991. All of these constituents, except radium, were observed in the lower half of the original thirty-two acre site or the southern expansion site. Trichloroethylene and vinyl chloride are the primary organic contaminants in groundwater beneath the Sanitary Landfill. Vinyl chloride has become the primary contaminant during 1991. Elevated levels of benzene were consistently detected in LFW 7 in the past, but were not present in any LFW wells during the third quarter of 1991. A minor tritium plume is present in the central part of original thirty-two acre landfill. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were consistently present in LFW 10A through 1991. This well has exhibited elevated tritium activities since the second quarter of 1989. Contaminant concentrations in the Sanitary Landfill are presented and discussed in this report.

  7. Effect of turing pattern indicators on CIMA oscillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noszticzius, Z. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)]|[Technical Univ. of Budapest (Hungary); Qi Ouyang; McCormick, W.D.; Swinney, H.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1992-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Past experiments on Turing patterns have all been conducted using the chlorite-iodide-malonic acid (CIMA) reaction with Thiodene from Prolabo as an indicator. In this work two other indicators have been examined and found to yield Turing patterns similar to those obtained with Thiodene: soluble starch and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). The present work shows that Thiodene is not simply a soluble starch, as previously assumed, but is probably made by mixing about 7% starch with 93% molten urea. To determine whether the indicators might also effect the chemical kinetics, the effect of the indicators was examined in batch studies of two CIMA systems: the minimal CIMA system (chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid) and the CIMA-Cl system (chlorine dioxide-iodomalonic acid-chloride). It was found that starch and poly(vinyl alcohol) affect the dynamics of the minimal CIMA oscillator but they have no effect on the CIMA-Cl system. On the other hand, in the same or even larger weight/volume concentration glucose and 2-propanol has no effect on the minimal CIMA system. These finding prove that starch and poly(vinyl alcohol) participate exclusively in triiodide complex-forming reactions: they react with an enzyme-like selectivity. Thiodene, however, has an effect on the CIMA-Cl reaction because of its urea content. 19 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Accelerated aging studies and environmental stability of prototype tamper tapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, B.W.; Wright, C.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bunk, A.R. [Battelle Columbus Lab., OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of accelerated aging experiments (weathering) conducted on prototype tamper tapes bonded to a variety of surface materials. The prototype tamper tapes were based on the patented Confirm{reg_sign} tamper-indicating technology developed and produced by 3M Company. Tamper tapes bonded to surfaces using pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) and four rapid-set adhesives were evaluated. The configurations of the PSA-bonded tamper tapes were 1.27-cm-wide Confirm{reg_sign} 1700 windows with vinyl underlay and 2.54-cm-wide Confirm{reg_sign} 1700 windows with vinyl and polyester underlays. The configurations of the rapid-set adhesive-bonded tamper tapes were 2.54-cm-wide Confirm{reg_sign} (1700, 1500 with and without primer, and 1300) windows with vinyl underlay. Surfaces used for bonding included aluminum, steel, stainless steel, Kevlar{reg_sign}, brass, copper, fiberglass/resin with and without gel coat, polyurethane-painted steel, acrylonitrile:butadiene:styrene plastic, polyester fiberglass board, Lexan polycarbonate, and cedar wood. Weathering conditions included a QUV cabinet (ultraviolet light at 60{degrees}C, condensing humidity at 40{degrees}C), a thermal cycling cabinet (-18{degrees}C to 46{degrees}C), a Weather-O-Meter (Xenon lamp), and exposure outdoors in Daytona Beach, Florida. Environmental aging exposures lasted from 7 weeks to 5 months. After exposure, the tamper tapes were visually examined and tested for transfer resistance. Tamper tapes were also exposed to a variety of chemical liquids (including organic solvents, acids, bases, and oxidizing liquids) to determine chemical resistance and to sand to determine abrasion resistance.

  9. Non-isothermal kinetic studies of co-combustion and co-cracking of coal and plastic blends using thermogravimetric analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetics of co-combustion/co-cracking of Topa coal with polystyrene, poly(vinyl chloride), and bakelite have been studied by theromogravimetric analysis at a linear heating rate of 20C/min in a stream of air for combustion and in nitrogen for cracking with a flow rate of 20 cm{sup 3}/min up to the temperature of 900C under non-isothermal conditions. The order of reaction and overall activation energy of the reactions have been calculated. These studies may help in synergistic production of value-added organic compounds and spatiality chemicals from coal and plastics.

  10. High temperature polymer concrete compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, Jack J. (Shirley, NY); Reams, Walter (Shirley, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is concerned with a polymer concrete composition, which is a two-component composition useful with many bases including metal. Component A, the aggregate composition, is broadly composed of silica, silica flour, portland cement, and acrylamide, whereas Component B, which is primarily vinyl and acrylyl reactive monomers, is a liquid system. A preferred formulation emphasizing the major necessary components is as follows: ______________________________________ Component A: Silica sand 60-77 wt. % Silica flour 5-10 wt. % Portland cement 15-25 wt. % Acrylamide 1-5 wt. % Component B: Styrene 50-60 wt. % Trimethylolpropane 35-40 wt. % trimethacrylate ______________________________________ and necessary initiators, accelerators, and surfactants.

  11. Hydrocarbon Processing`s HPI construction boxscore update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data are compiled for oil and gas industry construction projects worldwide, listing country (and state or province, when appropriate), company, location of the project, purpose, plant capacity, estimated cost, current status, licensor, engineering firm, and construction company. Projects include carbon monoxide, urea, ammonia, isomerizer, hydrogen, alkylation, TAME, desalter, hydrotreating, sulfur, waste gas cleanup, catalytic reformer, ethylene recovery, natural gas helium, nitrogen removal, NGL recovery, cumene, dewaxer, polystyrene, vinyl chloride, synthesis gas, formaldehyde, FCC cracker, isobutylene, H{sub 2}S removal, cogeneration, methanol, delayed coker, gas oil treater, NGL fractionation, BTX, information systems, control systems, waste water cleanup, glycol treater, acid gas removal, LPG, MTBE, caustic cleanup, visbreaker, naphtha treater, and others.

  12. The reduction of carbon-carbon multiple bond systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Donald Roy

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Uses, " Reinhold Publishing Corporations New York, N. Y. & 1956, p. 309 the dicarbanion with carbon dioxide yields the di-sodium salt of 1, 1, 2, 4 2-tetraphenylsuccinic acid. If two atoms of an alkali metal add to the multiple bond of an al- kyne... acid. One mole of carbon dioxide reacts with III to form the indone. It was proposed on the basis of the foregoing evidence that alkali metals could be caused to add across an acetylenic bond of a molecule to form a vinylic dicarbanion. It was hoped...

  13. Sister chromatid exchange assay. January 1978-April 1990 (A Bibliography from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1978-April 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This bibliography contains citations concerning use of the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay for toxicological studies. SCE assays are very sensitive measures of genotoxic damage to chromosomes. SCE toxicological studies analyzing vinyl carbamate, nerve gas, tritium, chlorofluorocarbons, sewage sludge, arsenic, ionizing radiation, ethylene oxide, microwave radiation, coal and oil fly ash, heavy metals, and sodium azide are discussed. SCE studies using both human and animal tissue cultures are described. SCE studies in the developing fetus, and improved SCE techniques are also described. (Contains 146 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  14. Treatment of addiction to ethanol and addictive-related behavior

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating alcohol addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from alcohol addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of a composition which increase central nervous system GABA levels wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of alcohol.

  15. Industry-wide studies report of an in-depth survey at Firestone Synthetic Rubber and Latex Company, Lake Charles, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, E.R.; Ungers, L.J.; Fajen, J.M.

    1987-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to assess worker exposure to 1,3-butadiene at a polymer production facility, an in-depth industrial-hygiene survey was conducted at Firestone Synthetic Rubber and Latex Company, Lake Charles, Louisiana. This facility incorporated a number of controls designed to prevent the release of chemical intermediates and products into the air. Personal protective equipment included rubber, cotton, or vinyl gloves depending on the job performed. Respirators were required for field lab samplers and maintenance personnel performing specific tasks. Half-face organic vapor respirators were used. The authors recommend that consideration be given to converting to a closed-loop sampling system for obtaining quality control samples.

  16. Novel chemical pathways and charge-transport dynamics of electrodes modified with electropolymerized layers of (Co(v-terpy)/sub 2/)/sup 2 +/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guadalupe, A.R.; Usifer, D.A.; Potts, K.T.; Hurrell, H.C.; Mogstad, A.E.; Abruna, H.D.

    1988-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Electropolymerized films of (Co(v-terpy)/sub 2/)/sup 2 +/ (v-terpy is 4'-vinyl-2,2':6',2''-terpyridinyl) exhibit reactivity patterns, especially with regard to ligand exchange, that differ significantly from those exhibited by (Co(terpy)/sub 2/)/sup 2 +/ in solution. These differences are attributed to the physically constrained environment present in the polymer film. The charge-transport properties follow the model of Dahms and Ruff and the predicted concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient. These electropolymerized films are also active in the electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide.

  17. Novel polymer nanocomposite composed of organic nanoparticles via self-assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dequan Xiao; Kunhua Lin; Qiang Fu; Qinjian Yin

    2009-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a novel class of polymer nanocomposite composed of organic nanoparticles dispersed in polymer matrix, with the particle sizes of 30-120 nm in radius. The organic nanoparticles were formed by the self-assembly of protonated poly(4-vinyl-pyridine)-r-poly(acrylonitrile) and amphiphilic metanil yellow dye molecules through electrostatic interactions in aqueous solution. A strongly broadened Raman shift band was probed, suggesting the presence of enhanced optoelectronic property from the polymer nanocomposite. Here, using random-copolymer polyelectrolytes and mesogenic amphiphiles as the designed building blocks for self-assembly, a new approach is acutally provided to fabricate organic nanoparticles.

  18. New Barrier Coating Materials for PV Module Backsheets: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, G. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S. H.; Pern, J.; McMahon, T. J.

    2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This conference paper describes the high moisture barrier high resistivity coatings on polyethylene terepthalate (PET) have been fabricated and characterized for use in PV module back sheet applications. These thin film barriers exhibit water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) as low as 0.1 g/m2-day at 37.8 C and have shown excellent adhesion (> 10 N/mm) to both ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and PET even after filtered xenon arc lamp UV exposure. The WVTR and adhesion values for this construction are compared to and shown to be superior to candidate polymeric backsheet materials.

  19. Evaluation of friction loss in flexible and galvanized duct 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmermann, Carlos Michael Alberto

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    or similar exterior material. 3. When exterior abrasion of the duct can be a factor, a vinyl scuff strip can be glued or plastic welded in spiral fashion on the outside cover. 4. Reduction in flow because of Internal friction can be minimized by using...EVALUATION OF FRICTION LOSS IN FLEXIBLE AND GALVANIZED DUCT A Thesis by CARLOS MICHAEL ALBERTO ZIMMERMANN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfliiment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  20. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adolf, D.B.; Shahinpoor, M.; Segalman, D.J.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1993-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles are described capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots. 11 figures.

  1. Nanopatterns by phase separation of patterned mixed polymer monolayers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huber, Dale L; Frischknecht, Amalie

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Micron-size and sub-micron-size patterns on a substrate can direct the self-assembly of surface-bonded mixed polymer brushes to create nanoscale patterns in the phase-separated mixed polymer brush. The larger scale features, or patterns, can be defined by a variety of lithographic techniques, as well as other physical and chemical processes including but not limited to etching, grinding, and polishing. The polymer brushes preferably comprise vinyl polymers, such as polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate).

  2. Method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sloan, Jr., Earle D. (Golden, CO)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from impeding the flow of fluid in a fluid system. An additive is contacted with clathrate hydrate masses in the system to prevent those clathrate hydrate masses from impeding fluid flow. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member and/or six member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and hydroxyethylcellulose, either in combination or alone.

  3. Colling Wipe Samples for VX Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koester, C; Hoppes, W G

    2010-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This standard operating procedure (SOP) provides uniform procedures for the collection of wipe samples of VX residues from surfaces. Personnel may use this procedure to collect and handle wipe samples in the field. Various surfaces, including building materials (wood, metal, tile, vinyl, etc.) and equipment, may be sampled based on this procedure. The purpose of such sampling is to determine whether or not the relevant surfaces are contaminated, to determine the extent of their contamination, to evaluate the effectiveness of decontamination procedures, and to determine the amount of contaminant that might present as a contact hazard.

  4. Development of Damp-Heat Resistant Self-Primed EVA and Non-EVA Encapsulant Formulations at NREL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, F. J.; Jorgensen, G. J.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-primed ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) and non-EVA (PMG) encapsulant formulations were developed that have greater resistance to damp heat exposure at 85 deg C and 85% relative humidity (RH) (in terms of adhesion strength to glass substrates) than a commonly used commercial EVA product. The self-primed EVA formulations were developed on the basis of high-performing glass priming formulations that have previously proven to significantly enhance the adhesion strength of unprimed and primed EVA films on glass substrates during damp heat exposure. The PMG encapsulant formulations were based on an ethylene-methylacrylate copolymer containing glycidyl methacrylate.

  5. Effect of flame-retarding additives on surface chemistry in Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, N.D.; Park, I.J. [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-Dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-Dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.G., E-mail: kimjg@skku.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-Dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.S. [Battery Research Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of)] [Battery Research Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examined the properties of 1 wt.% vinylene carbonate (VC), vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC), and diphenyl octyl phosphate (DPOF) additive electrolytes as a promising way of beneficially improving the surface and cell resistance of Li-ion batteries. Surface film formation on the negative and positive electrodes was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In conclusion, EIS, FT-IR spectroscopy and SEM results confirmed that DPOF is an excellent additive to the electrolyte in the Li-ion batteries due to the improved co-intercalation of the solvent molecules.

  6. Caring for Important Papers after a Flood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FCS Project Team - FDRM UNIT

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    process, it may be worth the effort. Separate the pages to prevent musty odors. ? When the books are thoroughly dry, close them and use C-clamps to help them retain their shape. Wipe vinyl and leather book covers with a light coating of petroleum jelly..., University of California Cooperative Extension. Caring for Important Papers after a Flood Produced by AgriLife Communications and Marketing, The Texas A&M System Extension publications can be found on the Web at: http://AgriLifebookstore.org Visit the Texas...

  7. Age and growth of black drum (Pogonias cromis) from Galveston Bay, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, John Mark

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bertalanffy Growth Equation SUMMARY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE STUDIES REFERENCES VITA Page 1 8 10 10 16 20 21 24 24 24 25 25 27 28 29 31 32 33 36 LIST OF TABLES Total number, mean lengths (mm) and weight (g) for black drum from... mixture poured into plastic peel- away molds (22 mm wide x 25 mm tong x 22 mm deep). The embedding mixture was produced by mixing vinyl cyclohexene dioxide, diglycidyl ether and nonenyl succinic anhydride in concentrations of 10. 0, 4. 0, and 26. 0 g...

  8. Viola, Kansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga,planningFlowmeterUtah: Energy Resources Jump to:Vinyl KraftViola,

  9. Viola, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga,planningFlowmeterUtah: Energy Resources Jump to:Vinyl KraftViola,New

  10. Viralcool | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga,planningFlowmeterUtah: Energy Resources Jump to:Vinyl

  11. Virden, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga,planningFlowmeterUtah: Energy Resources Jump to:VinylVirden,

  12. Virent Energy Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga,planningFlowmeterUtah: Energy Resources Jump to:VinylVirden,Virent

  13. Viresco Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga,planningFlowmeterUtah: Energy Resources Jump to:VinylVirden,Virent

  14. Design of new polymers to improve radiation stability of plastic scintillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barashkov, N.; Korotkikh, N.; Novikova, T. [Karpov Inst. of Physical Chemistry (Russian Federation); Markley, F.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Foster, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Rivard, M. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diffusion enhancers have been used to increase the radiation stability of scintillators. There is a danger that such additions will also allow the scintillation dyes to diffuse out of the matrix. Covalent bonding of the dyes into the matrix would eliminate any luminophore migration. We have demonstrated that dyes with vinyl and divinyl groups can be successfully bonded into a styrene matrix. Both primary and secondary luminophores have been bonded into the matrix and in several cases they have been compared with similar luminophores without the vinyl groups in otherwise identical compositions. In general the bonding does not greatly affect either the radiation stability of the composition or its light output, but is therefore proven to be an acceptable method of preventing luminophore migration. Scintillators with a base of aromatic or alicyclic epoxy resins have also been made with bonded luminophores. In these compositions the bonding is accomplished by using luminophores with one or two amine groups or epoxy groups. When using the amines, they are first prereacted with the epoxy resin and the modified epoxy is then cured with hexahydrophthalic anhydride or trimethoxyboroxine. The emission and absorption spectra of many of these reactive luminophores are given, along with the light outputs and radiation stability of the resulting scintilators.

  15. [Aluminum coordination and active sites on aluminas, Y-zeolites and pillared layered silicates]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fripiat, J.J.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is organized in four sections. In the first the authors will outline structural features which are common to all fine grained alumina, as well as to non-framework alumina in zeolites. This section will be followed by a study of the surface vs. bulk coordination of aluminum. The third section will deal with measurement of the number of acid sites and the scaling of their strength. The fourth and last section will describe three model reactions: the isomerization of 1-butene and of 2 cis-butene; the isomerization and disproportionation of oxtho-xylene; and the transformation of trichloroethane into vinyl chloride followed by the polymerization of the vinyl chloride. The relationship between chemical activity and selectivity and what is known of the local structure of the active catalytic sites will be underlined. Other kinds of zeolites besides Y zeolite have been studied. Instead of the aluminum pillared silicates they found it more interesting to study the substitution of silicon by aluminum in a layered structure containing a permanent porosity (aluminated sepiolite).

  16. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of a composition which increases central nervous system GABA levels wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of drugs of abuse. The composition includes GVG, gabapentin, valproic acid, progabide, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, fengabine, cetylGABA, topiramate or tiagabine or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof.

  17. (Development of Br-77 from LAMPF Facility)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research goals of 1984--1985 included continued studies of the 1-halogenated estradiol derivatives and preparation of B- and C- ring vinyl halides of estradiol. The radiohalogenated analogs of these target compounds are proposed to be useful as receptor-binding radiopharmaceuticals in breast cancer therapy. To date, all 1-halogenated derivatives have been prepared and studied. Their 17 {proportional to}-ethynyl derivatives have also been prepared. In vitro receptor-binding studies with estrogen receptors show definite trends with respect to type of halogen attached versus observed receptor-binding affinity. These results were further substantiated using x-ray crystallographic methods. The proposed B- and C- ring vinyl halides have not been successfully synthesized; however, work toward these target compounds is still underway. Other related compounds of current interest include the B-, C-, and D- ring substituted estradiol derivatives. Much of the synthetic work leaking to these compounds has been accomplished and in vitro studies will be performed soon. 10 refs.

  18. Comparing Surfaces and Engineered Interfaces using Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) and Injected SAMs Silanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Mark J.; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to show a comparison between property changes by formation of a self-assembled monolayer on the surface of PPG synthetic precipitated silica, which is a technique developed at PNNL, and by adding the SAMs silane chemical directly into the mixing bowl. These coatings have the potential to greatly increase the bond strength and enhance other properties between the particle and the rubber matrix of a rubber compound. Tensile testing measured peak stress and elongation at break. The increase in tensile strength shows how well the polymer-filler interfacial adhesion is doing. The study used five different SAM systems with a sulfur cured styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) tire rubber formulation. The three propylsilanes were propyl triethoxysilane, allyl triethoxysilane and 3-mercaptopropyl triethoxysilane. Five combinations of silanes were used in this study. The application of the silanes were 100% propyl triethoxy silane (100% Alkyl); a 10/90 mixture of allyl and propyl triethoxy silanes (10% vinyl/90% alkyl); a 50/50 mixture of the allyl and propyl (50% vinyl/50% alkyl); a 10/90mixture of 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane and propyl trimethoxysilane (10% mercaptan/90% alkyl) and lastly a 50/50 3-mercaptopropyl and propylsilanes (50% mercaptan/alkyl). The data not only shows improvement with SAMs, the peak stress data (ultimate strength) shows that the by changing the amount of silane content can change the physical properties

  19. POTENTIAL IMPACT OF TANK F FLUSH SOLUTION ON H-CANYON EVAPORATOR OPERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyser, E.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2010-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous chemical analysis of a sample from the liquid heel found in Tank F of the High Activity Drain (HAD) system in F/H laboratory revealed the presence of n-paraffin, tributyl phosphate (TBP), Modifier from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) process and a vinyl ester resin that is very similar to the protective lining on Tank F. Subsequent analyses detected the presence of a small amount of diisopropylnaphthalene (DIN) (major component of Ultima Gold{trademark} AB liquid scintillation cocktail). Indications are that both vinyl ester resin and DIN are present in small amounts in the flush solution. The flush solution currently in the LR-56S trailer likely has an emulsion which is believed to contain a mixture of the reported organic species dominated by TBP. An acid treatment similar to that proposed to clear the HAD tank heel in F/H laboratory was found to allow separation of an organic phase from the cloudy sample tested by SRNL. Mixing of that clear sample did re-introduce some cloudiness that did not immediately clear but that cloudiness is attributed to the DIN in the matrix. An organic phase does quickly separate from the cloudy matrix allowing separation by a box decanter in H-Canyon prior to transfer to the evaporator feed tank. This separation should proceed normally as long as the emulsion is broken-up by acidification.

  20. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments.

  1. Synthesis, growth, structure determination and optical properties of chalcone derivative single crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karthi, S., E-mail: girijaeaswaradas@gmail.com; Girija, E. K., E-mail: girijaeaswaradas@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem - 636011 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Acquiring large nonlinear optical (NLO) efficient organic material is essential for the development of optoelectronics and photonic devices. Chalcone is the donor - ? - acceptor - ? - donor (D-?-A-?-D) type conjugated molecule with appreciable hyperpolarizability of potential interest in NLO applications. The addition of vinyl and electron donor groups in the chalcone molecule may enhance the second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency. Here we report the synthesis, crystal growth and characterization of a chalcone derivative 1-(4-methylphenyl)-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-penta-2,4-dien-1-one (MPMPP). The MPMPP crystal was grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique from acetone. The grown crystal structure was studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The SHG efficiency of the grown crystal was determined by Kurtz and Perry method.

  2. Solid electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA)

    1993-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  3. Method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sloan, E.D. Jr.

