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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "110-75-8 2-chloroethyl vinyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Computational methods used in the study of grafting 2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid on titania  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The surface of TiO2 particles can be modified by phosphonic acids, this modification having several applications, like: photoelectrochemical cells based on nanocrystalline films of TiO2, optical write-read-erase devices, enzymatic ... Keywords: 2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid, PM6, computational methods, grafting, quantum chemistry, titania

Simona Funar-Timofei; Gheorghe Ilia

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Protection against 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) - induced cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes by an inducer of the glutathione detoxification pathway  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur mustard (SM or mustard gas) was first used as a chemical warfare agent almost 100 years ago. Due to its toxic effects on the eyes, lungs, and skin, and the relative ease with which it may be synthesized, mustard gas remains a potential chemical threat to the present day. SM exposed skin develops fluid filled bullae resulting from potent cytotoxicity of cells lining the basement membrane of the epidermis. Currently, there are no antidotes for SM exposure; therefore, chemopreventive measures for first responders following an SM attack are needed. Glutathione (GSH) is known to have a protective effect against SM toxicity, and detoxification of SM is believed to occur, in part, via GSH conjugation. Therefore, we screened 6 potential chemopreventive agents for ability to induce GSH synthesis and protect cultured human keratinocytes against the SM analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). Using NCTC2544 human keratinocytes, we found that both sulforaphane and methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) stimulated nuclear localization of Nrf2 and induced expression of the GSH synthesis gene, GCLM. Additionally, we found that treatment with CDDO-Me elevated reduced GSH content of NCTC2544 cells and preserved their viability by {approx} 3-fold following exposure to CEES. Our data also suggested that CDDO-Me may act additively with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a nucleophilic scavenging agent, to increase the viability of keratinocytes exposed to CEES. These results suggest that CDDO-Me is a promising chemopreventive agent for SM toxicity in the skin. - Highlights: > CDDO-Me treatment increased intracellular GSH in human keratinocytes. > CDDO-Me increased cell viability following exposure to the half-mustard, CEES. > The cytoprotective effect of CDDO-Me was likely due to scavenging with endogenous GSH.

Abel, Erika L.; Bubel, Jennifer D.; Simper, Melissa S.; Powell, Leslie; McClellan, S. Alex [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Andreeff, Michael [Department of Leukemia, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); MacLeod, Michael C. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); DiGiovanni, John, E-mail: john.digiovanni@austin.utexas.edu [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Expression of proliferative and inflammatory markers in a full-thickness human skin equivalent following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sulfur mustard is a potent vesicant that induces inflammation, edema and blistering following dermal exposure. To assess molecular mechanisms mediating these responses, we analyzed the effects of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, on EpiDerm-FT{sup TM}, a commercially available full-thickness human skin equivalent. CEES (100-1000 {mu}M) caused a concentration-dependent increase in pyknotic nuclei and vacuolization in basal keratinocytes; at high concentrations (300-1000 {mu}M), CEES also disrupted keratin filament architecture in the stratum corneum. This was associated with time-dependent increases in expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of cell proliferation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and phosphorylated histone H2AX, markers of DNA damage. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic enzymes including COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal PGE{sub 2} synthases, leukotriene (LT) A{sub 4} hydrolase and LTC{sub 4} synthase were observed in CEES-treated skin equivalents, as well as in antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferases A1-2 (GSTA1-2), GSTA3 and GSTA4. These data demonstrate that CEES induces rapid cellular damage, cytotoxicity and inflammation in full-thickness skin equivalents. These effects are similar to human responses to vesicants in vivo and suggest that the full thickness skin equivalent is a useful in vitro model to characterize the biological effects of mustards and to develop potential therapeutics.

Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Hayden, Patrick J. [MatTek Corporation, Ashland, MA (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health Sciences, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Gerecke, Donald R. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.ed [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Role of MAP kinases in regulating expression of antioxidants and inflammatory mediators in mouse keratinocytes following exposure to the half mustard, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dermal exposure to sulfur mustard causes inflammation and tissue injury. This is associated with changes in expression of antioxidants and eicosanoids which contribute to oxidative stress and toxicity. In the present studies we analyzed mechanisms regulating expression of these mediators using an in vitro skin construct model in which mouse keratinocytes were grown at an air-liquid interface and exposed directly to 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a model sulfur mustard vesicant. CEES (100-1000 {mu}M) was found to cause marked increases in keratinocyte protein carbonyls, a marker of oxidative stress. This was correlated with increases in expression of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase, thioredoxin reductase and the glutathione S-transferases, GSTA1-2, GSTP1 and mGST2. CEES also upregulated several enzymes important in the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-2 (mPGES-2), prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), leukotriene A{sub 4} (LTA{sub 4}) hydrolase and leukotriene C{sub 4} (LTC{sub 4}) synthase. CEES readily activated keratinocyte JNK and p38 MAP kinases, signaling pathways which are known to regulate expression of antioxidants, as well as prostaglandin and leukotriene synthases. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase suppressed CEES-induced expression of GSTA1-2, COX-2, mPGES-2, PGDS, 5-LOX, LTA{sub 4} hydrolase and LTC{sub 4} synthase, while JNK inhibition blocked PGDS and GSTP1. These data indicate that CEES modulates expression of antioxidants and enzymes producing inflammatory mediators by distinct mechanisms. Increases in antioxidants may be an adaptive process to limit tissue damage. Inhibiting the capacity of keratinocytes to generate eicosanoids may be important in limiting inflammation and protecting the skin from vesicant-induced oxidative stress and injury.