    1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from impeding the flow of fluid in a fluid system. An additive is contacted with clathrate hydrate masses in the system to prevent those clathrate hydrate masses from impeding fluid flow. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and hydroxyethylcellulose, either in combination or alone. Additives can also contain multiple cyclic chemical groupings having different size rings. One such additive is sold under the name Gaffix VC-713.

  4. Waste management health risk assessment: A case study of a solid waste landfill in South Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davoli, E., E-mail: enrico.davoli@marionegri.i [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Environmental Health Sciences Department, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy); Fattore, E.; Paiano, V.; Colombo, A.; Palmiotto, M. [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Environmental Health Sciences Department, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy); Rossi, A.N.; Il Grande, M. [Progress S.r.l., Via Nicola A. Porpora 147, 20131 Milano (Italy); Fanelli, R. [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Environmental Health Sciences Department, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated risk assessment study has been performed in an area within 5 km from a landfill that accepts non hazardous waste. The risk assessment was based on measured emissions and maximum chronic population exposure, for both children and adults, to contaminated air, some foods and soil. The toxic effects assessed were limited to the main known carcinogenic compounds emitted from landfills coming both from landfill gas torch combustion (e.g., dioxins, furans and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) and from diffusive emissions (vinyl chloride monomer, VCM). Risk assessment has been performed both for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects. Results indicate that cancer and non-cancer effects risk (hazard index, HI) are largely below the values accepted from the main international agencies (e.g., WHO, US EPA) and national legislation ( and ).

  5. Rheological and Mechanical Considerations for Photovoltaic Encapsulants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M. D.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic (pv) devices are encapsulated in polymeric materials not only for corrosion protection, but also for mechanical support. Even though ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) suffers from having both glass and melting phase transitions at temperatures experienced under environmental exposure, its low cost and good optical transmission made EVA the most commonly used material for PV modules. These transitions, however, cause EVA to embrittle at low temperatures (~ -15 deg C) and to be very soft at high temperatures (>40 deg C). From mechanical considerations, one would prefer a material that was relatively unchanged under a wide temperature range. This would produce a more predictable and reliable package. These concerns are likely to become more important as silicon based cells are made thinner.

  6. Control of Moisture Ingress into Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M. D.

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During long-term exposure of photovoltaic modules to environmental stress, the ingress of water into the module is correlated with decreased performance. By using diffusivity measurements for water through encapsulants such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), we have modeled moisture ingress using a finite-element analysis with atmospheric data from various locations such as Miami, Florida. This analysis shows that because of the high diffusivity of EVA, even an impermeable glass back-sheet alone is incapable of preventing significant moisture ingress from the edges for a 20-year lifecycle. This result has led us to investigate ways to protect modules from moisture through the use of different encapsulating chemistries and materials.

  7. Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Joseph William; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Sartor, George B.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Reeder, Craig L.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. Mitigating the hazards associated with reactive metal hydrides during an accident while finding a way to keep the original capability of the active material intact during normal use has been the focus of this work. These composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride, in this case a prepared sodium alanate (chosen as a representative reactive metal hydride). It was found that the polymerization of styrene and divinyl benzene could be initiated using AIBN in toluene at 70 degC. The resulting composite materials can be either hard or brittle solids depending on the cross-linking density. Thermal decomposition of these styrene-based composite materials is lower than neat polystyrene indicating that the chemical nature of the polymer is affected by the formation of the composite. The char-forming nature of cross-linked polystyrene is low and therefore, not an ideal polymer for hazard mitigation. To obtain composite materials containing a polymer with higher char-forming potential, siloxane-based monomers were investigated. Four vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Like the styrene materials, these composite materials exhibited thermal decomposition behavior significantly different than the neat polymers. Specifically, the thermal decomposition temperature was shifted approximately 100 degC lower than the neat polymer signifying a major chemical change to the polymer network. Thermal analysis of the cycled samples was performed on the siloxane-based composite materials. It was found that after 30 cycles the siloxane-containing polymer composite material has similar TGA/DSC-MS traces as the virgin composite material indicating that the polymer is physically intact upon cycling. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride in the form of a composite material reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. This

  8. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments. 3 figs.

  9. Composite fiber adsorbent for rapid uptake of uranyl from seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobuke, Y.; Tabushi, I.; Aoki, T.; Karnaishi, T.; Hagiwara, I.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite fiber adsorbent was developed as a new material for the recovery of uranium from seawater. Finely powdered adsorbent was entrapped into the fibril of the supporting material such as polyethylene or a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate. Silica was added as the third component. The relative ratio of chemical adsorbent, supporting material and silica was usually 1:1:1. This composite fiber adsorbent gave a large adsorption rate such as 200 ..mu..g of U/g of Ads by 1-day contact in a seawater batch test. This adsorption rate shows a dramatic improvement of the adsorption rate from the particle absorbent, illustrating the advantageous use of fiber adsorbent for the recovery of uranium.

  10. Quarterly sampling of the wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch: August 1994. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummins, C.L.; Dixon, K.L.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In August 1994, well point water and near-surface water samples were collected to further characterize tritium and volatile organic compounds in the Wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch south of 643-E at the Savannah River Plant. Well point samples were collected from seven locations and near-surface water samples were collected at four locations. Results of the August 1994 sampling event further support findings that tritium and volatile organic compounds are outcropping in the Wetlands near the old F-area effluent ditch. Four analytes (1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, tritium, and vinyl chloride) were detected at least once at concentrations above the primary Drinking Water Standards or the Maximum Contaminant Levels. Five analytes (the above chemicals plus tetrachloroethylene) were detected at least once in the near-surface water samples at concentrations greater than the method detection limit.

  11. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1994 and 1994 summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Eighty-nine wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane, a common laboratory contaminant, and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1994. Benzene, chloroethene (vinyl chloride), 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloropropane, gross alpha, mercury, nonvolatile beta, tetrachloroethylene, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 140 ft/year during first and fourth quarters 1994.

  12. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1997 and 1997 Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A maximum of forty-eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1997. Lead (total recoverable), 1,4-dichlorobenzene, mercury, benzene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), a common laboratory contaminant, tetrachloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, gross alpha, tritium, and 1.2-dichloropropane also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 139 ft/year during first quarter 1997 and 132 ft/year during fourth quarter.

  13. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes by argon plasma-assisted ultraviolet grafting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Y.H.; Chan-Park, M.B.; Zhou, Q.; Li, C.M.; Yue, C.Y. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2005-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We have demonstrated the functionalization of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by argon (Ar) plasma-assisted ultraviolet (UV) grafting of 1-vinylimidazole (VZ). The Ar plasma treatment generates defect sites at the tube ends and sidewalls, which act as the active sites for the subsequent UV grafting of VZ monomer. Atomic force microscopy analyses indicate that the original nanotube bundles exfoliate to individual tubes after the VZ grafting. By control of the deposited energy of Ar plasma treatment (200 W) and treatment time (5 min), no visible chopping of the functionalized SWNT was observed. This method may be extended to other vinyl monomers and offers another diverse way of sidewall functionalization of SWNT.

  14. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam-Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam-swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (culture and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated how the false negative rate depends on test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam-swab sampling at low concentrations.

  15. Improved mechanical properties and ozone resistance of radiation-cured SBR. Final report, Dec 88-Jun 91. [Styrene Butadiene Rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basfar, A.A.; Silverman, J.

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a continuation and extension of the work of the earlier Army contract, where the superiority of the electron beam cured styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) tank pads to the sulfur cured pads was demonstrated. The focus of the present study is the investigation of the extraordinary ozone resistance of our radiation cured SBR, and also on possible alternatives for SBR, butadiene rubber (BR) in particular, as a tank pad compound. Base formulations of a fully sulfur cured system were established with 5% reproducibility, and results were confirmed by mechanical properties measurements on identical formulations from Belvoir Research Development and Engineering Center (BRDEC). Constant mechanical properties as a function of exposure to ozone indicate either competitive cross-linking and scissioning reactions or a 'protective' effect caused by higher terminal vinyl concentrations in the radiation cured formulations.

  16. Method of making gold thiolate and photochemically functionalized microcantilevers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boiadjiev, Vassil I. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Brown, Gilbert M. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Pinnaduwage, Lal A. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Goretzki, Gudrun (Nottingham, GB) [Nottingham, GB

    2009-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly sensitive sensor platforms for the detection of specific reagents, such as chromate, gasoline and biological species, using microcantilevers and other microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) whose surfaces have been modified with photochemically attached organic monolayers, such as self-assembled monolayers (SAM), or gold-thiol surface linkage are taught. The microcantilever sensors use photochemical hydrosilylation to modify silicon surfaces and gold-thiol chemistry to modify metallic surfaces thereby enabling individual microcantilevers in multicantilever array chips to be modified separately. Terminal vinyl substituted hydrocarbons with a variety of molecular recognition sites can be attached to the surface of silicon via the photochemical hydrosilylation process. By focusing the activating UV light sequentially on selected silicon or silicon nitride hydrogen terminated surfaces and soaking or spotting selected metallic surfaces with organic thiols, sulfides, or disulfides, the microcantilevers are functionalized. The device and photochemical method are intended to be integrated into systems for detecting specific agents including chromate groundwater contamination, gasoline, and biological species.

  17. Barrier properties of PE, PP and EVA (nano)composites - The influence of filler type and concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merinska, D.; Kalendova, A. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nam. T. G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin, Czech Republic and Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcirnou 3685, 760 0 (Czech Republic); Tesarikova, A. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nam. T. G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocomposite materials with layered clay used as nanofiller and polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and copolymer ethylene and vinyl acetate matrix (EVA, the content of VA component 19 wt. %) were prepared by compounding the individual components in Brabender kneader. The MMT Na+ and four types of commercial products such as Nanofil N 5 and N3000, Cloisite 93A and 30B were used as nanofillers. Next to the clays microprecipitated CaHCO{sub 3}, nanosilica and Halloysite tubes were used. The quantity of all the above-mentioned (nano)fillers was 1, 3 and 5 wt. % in relation to the content of montmorillonite. The aim was to evaluate the influence of (nano)filler type and concentration on nanocomposite barrier properties. The morphology of nanocomposite samples was examined by means of XRD analysis illustrated by transmission electronic microscopy TEM. Furthermore, permeability for O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} were observed.

  18. Lithium ion battery with improved safety

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-hua; Hyung, Yoo Eup; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    2006-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A lithium battery with improved safety that utilizes one or more additives in the battery electrolyte solution wherein a lithium salt is dissolved in an organic solvent, which may contain propylene, carbonate. For example, a blend of 2 wt % triphenyl phosphate (TPP), 1 wt % diphenyl monobutyl phosphate (DMP) and 2 wt % vinyl ethylene carbonate additives has been found to significantly enhance the safety and performance of Li-ion batteries using a LiPF6 salt in EC/DEC electrolyte solvent. The invention relates to both the use of individual additives and to blends of additives such as that shown in the above example at concentrations of 1 to 4-wt % in the lithium battery electrolyte. This invention relates to additives that suppress gas evolution in the cell, passivate graphite electrode and protect it from exfoliating in the presence of propylene carbonate solvents in the electrolyte, and retard flames in the lithium batteries.

  19. In-service filter testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terada, K.; Woodard, R.W.; Jensen, R.T.

    1985-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the observations, test results, and conclusions of three separate in-service tests beginning in November 1979 and concluding in September 1983. The in-service tests described in this report produced encouraging results on filters constructed with fiberglass medium containing 5% Nomex and separators of aluminum foil coated with a thin film of vinyl-epoxy polymer. Filters containing medium with Kevlar fiber additives demonstrated they merited further evaluation. Other types of filters tested include separatorless filters (Flanders SuperFlow) and one filter with fiberglass separators. Asbestos-containing filters were used for comparison until their supply was exhausted. All filters tested were judged to have performed satisfactorily under the test conditions.

  20. Materials Testing for PV Module Encapsulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S.; Pern, J.; McMahon, T.

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Important physical properties of materials used in PV module packaging are presented. High-moisture-barrier, high-resistivity, adhesion-promoting coatings on polyethyl-ene terephthalate (PET) films have been fabricated and characterized for use in PV module application and com-pared to standard polymer backsheet materials. Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and an encapsulant replacement for EVA are studied for their water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and adhesion properties. WVTR, at test conditions up to 85C/100% relative humidity (RH), and adhesion val-ues are measured before and after filtered xenon arc lamp ultraviolet (UV) exposure and damp heat exposure at 85C/85% RH. Water ingress is quantified by weight gain and embedded humidity sensors.

  1. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Pocatello, ID)

    2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

  2. Polybenzimidazole compounds, polymeric media, and methods of post-polymerization modifications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Pocatello, ID)

    2007-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2-- where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about 15.

  3. Thermosetting polycarbonate matrix resins and structural adhesives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knauss, D.M.; Yoon, T.H.; McGrath, J.E. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vinyl phenol was synthesized by the in situ hydrolysis of acetoxy styrene and utilized as a functional reactive endcapper for the interfacial polymerization to produce polycarbonates. Molecular weights could be controlled on the basis of the concentration of the endcapper and values in the range of 2 to 30,000 or higher were examined. It was demonstrated that even at low oligomer molecular weights, proper curing of the functionalized polycarbonates could be used to produce tough, transparent, solvent resistant films that maintain many of the characteristics of thermoplastic polycarbonate - but with significantly improved solvent resistant behavior. Excellent adhesion properties were produced for these essentially transparent materials. Glass transition temperatures equal to, or higher than, linear high molecular weight polycarbonates were produced. The synthesis and characterization of these materials will be described.

  4. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2014-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (plating/counting and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated false negative as a function of affecting test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam swab sampling at low concentrations.

  5. Effect of Lamination Conditions on the Gas Permeability and Adhesion Strength of Green Ceramic Tapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Krueger

    2007-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The gas permeability and adhesion strength of laminated green ceramic tapes were determined for samples comprised of barium titanate as the dielectric, and poly(vinyl butyral) and dioctyl phthalate as the main components of the binder mixture. The green tapes were laminated for times of 2-10 min, pressures of 1.8-7 MPa, and temperatures of 35-85?C. The adhesion strength, which was measured by a peel test, increased with increasing lamination time, temperature, and pressure. The permeability, which was determined from gas flux measurements, decreased with increasing lamination time, temperature, and pressure. The dependence of the permeability and adhesion strength on lamination time, temperature, and pressure is qualitatively consistent with a mechanistic description of the lamination process as one of binder flow in porous media

  6. Method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sloan, Jr., Earle D. (Golden, CO)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from impeding the flow of fluid in a fluid system. An additive is contacted with clathrate hydrate masses in the system to prevent those clathrate hydrate masses from impeding fluid flow. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and hydroxyethylcellulose, either in combination or alone. Additives can also contain multiple cyclic chemical groupings having different size rings. One such additive is sold under the name Gaffix VC-713.

  7. Health assessment for Shpack Landfill, Attleboro/North, Massachusetts, Region 1. CERCLIS No. MAD980503973. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Shpack Landfill site is on the National Priorities List (NPL). The landfill received both domestic and industrial waste, including inorganic and organic chemicals as well as radioactive waste. Ground water contains vinyl chloride, trichloroethylene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chromium, barium, copper, nickel, manganese, arsenic, cadmium, lead, polychlorinated biphenyl-1260 (Aroclor-1260), radium-226, alpha particles and beta particles. Surface and subsurface soil samples contained radium-226, uranium-238, uranium-235, uranium-234, and visual evidence of metal plating waste sludges. The site is considered to be of potential health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the potential for exposure to hazardous substances via ingestion of contaminated soils at the site and future ingestion of contaminated domestic well water.

  8. Module Encapsulant Diagnostic and Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Encapsulant materials are used in photovoltaic devices for mechanical support, electrical isolation, and protection against corrosion. The ability of an encapsulant to protect against surface corrosion is related to its adhesional strength. The adhesion of candidate encapsulants under accelerated environmental stress was examined to determine what materials have the best hydrolytic stability and are more likely to reduce corrosion rates. Under environmental exposure, the ingress of water has been correlated with increased corrosion rates. The diffusivity of different encapsulants has been measured to determine how long it takes for water to enter a module. The high diffusivity of ethylene vinyl acetate indicates that, even with the use of an impermeable back-sheet, moisture from the sides will diffuse throughout the entire module. To significantly reduce moisture ingress requires a true hermetic seal, the use of an encapsulant loaded with desiccant, or the use of a very low diffusivity encapsulant.

  9. Composition and method for encapsulating photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pern, Fu-Jann (Golden, CO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition and method for encapsulating a photovoltaic device which minimizes discoloration of the encapsulant. The composition includes an ethylene-vinyl acetate encapsulant, a curing agent, an optional ultraviolet light stabilizer, and/or an optional antioxidant. The curing agent is preferably 1,1-di-(t-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane; the ultraviolet light stabilizer is bis-(N-octyloxy-tetramethyl) piperidinyl sebacate and the antioxidant is selected from the group consisting of tris (2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) phosphite, tetrakis methylene (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate) methane, octadecyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate, and 2,2'-ethylidene bis(4,6-di-t-butylphenyl) fluorophosponite. The composition is applied to a solar cell then cured. The cured product contains a minimal concentration of curing-generated chromophores and resists UV-induced degradation.

  10. Use of Melt Flow Rate Test in Reliability Study of Thermoplastic Encapsulation Materials in Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moseley, J.; Miller, D.; Shah, Q.-U.-A. S. J.; Sakurai, K.; Kempe, M.; Tamizhmani, G.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of thermoplastic materials as encapsulants in photovoltaic (PV) modules presents a potential concern in terms of high temperature creep, which should be evaluated before thermoplastics are qualified for use in the field. Historically, the issue of creep has been avoided by using thermosetting polymers as encapsulants, such as crosslinked ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA). Because they lack crosslinked networks, however, thermoplastics may be subject to phase transitions and visco-elastic flow at the temperatures and mechanical stresses encountered by modules in the field, creating the potential for a number of reliability and safety issues. Thermoplastic materials investigated in this study include PV-grade uncured-EVA (without curing agents and therefore not crosslinked); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); and three polyolefins (PO), which have been proposed for use as PV encapsulation. Two approaches were used to evaluate the performance of these materials as encapsulants: module-level testing and a material-level testing.

  11. Pathways, kinetics, and mechanisms for 2-dodecyl-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savage, P.E.; Baxter, K.L. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors pyrolyzed 2-dodecyl-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (DDPh) in batch microreactors. The reaction conditions included neat pyrolyses between 375--450C for times of 15--240 min and also pyrolyses in benzene at 400 C and 90 min but at different initial DDPh concentrations ranging from 0.0095 to 0.238 mol/L. The disappearance of DDPh followed first-order kinetics, and the global first-order rate constant had Arrhenius parameters of log{sub 10} A (s{sup {minus}1}) = 13.6 {+-} 2.8 and E (kcal/mol) = 54.5 {+-} 9.1, where the uncertainties are the 95% confidence intervals. The decomposition of DDPh can be described by a reaction network that possesses four parallel primary pathways. The major primary path, which involves dehydrogenation, leads to 2-dodecylphenanthrene. The other three primary paths involve C{single_bond}C bond cleavage, and they lead to 2-methyl-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene plus undecene, to 2-vinyl-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene plus decane, and to numerous minor products. Important secondary and tertiary reactions include the rapid reduction of 2-vinyl-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene to 2-ethyl-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene and the facile dehydrogenation of 2-methyl- and 2-ethyl-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene to form 2-methyl- and 2-ethylphenanthrene, respectively. The identities and relative abundances of the major products are consistent with a free-radical chain reaction mechanism for DDPh pyrolysis. Application is to the processing of hydrocarbon resources such as coals and heavy crude oils.

  12. Thai group set to invest in Chinese petchem complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A $5-billion refinery and petrochemical complex is planned by Thailand's Charoen Pokphand (Bangkok) at the seaport of Nimpoh, near Shanghai. The company has discussed the project with the central government of China, and state oil and petrochemicals company Sinopec (Beijing) is due to complete a feasibility study within the next two months. Charoen's plastics processing subsidiary, Kuo Shen (Hong Kong), is expected to hold 70% in the venture, Sinopec 20%, and the Chinese government the remaining 10%. Western companies have been invited to participate. Solvay (Brussels), a 49% partner with Charoen Pokphand in the Vinythai polyvinyl chloride (PVC) joint venture at Map Ta Pud, Thailand, has not yet made a commitment. The 5-million m.t./year oil refinery would feed the complex, which will be based on a 450,000-m.t./year ethylene plant, downstream aromatics units, and a range of derivatives plants. The complex, which falls outside the many announced for Thailand's current five-year economic plan, is expcted to be implemented in stages. To begin with, a 120,000-m.t./year PVC plant will be built that will be fed on imported vinyl chloride monomer. Charoen is in discussions with process licensers, including Solvay, European Vinyl Corp., BFGoodrich, and Shinetsu. Half the PVC output will be consumed by Kuo Shen in China, where Charoen has several plastics processing units, including one in Shanghai and one in Nimpoh. Meanwhile, Sinopec's Hong Kong subsidiary is seeking partners to invest in joint venture projects in China. Sinopec president Liu Xuemin says the company is willing to cooperate with overseas companies to establish small petrochemical projects. In addition, Sinopec is negotiating with officials of Dayang in Jiangsu province and the special economic zone of Shen Zhen, near Hong Kong, on joint ventures for plastics and food additives.

  13. Responses of the L51781Y tk/sup +//tk/sup -/ mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay: III. 72 coded chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGregor, D.B.; Brown, A.; Cattanach, P.; Edwards, I.; McBride, D.; Riach, C.; Caspary, W.J.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Seventy-two chemicals were tested for their mutagenic potential in the L51781Y tk/sup +///sup -/ mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay, using procedures based upon those described previously. Cultures were exposed to the chemicals for 4 hr, then cultured for 2 days before planting in soft agar with or without trifluorothymidine (TFT), 3 ..mu..g/ml. The chemicals were tested at least twice. Significant responses were obtained with allyl isothiocyanate, p-benzoquinone dioxime, benzyl acetate, 2-biphenylamine HCl, bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl)ether, cadmium chloride, chlordane, chlorobenzene, chlorobenzilate, 2-chloroethanol, chlorothalonil, cytarabine x HCl, p,p'-DDE, diazinon, 2,6-dichloro-p-phenylenediamine, N,N-diethylthiourea, diglycidylresorcinol ether, 2,4-dimethoxy aniline x HCl, disperse yellow 3, endosulfan, 1,2-epoxyhexadecane, ethyl acrylate, ethyl benzene, ethylene thiourea, F D and C yellow Number 6, furan, heptachlor, isophorone, mercuric chloride, 4,4'-methylenedianiline x 2 HCl, methyl viologen, nickel sulfate x 6H/sub 2/O, 4,4'-oxydianiline, pentachloroethane, piperonyl butoxide, propyl gallate, quinoline, rotenone, 2,4,5,6-tetrachloro-4-nitro-anisole, 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane, trichlorfon, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde, 1,1,3-trimethyl-2-thiourea, 1-vinyl-3-cyclopetene dioxide, vinyl toluene, and ziram. The assay was incapable of providing a clear indication of whether some chemicals were mutagens; these benzyl alcohol, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, phenol, succinic acid-2,2-dimethyl hydrazide, and toluene.

  14. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allan, Shawn M.; Baranova, Inessa; Poley, Joseph; Reis, Henrique

    2012-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North America. The second task dealt with a study of current lamination processes in the various laminate industries, and development of concepts for integrating RF lamination into new or existing processes. The third task explored the use of a non-destructive technique for analyzing laminate adhesion with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The fourth task focused on developing concepts for curved glass lamination using RF lamination. The fifth and sixth tasks together comprised an analysis of laminate product markets, ranking for applicability and commercialization potential, and the development of commercialization strategies for those products. In addition, throughout the project as new experimental data and conventional process data were obtained, the benefits analysis of RF lamination was refined. The goals of the project described above were achieved, positioning RF lamination for the next stage growth envisioned in the original Industrial Grand Challenge proposal. Working with Pilkington North America, lamination of flat autoglass with PVB was achieved, meeting all 16 stringent industry tests. In particular, PVB laminates made with RF lamination passed environmental tests including the high temperature, 120 ���°C bake test, without significant formation of bubbles (defects). The adhesion of PVB to glass was measured using the pummel method. Adhesion values ranging from 1 to 7 out of 10 were obtained. The significant process parameters affecting the environmental and adhesion performance were identified through a designed experiment. Pre-lamination process variables including PVB storage humidity and the de-airing process (vacuum or nip rolling) were significant, as well as the level of pressure applied to the laminate during the RF process. Analysis of manufacturing with RF lamination equipment, based on the processes developed indicated that 3 RF presses could replace a typical auto-industry autoclave to achieve equal or greater throughput with possibly less capital cost and smaller footprint. Concepts for curved lamination id

  15. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allan, Shawn M.

    2012-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North America. The second task dealt with a study of current lamination processes in the various laminate industries, and development of concepts for integrating RF lamination into new or existing processes. The third task explored the use of a non-destructive technique for analyzing laminate adhesion with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The fourth task focused on developing concepts for curved glass lamination using RF lamination. The fifth and sixth tasks together comprised an analysis of laminate product markets, ranking for applicability and commercialization potential, and the development of commercialization strategies for those products. In addition, throughout the project as new experimental data and conventional process data were obtained, the benefits analysis of RF lamination was refined. The goals of the project described above were achieved, positioning RF lamination for the next stage growth envisioned in the original Industrial Grand Challenge proposal. Working with Pilkington North America, lamination of flat autoglass with PVB was achieved, meeting all 16 stringent industry tests. In particular, PVB laminates made with RF lamination passed environmental tests including the high temperature, 120 C bake test, without significant formation of bubbles (defects). The adhesion of PVB to glass was measured using the pummel method. Adhesion values ranging from 1 to 7 out of 10 were obtained. The significant process parameters affecting the environmental and adhesion performance were identified through a designed experiment. Pre-lamination process variables including PVB storage humidity and the de-airing process (vacuum or nip rolling) were significant, as well as the level of pressure applied to the laminate during the RF process. Analysis of manufacturing with RF lamination equipment, based on the processes developed indicated that 3 RF presses could replace a typical auto-industry autoclave to achieve equal or greater throughput with possibly less capital cost and smaller footprint. Concepts for curved lamination identifying castable molds for

  16. Historical Material Analysis of DC745U Pressure Pads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz-Acosta, Denisse [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Enhance Surveillance mission, it is the goal to provide suitable lifetime assessment of stockpile materials. This report is an accumulation of historical publication on the DC745U material and their findings. It is the intention that the B61 LEP program uses this collection of data to further develop their understanding and potential areas of study. DC745U is a commercially available silicone elastomer consisting of dimethyl, methyl-phenyl, and methyl-vinyl siloxane repeat units. Originally, this material was manufactured by Dow Corning as Silastic{reg_sign} DC745U at their manufacturing facility in Kendallville, IN. Recently, Dow Corning shifted this material to the Xiameter{reg_sign} brand product line. Currently, DC745U is available through Xiameter{reg_sign} or Dow Corning's distributor R. D. Abbott Company. DC745U is cured using 0.5 wt% vinyl-specific peroxide curing agent known as Luperox 101 or Varox DBPH-50. This silicone elastomer is used in numerous parts, including two major components (outer pressure pads and aft cap support) in the W80 and as pressure pads on the B61. DC745U is a proprietary formulation, thus Dow Corning provides limited information on its composition and properties. Based on past experience with Dow Corning, DC745U is at risk of formulation changes without notification to the costumer. A formulation change for DC745U may have a significant impact because the network structure is a key variable in determining material properties. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of historical DC745U studies and identify gaps that need to be addressed in future work. Some of the previous studies include the following: 1. Spectroscopic characterization of raw gum stock. 2. Spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical studies on cured DC745U. 3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and solvent swelling studies on DC745U with different crosslink densities. 4. NMR, solvent swelling, thermal, and mechanical studies on thermally aged DC745U. 5. NMR, solvent swelling, thermal, and mechanical studies on radiolytically aged DC745U. Each area is reviewed and further work is suggested to improve our understanding of DC745U for systems engineering, surveillance, aging assessments, and lifetime assessment.

  17. Predicting Polymeric Crystal Structures by Evolutionary Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiang Zhu; Vinit Sharma; Artem R Oganov; Rampi Ramprasad

    2014-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The recently developed evolutionary algorithm USPEX proved to be a tool that enables accurate and reliable prediction of structures for a given chemical composition. Here we extend this method to predict the crystal structure of polymers by performing constrained evolutionary search, where each monomeric unit is treated as one or several building blocks with fixed connectivity. This greatly reduces the search space and allows the initial structure generation with different sequences and packings using these blocks. The new constrained evolutionary algorithm is successfully tested and validated on a diverse range of experimentally known polymers, namely polyethylene (PE), polyacetylene (PA), poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), poly(oxymethylene) (POM), poly(phenylene oxide) (PPO), and poly (p-phenylene sulfide) (PPS). By fixing the orientation of polymeric chains, this method can be further extended to predict all polymorphs of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), and the complex linear polymer crystals, such as nylon-6 and cellulose. The excellent agreement between predicted crystal structures and experimentally known structures assures a major role of this approach in the efficient design of the future polymeric materials.

  18. Methods of forming single source precursors, methods of forming polymeric single source precursors, and single source precursors and intermediate products formed by such methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Robert V.; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin; Margulieux, Kelsey R.; Holland, Andrew W.

    2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of forming single source precursors (SSPs) include forming intermediate products having the empirical formula 1/2{L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'X.sub.2}.sub.2, and reacting MER with the intermediate products to form SSPs of the formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2, wherein L is a Lewis base, M is a Group IA atom, N is a Group IB atom, M' is a Group IIIB atom, each E is a Group VIB atom, each X is a Group VIIA atom or a nitrate group, and each R group is an alkyl, aryl, vinyl, (per)fluoro alkyl, (per)fluoro aryl, silane, or carbamato group. Methods of forming polymeric or copolymeric SSPs include reacting at least one of HE.sup.1R.sup.1E.sup.1H and MER with one or more substances having the empirical formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2 or L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'(X).sub.2 to form a polymeric or copolymeric SSP. New SSPs and intermediate products are formed by such methods.

  19. Examination of a Standardized Test for Evaluating the Degree of Cure of EVA Encapsulation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Gu, X.; Haldeman, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Malguth, E.; Reid, C.; Shioda, T.; Schulze, S.; Wang, Z.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The curing of cross-linkable encapsulation is a critical consideration for photovoltaic (PV) modules manufactured using a lamination process. Concerns related to ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) include the quality (e.g., expiration and uniformity) of the films or completion (duration) of the cross-linking of the EVA within a laminator. Because these issues are important to both EVA and module manufacturers, an international standard has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the degree of cure for EVA encapsulation. The present draft of the standard calls for the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the rapid, enabling secondary (test) method. Both the residual enthalpy- and melt/freeze-DSC methods are identified. The DSC methods are calibrated against the gel content test, the primary (reference) method. Aspects of other established methods, including indentation and rotor cure metering, were considered by the group. Key details of the test procedure will be described.

  20. Fort Devens: Cold Climate Market-Rate Townhomes Targeting HERS Index of 40, Harvard, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Achieving aggressive energy efficiency targets requires tight coordination and clear communication among owners, designers, builders, and subcontractors. For this townhome project, MassDevelopment, the quasi-governmental agency owner, selected Metric Development of Boston, teaming with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) and Cambridge Seven Architects, to build very high performing market-rate homes. Fort Devens is part of a decommissioned army base in working-class Harvard, Massachusetts, approximately one hour northwest of Boston. The team proposed 12 net zero energy-ready townhomes, meaning that the application of renewable energy systems would result in annual net zero energy use in the homes. The homes were also designed to achieve a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Index Score of 41 before adding renewables. For this project, CARB drew on its experience working with Rural Development Inc. on a series of affordable townhomes in northern Massachusetts. The team carefully planned the site to maximize solar access, daylighting, and efficient building forms. The basic strategy was to design a very efficient thermal enclosure while minimizing incremental cost increases compared with standard construction. Using BEopt modeling software, the team established the requirements of the enclosure and investigated multiple assembly options. They settled on double-wall construction with dense-pack cellulose fill. High performance vinyl windows (U-0.24, solar heat gain coefficient [SHGC]-0.22), a vented R-59 attic, and exceptional air sealing completed the package.

  1. Technical support document for proposed 1994 revision of the MEC thermal envelope requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conner, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the development of the proposed revision of the Council of American Building Officials` (CABO) 1994 supplement to the 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for maximum component U{sub 0}-value. The 1994 amendments to the 1993 MEC were established in last year`s code change cycle and did not change the envelope requirements. The research underlying the proposed MEC revision was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Standards program. The goal of this research was to develop revised guidelines based on an objective methodology that determines the most cost-effective (least total cost) combination of energy conservation measures (ECMs) (insulation levels and window types) for residential buildings. This least-cost set of ECMs was used as a basis for proposing revised MEC maximum U{sub 0}-values (thermal transmittances). ECMs include window types (for example, double-pane vinyl) and insulation levels (for example, R-19) for ceilings, walls, and floors.

  2. Initiation of atomic layer deposition of metal oxides on polymer substrates by water plasma pretreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Brandt, E.; Grace, Jeremy M. [Eastman Kodak Company, 1999 Lake Avenue, Rochester, New York 14650-2022 (United States)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of surface hydroxyl content in atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide (AO) on polymers is demonstrated by performing an atomic layer deposition of AO onto a variety of polymer types, before and after pretreatment in a plasma struck in water vapor. The treatment and deposition reactions are performed in situ in a high vacuum chamber that is interfaced to an x-ray photoelectron spectrometer to prevent adventitious exposure to atmospheric contaminants. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to follow the surface chemistries of the polymers, including theformation of surface hydroxyls and subsequent growth of AO by ALD. Using dimethyl aluminum isopropoxide and water as reactants, ALD is obtained for water-plasma-treated poly(styrene) (PS), poly(propylene) (PP), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN). For PS, PP, and PEN, initial growth rates of AO on the native (untreated) polymers are at least an order of magnitude lower than on the same polymer surface following the plasma treatment. By contrast, native PVA is shown to initiate ALD of AO as a result of the presence of intrinsic surface hydroxyls that are derived from the repeat unit of this polymer.

  3. Phenolic compounds containing/neutral fractions extract and products derived therefrom from fractionated fast-pyrolysis oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Black, Stuart K. (Denver, CO); Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Kreibich, Roland E. (Auburn, WA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde novolak resins and molding compositions in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenol/neutral fractions extract obtained from fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils. The fractionation consists of a neutralization stage which can be carried out with aqueous solutions of bases or appropriate bases in the dry state, followed by solvent extraction with an organic solvent having at least a moderate solubility parameter and good hydrogen bonding capacity. Phenolic compounds-containing/neutral fractions extracts obtained by fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils from a lignocellulosic material, is such that the oil is initially in the pH range of 2-4, being neutralized with an aqueous bicarbonate base, and extracted into a solvent having a solubility parameter of approximately 8.4-9.11 [cal/cm.sup.3 ].sup.1/2 with polar components in the 1.8-3.0 range and hydrogen bonding components in the 2-4.8 range and the recovery of the product extract from the solvent with no further purification being needed for use in adhesives and molding compounds. The product extract is characterized as being a mixture of very different compounds having a wide variety of chemical functionalities, including phenolic, carbonyl, aldehyde, methoxyl, vinyl and hydroxyl. The use of the product extract on phenol-formaldehyde thermosetting resins is shown to have advantages over the conventional phenol-formaldehyde resins.

  4. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1999 and 1999 Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.

    2000-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A maximum of thirty eight-wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Iron (Total Recoverable), Chloroethene (Vinyl Chloride) and 1,1-Dichloroethane were the most widespread constituents exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during 1999. Trichloroethylene, 1,1-Dichloroethylene, 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, Aluminum (Total Recoverable), Benzene, cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride), Gross Alpha, Mercury (Total Recoverable), Nonvolatile Beta, Tetrachloroethylene, Total Organic Halogens, Trichlorofluoromethane, Tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 144.175 ft/year during first quarter 1999 and 145.27 ft/year during fourth quarter 1999.

  5. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1996 and 1996 summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A maximum of eighty-nine wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane, a common laboratory contaminant, and chloroethene (vinyl chloride) were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1996. Benzene, trichloroethylene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead (total recoverable), gross alpha, mercury (total recoverable), tetrachloroethylene, fluoride, thallium, radium-226, radium-228, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 141 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 132 ft/year during fourth quarter 1996

  6. Nucleophilic substitutions of 1-alkenylcyclopropyl esters and 1-alkynylcyclopropyl chlorides catalyzed by palladium (0)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolle, A. [George-August-Universitaet, Goettingen (Germany)]|[Universite de Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Ollivier, J.; Salauen, J. [Universite de Paris-Sud, Orsay (France)] [and others

    1992-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1-ethenylcyclopropylsulfonates 2e,f and 2-cyclopropylideneethyl esters 10b,c, readily available from cyclopropanone hemiacetal 1, undergo regioselective Pd(0) catalyzed nucleophilic substitution via the unsymmetric 1,1-dimethylene-{pi}-allyl complex 23. With stabilized anions (enolates of malonic ester, {beta}-dicarbonyl compounds, {beta}-sulfonyl ester, and Schiff bases as well as acetate anion, sulfonamide anion, etc.) the nucleophilic substitution occurs at the terminal vinylic position exclusively, providing cyclopropylideneethyl derivatives as building blocks of high synthetic potential. Competition experiments have disclosed that 1-ethenylcyclopropyl tosylate (2e) and cyclopropylideneethyl acetate (10b) are more reactive than dimethylallyl acetates 19 and 22, respectively. Use of chiral phosphines as ligands in the palladium catalyst can provide optically active methylenecyclopropane derivatives. With phenyl-, methyl-, and even n-butylzinc chloride as nucleophiles, the reaction apparently proceeds with initial transfer of the organic residue to palladium, followed by reductive elimination entailing tertiary substitution on the cyclopropane ring exclusively; the same type of product is obtained with azide and bis(trimethylsilyl)amide. But the site of hydride attack to yield reduction products depends on the hydride source. 1-Alkynylcyclopropyl chlorides 12, 13, and 14 react only with organozinc chlorides (nonstabilized nucleophiles) to provide mixtures of ethenylidenecyclopropanes 65 and alkynylcyclopropanes 66, via the {sigma}-palladium complexes 69 and 70, while chloride 15 undergoes mainly reduction. Other transition metal catalysts (Ni, Mo) also induce substitutions, but with poorer regioselectivity. 81 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. [Transition metal mediated transformations of small molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, A.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work on organotransition metal chemistry, homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis is summarized. Several cationic palladium(II) complexes with bulky phosphine or pyridine ligands were discovered that are highly selective catalysts for linear dimerization of vinyl monomers and linear polymerization of p-divinylbenzene, the reactions proceeding through a carbocationic mechanism. Our studies were continued on alternating olefin-carbon monoxide copolymers. The copolymerization reaction and reactivity of copolymers were examined. New catalytic systems for alternating copolymerization of [alpha]-olefins with CO were discovered. In the case of styrene derivatives, tactic copolymers were obtained. Poly(ethylenepyrrolediyl) derivatives were synthesized from alternating ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymer and become electronic conductors when doped with iodine. A catalytic system for direct synthesis of polyureas and polyoxamides from and diamines was also discovered. Pt metal catalyzed the oxidation of ethers, esters, and amines to carboxylic acids and the oxidation of olefins to 1,2-diols. Anaerobic and aerobic decomposition of molybdenum(VI)-oxoalkyl compounds were studied for heterogeneous oxidation of alkanes and olefins on Mo(VI)-oxide surfaces. Synthesis of polymer-trapped metal, metal oxide, and metal sulfide nanoclusters (size <1--10 nm) was studied.

  8. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (third edition). Fourth supplement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 3rd edition, was updated for the following chemicals: allyl-glycidyl-ether, 2-aminopyridine, aspartame, bromine, chlorine, n-butylamine, n-butyl-glycidyl-ether, carbon-dioxide, carbon-monoxide, chlorinated-camphene, chloroacetaldehyde, p-chlorophenol, crotonaldehyde, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, dinitro-o-cresol, ethyl-acetate, ethyl-formate, ethylenimine, sodium-fluoride, hydrogen-fluoride, cryolite, sodium-hexafluoroaluminate, formic-acid, hexachlorobutadiene, hydrogen-cyanide, hydrogen-sulfide, isopropyl-acetate, isopropyl-ether, isopropyl-glycidyl-ether, lead, lead-oxide, maleic-anhydride, methyl-acetate, methyl-acrylate, methyl-tert-butyl ether, methyl-cellosolve-acetate, methylcyclohexanol, 4,4'-methylenedianiline, monomethylaniline, monomethylhydrazine, nitric-oxide, p-nitroaniline, phenyl-ether, phenyl-ether-biphenyl mixture, phenyl-glycidyl-ether, phenylhydrazine, phosphine, ronnel, sulfuryl-fluoride, talc, tributyl-phosphate, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, trimellitic-anhydride, triorthocresyl-phosphate, triphenyl-phosphate, and vinyl-acetate.

  9. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Third and Fourth Quarters 2000 and 2000 Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.A.

    2001-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A maximum of forty wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Quality Assessment Plan. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituent exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during the calendar year 2000. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, benzene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), gross alpha, lead (total recoverable) mercury (total recoverable), thallium (total recoverable), and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate at this unit was approximately 122.64 ft/year during first quarter 2000 and 132.28 ft/year during fourth quarter 2000.

  10. [Transition metal mediated transformations of small molecules]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, A.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work on organotransition metal chemistry, homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis is summarized. Several cationic palladium(II) complexes with bulky phosphine or pyridine ligands were discovered that are highly selective catalysts for linear dimerization of vinyl monomers and linear polymerization of p-divinylbenzene, the reactions proceeding through a carbocationic mechanism. Our studies were continued on alternating olefin-carbon monoxide copolymers. The copolymerization reaction and reactivity of copolymers were examined. New catalytic systems for alternating copolymerization of {alpha}-olefins with CO were discovered. In the case of styrene derivatives, tactic copolymers were obtained. Poly(ethylenepyrrolediyl) derivatives were synthesized from alternating ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymer and become electronic conductors when doped with iodine. A catalytic system for direct synthesis of polyureas and polyoxamides from and diamines was also discovered. Pt metal catalyzed the oxidation of ethers, esters, and amines to carboxylic acids and the oxidation of olefins to 1,2-diols. Anaerobic and aerobic decomposition of molybdenum(VI)-oxoalkyl compounds were studied for heterogeneous oxidation of alkanes and olefins on Mo(VI)-oxide surfaces. Synthesis of polymer-trapped metal, metal oxide, and metal sulfide nanoclusters (size <1--10 nm) was studied.

  11. Ionizing radiation induced degradation of poly (2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy) -1,4-phenylene vinylene) in solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bronze-Uhle, E. S.; Batagin-Neto, A.; Lavarda, F. C.; Graeff, C. F. O. [Department of Physics, FC-UNESP, Av. Eng. Luiz Edmundo Carrijo Coube 14-01, 17033-360 Bauru (Brazil)

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we investigate the causes of the chromatic alteration observed in chloroform solutions of poly (2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) after gamma ray irradiation. Structural and chemical changes were analyzed by gel permeation chromatography, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance techniques and complemented by electronic structure calculations. The results indicate chlorine incorporation in the polymer structure and main chain scission after irradiation. Based on our findings we propose that the main mechanism for the blue-shifts, observed in the UV-Vis absorption spectra of MEH-PPV after irradiation, is the result of a radical attack on the polymer main chain. Gamma rays generate radicals, Cl and CHCl{sub 2} from chloroform radiolysis that attack preferentially the vinyl double bonds of the polymer backbone, breaking the electronic conjugation and eventually the chain. Our results indicate that oxygen does not play a major role in the effect. Electronic spectra simulations were performed based on these assumptions reproducing the UV-Vis experimental results.