Black, Adrienne T.; Joseph, Laurie B. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health Sciences, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Gerecke, Donald R. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.ed [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

5

Preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN); Depew, Leslie Sharon (Kingsport, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

7

Regulation of Hsp27 and Hsp70 expression in human and mouse skin construct models by caveolae following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dermal exposure to the vesicant sulfur mustard causes marked inflammation and tissue damage. Basal keratinocytes appear to be a major target of sulfur mustard. In the present studies, mechanisms mediating skin toxicity were examined using a mouse skin construct model and a full-thickness human skin equivalent (EpiDerm-FT{sup TM}). In both systems, administration of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES, 100-1000 {mu}M) at the air surface induced mRNA and protein expression of heat shock proteins 27 and 70 (Hsp27 and Hsp70). CEES treatment also resulted in increased expression of caveolin-1, the major structural component of caveolae. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Hsp27, Hsp70 and caveolin-1 were localized in basal and suprabasal layers of the epidermis. Caveolin-1 was also detected in fibroblasts in the dermal component of the full thickness human skin equivalent. Western blot analysis of caveolar membrane fractions isolated by sucrose density centrifugation demonstrated that Hsp27 and Hsp70 were localized in caveolae. Treatment of mouse keratinocytes with filipin III or methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin, which disrupt caveolar structure, markedly suppressed CEES-induced Hsp27 and Hsp70 mRNA and protein expression. CEES treatment is known to activate JNK and p38 MAP kinases; in mouse keratinocytes, inhibition of these enzymes suppressed CEES-induced expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70. These data suggest that MAP kinases regulate Hsp 27 and Hsp70; moreover, caveolae-mediated regulation of heat shock protein expression may be important in the pathophysiology of vesicant-induced skin toxicity.

Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Hayden, Patrick J. [MatTek Corporation, Ashland, MA (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Gerecke, Donald R. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Vinyl Siding Institute (VSI) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

profile. Create one now Vinyl Siding Institute (VSI) is a company located in Washington, DC. References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleVinylSidingInstitu...

9

Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

Spormann, Alfred M. (Stanford, CA); Muller, Jochen A. (Baltimore, MD); Rosner, Bettina M. (Berlin, DE); Von Abendroth, Gregory (Nannhein, DE); Meshulam-Simon, Galit (Los Altos, CA); McCarty, Perry L (Stanford, CA)

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

10

Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding Title Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5022E Year...

11

Emulsion polymerization of ethylene-vinyl acetate-branched vinyl ester using a pressure reactor system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A new pressure reactor system was designed to synthesize a novel branched ester-ethylene-vinyl acetate (BEEVA) emulsion polymer. The reactor system was capable of handling pressure… (more)

Tan, Chee Boon.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

LBNL-5022E Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

022E Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding Authors: R. Hart*, C. Curcija, D. Arasteh, H. Goudey, C. Kohler, S. Selkowitz Environmental Energy Technologies...

13

Production of methyl-vinyl ketone from levulinic acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for converting levulinic acid to methyl vinyl ketone is described. The method includes the steps of reacting an aqueous solution of levulinic acid, over an acid catalyst, at a temperature of from room temperature to about 1100 K. Methyl vinyl ketone is thereby formed.

Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); West; Ryan M. (Madison, WI)

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

14

Monodisperse SiC/vinyl ester nanocomposites: Dispersant formulation, synthesis, and characterization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Processing and properties of SiC/vinyl ester nanocomposites.design of experiments for SiC/vinyl ester nanocomposites.of nanocrystalline cubic SiC films. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37,

Yong, Virginia; Hahn, H. Thomas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Why sequence ethene and vinyl chloride-oxidizing Mycobacterium strains?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

sequence ethene and vinyl sequence ethene and vinyl chloride-oxidizing Mycobacterium strains? Mycobacteria are known for causing human and animal diseases but they are also important degraders of hard-to-break-down water contaminants such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). So far the handful of bacterial species representing the Mycobacterium genus that have been sequenced all break down PAHs. In this project, researchers focus on the genomes of mycobacterial species isolated from soil, freshwater and marine environments that use the alkene compounds ethene and vinyl chloride as carbon sources. Chlorinated ethene compounds are difficult to remove from contaminated groundwater but necessary because of their toxicity. Additionally these compounds reduce the ozone levels in the atmosphere.