  12. Bonding Structure of Phenylacetylene on Hydrogen-Terminated Si(111) and Si(100): Surface Photoelectron Spectroscopy Analysis and Ab Initio Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M Kondo; T Mates; D Fischer; F Wudl; E Kramer

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Interfaces between phenylacetylene (PA) monolayers and two silicon surfaces, Si(111) and Si(100), are probed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, and the results are analyzed using ab initio molecular orbital calculations. The monolayer systems are prepared via the surface hydrosilylation reaction between PA and hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces. The following spectral features are obtained for both of the PA-Si(111) and PA-Si(100) systems: a broad {pi}-{pi}* shakeup peak at 292 eV (XPS), a broad first ionization peak at 3.8 eV (UPS), and a low-energy C 1s {yields} {pi}* resonance peak at 284.3 eV (NEXAFS). These findings are ascribed to a styrene-like {pi}-conjugated molecular structure at the PA-Si interface by comparing the experimental data with theoretical analysis results. A conclusion is drawn that the vinyl group can keep its {pi}-conjugation character on the hydrogen-terminated Si(100) [H:Si(100)] surface composed of the dihydride (SiH{sub 2}) groups as well as on hydrogen-terminated Si(111) having the monohydride (SiH) group. The formation mechanism of the PA-Si(100) interface is investigated within cluster ab initio calculations, and the possible structure of the H:Si(100) surface is discussed based on available data.

  13. Structural foam-core panels in Northwest HUD-code manufactured housing: A preliminary assessment of opportunities and obstacles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durfee, D.L.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This investigation of structural foam-core panels (foam panels) in manufactured housing was initiated during the Super Good Cents (SGC) program. The SGC program limited allowable glazing area because of the relatively high thermal losses associated with most windows. Due to their superior thermal performance, foam panels appeared to be a viable option to allow increased glazing area without compromising the thermal integrity of the wall. With the inception of the Manufactured-Housing Acquisition Program (MAP), however, the focus of this study has shifted. MAP permits unlimited glazing area if expensive, super-efficient, vinyl-framed, argon-gas-filled, low-emissivity coated windows are installed. Although MAP permits unlimited glazing area, a foam panel wall could allow the use of less expensive windows, larger window area, or less insulation and still provide the required thermal performance for the building. Bonneville contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to investigate the feasibility of using foam panels in HUD-code manufactured housing. This study presents the results from a product and literature search. The potential barriers and benefits to the use of foam panels are determined from a regional survey of the HUD-code manufacturers and foam panel producers.

  14. Understanding Molecular Interactions within Chemically Selective Layered Polymer Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary J. Blanchard

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This work focuses on two broad issues. These are (1) the molecular origin of the chemical selectivity achieved with ultrathin polymer multilayers, and (2) how the viscoelastic properties of the polymer layers are affected by exposure to solvent and analytes. These issues are inter-related, and to understand them we need to design experiments that probe both the energetic and kinetic aspects of interfacial adsorption processes. This project focuses on controling the chemical structure, thickness, morphology and sequential ordering of polymer layers bound to interfaces using maleimide-vinyl ether and closely related alternating copolymerization chemistry and efficient covalent cross-linking reactions that allow for layer-by-layer polymer deposition. This chemistry has been developed during the funding cycle of this Grant. We have measure the equilibrium constants for interactions between specific layers within the polymer interfaces and size-controlled, surface-functionalized gold nanoparticles. The ability to control both size and functionality of gold nanoparticle model analytes allows us to evaluate the average “pore size” that characterizes our polymer films. We have measured the “bulk” viscosity and shear modulus of the ultrathin polymer films as a function of solvent overlayer identity using quartz crystal microbalance complex impedance measurements. We have measured microscopic viscosity at specific locations within the layered polymer interfaces with time-resolved fluorescence lifetime and depolarization techniques. We combine polymer, cross-linking and nanoparticle synthetic expertise with a host of characterization techniques, including QCM gravimetry and complex impedance analysis, steady state and time-resolved spectroscopies.

  15. D-area oil seepage basin bioventing optimization test plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, C.J.; Radway, J.C.; Alman, D.; Hazen, T.C.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The D Area Oil Seepage Basin (DOSB) was used from 1952 to 1975 for disposal of petroleum-based products (waste oils), general office and cafeteria waste, and apparently some solvents [trichloroethylene (TCE)/tetrachloroethylene (PCE)]. Numerous analytical results have indicated the presence of TCE and its degradation product vinyl chloride in groundwater in and around the unit, and of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils within the unit. The DOSB is slated for additional assessment and perhaps for environmental remediation. In situ bioremediation represents a technology of demonstrated effectiveness in the reclamation of sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents, and has been retained as an alternative for the cleanup of the DOSB. The Savannah River Site is therefore proposing to conduct a field treatability study designed to demonstrate and optimize the effectiveness of in situ microbiological biodegradative processes at the DOSB. The introduction of air and gaseous nutrients via two horizontal injection wells (bioventing) is expected to enhance biodegradation rates of petroleum components and stimulate microbial degradation of chlorinated solvents. The data gathered in this test will allow a determination of the biodegradation rates of contaminants of concern in the soil and groundwater, allow an evaluation of the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of soil and groundwater at the DOSB, and provide data necessary for the functional design criteria for the final remediation system.

  16. Methods of forming single source precursors, methods of forming polymeric single source precursors, and single source precursors formed by such methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Robert V.; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin; Margulieux, Kelsey R.; Holland, Andrew W.

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of forming single source precursors (SSPs) include forming intermediate products having the empirical formula 1/2{L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'X.sub.2}.sub.2, and reacting MER with the intermediate products to form SSPs of the formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2, wherein L is a Lewis base, M is a Group IA atom, N is a Group IB atom, M' is a Group IIIB atom, each E is a Group VIB atom, each X is a Group VIIA atom or a nitrate group, and each R group is an alkyl, aryl, vinyl, (per)fluoro alkyl, (per)fluoro aryl, silane, or carbamato group. Methods of forming polymeric or copolymeric SSPs include reacting at least one of HE.sup.1R.sup.1E.sup.1H and MER with one or more substances having the empirical formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2 or L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'(X).sub.2 to form a polymeric or copolymeric SSP. New SSPs and intermediate products are formed by such methods.

  17. Experimental Results in Support of Simulating Progressive Crush in Carbon-Fiber Textile Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeTeresa, S J; Allison, L M; Cunningham, B J; Freeman, DC; Saculla, M D; Sanchez, R J; Winchester, S W

    2001-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the findings of an experimental program conducted to support the modeling of the crush behavior of triaxial braid carbon fiber composites. The matrix material as well as braided panels and tubes were characterized in order to determine material properties, to assess failure modes, and to provide a test bed for new analytical and numerical tools developed specifically for braided composites. The matrix material selected by the ACC was an epoxy vinyl ester (Ashland Hetron 922). Tensile tests were used to compare two formulations-one used by the ACC and one recommended by the resin supplier. The latter was a faster reacting system and gelled in one-third the time of the ACC formulation. Both formulations had an average elongation at failure that was only half of the resin supplier's reported value. Only one specimen of each type came close to the reported elongation value and it was shown that failure invariably initiated at both surface and internal defects. Overall, the tensile properties of the two formulations were nearly identical, but those of the ACC system were more consistent. The properties of the ACC matrix formulation were measured in tension, shear, and compression and the average properties obtained in these tests are summarized.

  18. Instrumentation for the detection of halocarbons in ground water. Final report, January 1, 1989 to December 31, 1989. Draft report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An instrumentation strategy has been identified for eventually achieving the reliable and quantitative detection of trace halocarbons in groundwater samples. The instrumentation approach relies upon the initial photoelectrochemical (PEC) degradation of the halocarbon to be detected, immediately followed by its potentiometric electrochemical detection as chloride species. Initial PEC degradation of trace halocarbons was achieved using illuminated n-TiO2 (anatase). Two illumination sources (365 and 254nm) were simultaneously used to promote electron excitation from the anatase valence to conduction band to obtain comparative halocarbon degradation rates. PEC degradation rates for the halocarbons trichloroethylene (TCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) were found to progressively decrease with time. The observation suggested that the initial halocarbon concentration, prior to the inception of PEC degradation, might be determined from the measured degradation rate after a defined photolysis time. The expectation was confirmed by comparing halocarbon degradation rates for simulated contaminated groundwater containing known amounts of halocarbons. As might be expected, PEC degradation rates for halocarbons occurred more rapidly at shorter wavelengths. Such differences in photodegradation rates suggested a means of differentiating between these two halocarbons.

  19. Formation and fluidity measurement of supported lipid bilayer on polyvinyl chloride membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Takuji, E-mail: kobayashi-t@int.ee.tut.ac.jp; Kono, Akiteru, E-mail: kobayashi-t@int.ee.tut.ac.jp; Sawada, Kazuaki [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, 441-8580 (Japan); Futagawa, Masato [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering and Head Office for the Tailor-Made and Baton-Zone Graduate Course, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, 441-8580 (Japan); Tero, Ryugo, E-mail: tero@tut.jp [Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute and Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, 441-8580 (Japan)

    2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We prepared an artificial lipid bilayer on a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane on a Si3N4 layer deposited on a Si wafer. We optimized the experimental condition for the fabrication of the PVC membrane, and obtained a PVC membrane with a flat and uniform surface on the scale of several hundreds of micrometer suitable for a substrate for supported lipid bilayers (SLBs). The SLB of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) was formed on the PVC membrane by the vesicle fusion method. The observation with a conventional epi-fluorescence microscope and a confocal laser scanning microscope gave geometrically uniform images of the SLB on the PVC membrane. The fluidity and the mobile fraction of the SLB was evaluated by the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching method, and compared with that on a thermally oxidized SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate. The SLB on the PVC membrane contained immobile fraction ?30%, but the diffusion in the mobile fraction was two times faster than that in the SLB on SiO{sub 2}/Si, which had little immobile fraction.

  20. Polymeric media comprising polybenzimidazoles N-substituted with organic-inorganic hybrid moiety

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID) [Shelley, ID; Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Jones, Michael G. (Pocatello, ID) [Pocatello, ID

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be included in a separator medium. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2-- where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The separatory medium may exhibit an H.sub.2, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, CH.sub.3, or CO.sub.2 gas permeability greater than the gas permeability of a comparable separatory medium comprising the PBI compound without substitution. The separatory medium may further include an electronically conductive medium and/or ionically conductive medium. The separatory medium may be used as a membrane (semi-permeable, permeable, and non-permeable), a barrier, an ion exhcange media, a filter, a gas chromatography coating (such as stationary phase coating in affinity chromatography), etc.

  1. Health assessment for Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation Proposed National Priorities List Site, Intel Corporation National Priorities List Site, Raytheon Company National Priorities List Site, Mountain View, California, Region 9. CERCLIS No. CAD095989778. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation, the Intel Corporation, and the Raytheon Company each have a facility located approximately 3 miles south of San Francisco Bay in Mountain View, California. The Intel and Raytheon facilities are on the National Priorities List (NPL) while the Fairchild facility is a proposed NPL site. Within the one-half square mile area containing the three sites, 37 potential and two inferred sources of contamination have been identified. The major contaminants for the three sites include trichloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethane, chloroform, tetrachloroethene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113), and vinyl chloride. These contaminants are attributed to the sites and have been found primarily in the ground water and subsurface soil on the sites and in ground water off the sites. Contaminant concentrations in surface soils were within the normal range of background values. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been found in surface water west of the study area in Stevens Creek, an intermittent stream. The source of these contaminants is suspected to be treated ground water that has been pumped from the Fairchild and Raytheon sites and discharged to Stevens Creek under a permit.

  2. Mesophases in polyethylene, polypropylene, and poly(1-butene)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Androsch, Rene J [ORNL; Di Lorenzo, Maria [ORNL; Schick, Christoph [Rostock University, Rostock, Germany; Wunderlich, Bernhard {nmn} [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper contains new views about the amorphous and partially ordered phases of the three polymers listed in the title. The discussion is based on information on structure, thermodynamic stability, and large-amplitude molecular motion. Polyethylene is the basic backbone of all alkene polymers, and the other two are the first members of the vinyl polymers which have stereospecifically placed alkyl side chains. Their multiphase structures consist of metastable crystals, mesophases, and surrounding rigid and mobile amorphous fractions. All these phases have sizes ranging from micrometer dimensions down to nanometers. Besides the phase structures, information about the molecular coupling between the phases must be considered. Depending on temperature, the polymer phases can vary from solid (rigid) to liquid (mobile). New knowledge is also gained by cross-comparison of the title polymers. The experimental information was gained from (a) various forms of slow, fast, and temperature-modulated thermal analysis to identify equilibrium and non-equilibrium states, (b) measurement of structure and morphology at various length scales, and (c) tracing of the large-amplitude molecular motion, the kinetics of order/disorder changes, and the liquid/solid transitions (glass transitions). It is shown that much more needs to be known about the various phases and their coupling to characterize a given polymer and to fine-tune its properties for a given application.

  3. Structural analysis of Bacillus pumilus phenolic acid decarboxylase, a lipocalin-fold enzyme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matte, Allan; Grosse, Stephan; Bergeron, Hélène; Abokitse, Kofi; Lau, Peter C.K. (Biotech Res.)

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The decarboxylation of phenolic acids, including ferulic and p-coumaric acids, to their corresponding vinyl derivatives is of importance in the flavoring and polymer industries. Here, the crystal structure of phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) from Bacillus pumilus strain UI-670 is reported. The enzyme is a 161-residue polypeptide that forms dimers both in the crystal and in solution. The structure of PAD as determined by X-ray crystallography revealed a -barrel structure and two -helices, with a cleft formed at one edge of the barrel. The PAD structure resembles those of the lipocalin-fold proteins, which often bind hydrophobic ligands. Superposition of structurally related proteins bound to their cognate ligands shows that they and PAD bind their ligands in a conserved location within the -barrel. Analysis of the residue-conservation pattern for PAD-related sequences mapped onto the PAD structure reveals that the conservation mainly includes residues found within the hydrophobic core of the protein, defining a common lipocalin-like fold for this enzyme family. A narrow cleft containing several conserved amino acids was observed as a structural feature and a potential ligand-binding site.

  4. Additives and method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sloan, E.D. Jr.; Christiansen, R.L.; Lederhos, J.P.; Long, J.P.; Panchalingam, V.; Du, Y.; Sum, A.K.W.

    1997-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from detrimentally impeding the possible flow of a fluid susceptible to clathrate hydrate formation. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include polymers having lactam rings. Additives can also contain polyelectrolytes that are believed to improve conformance of polymer additives through steric hindrance and/or charge repulsion. Also, polymers having an amide on which a C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} group is attached to the nitrogen and/or the carbonyl carbon of the amide may be used alone, or in combination with ring-containing polymers for enhanced effectiveness. Polymers having at least some repeating units representative of polymerizing at least one of an oxazoline, an N-substituted acrylamide and an N-vinyl alkyl amide are preferred.

  5. Additives and method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sloan, Jr., Earle Dendy (Golden, CO); Christiansen, Richard Lee (Littleton, CO); Lederhos, Joseph P. (Wheatridge, CO); Long, Jin Ping (Dallas, TX); Panchalingam, Vaithilingam (Lakewood, CO); Du, Yahe (Golden, CO); Sum, Amadeu Kun Wan (Golden, CO)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from detrimentally impeding the possible flow of a fluid susceptible to clathrate hydrate formation. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include polymers having lactam rings. Additives can also contain polyelectrolytes that are believed to improve conformance of polymer additives through steric hinderance and/or charge repulsion. Also, polymers having an amide on which a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 group is attached to the nitrogen and/or the carbonyl carbon of the amide may be used alone, or in combination with ring-containing polymers for enhanced effectiveness. Polymers having at least some repeating units representative of polymerizing at least one of an oxazoline, an N-substituted acrylamide and an N-vinyl alkyl amide are preferred.

  6. Thermal chemistry of the Cu-KI5 atomic layer deposition precursor on a copper surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Qiang; Zaera, Francisco, E-mail: zaera@ucr.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal chemistry of a Cu(I) ketoiminate complex, Cu-KI5, resulting from the modification of the known Air Products CupraSelect{sup ®} copper CVD precursor Cu(hfac)(tmvs) designed to tether the two ligands via an isopropoxide linker, was studied under ultrahigh vacuum on a Cu(110) single-crystal surface by using a combination of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Adsorption at low temperatures was determined to take place via the displacement of the vinyl ligand by the surface. Molecular desorption was seen at 210?K, and the evolution of Cu(II)-KI5{sub 2} was established to take place at 280?K, presumably from a disproportionation reaction that also leads to the deposition of Cu(0). Other sets of desorption products were seen at 150, 250, and 430?K, all containing copper atoms and small organic moieties with molecular masses below 100 amu. The latter TPD peak in particular indicates significant fragmentation of the ligands, likely at the C–N bond that holds the vinylsilane-isopropoxide moiety tethered to the ketoimine fragment, and possibly also at the union between the vinylsilane and the alkoxide linker. The 430?K temperature measured for this chemistry may set an upper limit for clean Cu film deposition, but since reactivity on the surface was also found to be inhibited at higher surface coverages, it may be delayed to higher temperatures under atomic layer deposition conditions.

  7. The testing of anti-corrosion tank linings for marine tankers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, G. [George Mills and Associates International, Inc., Humble, TX (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern anti-corrosion tank coatings are complex polymeric systems which are expected to provide corrosion protection after portage of many types of strong chemical and solvent cargoes. Longevity of the applied coating system is a function of the characteristics and quality of the formulated coating as well as the physical application. A tank coating testing program has been developed to evaluate specific failure modes with troublesome representative solvents frequently traded in large multi-tank marine vessels. Methanol, benzene, acetone, ethylene dichloride, vinyl and ethyl acetate, methyl isobutyl ketone, and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate as well as hot crude tall oil have been used as test cargoes to evaluate candidate tank linings. The evaluation techniques utilize monitoring cargo absorption and desorption rates as a function of coating weight followed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) of the test solutions to identify extracted coating materials released into the solvent cargoes. Solvent retention in the lining is followed by GC/MS of coating chips with known exposure histories. Failure modes are demonstrated and mechanisms are proposed.

  8. Climate change and health: Indoor heat exposure in vulnerable populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L., E-mail: jalonne@umich.edu [University of Michigan School of Public Health, Environmental Health Sciences Department, 109 S. Observatory, SPH II, Rm. M6314, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Sanchez, Brisa N., E-mail: brisa@umich.edu [University of Michigan School of Public Health, Biostatistics Department, M4164 SPH II, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States); Jolliet, Olivier, E-mail: ojolliet@umich.edu [University of Michigan School of Public Health, Environmental Health Sciences Department, 6622 SPH tower, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States)] [University of Michigan School of Public Health, Environmental Health Sciences Department, 6622 SPH tower, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States); Zhang, Zhenzhen, E-mail: zhzh@umich.edu [University of Michigan School of Public Health, Biostatistics Department, M4164 SPH II, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States)] [University of Michigan School of Public Health, Biostatistics Department, M4164 SPH II, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States); Parker, Edith A., E-mail: Edith-Parker@uiowa.edu [University of Michigan School of Public Health, Health Behavior and Health Education Department, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States); Timothy Dvonch, J., E-mail: dvonch@umich.edu [University of Michigan School of Public Health, Environmental Health Sciences Department, 1415 Washington Heights, 6642 SPH Tower, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); O'Neill, Marie S., E-mail: marieo@umich.edu [University of Michigan School of Public Health, Environmental Health Sciences Department, 6631 SPH Tower, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction: Climate change is increasing the frequency of heat waves and hot weather in many urban environments. Older people are more vulnerable to heat exposure but spend most of their time indoors. Few published studies have addressed indoor heat exposure in residences occupied by an elderly population. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between outdoor and indoor temperatures in homes occupied by the elderly and determine other predictors of indoor temperature. Materials and methods: We collected hourly indoor temperature measurements of 30 different homes; outdoor temperature, dewpoint temperature, and solar radiation data during summer 2009 in Detroit, MI. We used mixed linear regression to model indoor temperatures' responsiveness to weather, housing and environmental characteristics, and evaluated our ability to predict indoor heat exposures based on outdoor conditions. Results: Average maximum indoor temperature for all locations was 34.85 Degree-Sign C, 13.8 Degree-Sign C higher than average maximum outdoor temperature. Indoor temperatures of single family homes constructed of vinyl paneling or wood siding were more sensitive than brick homes to outdoor temperature changes and internal heat gains. Outdoor temperature, solar radiation, and dewpoint temperature predicted 38% of the variability of indoor temperatures. Conclusions: Indoor exposures to heat in Detroit exceed the comfort range among elderly occupants, and can be predicted using outdoor temperatures, characteristics of the housing stock and surroundings to improve heat exposure assessment for epidemiological investigations. Weatherizing homes and modifying home surroundings could mitigate indoor heat exposure among the elderly.

  9. A novel Whole Air Sample Profiler (WASP) for the quantification of volatile organic compounds in the boundary layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mak, J. E.; Su, L.; Guenther, Alex B.; Karl, Thomas G.

    2013-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The emission and fate of reactive VOCs is of inherent interest to those studying chemical biosphere-atmosphere interactions. In-canopy VOC observations are obtainable using tower-based samplers, but the lack of suitable sampling systems for the full boundary 5 layer has limited the data characterizing the vertical structure of such gases above the canopy height and still in the boundary layer. This is the important region where many reactive VOCs are oxidized or otherwise removed. Here we describe an airborne sampling system designed to collect a vertical profile of air into a 3/800 OD tube 150m in length. The inlet ram air pressure is used to flow sampled air through the 10 tube, which results in a varying flow rate based on aircraft speed and altitude. Since aircraft velocity decreases during ascent, it is necessary to account for the variable flow rate into the tube. This is accomplished using a reference gas that is pulsed into the air stream so that the precise altitude of the collected air can be reconstructed post-collection. The pulsed injections are also used to determine any significant effect 15 from diffusion/mixing within the sampling tube, either during collection or subsequent extraction for gas analysis. This system has been successfully deployed, and we show some measured vertical profiles of isoprene and its oxidation products methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone from a mixed canopy near Columbia, Missouri.

  10. Effect of electrolyte additives in improving the cycle and calendar life of graphite/Li{sub1.1}[Ni{sub1/3}Co{sub1/3}Mn{sub1/3}]{0.9}O{sub 2} Li-ion cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, J.; Chen, Z.; Busking, S.; Belharouak, I.; Amine, K.; Chemical Engineering

    2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-rich layered metal oxide Li{sub 1.1}[Ni{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}]{sub 0.9}O{sub 2} was investigated as a potential positive electrode material for high-power batteries for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. In order to evaluate the power and life characteristics of the graphite/Li{sub 1.1}[Ni{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}]{sub 0.9}O{sub 2} cell chemistry, hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) and accelerated calendar life tests were conducted on several pouch cells containing electrolytes with and without additives. The data show that the cells containing 0.5 wt% lithium bis(oxalate)borate (LiBOB) or vinyl ethyl carbonate (VEC) additives, or the novel lithium difluoro(oxalato)borate (LiDFOB) additive, have much improved cycle and calendar life performance.

  11. Development studies for a novel wet oxidation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhooge, P.M.; Hakim, L.B.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic wet oxidation process (DETOX), which uses an acidic iron solution to oxidize organic compounds to carbon dioxide, water, and other simple products, was investigated as a potential method for the treatment of multicomponent hazardous and mixed wastes. The organic compounds picric acid, poly(vinyl chloride), tetrachlorothiophene, pentachloropyridine, Aroclor 1260 (a polychlorinated biphenyl), and hexachlorobenzene were oxidized in 125 ml reaction vessels. The metals arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cerium (as a surrogate for plutonium), chromium, lead, mercury, neodymium (as a surrogate for uranium), nickel, and vanadium were tested in the DETOX solution. Barium, beryllium, cerium, chromium, mercury, neodymium, nickel, and vanadium were all found to be very soluble (>100 g/l) in the DETOX chloride-based solution. Arsenic, barium, cadmium, and lead solubilities were lower. Lead could be selectively precipitated from the DETOX solution. Chromium(VI) was reduced to relatively non-toxic chromium(III) by the solution. Six soils were contaminated with arsenic, barium, beryllium, chromium, lead, and neodymium oxides at approximately 0.1% by weight, and benzene, trichloroethene, mineral oil, and Aroclor 1260 at approximately 5% by weight total, and 5.g amounts treated with the DETOX solution in unstirred 125. ml reaction bombs. It is felt that soil treatment in a properly designed system is entirely possible despite incomplete oxidation of the less volatile organic materials in these unstirred tests.

  12. Plasma Surface Modification of Polymer Backsheets: Origins of Future Interfacial Barrier/Backsheet Failure (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pankow, J. W.; Glick, S. H.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flexible polymer substrates coated with inorganic oxide moisture barriers are a potential replacement for glass backsheets in thin-film PV (photovoltaic) modules. Silicon oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) represents one potential new backsheet candidate. Barrier deposition runs at NREL have included a nitrogen-rich plasma pretreatment prior to barrier deposition with the intention of cleaning the PET surface and enhancing adhesion of the SiO{sub x}N{sub y} barrier film to PET; however, test coupons of PET/barrier/EVA/TPE failed after damp-heat exposure. (EVA is ethylene vinyl acetate and TPE is Tedlar{reg_sign}-PET-EVA). PET substrates exposed to plasma conditions similar to those used in pretreatment were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to reveal that new low molecular weight PET fragments were created at the PET surface. These fragments are responsible for barrier/PET interfacial failure and barrier transfer to the EVA encapsulant side following damp heat exposure.

  13. Adhesion and Thin-Film Module Reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, T. J.; Jorgenson, G. J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Among the infrequently measured but essential properties for thin-film (T-F) module reliability are the interlayer adhesion and cohesion within a layer. These can be cell contact layers to glass, contact layers to the semiconductor, encapsulant to cell, glass, or backsheet, etc. We use an Instron mechanical testing unit to measure peel strengths at 90deg or 180deg and, in some cases, a scratch and tape pull test to evaluate inter-cell layer adhesion strengths. We present peel strength data for test specimens laminated from the three T-F technologies, before and after damp heat, and in one instance at elevated temperatures. On laminated T-F cell samples, failure can occur uniformly at any one of the many interfaces, or non-uniformly across the peel area at more than one interface. Some peel strengths are Lt1 N/mm. This is far below the normal ethylene vinyl acetate/glass interface values of >10 N/mm. We measure a wide range of adhesion strengths and suggest that adhesion measured under higher temperature and relative humidity conditions is more relevant for module reliability.

  14. Examination of a Standardized Test for Evaluating the Degree of Cure of EVA Encapsulation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Gu, X.; Haldenman, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Malguth, E.; Reid, C. G.; Shioda, T.; Schulze, S. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The curing of cross-linkable encapsulation is a critical consideration for photovoltaic (PV) modules manufactured using a lamination process. Concerns related to ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) include the quality (e.g., expiration and uniformity) of the films or completion (duration) of the cross-linking of the EVA within a laminator. Because these issues are important to both EVA and module manufacturers, an international standard has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the degree of cure for EVA encapsulation. The present draft of the standard calls for the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the rapid, enabling secondary (test) method. Both the residual enthalpy- and melt/freeze-DSC methods are identified. The DSC methods are calibrated against the gel content test, the primary (reference) method. Aspects of other established methods, including indentation and rotor cure metering, were considered by the group. Key details of the test procedure will be described.

  15. Testing Protocol for Module Encapsulant Creep (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M. D.; Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.; Moseley, J. M.; Shah, Q.; Tamizhmani, G.; Sakurai, K.; Inoue, M.; Doi, T.; Masuda, A.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently there has been an interest in the use of thermoplastic encapsulant materials in photovoltaic modules to replace chemically crosslinked materials, e.g., ethylene-vinyl acetate. The related motivations include the desire to: reduce lamination time or temperature; use less moisture-permeable materials; or use materials with better corrosion characteristics. However, the use of any thermoplastic material in a high-temperature environment raises safety and performance concerns, as the standardized tests currently do not expose the modules to temperatures in excess of 85C, yet modules may experience temperatures above 100C in operation. Here we constructed eight pairs of crystalline-silicon modules and eight pairs of glass/encapsulation/glass mock modules using different encapsulation materials of which only two were designed to chemically crosslink. One module set was exposed outdoors with insulation on the back side in Arizona in the summer, and an identical set was exposed in environmental chambers. High precision creep measurements and performance measurements indicate that despite many of these polymeric materials being in the melt state at some of the highest outdoor temperatures achievable, very little creep was seen because of their high viscosity, temperature heterogeneity across the modules, and in the case of the crystalline-silicon modules, the physical restraint of the backsheet. These findings have very important implications for the development of IEC and UL qualification and safety standards, and in regards to the necessary level of cure during the processing of crosslinking encapsulants.

  16. Field Evaluation of the Potential for Creep in Thermoplastic Encapsulant Materials: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M. D.; Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S. R.; Moseley, J. M.; Shah, Q.; Tamizhmani, G.; Sakurai, K.; Inoue, M.; Doi, T.; Masuda, A.; Samuels, S. L.; Vanderpan, C. E.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been recent interest in the use of thermoplastic encapsulant materials in photovoltaic modules to replace chemically crosslinked materials, e.g., ethylene-vinyl acetate. The related motivations include the desire to: reduce lamination time or temperature; use less moisture-permeable materials; use materials with better corrosion characteristics or with improved electrical resistance. However, the use of any thermoplastic material in a high-temperature environment raises safety and performance concerns, as the standardized tests currently do not expose the modules to temperatures in excess of 85 degrees C, though fielded modules may experience temperatures above 100 degrees C. Here we constructed eight pairs of crystalline-silicon modules and eight pairs of glass/encapsulation/glass thin-film mock modules using different encapsulant materials of which only two were designed to chemically crosslink. One module set was exposed outdoors with insulation on the back side in Arizona in the summer, and an identical set was exposed in environmental chambers. High precision creep measurements (+/- 20 um) and performance measurements indicate that despite many of these polymeric materials being in the melt state during outdoor deployment, very little creep was seen because of their high viscosity, temperature heterogeneity across the modules, and the formation of chemical crosslinks in many of the encapsulants as they aged. In the case of the crystalline silicon modules, the physical restraint of the backsheet reduced the creep further.

  17. Ligand field photofragmentation spectroscopy of [Ag(L){sub N}]{sup 2+} complexes in the gas phase: Experiment and theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, Jingang; Puskar, Ljiljana; Esplugas, Ricardo O.; Cox, Hazel; Stace, Anthony J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments have been undertaken to record photofragmentation spectra from a series of [Ag(L){sub N}]{sup 2+} complexes in the gas phase. Spectra have been obtained for silver(II) complexed with the ligands (L): acetone, 2-pentanone, methyl-vinyl ketone, pyridine, and 4-methyl pyridine (4-picoline) with N in the range of 4-7. A second series of experiments using 1,1,1,3-fluoroacetone, acetonitrile, and CO{sub 2} as ligands failed to show any evidence of photofragmentation. Interpretation of the experimental data has come from time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), which very successfully accounts for trends in the spectra in terms of subtle differences in the properties of the ligands. Taking a sample of three ligands, acetone, pyridine, and acetonitrile, the calculations show all the spectral transitions to involve ligand-to-metal charge transfer, and that wavelength differences (or lack of spectra) arise from small changes in the energies of the molecular orbitals concerned. The calculations account for an absence in the spectra of any effects due to Jahn-Teller distortion, and they also reveal structural differences between complexes where the coordinating atom is either oxygen or nitrogen that have implications for the stability of silver(II) compounds. Where possible, comparisons have also been made with the physical properties of condensed phase silver(II) complexes.

  18. INDEPENDENT TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE BUILDING 100 PLUME, FORMER DOE PINELLAS SITE (YOUNG - RAINEY STAR CENTER), LARGO, FLORIDA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy-Dilek, C.; Rossabi, J.; Amidon, M.; Riha, B.; Kaback, D.

    2010-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Contaminated groundwater associated with Building 100 at the Young-Rainey Science, Technology, and Research Center, formerly the DOE Pinellas plant, is the primary remedial challenge that remains to be addressed at the site. Currently, Building 100 is an active industrial facility that is now owned and operated by the Pinellas county government. Groundwater samples collected from monitoring wells recently installed near the southern boundary of the site suggest that contaminated groundwater has migrated off the plant site. In response to the challenges presented by the Building 100 plume, the Office of Legacy Management (LM) requested assistance from the DOE Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation (EM-32) to provide a review team to make technical recommendations so that they can efficiently and effectively address characterization and remediation of the plume. The review team was unanimous in the conclusion that a dynamic strategy that combines a phased implementation of direct push samplers, sensors, and tools can be used to better delineate the extent of contamination, control plume migration, and rapidly remediate the contaminated groundwater at the site. The initial efforts of the team focused on reviewing the site history and data, organizing the information into a conceptual model, identifying appropriate technologies, and recommending an integrated strategy. The current groundwater data from the site indicate a two-lobed plume extending to the east and south. To the east vinyl chloride is the primary contaminant of concern, to the south, vinyl chloride and cis1, 2-DCE are the primary contaminants. The limited data that are available suggest that reductive dechlorination of the TCE is already occurring but is not sufficient to prevent offsite migration of low concentrations of TCE daughter products. The team recommends that DOE pursue a strategy that builds on the natural cleansing capacity of the subsurface with reductive methods including biostimulation and/or bioaugmentation to provide a sustainable remediation system within the flow path of the plume. Additional data will be required to implement this approach and will include: (1) Better delineation of the nature and extent of contamination; (2) Demonstration the plume is currently stable or shrinking; and (3) Demonstration the full reductive dechlorination is occurring. The technical team recommends that DOE use a phased approach to identify residual contamination and to provide rapid installation of remedies. Matrices of characterization and remediation sensors, technologies, and tools were developed by the team in order to match the specific conditions and requirements of the site. The team provides a specific example of remedy that includes the incorporation of a dynamic characterization strategy moving from minimally invasive to more aggressive field techniques, the consideration of multiple complementary remediation approaches based on a spatiotemporally phased approach keyed to the different demands of different parts of the plume, and the integration and sequencing of the characterization and remediation activities.

  19. US/UK second level panel discussions on the health and value of: Ageing and lifetime predictions (u)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castro, Richard G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Many healthy physics, engineering, and materials exchanges are being accomplished in ageing and lifetime prediction that directly supports US and UK Stockpile Management Programs. Lifetime assessment studies of silicon foams under compression - Joint AWE/LANLlLLNL study of compression set in stress cushions completed. Provides phenomenological prediction out to 50 years. Polymer volatile out-gassing studies - New exchange on the out-gassing of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) using isotopic {sup 13}C labeling studies to interrogate mechanistic processes. Infra-red (IR) gas cell analytical capabilities developed by AWE will be used to monitor polymer out-gassing profiles. Pu Strength ageing Experiments and Constitutive Modeling - In recently compared modeling strategies for ageing effects on Pu yield strength at high strain rates, a US/UK consensus was reached on the general principle that the ageing effect is additive and not multiplicative. The fundamental mechanisms for age-strengthening in Pu remains unknown. Pu Surface and Interface Reactions - (1) US/UK secondment resulted in developing a metal-metal oxide model for radiation damaged studies consistent with a Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) potential; and (2) Joint US/UK collaboration to study the role of impurities in hydride initiation. Detonator Ageing (wide range of activities) - (1) Long-term ageing study with field trials at Pantex incorporating materials from LANL, LLNL, SNL and AWE; (2) Characterization of PETN growth to detonation process; (3) Detonator performance modeling; and (4) Performance fault tree analysis. Benefits are a unified approach to lifetime prediction that Includes: materials characterization and the development of ageing models through improved understanding of the relationship between materials properties, ageing properties and detonator performance.

  20. The metal carbonyl promoted rearrangement of aryl-cyclopropenes. II. Approaches towards a model system of dynemicin A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, D.H.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of 3-vinyl- or 3-phenylcyclopropenes to undergo metal carbonyl promoted rearrangement with CO insertion to yield phenol or naphthol derivatives led to investigations using 3-naphthylcyclopropenes with the goal of producing material containing an anthracene carbon framework. Rearrangement of 1-methyl-3-(1,4-dimethoxynaphth-2-yl)cyclopropene, however, only gave material containing the phenanthrene framework. It is the goal of Part I of this thesis to modify a naphthylcyclopropene so that the metal carbonyl induced rearrangement will yield material containing an anthracene framework. A working hypothesis was put forth that focused on the electronic stabilization of certain aromatic intermediates to explain phenanthrene vs. anthracene formation. Semi-empirical calculations performed on model systems to estimate thermodynamic properties supported the hypothesis. Two naphthoquinone derivatives were prepared based on the hypothesis. In the first case, the cyclopropene substituent is arranged in the 2-position of a naphthoquinone-1,4-bisketal; in the second case, the cyclpropene is at C-2 in a 1,4-naphthoquinone. In both cases, the alkene unit (C-2/C-4) is less aromatic' than an alkene unit in a naphthalene ring, and the expected rearrangement can give only the anthraquinone skeleton. Investigations with the bisketal were unsucessful; attempted rearrangement at low temperatures gave only recovered starting material and experiments at higher temperatures polymerized the sensitive cyclopropene. Investigations with the 1,4-naphthoquinone proved modestly successful. Metal carbonyl catalyzed rearrangement with CO insertion to yield anthraquinone was observed. Additionally, low temperature conditions were developed that may prove useful in future work.

  1. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayberry, J.L.; DeWitt, L.M. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Darnell, R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Final Waste Forms (FWF) Technical Area Status Report (TASR) Working Group, the Vitrification Working Group (WG), and the Performance Standards Working Group were established as subgroups to the FWF Technical Support Group (TSG). The FWF TASR WG is comprised of technical representatives from most of the major DOE sites, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the EPA Office of Solid Waste, and the EPA`s Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). The primary activity of the FWF TASR Working Group was to investigate and report on the current status of FWFs for LLNM in this TASR. The FWF TASR Working Group determined the current status of the development of various waste forms described above by reviewing selected articles and technical reports, summarizing data, and establishing an initial set of FWF characteristics to be used in evaluating candidate FWFS; these characteristics are summarized in Section 2. After an initial review of available information, the FWF TASR Working Group chose to study the following groups of final waste forms: hydraulic cement, sulfur polymer cement, glass, ceramic, and organic binders. The organic binders included polyethylene, bitumen, vinyl ester styrene, epoxy, and urea formaldehyde. Section 3 provides a description of each final waste form. Based on the literature review, the gaps and deficiencies in information were summarized, and conclusions and recommendations were established. The information and data presented in this TASR are intended to assist the FWF Production and Assessment TSG in evaluating the Technical Task Plans (TTPs) submitted to DOE EM-50, and thus provide DOE with the necessary information for their FWF decision-making process. This FWF TASR will also assist the DOE and the MWIP in establishing the most acceptable final waste forms for the various LLMW streams stored at DOE facilities.

  2. PVMaT improvements in the manufacturing of the PVI Powergrid{trademark}: Final technical report, 27 October 1997--31 October 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaminar, N.R.; Alexander, T.; Amaya, J.; Bottenberg, W.R.; Carrie, P.; Chen, K.; Hobden, P.; Lawyer, G.; Zimmermann, J.; Sherring, C.

    1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaics International, LLC (PVI), is improving the manufacturing of the Powergrid{trademark} under the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) program in five basic areas: development of an advanced, state-of-the-art lens extrusion system; development of an advanced, state-of-the-art module side extrusion system; development of a second generation automated receiver assembly station; development of low-cost roll-formed steel panel frame members; and development of an automated module assembly process with low usage of volatile organic compounds and hazardous materials. The results of the program were as follows: (1) Manufacturing improvements have led to dramatic improvements in performance, quality, durability and cost. (2) The first ever ethylene vinyl acetate encapsulation system for photovoltaic concentrators was developed, thereby eliminating volatile organic compounds and hazardous materials in the encapsulation process. (3) An in-house extrusion system was developed that produces the highest quality cell assemblies at low labor cost. (4) An advanced automated cell assembly station was developed that produces quality cell assemblies at low labor cost. (5) Solvents have been eliminated in the module assembly eliminating volatile organic compounds and hazardous materials. (6) Roll formed steel panel frame members have been introduced to production that have dramatically reduced cost. (7) A snap-together module assembly has been developed that provides low-cost field assembly of components and thereby also greatly reduced shipping cost. The Powergrid has the potential to be very low cost in the short term. The PVI PVMaT program should allow PVI to reach the cost goals set by the company. This, in turn, will allow PVI to become a substantial player in the PV market and will allow the DOE goals of increased application of PV to become a reality.

  3. Study on the Volatility of Cesium in Dry Ashing Pretreatment and Dissolution of Ash by Microwave Digestion System - 13331

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Chang Heon; Ahn, Hong-Joo; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyuseok [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)] [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the regulation of the activity concentration of Cs-137, Co-58, Co-60, Fe-55, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Nb-94, and Tc-99, and the total alpha from the radioactive waste acceptance criteria, the measurement of the activity concentration of these nuclides in low and intermediate levels of radioactive waste such as in paper, cotton, vinyl and plastic samples was investigated. A dry ashing method was applied to obtain a concentration effect of the samples. Owing to the temperature dependence of the volatility for cesium, the temperature of 300 to 650 deg. C was examined. It was found that 450 deg. C is the optimum dry ashing temperature. After dry ashing, the produced ash was dissolved with HNO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system. The ash sample, for the most part, was completely dissolved with 10 mL of HNO{sub 3}, 4 mL of HCl, and 0.25 mL of HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system using a nova high temperature rotor at 250 deg. C for 90 min until reaching 0.2 g. To confirm the reliability of cesium loss after the performance of the dry ashing procedure, a cesium standard solution for AAS and a Cs-137 standard solution for gamma spectrometry were added to a paper towel or a planchet of stainless steel, respectively. Cesium was measured by AAS, ICP-MS, and gamma spectrometry. The volatility of cesium did not occur until 450 deg. C ashing. (authors)

  4. Potential health impacts from range fires at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willians, G.P.; Hermes, A.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Hartmann, H.M.; Tomasko, D.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study uses atmospheric dispersion computer models to evaluate the potential for human health impacts from exposure to contaminants that could be dispersed by fires on the testing ranges at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. It was designed as a screening study and does not estimate actual human health risks. Considered are five contaminants possibly present in the soil and vegetation from past human activities at APG--lead, arsenic, trichloroethylene (TCE), depleted uranium (DU), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); and two chemical warfare agents that could be released from unexploded ordnance rounds heated in a range fire--mustard and phosgene. For comparison, dispersion of two naturally occurring compounds that could be released by burning of uncontaminated vegetation--vinyl acetate and 2-furaldehyde--is also examined. Data from previous studies on soil contamination at APG are used in conjunction with conservative estimates about plant uptake of contaminants, atmospheric conditions, and size and frequency of range fires at APG to estimate dispersion and possible human exposure. The results are compared with US Environmental Protection Agency action levels. The comparisons indicate that for all of the anthropogenic contaminants except arsenic and mustard, exposure levels would be at least an order of magnitude lower than the corresponding action levels. Because of the compoundingly conservative nature of the assumptions made, they conclude that the potential for significant human health risks from range fires is low. The authors recommend that future efforts be directed at fire management and control, rather than at conducting additional studies to more accurately estimate actual human health risk from range fires.

  5. Study on the recycling of waste PVC compounds from electrical wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roman Jr, Celso, E-mail: romancelso@gmail.com; Zattera, Ademir José, E-mail: romancelso@gmail.com [Center for Exact Sciences and Technology (CCET), University of Caxias do Sul (UCS), Caxias do Sul-RS (Brazil)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The good mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) make it a polymer used in many applications, among which is the coating of wires and cables. The processing of PVC for this application is made using the extrusion process. The PVC waste resulting from extrusion can be recycled or placed on landfills. The objective of this work is to develop recycling methods to decrease the amount of PVC stored in landfills. This work evaluated the influence of successive processing of PVC on the final properties of the obtained compound, which will be used in the process of coating wire and cable by extrusion. The mechanical properties of the electrical wires were assessed according to the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (ABNT NBR 6251). Tests of tensile strength, elongation at break, before and after thermal aging in an oven with air circulation for a period of 168 hours at 100 °C were performed. The degradation of the PVC compound was carried out through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and mechanical properties evaluation. The results showed that the compound can be reprocessed five times keeping the minimum requirements of the ABNT NBR 6251 Standard. Reprocessing was stopped upon color changing (yellowing) of the compound. Yellowing is a characteristic degradation behavior by dehydrochlorination of PVC. FTIR analysis showed changes at 1600 cm{sup ?1}, 1430 cm{sup ?1}, 685 cm{sup ?1} and 614 cm{sup ?1} bands. The performance of the PVC compound for coating electrical wire and cable was fair, meeting the requirements of the ABNT NBR 6251 Standard even after five reprocessing cycles.