16

Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

2011-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

17

Gas Leak from Vinyl Taped Stainless Steel Dressing Jars  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The leak rates of nitrogen gas from stainless steel dressing jars taped with 2 inch vinyl tape were measured. These results were used to calculate hydrogen leak rates from the same jars. The calculations show that the maximum concentration of hydrogen buildup in this type of container configuration will beat least 3 orders of magnitude below the lower explosion limit for hydrogen in air.

Tim Hayes

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

VINYL COATING OF GRAPHITE PLATES FOR ULTRASONIC INSPECTION  

SciTech Connect

A process has been developed for application of a thin, adherent vinyi plastic coating to graphite plates to prevent absorption of coupling fluids'' used in ultrasonic inspection. The plates are preheated and dipped mechanically in a fluid plastisol, and the resulting coating is fused in an infra-red heater. No significant attenuation of ultrasonic impulse results from presence of the coating. After inspection, the vinyl sheath may be easily stripped from the plate. (auth)

Church, J.S.; Bell, J.H. Jr.; Donahoe, J.K.; Faussone, R.A.; Rogers, G.B.; Rowen, J.T.

1958-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

19

Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors Jump to: navigation, search Name Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors Address 3404 Rhodes Ave Place New Boston, Ohio Zip 45662 Sector Buildings, Efficiency, Services Product Business and legal services;Consulting;Energy audits/weatherization; Installation; Maintenance and repair;Manufacturing; Retail product sales and distribution Phone number 740-464-0144 Website http://www.vinylkraft.com Coordinates 38.7456°, -82.9459° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.7456,"lon":-82.9459,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

20

UNDERSTANDING CURE INHIBITION IN CARBON FIBER REINFORCED VINYL ESTER RESIN COMPOSITES.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The effect of neat and oxidized carbon fiber reinforcements on vinyl ester resin free radical polymerization was investigated. First, the free radical polymerization of neat… (more)

Tweed-Kent, Sean

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "110-75-8 2-chloroethyl vinyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Pressure and Temperature Dependence of the Reaction of Vinyl Radical with Alkenes III: Measured Rates and Predicted Product Distributions for Vinyl + Butene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work reports experimental and theoretical first-order rate constants for the reaction of vinyl radical with C4H8 alkenes: 1-butene, 2-butene, and iso-butene. The experiments are performed over a temperature range of ...

Ismail, Huzeifa

22

Improving the thermal performance of vinyl-framed windows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the last five years, vinyl-framed windows have gained an increased market share in both new and retrofit residential construction. This success has been mainly due to their low manufacturing cost and relatively good thermal performance (i.e., total window U-values with double glazing between 0.50 Btu/h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F [2.86 W/m{sup 2}{center_dot}K] and 0.30 Btu/h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F [1.70 W/m{sup 2}{center_dot}K]). Turning such windows into ``superwindows,`` windows with a U-value of 0.20 Btu/h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F (1.14 W/m{sup 2}{center_dot}K) or less that can act as passive solar elements even on north-facing orientations in cold climates, requires further significant decreases in heat transfer through both the glazing system and the frame/edge. Three-layer glazing systems (those with two low-emissivity coatings and a low-conductivity gas fill) offer center-of-glass U-values as low as 0.10 Btu/h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F (0.57 W/m{sup 2}{center_dot}K); such glazings are being manufactured today and can be incorporated into existing or new vinyl frame profiles. This paper focuses on the use of a state-of the-art infrared imaging system and a two-dimensional finite-difference model to improve the thermal performance of commercially available vinyl profiles and glazing edge systems. Such evaluation tools are extremely useful in identifying exactly which components and design features limit heat transfer and which act as thermal short circuits. Such an analysis is not possible with conventional whole-window testing in hot boxes where testing uncertainties with superwindows are often greater than proposed improvements.