  6. Quarterly sampling of the wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch: March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K.L.; Cummins, C.L.; Rogers, V.A.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In March 1994, well point water and near surface water (bucket) samples were collected to further characterize tritium and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch south of 643-E (old burial ground). Groundwater flow paths suggest that compounds detected in water table wells around 643-E would migrate towards the old F-Area effluent ditch and Fourmile Branch. Recent analytical results from near surface water sampling in the wetlands that comprise the old F-Area effluent ditch have shown that tritium and small quantities of VOCs are outcropping in the area. Results of the March 1994 sampling event further support findings that tritium and volatile organic compounds originating from 643-E are outcropping in the wetlands near the old F-Area effluent ditch. Six different analytes were detected in the well points at least once at concentrations greater than the method detection limit: d 1,2-dichloroethylene, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and tritium. 1,2-dichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and tritium were detected at levels above Primary Drinking Water Standards or Maximum Contaminant Levels list. Four analytes, 1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, tritium, and vinyl chloride, were detected at least once at concentrations greater than the method detection limit and least once at concentrations above the PDWS or the MCL. Based on differences in tritium concentrations at each location, it was determined that the sampling devices intercepted different groundwater flow paths. This negated direct comparison of analytical results between devices. However, when VOC concentrations measured at each well point and bucket location were normalized, resulting well point and bucket VOC concentrations were comparable in most cases. These results suggest that volatilization losses of VOCs from the buckets were negligible.

  7. Volatile organic chemical emissions from carpets. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, A.T.; Wooley, J.D.; Daisey, J.M.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this research, was to measure the emission rates of selected individual VOC, including low molecular-weight aldehydes, released by samples of four new carpets that are typical of the major types of carpets used in residences, schools and offices. The carpet samples were collected directly from the manufacturers` mills and packaged to preserve their chemical integrity. The measurements of the concentrations and emission rates of these compounds were made under simulated indoor conditions in a 20-M{sup 3} environmental chamber designed specifically for investigations of VOC. The measurements were conducted over a period of one week following the installation of the carpet samples in the chamber. Duplicate experiments were conducted for one carpet. In addition, the concentrations and emission rates of VOC resulting from the installation of a new carpet in a residence were measured over a period of seven weeks. The stabilities of the week-long ventilation rates and temperatures were one percent relative standard deviation. The four carpets emitted a variety of VOC, 40 of which were positively identified. Eight of these were considered to be dominant. They were (in order of chromatographic retention time) formaldehyde, vinyl acetate, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane), 1,2-propanediol (propylene glycol), styrene, 2-ethyl-l-hexanol, 4-phenylcyclohexene (4-PCH), and 2,6 di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT). With the exception of formaldehyde, only limited data are available on the toxicity and irritancy of these compounds at low concentrations. Therefore, it is difficult to determine at this time the potential magnitude of the health and comfort effects that may occur among the population from exposures to emissions from new carpets. The concentrations and emission rates of most compounds decreased rapidly over the first 12 h of the experiments.

  8. C-C bond unsaturation degree in monosubstituted ferrocenes for molecular electronics investigated by a combined near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and density functional theory approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boccia, A.; Lanzilotto, V.; Marrani, A. G.; Zanoni, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Roma ''La Sapienza'', piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Stranges, S. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Roma ''La Sapienza'', piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); IOM-CNR, Laboratorio TASC, I-34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Alagia, M. [IOM-CNR, Laboratorio TASC, I-34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Fronzoni, G.; Decleva, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 1, I-34127 Trieste, Italy and IOM-CNR Democritos, Trieste (Italy)

    2012-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of an experimental and theoretical investigation of monosubstituted ethyl-, vinyl-, and ethynyl-ferrocene (EtFC, VFC, and EFC) free molecules, obtained by means of synchrotron-radiation based C 1s photoabsorption (NEXAFS) and photoemission (C 1s XPS) spectroscopies, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Such a combined study is aimed at elucidating the role played by the C-C bond unsaturation degree of the substituent on the electronic structure of the ferrocene derivatives. Such substituents are required for molecular chemical anchoring onto relevant surfaces when ferrocenes are used for molecular electronics hybrid devices. The high resolution C 1s NEXAFS spectra exhibit distinctive features that depend on the degree of unsaturation of the hydrocarbon substituent. The theoretical approach to consider the NEXAFS spectrum made of three parts allowed to disentangle the specific contribution of the substituent group to the experimental spectrum as a function of its unsaturation degree. C 1s IEs were derived from the experimental data analysis based on the DFT calculated IE values for the different carbon atoms of the substituent and cyclopentadienyl (Cp) rings. Distinctive trends of chemical shifts were observed for the substituent carbon atoms and the substituted atom of the Cp ring along the series of ferrocenes. The calculated IE pattern was rationalized in terms of initial and final state effects influencing the IE value, with special regard to the different mechanism of electron conjugation between the Cp ring and the substituent, namely the {sigma}/{pi} hyperconjugation in EtFC and the {pi}-conjugation in VFC and EFC.

  9. Fabrication of TiN nanorods by electrospinning and their electrochemical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Dongfei; Lang, Junwei [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yan, Xingbin, E-mail: xbyan@licp.cas.c [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Hu, Litian; Xue, Qunji [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    TiN nanorods were synthesized using electrospinning technique followed by thermolysis in different atmospheres. A dimethyl formamide-ethanol solution of poly-(vinyl pyrrolidone) and Ti (IV)-isopropoxide was used as the electrospinning precursor solution and as-spun nanofibers were calcined at 500 {sup o}C in air to generate TiO{sub 2} nanofibers. Subsequently, a conversion from TiO{sub 2} nanofibers to TiN nanorods was employed by the nitridation treatment at 600{approx}1400 {sup o}C in ammonia atmosphere. A typical characteristic of the final products was that the pristine nanofibers were cut into nanorods. The conversion from TiO{sub 2} to TiN was realized when the nitridation temperature was above 800 {sup o}C. As-prepared nanorods were composed of TiN nano-crystallites and the average crystallite size gradually increased with the increase of the nitridation temperature. Electrochemical properties of TiN nanorods showed strong dependence on the nitridation temperature. The maximum value of the specific capacitance was obtained from the TiN nanorods prepared at 800 {sup o}C. -- Graphical Abstract: TiN nanorods were prepared using electrospinning followed by thermolysis under different atmospheres. Electrochemical properties of the TiN nanorods showed strong dependence on the nitridation temperature. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} TiN nanorods were synthesized by a combination of electrospinning and thermolysis. {yields} Electrochemical properties showed strong dependence on the nitridation temperature. {yields} The TiN nanorods prepared at 800 {sup o}C possessed the highest specific capacitance.

  10. Carbon-hydrogen bond activation and carbon-carbon bond formation in the reaction between ethylene and hexaisopropoxyditungsten

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chisholm, M.H.; Hampden-Smith, M.

    1987-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethylene reacts with certain metal surfaces to give a capping (..mu../sub 3/) ethylidyne ligand. In triosmium carbonyl chemistry ethylene has been shown to undergo successive C-H activation to give a ..mu..-sigma,..pi..-vinyl and a ..mu..-vinylidene ligand. A similar reaction sequence has been reported by Puddephatt and co-workers in the addition of ethyne to a hydrido triangulo platinum complex. The authors have repeatedly emphasized the relationships, both structural and chemical, between reduced metal oxides of molybdenum and tungsten and smaller alkoxide clusters and their larger (closo) counterparts. For example, the square-Mo/sub 4/Cl/sub 4/(O-i-Pr)/sub 4/ and butterfly-Mo/sub 4/Br/sub 4/(O-i-Pr)/sub 2/ molecules are arachno subunits of the M/sub 6/(..mu../sub 3/-X)/sub 8/ cluster unit, and W/sub 4/(O-i-Pr)/sub 12/ represents a fragment of the M/sub 6/(..mu../sub 2/-X)/sub 12/ unit. Furthermore the M/sub 4/-alkoxide clusters are formed from the coupling of M/sub 2/ alkoxides by steric control in the choice of the OR group. Indeed the authors have established that an equilibrium exists between W/sub 4/(O-i-Pr)/sub 12/ and W/sub 2/(O-i-Pr)/sub 6/. One of the authors hypotheses is that these small unsaturated alkoxide cluster units may provide models for active sites on reduced metal oxide surfaces. They describe here the observation of the activation of ethylene by W/sub 2/(O-i-Pr)/sub 6/ under extremely mild conditions.

  11. Catalytic transformations of vinylthiiranes by tungsten carbonyl complexes. A new route to 3,6-dihydro-1,2-dithiins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, R.D.; Perrin, J.L. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry] [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    1999-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    W(CO){sub 5}(NCMe) has been found to transform vinylthiirane and a series of methyl-substituted vinylthiiranes into a series of 3,6-dihydro-1,2-dithiin compounds. Two equivalents of the vinylthiirane are required, and 1 equiv of a butadiene is formed by the transfer of its sulfur atom to the second vinylthiirane, which is then transformed into the dihydrodithiin. The formation of 3,6-dihydro-1,2-dithiin proceeds at 15 turnovers/h at 25 C using vinylthiirane as the catalyst. The catalyst is long-lived (up to 2,000 turnovers have been obtained without loss of activity) and relatively insensitive to air. Methyl substituents on the vinyl group increase the rate of reaction while methyl substituents on the thiirane ring slow it considerably. The introduction of phosphine ligands to the catalyst also leads to significant increases in the rate of reaction. The dithiin complex W(CO){sub 5}({ovr SSCH{sub 2}CH{double_bond}CHC}H{sub 2}) was isolated from the catalytic reactions and was structurally characterized. The dihydrodithiin is coordinated to the tungsten atom through one of its two sulfur atoms. This product was shown to be a species in the catalytic cycle. A mechanism involving a vinylthiirane intermediate that undergoes spontaneous ring opening, followed by addition of a second vinylthiirane to the terminal carbon of the chain, elimination of 1 equiv of butadiene, and formation of a sulfur-sulfur bond leading to the compound above is proposed. The vinylthiirane intermediate is regenerated by ligand substitution which releases the dihydrodithiin product. 3,6-dihydro1,2-dithiin readily polymerizes when its pure form is exposed to visible light. If the polymerization is interrupted at an early stage, 1,2,7,8-tetrathiacyclododeca-4,10-diene, a dimer, can be isolated. The dimer was obtained in 5.6% yield and was structurally characterized crystallographically.

  12. Measuring the structure of thin soft matter films under confinement: A surface-force type apparatus for neutron reflection, based on a flexible membrane approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vos, Wiebe M. de [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's close, BS8 1TS Bristol (United Kingdom); School of Physics, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, BS8 1TL Bristol (United Kingdom); Mears, Laura L. E.; Richardson, Robert M. [School of Physics, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, BS8 1TL Bristol (United Kingdom); Cosgrove, Terence; Prescott, Stuart W. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's close, BS8 1TS Bristol (United Kingdom); Dalgliesh, Robert M. [ISIS Neutron Source, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique surface force type apparatus that allows the investigation of a confined thin film using neutron reflection is described. The central feature of the setup consists of a solid substrate (silicon) and a flexible polymer membrane (Melinex{sup Registered-Sign }). We show that inflation of the membrane against the solid surface provides close and even contact between the interfaces over a large surface area. Both heavy water and air can be completely squeezed out from between the flexible film and the solid substrate, leaving them in molecular contact. The strength of confinement is controlled by the pressure used to inflate the membrane. Dust provides a small problem for this approach as it can get trapped between membrane and substrate to prevent a small part of the membrane from making good contact with the substrate. This results in the measured neutron reflectivity containing a small component of an unwanted reflection, between 10% and 20% at low confining pressures (1 bar) and between 1% and 5% at high confining pressures (5 bar). However, we show that this extra signal does not prevent good and clear information on the structure of thin films being extracted from the neutron reflectivity. The effects of confinement are illustrated with data from a poly(vinyl pyrollidone) gel layer in water, a polyelectrolyte multilayer in water, and with data from a stack of supported lipid-bilayers swollen with D{sub 2}O vapor. The data demonstrates the potential of this apparatus to provide information on the structure of thin films under confinement for a known confining pressure.

  13. Solid Silicone Elastomer Material(DC745U)-Historical Overview and New Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz-Acosta, Denisse [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    DC745U is a silicone elastomer used in several weapon systems. DC745U is manufactured by Dow Corning and its formulation is proprietary. Risk changes without notification to the customer. {sup 1}H and {sup 29}Si{l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace} NMR have previously determined that DC745U contains {approx} 98.5% dimethyl siloxane, {approx}1.5% methyl-phenyl siloxane, and a small amount (<1%) of vinyl siloxane repeat units that are converted to crosslinking sites. The polymer is filled with {approx} 38 wt.% of a mixture of fumed silica and quartz. Some conclusions are: (1) DMA shows that crystallization does have an effect on the mechanical properties of DC745U; (2) DMA shows that the crystallization is time and temperature dependent; (3) Mechanical tests show that DC745U undergo a crystalline transition at temperatures below -50 C; (4) Rate and temperature does not have an effect above crystalline transition; (5) Crystalline transition occurs faster at colder temperatures; (6) The material remains responsive and recovers after warming it to temperature above -40 C; (7) We were able to review all previous historical data on DC745U; (8) Identified specific gaps in materials understanding; (9) Developed design of experiments and testing methods to address gaps associated with post-curing and low temperature mechanical behavior; (10) Resolved questions of post-cure and alleviated concerns associated with low temperature mechanical behavior with soak time and temperature; and (11) This work is relevant to mission-critical programs and for supporting programmatic work for weapon research.

  14. Interstellar Isomers: The Importance of Bonding Energy Differences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anthony J. Remijan; J. M. Hollis; F. J. Lovas; D. F. Plusquellic; P. R. Jewell

    2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present strong detections of methyl cyanide, vinyl cyanide, ethyl cyanide and cyanodiacetylene molecules with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) toward the Sgr B2(N) molecular cloud. Attempts to detect the corresponding isocyanide isomers were only successful in the case of methyl isocyanide for its J(K)=1(0)-0(0) transition, which is the first interstellar report of this line. To determine the spatial distribution of methyl isocyanide, we used archival Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA) array data for the J(K)=4(K)-3(K) (K=0-3) transitions but no emission was detected. From ab initio calculations, the bonding energy difference between the cyanide and isocyanide molecules is >8500 cm^-1 (>12,000 K). That we detect methyl isocyanide emission with a single antenna (Gaussian beamsize(Omega_B)=1723 arcsec^2) but not with an interferometer (Omega_B=192 arcsec^2), strongly suggests that methyl isocyanide has a widespread spatial distribution toward the Sgr B2(N) region. Thus, large-scale, non-thermal processes in the surrounding medium may account for the conversion of methyl cyanide to methyl isocyanide while the LMH hot core, which is dominated by thermal processes, does not produce a significant amount of methyl isocyanide. Ice analog experiments by other investigators have shown that radiation bombardment of methyl cyanide can produce methyl isocyanide, thus supporting our observations. We conclude that isomers separated by such large bonding energy differences are distributed in different interstellar environments, making the evaluation of column density ratios between such isomers irrelevant unless it can be independently shown that these species are co-spatial.

  15. False negative rate and other performance measures of a sponge-wipe surface sampling method for low contaminant concentrations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einfeld, Wayne; Krauter, Paula A.; Boucher, Raymond M.; Tezak, Mathew; Amidan, Brett G. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA); Piepel, Greg F. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA)

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces is known to vary due to sampling methodology, techniques, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. A series of tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge-wipe method. Specific factors evaluated were the effects of contaminant concentrations and surface materials on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD) - and the uncertainties of these quantities. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show a roughly linear dependence of surface roughness on RE, where the smoothest surfaces have the highest mean RE values. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3 x 10{sup -3} to 1.86 CFU/cm{sup 2}). The FNR data were consistent with RE data, showing a trend of smoother surfaces resulting in higher REs and lower FNRs. Stainless steel generally had the lowest mean FNR (0.123) and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD{sub 90} varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm{sup 2} on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. Selecting sampling locations on the basis of surface roughness and using roughness to interpret spore recovery data can improve sampling. Further, FNR values, calculated as a function of concentration and surface material, can be used pre-sampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance, and post-sampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

  16. Mixing in the human carotid artery during carotid drug infusion studied with PET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Junck, L.; Koeppe, R.A.; Greenberg, H.S. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The safety and efficacy of drug infusion into the carotid artery require adequate mixing of the infused solution with carotid blood. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we studied the mixing of solutions infused into the human carotid artery in seven patients by analyzing the distribution of (15O)H2O infused into the carotid artery and by vein. At four infusion rates ranging from 0.5 to 10 ml/min, the variability in distribution averaged 16.5-17.8% among the pixels in a large volume of interest, without dependence on the infusion rate. The overall correlation between (15O)H2O influx with arterial infusion and (15O)H2O influx with venous injection was 0.78-0.82 at the four infusion rates, with no trend toward higher correlations at the faster infusion rates. The distribution into the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral artery territories differed from distribution throughout the entire carotid territory by an average of 6.2-9.6% at the four infusion rates, with no trend toward smaller differences at the faster infusion rates. Infusions performed into a vinyl tube simulating the carotid artery indicated that at 0.5 ml/min, the velocity of fluid exiting the catheter makes no apparent contribution to mixing. We conclude that with infusions at the carotid bifurcation, mixing in the human carotid artery is complete or nearly complete over a wide range of infusion rates. The mixing appears to result from the patterns of blood flow within the artery, and not from jet effects at the catheter tip.

  17. Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Semiannual technical report, 1 January 1996--30 June 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J. [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)] [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two specific objectives of Solarex`s program are to reduce the manufacturing cost for polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic modules to less than $1.20/watt and to increase the manufacturing capacity by a factor of three. This report highlights accomplishments during the period of January 1 through June 30, 1996. Accomplishments include: began the conversion of production casting stations to increase ingot size; operated the wire saw in a production mode with higher yields and lower costs than achieved on the ID saws; developed and qualified a new wire guide coating material that doubles the wire guide lifetime and produces significantly less scatter in wafer thickness; completed a third pilot run of the cost-effective Al paste back-surface-field (BSF) process, verifying a 5% increase in cell efficiency and demonstrating the ability to process and handle the BSF paste cells; completed environmental qualification of modules using cells produced by an all-print metallization process; optimized the design of the 15.2-cm by 15.2-cm polycrystalline silicon solar cells; demonstrated the application of a high-efficiency process in making 15.2-cm by 15.2-cm solar cells; demonstrated that cell efficiency increases with decreasing wafer thickness for the Al paste BSF cells; qualified a vendor-supplied Tedlar/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) laminate to replace the combination of separate sheets of EVA and Tedlar backsheet; demonstrated the operation of a prototype unit to trim/lead attach/test modules; and demonstrated the operation of a wafer pull-down system for cassetting wet wafers.

  18. Low Cost, Single Layer Replacement for the Back-Sheet and Encapsulant Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M. D.; Thapa, P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) based polymers have been formulated for specific use in photovoltaic modules to produce better performance and longer term stability at a lower cost than standard materials. EPDM formulations are advantageous over ethylene vinyl-acetate (EVA) because they can use the same lamination/cure cycle as EVA, they do not need a second back-sheet protective material (e.g. PET/Tedlar), they have a lower glass transition temperature, no melting transition, more constant mechanical moduli as a function of temperature, they are less polar than EVA (provides better corrosion protection), and they have excellent damp heat (85 C/85% relative humidity) resistance against delamination. Module designs typically use EVA on the back side of cells despite the fact that transparency is not advantageous. We have developed a single encapsulant layer that will replace standard module back-sheet constructions consisting of EVA/PET/Tedlar. Because a single low-cost material layer is used, it will provide a significant materials cost savings of about $6 to $8/m{sup 2} as compared to traditional back-sheets. Electrical insulation tests were conducted using 0.85 mm thick stainless steel sheets as a model for a cell. It was found that a polymer layer thickness of about 0.33mm provided better high voltage electrical insulation than a combined film of Tedla (0.038 mm)/PET (0.051 mm)/EVA (0.55 mm). When formulated with a white pigment, reflectivity was comparable to Tedlar{trademark}. Upon accelerated exposure to light at 60C and 60% RH it was found that an EVA layer in front of these materials would decompose before significant yellowing and delamination of the back EPDM layer occurs.

  19. Doxorubicin-Loaded QuadraSphere Microspheres: Plasma Pharmacokinetics and Intratumoral Drug Concentration in an Animal Model of Liver Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Kwang-Hun; Liapi, Eleni A. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology (United States); Cornell, Curt [BioSphere Medical (United States); Reb, Philippe [Biosphere Medical, Research and Development Department (France); Buijs, Manon; Vossen, Josephina A.; Ventura, Veronica Prieto; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H., E-mail: jfg@jhmi.ed [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology (United States)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro and in vivo, doxorubicin-loaded poly (vinyl alcohol-sodium acrylate) copolymer microspheres [QuadraSphere microspheres (QSMs)] for transcatheter arterial delivery in an animal model of liver cancer. Doxorubicin loading efficiency and release profile were first tested in vitro. In vivo, 15 rabbits, implanted with a Vx-2 tumor in the liver, were divided into three groups of five rabbits each, based on the time of euthanasia. Twenty-five milligrams of QSMs was diluted in 10 ml of a 10 mg/ml doxorubicin solution and 10 ml of nonionic contrast medium for a total volume of 20 ml. One milliliter of a drug-loaded QSM solution containing 5 mg of doxorubicin was injected into the tumor feeding artery. Plasma doxorubicin and doxorubicinol concentrations, and intratumoral and peritumoral doxorubicin tissue concentrations, were measured. Tumor specimens were pathologically evaluated to record tumor necrosis. As a control, one animal was blandly embolized with plain QSMs in each group. In vitro testing of QSM doxorubicin loadability and release over time showed 82-94% doxorubicin loadability within 2 h and 6% release within the first 6 h after loading, followed by a slow release pattern. In vivo, the doxorubicin plasma concentration declined at 40 min. The peak doxorubicin intratumoral concentration was observed at 3 days and remained detectable till the study's end point (7 days). Mean percentage tumor cell death in the doxorubicin QSM group was 90% at 7 days and 60% in the bland QSM embolization group. In conclusion, QSMs can be efficiently loaded with doxorubicin. Initial experiments with doxorubicin-loaded QSMs show a safe pharmacokinetic profile and effective tumor killing in an animal model of liver cancer.

  20. Kinetics of thermal de-chlorination of PVC under pyrolytic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castro, Alexandra, E-mail: acastro@cvresiduos.pt [CVR - Centro para a Valorizacao de Residuos (Center for Waste Valorization), Guimaraes (Portugal); CT2M - Centre for Mechanical and Materials Technologies, Mechanical Engineering Department of Minho University, Guimaraes (Portugal); Soares, Delfim; Vilarinho, Candida; Castro, Fernando [CT2M - Centre for Mechanical and Materials Technologies, Mechanical Engineering Department of Minho University, Guimaraes (Portugal)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several tests were performed in DTA/TGA for understanding the thermal behavior of pure PVC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We did a kinetic model for the de-chlorination of PVC molecule. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A temperature of 340 Degree-Sign C was defined as the optimum temperature for breaking the bond of chlorine in the PVC molecule. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The experimental validation of this temperature, led to a removal rate of 99.9% chlorine. - Abstract: Although PVC-containing wastes are an important potential source of energy they are frequently disposed in landfill. In thermal treatment processes such as pyrolysis and gasification, the presence of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), a compound with 56.7% of chlorine, may cause problems concerned with environmental protection, as consequence of the formation of hydrochloric acid, chlorine gas and dioxins, as well as corrosion phenomena of the reactor/equipment materials. Thus, a possible solution may involve a previous removal of the chlorine from PVC containing waste through a pyrolysis process at low temperatures before the material being submitted to a subsequent thermal treatment, for energetic valorization. In this work, a kinetic model for the thermal decomposition of PVC has been developed, in view of its de-chlorination. DTA/TGA testing at different temperatures indicated a first order reaction and an activation energy of 133,800 J/mol. An almost completed de-chlorination reaction was obtained at 340 Degree-Sign C under an inert atmosphere. The resulted material is a C{sub n}H{sub n} type polymer with potential to be used in an energy recovery process. Validation test performed at laboratory scale indicate that the temperature of 340 Degree-Sign C enables the removal of {approx}99.9% of the chlorine present in PVC. The chloride can be fixed in the form of an aqueous solution of HCl or calcium chloride, driving to an alternative full process with environmental benefits and reduction of the costs associated to the PCV - containing materials/wastes management.

  1. Solar-Powered Air Stripping at the Rocky Flats Site, Colorado - 12361

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boylan, John A. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Rocky Flats Site, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, Colorado 80021 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Site (the Site), near Denver, Colorado, is a former nuclear weapons facility that was constructed beginning in 1951. With the end of the Cold War, the Site was cleaned up and closed in 2005. Four gravity-driven groundwater treatment systems were installed during cleanup, and their continued operation was incorporated into the final remedy for the Site. All utilities, including electrical power, were removed as part of this closure, so all Site electrical power needs are now met with small solar-powered systems. The Mound Site Plume Treatment System (MSPTS) was installed in 1998 as an innovative system based on zero-valent iron (ZVI). Groundwater flow from the Mound source area containing elevated concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily in the tetrachloroethene (PCE)-trichloroethene (TCE) family of chlorinated solvents, is intercepted by a collection trench and routed to twin ZVI treatment cells. Later, in 2005, remediation of VOC-contaminated soils at a second up-gradient source area included adding an electron donor to the backfill to help stimulate biodegradation. This reduced concentrations of primary constituents but caused down-gradient groundwater to contain elevated levels of recalcitrant degradation byproducts, particularly cis-1,2-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride. A gravel drain installed as part of the 2005 remediation directs contaminated groundwater from this second source area to the MSPTS for treatment. This additional contaminant load, coupled with correspondingly reduced residence time within the ZVI media due to the increased flow rate, resulted in reduced treatment effectiveness. Elevated concentrations of VOCs were then detected in MSPTS effluent, as well as in surface water at the downstream performance monitoring location for the MSPTS. Subsequent consultations with the Site regulators led to the decision to add a polishing component to reduce residual VOCs in MSPTS effluent. Initially, several alternatives such as commercial air strippers and cascade aerators were evaluated; resulting cost estimates exceeded $100,000. After several simpler alternatives were considered and prototype testing was conducted, the existing effluent metering manhole was converted to house a spray-nozzle based, solar-powered air stripper, at a cost of approximately $20,000. About two-thirds of this cost was for the solar power system, which was initially designed to only provide power for 12 hours per day. Performance data are being collected and adjustments made to optimize the design, determine maintenance requirements, and establish power needs for continuous operation. Analytical data confirm the air stripper is sharply reducing concentrations of residual contaminants. (authors)

  2. Blade System Design Study. Part II, final project report (GEC).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, Dayton A. (DNV Global Energy Concepts Inc., Seattle, WA)

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Wind Speed Turbine program, Global Energy Concepts LLC (GEC)1 has studied alternative composite materials for wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt size range. This work in one of the Blade System Design Studies (BSDS) funded through Sandia National Laboratories. The BSDS program was conducted in two phases. In the Part I BSDS, GEC assessed candidate innovations in composite materials, manufacturing processes, and structural configurations. GEC also made recommendations for testing composite coupons, details, assemblies, and blade substructures to be carried out in the Part II study (BSDS-II). The BSDS-II contract period began in May 2003, and testing was initiated in June 2004. The current report summarizes the results from the BSDS-II test program. Composite materials evaluated include carbon fiber in both pre-impregnated and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) forms. Initial thin-coupon static testing included a wide range of parameters, including variation in manufacturer, fiber tow size, fabric architecture, and resin type. A smaller set of these materials and process types was also evaluated in thin-coupon fatigue testing, and in ply-drop and ply-transition panels. The majority of materials used epoxy resin, with vinyl ester (VE) resin also used for selected cases. Late in the project, testing of unidirectional fiberglass was added to provide an updated baseline against which to evaluate the carbon material performance. Numerous unidirectional carbon fabrics were considered for evaluation with VARTM infusion. All but one fabric style considered suffered either from poor infusibility or waviness of fibers combined with poor compaction. The exception was a triaxial carbon-fiberglass fabric produced by SAERTEX. This fabric became the primary choice for infused articles throughout the test program. The generally positive results obtained in this program for the SAERTEX material have led to its being used in innovative prototype blades of 9-m and 30-m length, as well as other non-wind related structures.

  3. Groundwater Transport of Organic Compounds in Old Salvage Yard, Oak Ridge, TN - 12089

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak [Civil Engineering and Construction Department, Bradley University, Peoria, IL 61625 (United States); Tachiev, Georgio; Roelant, David [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary [Pro2Serve Professional Project Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1950's and early 1960's during production of nuclear weapons at the US Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge TN, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as well as heavy metals, nitrates, and radionuclides were released to the environment. Field investigations revealed that much of this contamination is still present in soil, bedrock, and groundwater. Operational buildings and old disposal facilities at the site have been identified as major sources of contamination. The Old Salvage Yard (OSY) on the western side of the site has long been characterized as the major source of VOC contamination in soil and groundwater. In order to analyze the fate and transport of VOC contamination- including tetrachloroethene (PCE), 1,2- dichloroethene (1,2-DCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-1,2-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) - in groundwater and soil at the vicinity of OSY, an integrated surface and subsurface flow and transport model has been developed for the Y-12 NSC using the hydrodynamic and transport numerical package, MIKE-SHE. Hydrogeological characteristics of the site such as hydraulic conductivity, and transport parameters such as partitioning coefficients were varied in an effort to delineate subsurface flow and transport pathways, potential downstream impacts on Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, and the potential risk to industrial workers involved in related Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) activities. The simulation results were compared with the analytical modeling results previously performed by McLane Environmental Inc. using SESOIL-AT123D. Specific simulations have been performed to investigate the effect of possible remedial action (removing the contaminated surface soil layers) on the fate and transport of VOCs. The results of the MIKE-SHE reported here can be considered as an upper limit for the predicted concentrations. Based on MIKE-SHE results, PCE, 1,2 DCE, cis-1,2-DCE, and VC are sources in soil with potential to equal or exceed industrial groundwater hazard and risk levels at the vicinity of OSY. VOC contaminants in soil and groundwater will decay below industrial groundwater risk and hazard levels within approximately 20 years. Excavation of surface soil layers at the site will considerably reduce the concentration of VOCs in groundwater and the possibility of migration of VOCs to surface waters. (authors)

  4. Side-by-Side Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the PNNL Lab Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To examine the energy, air leakage, and thermal performance of highly insulating windows, a field evaluation was undertaken in a matched pair of all-electric, factory-built “Lab Homes” located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in Richland, Washington. The “baseline” Lab Home B was retrofitted with “standard” double-pane clear aluminum-frame slider windows and patio doors, while the “experimental” Lab Home A was retrofitted with Jeld-Wen® triple-pane vinyl-frame slider windows and patio doors with a U-factor of 0.2 and solar heat gain coefficient of 0.19. To assess the window, the building shell air leakage, energy use, and interior temperatures of each home were compared during the 2012 winter heating and summer cooling seasons. The measured energy savings in Lab Home B averaged 5,821 watt-hours per day (Wh/day) during the heating season and 6,518 Wh/day during the cooling season. The overall whole-house energy savings of Lab Home B compared to Lab Home A are 11.6% ± 1.53% for the heating season and 18.4 ± 2.06% for the cooling season for identical occupancy conditions with no window coverings deployed. Extrapolating these energy savings numbers based on typical average heating degree days and cooling degree days per year yields an estimated annual energy savings of 12.2%, or 1,784 kWh/yr. The data suggest that highly insulating windows are an effective energy-saving measure that should be considered for high-performance new homes and in existing retrofits. However, the cost effectiveness of the measure, as determined by the simple payback period, suggests that highly insulating window costs continue to make windows difficult to justify on a cost basis alone. Additional reductions in costs via improvements in manufacturing and/or market penetration that continue to drive down costs will make highly insulating windows much more viable as a cost-effective energy efficiency measure. This study also illustrates that highly insulating windows have important impacts on peak load, occupant comfort, and condensation potential, which are not captured in the energy savings calculation. More consistent and uniform interior temperature distributions suggest that highly insulated windows, as part of a high performance building envelope, may enable more centralized duct design and downsized HVAC systems. Shorter, more centralized duct systems and smaller HVAC systems to yield additional cost savings, making highly insulating windows more cost effective as part of a package of new construction or retrofit measures which achieve significant reductions in home energy use.

  5. Scaleable production and separation of fermentation-derived acetic acid. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

    2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Half of U.S. acetic acid production is used in manufacturing vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) and is economical only in very large production plants. Nearly 80% of the VAM is produced by methanol carbonylation, which requires high temperatures and exotic construction materials and is energy intensive. Fermentation-derived acetic acid production allows for small-scale production at low temperatures, significantly reducing the energy requirement of the process. The goal of the project is to develop a scaleable production and separation process for fermentation-derived acetic acid. Synthesis gas (syngas) will be fermented to acetic acid, and the fermentation broth will be continuously neutralized with ammonia. The acetic acid product will be recovered from the ammonium acid broth using vapor-based membrane separation technology. The process is summarized in Figure 1. The two technical challenges to success are selecting and developing (1) microbial strains that efficiently ferment syngas to acetic acid in high salt environments and (2) membranes that efficiently separate ammonia from the acetic acid/water mixture and are stable at high enough temperature to facilitate high thermal cracking of the ammonium acetate salt. Fermentation - Microbial strains were procured from a variety of public culture collections (Table 1). Strains were incubated and grown in the presence of the ammonium acetate product and the fastest growing cultures were selected and incubated at higher product concentrations. An example of the performance of a selected culture is shown in Figure 2. Separations - Several membranes were considered. Testing was performed on a new product line produced by Sulzer Chemtech (Germany). These are tubular ceramic membranes with weak acid functionality (see Figure 3). The following results were observed: (1) The membranes were relatively fragile in a laboratory setting; (2) Thermally stable {at} 130 C in hot organic acids; (3) Acetic acid rejection > 99%; and (4) Moderate ammonia flux. The advantages of producing acetic acid by fermentation include its appropriateness for small-scale production, lower cost feedstocks, low energy membrane-based purification, and lower temperature and pressure requirements. Potential energy savings of using fermentation are estimated to be approximately 14 trillion Btu by 2020 from a reduction in natural gas use. Decreased transportation needs with regional plants will eliminate approximately 200 million gallons of diesel consumption, for combined savings of 45 trillion Btu. If the fermentation process captures new acetic acid production, savings could include an additional 5 trillion Btu from production and 7 trillion Btu from transportation energy.

  6. Inexpensive CO2 Thickening Agents for Improved Mobility Control of CO2 Floods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Enick; Eric Beckman; Andrew Hamilton

    2005-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research was the design, synthesis and evaluation of inexpensive, non-fluorous carbon dioxide thickening agents. We followed the same strategy employed in the design of fluorinated CO{sub 2} polymeric thickeners. First, a highly CO{sub 2}-philic, hydrocarbon-based monomer was to be identified. Polymers or oligomers of this monomer were then synthesized. The second step was to design a CO{sub 2}-thickener based on these CO{sub 2}-philic polymers. Two types of thickeners were considered. The first was a copolymer in which the CO{sub 2}-philic monomer was combined with a small proportion of CO{sub 2}-phobic associating groups that could cause viscosity-enhancing intermolecular interactions to occur. The second was a small hydrogen-bonding compound with urea groups in the core to promote intermolecular interactions that would cause the molecules to 'stack' in solution while the arms were composed of the CO{sub 2}-philic oligomers. Although we were not able to develop a viable thickener that exhibited high enough CO{sub 2} solubility at EOR MMP conditions to induce a viscosity increase, we made significant progress in our understanding of CO{sub 2}-soluble compounds that can be used in subsequent studies to design CO{sub 2}-soluble thickeners or CO{sub 2}-soluble surfactant-based foaming agents. These findings are detailed in this final report. In summary, we assessed many polymers and verified that the most CO{sub 2}-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon polymer is poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc. This is primarily due to the presence of both ether and carbonyl oxygens associated with acetate-rich compounds. In addition to polymers, we also made small acetate-rich molecules that were also capable of associating in solution via the inclusion of hydrogen-bonding groups in hopes of forming viscosity-enhancing macromolecules. Despite the presence of multiple acetate groups in these compounds, which can impart incredible CO{sub 2}-solubility to many compounds, our attempts to make acetate-rich high molecular weight polymers and small hydrogen-bonding compounds did not yield a highly CO{sub 2}-soluble polymer or hydrogen-bonding associative thickener. The conclusions of our molecular modeling calculations confirmed that although acetates are indeed 'CO{sub 2}-philic', nitrogen-containing amines also interact favorably with CO{sub 2} and should also be examined. Therefore we obtained and synthesized many N-rich (e.g. amine-containing) polymers. Unfortunately, we found that the intermolecular polymer-polymer interactions between the amines were so strong that the polymers were essentially insoluble in CO{sub 2}. For the convenience of the reader, a table of all of the polymers evaluated during this research is provided.

  7. Final Report, "Molecular Design of Hydrocarbon Oxidation Catalytic Processes"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Professor Francisco Zaera

    2007-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of this project had been to use model systems to correlate selectivities in partial oxidation catalysis with the presence of specific sites on the surface of the catalyst. Extensive work was performed this year on characterizing oxygen-treated nickel surfaces by chemical means. Specifically, the surface chemistry of ammonia coadsorbed with atomic oxygen on Ni(110) single-crystal surfaces was studied by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was determined that at intermediate oxygen coverages direct ammonia adsorption on nickel sites is suppressed, but a new high-temperature reaction regime is generated at 400 K where NHx surface fragments are rehydrogenated concurrently with the production of water and molecular hydrogen. The extensive isotope scrambling and hydrogen transfer seen from nitrogen- to oxygen-containing surface intermediates, and the optimum yields seen for this 400 K state at intermediate oxygen coverages, strongly suggest the direct interaction of the adsorbed ammonia with oxygen atoms at the end of the –Ni–O- rows that form upon reconstruction of the surface. Hydrogen transfer between ammonia and oxygen appears to take place directly via hydrogen bonding, and to be reversible but biased towards water formation. An equilibrium is reached between the produced water and the reacting surface oxygen and hydrogen. The strong influence of the OH surface groups on the thermal chemistry of the adsorbed ammonia was interpreted in terms of the adsorbing geometry of the OH groups on the surface, and of hydrogen bonding between adsorbed OH and NH3 species. In terms of alcohol reactivity, the adsorption of 2-iodoethanol, a precursor for the preparation of 2-hydroxyethyl and oxametallacycle surface species, was found to lead to two configurations involving either just the iodine atom or both iodine and hydroxyl ends of the molecule. A complex chemical behavior starts around 140 K with the production of small amounts of ethylene and water, most likely via the concerted decomposition or disproportionation of the adsorbed molecular species. The bulk of the 2-iodoethanol decomposes at about 150 K via an initial carbon-iodine scission to form –O(H)CH2CH2– (~80%) and 2-hydroxyethyl (~20%) intermediates. Two competing reactions are involved with the subsequent conversion of the 2-hydroxyethyl species around 160 K, a reductive elimination with surface hydrogen to yield ethanol, and a ?-H elimination to surface vinyl alcohol. The –O(H)CH2CH2–, on the other hand, dehydrogenates to a –OCH2CH2– oxametallacycle species about the same temperature. Both 2-hydroxyethyl and oxametallacycle species tautomerize to acetaldehyde, around 210 K and above 250 K, respectively, and some of that acetaldehyde desorbs while the rest decomposes to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. We contend that a better understanding of the surface chemistry of oxygen-containing surfaces can lead to better selectivities in catalysis. This is arguably the most important issue in the field of catalysis in the near future, and one that impacts several technologies of interest to DOE such as the manufacturing of speciality chemicals and the control and removal of pollutants. Additional work was performed on the characterization of the chemistry of methyl and methylene adsorbed species on oxygen-treated nickel surfaces. Complex chemistry was observed involving not only hydrogenation and dehydrogenation steps, but also C-C couplings and methylene insertions to produce heavier hydrocarbons, and oxygen insertion reactions that yield oxygenates. Finally, a dual titration technique employing xenon and a chemically sensitive probe was developed to identify minority catalytic sites on oxide surfaces. In the case of oxygen-treated Ni(110) single crystals, it was found that both hydrogen transfer with adsorbed water or ammonia and certain hydrocarbon hydrogenation reactions take place at the end of the –Ni–O rows that form in this system. Carbon and nitrogen oxides, on the other hand, display no pre

  8. ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS ? FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar, Olivia; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Four unoccupied FEMA temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess their indoor emissions of volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde. Measurement of whole-THU VOC and aldehyde emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of floor area) for each of the four THUs were made at FEMA's Purvis MS staging yard using a mass balance approach. Measurements were made in the morning, and again in the afternoon in each THU. Steady-state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 378 mu g m-3 (0.31ppm) to 632 mu g m-3 (0.52 ppm) in the AM, and from 433 mu g m-3 (0.35 ppm) to 926 mu g m-3 (0.78 ppm) in the PM. THU air exchange rates ranged from 0.15 h-1 to 0.39 h-1. A total of 45 small (approximately 0.025 m2) samples of surface material, 16 types, were collected directly from the four THUs and shipped to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The material samples were analyzed for VOC and aldehyde emissions in small stainless steel chambers using a standard, accurate mass balance method. Quantification of VOCs was done via gas chromatography -- mass spectrometry and low molecular weight aldehydes via high performance liquid chromatography. Material specific emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of material) were quantified. Approximately 80 unique VOCs were tentatively identified in the THU field samples, of which forty-five were quantified either because of their toxicological significance or because their concentrations were high. Whole-trailer and material specific emission factors were calculated for 33 compounds. The THU emission factors and those from their component materials were compared against those measured from other types of housing and the materials used in their construction. Whole THU emission factors for most VOCs were typically similar to those from comparative housing. The three exceptions were exceptionally large emissions of formaldehyde and TMPD-DIB (a common plasticizer in vinyl products), and somewhat elevated for phenol. Of these three compounds, formaldehyde was the only one with toxicological significance at the observed concentrations. Whole THU formaldehyde emissions ranged from 173 to 266 mu g m-2 h 1 in the morning and 257 to 347 mu g m-2 h-1 in the afternoon. Median formaldehyde emissions in previously studied site-built and manufactured homes were 31 and 45 mu g m-2 h-1, respectively. Only one of the composite wood materials that was tested appeared to exceed the HUD formaldehyde emission standard (430 mu g/m2 h-1 for particleboard and 130 mu g/m2 h-1 for plywood). The high loading factor (material surface area divided by THU volume) of composite wood products in the THUs and the low fresh air exchange relative to the material surface area may be responsible for the excessive concentrations observed for some of the VOCs and formaldehyde.

  9. A STUDY OF FUNDAMENTAL REACTION PATHWAYS FOR TRANSITION METAL ALKYL COMPLEXES. I. THE REACTION OF A NICKEL METHYL COMPLEX WITH ALKYNES. II. THE MECHANISM OF ALDEHYDE FORMATION IN THE REACTION OF A MOLYBDENUM HYDRIDE WITH MOLYBDENUM ALKYLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, John Mitchell

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I. This study reports the rapid reaction under mild conditions of internal or terminal alkynes with methyl (acetyl~ acetonato) (triphenylphosphine) nickel (1) in either aromatic or ether solvents. In all cases vinylnickel products 2 are formed by insertion of the alkyne into the nickel=methyl bond. These complexes may be converted into a variety of organic products (e.g. alkenes, esters, vinyl halides) by treatment with appropriate reagents. Unsymmetrical alkynes give selectively the one regioisomer with the sterically largest substituent next to the nickel atom. In order to investigate the stereochemistry of the initial insertion, a x-ray diffraction study of the reaction of 1 with diphenylacetylene was carried out. This showed that the vinylnickel complex formed by overall trans insertion was the product of the reaction. Furthermore, subsequent slow isomerization of this complex, to a mixture of it and the corresponding cis isomer, demonstrated that this trans addition product is the kinetic product of the reaction. In studies with other alkynes, the product of trans addition was not always exclusively (or even predominantly) formed, but the ratio of the stereoisomers formed kinetically was substantially different from the thermodynamic ratio. Isotope labeling, added phosphine, and other experiments have allowed us to conclude that the mechanism of this reaction does involve initial cis addition. However, a coordinatively unsaturated vinylnickel complex is initially formed which can undergo rapid, phosphine-catalyzed cis-trans isomerization in competition with its conversion to the isolable phosphine-substituted kinetic reaction products. II. The reaction of CpMo(CO){sub 3}H (1a) with CpMo(CO){sub 3}R (2, R= CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}) at 50{degrees} C in THF gives the aldehyde RCHO and the dimers [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2} (3a) and [CpMo(CO){sub 2}]{sub 2} (4a). Labeling one of the reactants with a methylcyclopentadienyl ligand it was possible to show that the mixed dimers MeCpMo(CO){sub 3}-(CO){sub 3}MoCp (3b) and MeCpMo(CO){sub 2}{triple_bond}(CO){sub 2}MoCp (4b) are the predominant kinetic products of the reaction. Additionally labeling the carbonyl ligands of 1a with {sup 13}CO led to the conclusion that all three of the carbonyl ligands in 1a end up in the tetracarbonyl dimers 4a if the reaction is carried out under a continuous purge of argon Trapping studies failed to find any evidence for the intermediacy of either [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sup -} or [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sup +} in this reaction. A mechanism is proposed that involves the initial migration of the alkyl ligand in 2 to CO forming an unsaturated acyl complex which reacts with 1a to give a binuclear complex containing a three center-two electron Mo-H-Mo bond. This complex then selectively looses a carbonyl from the acyl molybdenum, migrates the hydride to that same metal, and forms a metal-metal bond. This binuclear complex with the hydride and acyl ligands on one metal reductively eliminates aldehyde, and migrates a carbonyl ligand, to give 4a directly. The other product 3a is formed by addition of two molecules of free CO to 4a.

  10. Evaluation of Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) forIndoor Air Applications: Conversion of Volatile Organic Compounds at LowPart-per-Billion Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient removal of indoor generated airborne particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in office buildings and other large buildings may allow for a reduction in outdoor air supply rates with concomitant energy savings while still maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in these buildings. Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaners have the potential to achieve the necessary reductions in indoor VOC concentrations at relatively low cost. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted with a scaled, prototype UVPCO device designed for use in a duct system. The experimental UVPCO contained two 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths coated with titanium dioxide and 3% by weight tungsten oxide. The monoliths were irradiated with 12 UVC lamps arranged in four banks. The UVPCO was challenged with four mixtures of VOCs typical of mixtures encountered in indoor air. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A cleaning product mixture contained three cleaning products with high market shares. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. A fourth mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady-state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} environmental chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate air samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor section. Concentrations of the mixtures were manipulated, with concentrations of individual VOCs mostly maintained below 10 ppb. Device flow rates were varied between 165 and 580 m{sup 3}/h. Production of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, formic acid, and acetic acid as reaction products was investigated. Conversion efficiency data were generated for 48 individual VOCs or groups of closely related compounds. Alcohols and glycol ethers were the most reactive chemical classes with conversion efficiencies often near or above 70% at the low flow rate and near 40% at the high flow rate. Ketones and terpene hydrocarbons were somewhat less reactive. The relative VOC conversion rates are generally favorable for treatment of indoor air since many contemporary products used in buildings employ oxygenated solvents. A commercial UVPCO device likely would be installed in the supply air stream of a building and operated to treat both outdoor and recirculated air. Assuming a recirculation rate comparable to three times the normal outdoor air supply rate, simple mass-balance modeling suggests that a device with similar characteristics to the study unit has sufficient conversion efficiencies for most VOCs to compensate for a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply without substantially impacting indoor VOC concentrations. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, formic acid, and acetic acid were produced in these experiments as reaction byproducts. No other significant byproducts were observed. A coupled steady-state mass balance model is presented and applied to VOC data from a study of a single office building. For the operating assumptions described above, the model estimated a three-fold increase in indoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations. The outcome of this limited assessment suggests that evaluation of the potential effects of the operation of a UVPCO device on indoor concentrations of these contaminants is warranted. Other suggested studies include determining VOC conversion efficiencies in actual buildings and evaluating changes in VOC conversion efficiency as monoliths age with long-term operation.

  11. Parametric Evaluation of an Innovative Ultra-Violet PhotocatalyticOxidation (UVPCO) Air Cleaning Technology for Indoor Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An innovative Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaning technology employing a semitransparent catalyst coated on a semitransparent polymer substrate was evaluated to determine its effectiveness for treating mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) representative of indoor environments at low, indoor-relevant concentration levels. The experimental UVPCO contained four 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths irradiated with nine UVA lamps arranged in three banks. A parametric evaluation of the effects of monolith thickness, air flow rate through the device, UV power, and reactant concentrations in inlet air was conducted for the purpose of suggesting design improvements. The UVPCO was challenged with three mixtures of VOCs. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. The third mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single-pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor. Thirteen experiments were conducted in total. In this UVPCO employing a semitransparent monolith design, an increase in monolith thickness is expected to result in general increases in both reaction efficiencies and absolute reaction rates for VOCs oxidized by photocatalysis. The thickness of individual monolith panels was varied between 1.2 and 5 cm (5 to 20 cm total thickness) in experiments with the office mixture. VOC reaction efficiencies and rates increased with monolith thickness. However, the analysis of the relationship was confounded by high reaction efficiencies in all configurations for a number of compounds. These reaction efficiencies approached or exceeded 90% for alcohols, glycol ethers, and other individual compounds including d-limonene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane. This result implies a reaction efficiency of about 30% per irradiated monolith face, which is in agreement with the maximum efficiency for the system predicted with a simulation model. In these and other experiments, the performance of the system for highly reactive VOCs appeared to be limited by mass transport of reactants to the catalyst surface rather than by photocatalytic activity. Increasing the air flow rate through the UVPCO device decreases the residence time of the air in the monoliths and improves mass transfer to the catalyst surface. The effect of gas velocity was examined in four pairs of experiments in which the air flow rate was varied from approximately 175 m{sup 3}/h to either 300 or 600 m{sup 3}/h. Increased gas velocity caused a decrease in reaction efficiency for nearly all reactive VOCs. For all of the more reactive VOCs, the decrease in performance was less, and often substantially less, than predicted based solely on residence time, again likely due to mass transfer limitations at the low flow rate. The results demonstrate that the UVPCO is capable of achieving high conversion efficiencies for reactive VOCs at air flow rates above the base experimental rate of 175 m{sup 3}/h. The effect of UV power was examined in a series of experiments with the building product mixture in which the number of lamps was varied between nine and three. For the most reactive VOCs in the mixture, the effects of UV power were surprisingly small. Thus, even with only one lamp in each section, there appears to be sufficient photocatalytic activity to decompose most of the mass of reactive VOCs that reach the catalyst surface. For some less reactive VOCs, the trend of decreasing efficiency with decreasing UV intensity was in general agreement with simulation model predictions.

  12. Experimental Design for a Sponge-Wipe Study to Relate the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to the Concentration of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate for Six Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Krauter, Paula; Einfeld, Wayne

    2010-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Two concerns were raised by the Government Accountability Office following the 2001 building contaminations via letters containing Bacillus anthracis (BA). These included the: 1) lack of validated sampling methods, and 2) need to use statistical sampling to quantify the confidence of no contamination when all samples have negative results. Critical to addressing these concerns is quantifying the probability of correct detection (PCD) (or equivalently the false negative rate FNR = 1 ? PCD). The PCD/FNR may depend on the 1) method of contaminant deposition, 2) surface concentration of the contaminant, 3) surface material being sampled, 4) sample collection method, 5) sample storage/transportation conditions, 6) sample processing method, and 7) sample analytical method. A review of the literature found 17 laboratory studies that focused on swab, wipe, or vacuum samples collected from a variety of surface materials contaminated by BA or a surrogate, and used culture methods to determine the surface contaminant concentration. These studies quantified performance of the sampling and analysis methods in terms of recovery efficiency (RE) and not PCD/FNR (which left a major gap in available information). Quantifying the PCD/FNR under a variety of conditions is a key aspect of validating sample and analysis methods, and also for calculating the confidence in characterization or clearance decisions based on a statistical sampling plan. A laboratory study was planned to partially fill the gap in PCD/FNR results. This report documents the experimental design developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for a sponge-wipe method. The study will investigate the effects on key response variables from six surface materials contaminated with eight surface concentrations of a BA surrogate (Bacillus atrophaeus). The key response variables include measures of the contamination on test coupons of surface materials tested, contamination recovered from coupons by sponge-wipe samples, RE, and PCD/FNR. The experimental design involves 16 test runs, to be performed in two blocks of eight runs. Three surface materials (stainless steel, vinyl tile, and ceramic tile) were tested in the first block, while three other surface materials (plastic, painted wood paneling, and faux leather) will be tested in the second block. The eight surface concentrations of the surrogate were randomly assigned to test runs within each block. Some of the concentrations will be very low and may present challenges for deposition, sampling, and analysis. However, such tests are needed to investigate RE and PCD/FNR over the full range of concentrations of interest. In each run, there will be 10 test coupons of each of the three surface materials. A positive control sample will be generated prior to each test sample. The positive control results will be used to 1) calculate RE values for the wipe sampling and analysis method, and 2) fit RE- and PCD-concentration equations, for each of the six surface materials. Data analyses will support 1) estimating the PCD for each combination of contaminant concentration and surface material, 2) estimating the surface concentrations and their uncertainties of the contaminant for each combination of concentration and surface material, 3) estimating RE (%) and their uncertainties for each combination of contaminant concentration and surface material, 4) fitting PCD-concentration and RE-concentration equations for each of the six surface materials, 5) assessing goodness-of-fit of the equations, and 6) quantifying the uncertainty in PCD and RE predictions made with the fitted equations.

  13. Experimental Design for a Sponge-Wipe Study to Relate the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to the Concentration of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate for Six Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Krauter, Paula; Einfeld, Wayne

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two concerns were raised by the Government Accountability Office following the 2001 building contaminations via letters containing Bacillus anthracis (BA). These included the: 1) lack of validated sampling methods, and 2) need to use statistical sampling to quantify the confidence of no contamination when all samples have negative results. Critical to addressing these concerns is quantifying the false negative rate (FNR). The FNR may depend on the 1) method of contaminant deposition, 2) surface concentration of the contaminant, 3) surface material being sampled, 4) sample collection method, 5) sample storage/transportation conditions, 6) sample processing method, and 7) sample analytical method. A review of the literature found 17 laboratory studies that focused on swab, wipe, or vacuum samples collected from a variety of surface materials contaminated by BA or a surrogate, and used culture methods to determine the surface contaminant concentration. These studies quantified performance of the sampling and analysis methods in terms of recovery efficiency (RE) and not FNR (which left a major gap in available information). Quantifying the FNR under a variety of conditions is a key aspect of validating sample and analysis methods, and also for calculating the confidence in characterization or clearance decisions based on a statistical sampling plan. A laboratory study was planned to partially fill the gap in FNR results. This report documents the experimental design developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for a sponge-wipe method. The testing was performed by SNL and is now completed. The study investigated the effects on key response variables from six surface materials contaminated with eight surface concentrations of a BA surrogate (Bacillus atrophaeus). The key response variables include measures of the contamination on test coupons of surface materials tested, contamination recovered from coupons by sponge-wipe samples, RE, and FNR. The experimental design involves 16 test runs, performed in two blocks of eight runs. Three surface materials (stainless steel, vinyl tile, and ceramic tile) were tested in the first block, while three other surface materials (plastic, painted wood paneling, and faux leather) were tested in the second block. The eight surface concentrations of the surrogate were randomly assigned to test runs within each block. Some of the concentrations were very low and presented challenges for deposition, sampling, and analysis. However, such tests are needed to investigate RE and FNR over the full range of concentrations of interest. In each run, there were 10 test coupons of each of the three surface materials. A positive control sample was generated at the same time as each test sample. The positive control results will be used to 1) calculate RE values for the wipe sampling and analysis method, and 2) fit RE- and FNR-concentration equations, for each of the six surface materials. Data analyses will support 1) estimating the FNR for each combination of contaminant concentration and surface material, 2) estimating the surface concentrations and their uncertainties of the contaminant for each combination of concentration and surface material, 3) estimating RE (%) and their uncertainties for each combination of contaminant concentration and surface material, 4) fitting FNR-concentration and RE-concentration equations for each of the six surface materials, 5) assessing goodness-of-fit of the equations, and 6) quantifying the uncertainty in FNR and RE predictions made with the fitted equations.

  14. Novel Approaches to Immobilized Heteropoly Acid Systems for High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Polymer-Type Membranes - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herring, Andrew M; Horan, James L; Aieta, Niccolo V; Sachdeva, Sonny; Kuo, Mei-Chen; Ren, Hui; Lingutla, Anitha; Emery, Michael; Haugen, Gregory M; Yandrasits, Michael A; Sharma, Neeraj; Coggio, William D; Hamrock, Steven J; Frey, Matthew H

    2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Original research was carried out at the CSM and the 3M Company from March 2007 through September 2011. The research was aimed at developing new to the world proton electrolyte materials for use in hydrogen fuel cells, in particular with high proton conductivity under hot and dry conditions (>100mS/cm at 120°C and 50%RH). Broadly stated, the research at 3M and between 3M and CSM that led to new materials took place in two phases: In the first phase, hydrocarbon membranes that could be formed by photopolymerization of monomer mixtures were developed for the purpose of determining the technical feasibility of achieving the program's Go/No-Go decision conductivity target of >100mS/cm at 120°C and 50%RH. In the second phase, attempts were made to extend the achieved conductivity level to fluorinated material systems with the expectation that durability and stability would be improved (over the hydrocarbon material). Highlights included: Multiple lots of an HPA-immobilized photocurable terpolymer derived from di-vinyl-silicotungstic acid (85%), n-butyl acrylate, and hexanediol diacrylate were prepared at 3M and characterized at 3M to exhibit an initial conductivity of 107mS/cm at 120°C and 47%RH (PolyPOM85v) using a Bekktech LLC sample fixture and TestEquity oven. Later independent testing by Bekktech LLC, using a different preheating protocol, on the same material, yielded a conductivity value of approximately 20mS/cm at 120°C and 50%RH. The difference in measured values is likely to have been the result of an instability of properties for the material or a difference in the measurement method. A dispersed catalyst fuel cell was fabricated and tested using a 150¼m thick HPA-based photocurable membrane (above, PolyPOM75v), exhibiting a current density of greater than 300mA/cm2 at 0.5V (H2/Air 800/1800sccm 70°C/75%RH ambient outlet pressure). Multiple lots of a co-polymer based on poly-trifluorovinylether (TFVE) derived HPA were synthesized and fabricated into films, Generation II films. These materials showed proton conductivities as high as 1 S/cm under high RH conditions. However, the materials suffered from compromised properties due to impure monomers and low molecular weights. Multiple lots of an HPA-immobilized fluoropolymer derived from preformed PVDF-HFP (Generation III films) were synthesized and formed into membranes at 3M and characterized at 3M to exhibit conductivity reaching approximately 75mS/cm at 120°C/40%RH using a Bekktech sample fixture and TestEquity oven (optimized membrane, at close of program). Initial fuel cell fabrication and testing for this new class of membrane yielded negative results (no measureable proton conductivity); however, the specific early membrane that was used for the two 5cm2 MEAs was later determined to have <1 mS/cm at 80°C/80%RH using the Bekktech fixture, vs. ca. 200 mS/cm at 80°C/80%RH for samples of the later-optimized type described above. Future work in this area (beyond the presently reported contract) should include additional attempts to fabricate and test fuel cells based on the later-optimized Generation II and III polymer. A manufacturing study was performed which predicted no difficulties in any future scale up of the materials.

  15. Bomb Detection Using Backscattered X-Rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, J.; Lockwood, G.; Selph, M; Shope, S.; Wehlburg, J.

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bomb Detection Using Backscattered X-rays* Currently the most common method to determine the contents of a package suspected of containing an explosive device is to use transmission radiography. This technique requires that an x-ray source and film be placed on opposite sides of the package. This poses a problem if the pachge is placed so that only one side is accessible, such as against a wall. There is also a threat to persomel and property since exTlosive devices may be "booby trapped." We have developed a method to x-ray a paclage using backscattered x-rays. This procedure eliminates the use of film behind the target. All of the detection is done from the same side as the source. When an object is subjected to x-rays, some of them iare scattered back towards the source. The backscattenng of x-rays is propordoml to the atomic number (Z) of the material raised to the 4.1 power. This 24"' dependence allows us to easily distinguish between explosives, wires, timer, batteries, and other bomb components. Using transmission radiography-to image the contents of an unknown package poses some undesirable risks. The object must have an x-ray film placed on the side opposite the x-ray source; this cannot be done without moving the package if it has been placed firmly against a wall or pillar. Therefore it would be extremely usefid to be able to image the contents of a package from only one side, without ever having to disturb the package itself. where E is the energy of the incoming x-ray. The volume of x-rays absorbed is important because it is, of course, directly correlated to the intensity of x-mys that will be scattered. Most of the x-rays that scatter will do so in a genemlly forward direction; however, a small percentage do scatter in a backward direction. Figure 1 shows a diagram of the various fates of x-rays directed into an object. The package that was examined in this ex~enment was an attache case made of pressed fiberboardwith a vinyl covering. It was approxirmtely 36 cm wide by 51 cm long by 13 cm deep. The case was placed on an aluminum sheet under the x-ray source. Because of the laborato~ setup, the attache case was rastered in the y-coordinate direction, while the x-ray source mstered in the x-coordinate direction. However, for field use, the x-ray source would of course raster in both the x- and y-coordinate directions, while the object under interrogation would remain stationary and undisturbed. A mobile system for use by law enforcement agencies or bomb disposal squads needs to be portable and somewhat durable. A 300 kV x-ray source should be sufficient for the task requirements and can be mounted on a mobile system. A robotic carriage could be used to transport the x-ray source and the CCD camera to the proximity of the suspect package. The controlling and data analyzing elements of the system' could then be maintained at a &tie distance from the possible explosive. F@re 8 shows a diagram of a conceptual design of a possible system for this type of use. The use of backscattered x-rays for interrogation of packages that may contain explosive devices has been shown to be feasible inthelaboratory. Usinga 150kVx-ray source anddetectors consisting of plastic scintillating material, all bomb components including the wiring were detectable. However, at this time the process requires more time than is desirable for the situations in which it will most likely be needed. Further development of the technology using CCD cameras, rather than the plastic stint illator detectors, shows promise of leading to a much faster system, as well as one with better resolution. Mounting the x- ray source and the CCD camera on a robotic vehicle while keeping the controlling and analyzing components and the opemting personnel a safe distance away from the suspect package will allow such a package to be examined at low risk to human life.

  16. Synthesis of main group, rare-earth, and d{sup 0} metal complexes containing beta-hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Ka King [Ames Laboratory

    2013-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of organometallic compounds containing the tris(dimethylsilyl)methyl ligand are described. The potassium carbanions KC(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3} and KC(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}TMEDA are synthesized by deprotonation of the hydrocarbon HC(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3} with potassium benzyl. KC(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}TMEDA crystallizes as a dimer with two types of three-center-two-electron KH- Si interactions. Homoleptic Ln(III) tris(silylalkyl) complexes containing ?-SiH groups M{C(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}}{sub 3} (Ln = Y, Lu, La) are synthesized from salt elimination of the corresponding lanthanide halide and 3 equiv. of KC(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}. The related reactions with Sc yield bis(silylalkyl) ate-complexes containing either LiCl or KCl. The divalent calcium and ytterbium compounds M{C(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}}{sub 2}L (M = Ca, Yb; L = THF{sub 2} or TMEDA) are prepared from MI{sub 2} and 2 equiv of KC(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}. The compounds M{C(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}}{sub 2}L (M = Ca, Yb; L = THF{sub 2} or TMEDA) and La{C(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}}{sub 3} react with 1 equiv of B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 3} to give 1,3- disilacyclobutane {Me2Si-C(SiHMe2)2}2 and MC(SiHMe2)3HB(C6F5)3L, and La{C(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}}{sub 2}HB(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 3}, respectively. The corresponding reactions of Ln{C(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}}{sub 3} (Ln = Y, Lu) give the ?-SiH abstraction product [{(Me{sub 2}HSi){sub 3}C}{sub 2}LnC(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 2}SiMe{sub 2}][HB(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 3}] (Ln = Y, Lu), but the silene remains associated with the Y or Lu center. The abstraction reactions of M{C(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}}{sub 2}L (M = Ca, Yb; L = THF{sub 2 }or TMEDA) and Ln{C(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}}{sub 3} (Ln = Y, Lu, La) and 2 equiv of B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 3} give the expected dicationic M{HB(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 3}}{sub 2}L (M = Ca, Yb; L = THF{sub 2} or TMEDA) and dicationic mono(silylalkyl) LnC(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}{HB(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 3}}{sub 2} (Ln = Y, Lu, La), respectively. Salt metathesis reactions of Cp{sub 2}(NR{sub 2})ZrX (X = Cl, I, OTf; R = t-Bu, SiHMe{sub 2}) and lithium hydrosilazide ultimately afford hydride products Cp{sub 2}(NR{sub 2})ZrH that suggest unusual ?-hydrogen elimination processes. A likely intermediate in one of these reactions, Cp{sub 2}Zr[N(SiHMe{sub 2})t-Bu][N(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 2}], is isolated under controlled synthetic conditions. Addition of alkali metal salts to this zirconium hydrosilazide compound produces the corresponding zirconium hydride. However as conditions are varied, a number of other pathways are also accessible, including C-H/Si-H dehydrocoupling, ?-abstraction of a CH, and ?-abstraction of a SiH. Our observations suggest that the conversion of (hydrosilazido)zirconocene to zirconium hydride does not follow the classical four-center ?- elimination mechanism. Elimination and abstraction reactions dominate the chemistry of ligands containing ?- hydrogen. In contrast, Cp{sub 2}Zr{N(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 2}}H and Cp{sub 2}Zr{N(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 2}}Me undergo selective ?-CH bond activation to yield the azasilazirconacycle Cp{sub 2Zr}{?{sup 2}-N(SiHMe{sub 2})SiHMeCH{sub 2}}, even though there are reactive ?-hydrogen available for abstraction. The ?-SiH groups in metallacycle provide access to new pathways for sixteen-electron zirconium alkyl compounds, in which Cp{sub 2}Zr{?{sup 2}-N(SiHMe{sub 2})SiHMeCH{sub 2}} undergoes a rare ?-bond metathesis reaction with ethylene. The resulting vinyl intermediate undergoes ?-hydrogen abstraction to reform ethylene and a silanimine zirconium species that reacts with ethylene to give a metallacyclopentane as the isolated product. The pendent ?-SiH in metallocycle also reacts with paraformaldehyde through an uncatalyzed hydrosilylation to form an exocyclic methoxysilyl moiety, while the zirconium-carbon bond in metallocycle is surprisingly inert toward formaldehyde. Still, the Zr-C moiety in metallocycle is available for chemistry, and it interacts with the carbon monoxide and strong electrophile B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 3} to provide Cp{sub 2}Zr[?{sup 2}- OC(=CH{sub 2})SiMeHN(SiHMe