Beck, F.A.; Arasteh, D.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Improving the thermal performance of vinyl-framed windows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the last five years, vinyl-framed windows have gained an increased market share in both new and retrofit residential construction. This success has been mainly due to their low manufacturing cost and relatively good thermal performance (i.e., total window U-values with double glazing between 0.50 Btu/h[center dot]ft[sup 2][center dot][degree]F [2.86 W/m[sup 2][center dot]K] and 0.30 Btu/h[center dot]ft[sup 2][center dot][degree]F [1.70 W/m[sup 2][center dot]K]). Turning such windows into superwindows,'' windows with a U-value of 0.20 Btu/h[center dot]ft[sup 2][center dot][degree]F (1.14 W/m[sup 2][center dot]K) or less that can act as passive solar elements even on north-facing orientations in cold climates, requires further significant decreases in heat transfer through both the glazing system and the frame/edge. Three-layer glazing systems (those with two low-emissivity coatings and a low-conductivity gas fill) offer center-of-glass U-values as low as 0.10 Btu/h[center dot]ft[sup 2][center dot][degree]F (0.57 W/m[sup 2][center dot]K); such glazings are being manufactured today and can be incorporated into existing or new vinyl frame profiles. This paper focuses on the use of a state-of the-art infrared imaging system and a two-dimensional finite-difference model to improve the thermal performance of commercially available vinyl profiles and glazing edge systems. Such evaluation tools are extremely useful in identifying exactly which components and design features limit heat transfer and which act as thermal short circuits. Such an analysis is not possible with conventional whole-window testing in hot boxes where testing uncertainties with superwindows are often greater than proposed improvements.

Beck, F.A.; Arasteh, D.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Plug repairs of marine glass fiber / vinyl ester laminates subjected to uniaxial tension  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Glass fiber/vinyl ester composite laminates are currently being used and proposed for the hulls, bulkheads, and superstructures of large ships. This thesis examines the effectiveness of the repair of such laminates using ...

Michelis, Alexandros

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Potential Problems for Photovoltaic Packaging: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support, optical coupling, electrical isolation, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate, it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about ?15 C. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Because of increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL 1703.

Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K. M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

An investigation in the hygrothermal degradation of an E- glass/vinyl-ester composite in humid and immersion environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

relaxation behavior on sized carbon fiber-vinyl ester matrixaspects of epoxy- carbon fiber composite laminates inaspects of epoxy/carbon fiber composite laminates in

Svetlik, Stephanie Laura

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Synthesis of vinyl acetate on palladium-based catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vinyl acetate (VA) is an important monomer used in the production of paints, surface coatings and adhesives. Synthesis of VA is usually carried out over supported Pd alloy catalysts with a selectivity as high as 96% and described as C2H4 + CH3COOH + ˝ O2 -> C2H3OOCCH3 + H2O Although the VA synthesis reaction has been industrially carried out for many years, the nature of the active sites and the reaction mechanism is still unclear. The goal of this study was to acquire a fundamental understanding of the VA reaction mechanism by carrying out detailed kinetic and spectroscopic investigations on single crystals and supported Pd catalysts, and to detail the role of alloying in optimizing the selectivity of this important industrial reaction. A combination of surface science techniques and kinetic measurements has been used to address the mechanism. Supported catalysts, 1 wt% Pd/SiO2 and 5 wt% Pd/SiO2, and 1 wt% Pd-0.5 wt% Au/SiO2, were prepared by an incipient wet-impregnation method and characterized using XRD and TEM. On Pd-only catalysts the reaction rates were found to be: Pd(100) catalysts, which suggests a degree of structure sensitivity of the reaction. There is an increased availability of uncoordinated, edge atoms on small particles. With a Pd single crystal, fewer less-coordinated surface sites are present compared to a comparable area on a small Pd particle on a supported Pd catalyst. The formation of Pd carbide (PdCx) during the synthesis of VA was investigated over Pd/SiO2 catalysts with two different Pd particle sizes, as well as over a Pd-Au/SiO2 mixed-metal catalyst. XRD data indicate that smaller Pd particles show greater resistance to the formation of PdCx. The alloying of Au with Pd is apparently very effective in preventing PdCx formation in Pd-based catalysts for VA synthesis. Addition of Au to Pd/SiO2 catalysts significantly enhances the VA formation rate and selectivity. Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) of CO on Pd/Au(100) and Pd/Au(111) confirms the presence of Pd as isolated monomers on a Au-rich surface. A pair of Pd monomers is the most favorable active site for the formation of VA. The spacing between the two active isolated Pd atoms is critical and is demonstrated by the relative rates of VA formation on Pd/Au model catalysts, i.e. Pd/Au(111) < Pd/Au(100). The role of Au is to isolate the surface Pd atoms and thus suppress the formation of by products, CO and CO2. A pair of Pd monomers required for VA synthesis is further confirmed by the results from model studies of Sn-Pd.

Kumar, Dheeraj

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Effect of incorporating cellulose nanocrystals from corncob on the tensile, thermal and barrier properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of incorporating cellulose nanocrystals fromcorncob (CNC) on the tensile, thermal, and barrier properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposites was evaluated. The CNC were prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis at 45°C for 60 minutes, ...

Hudson Alves Silvério, Wilson Pires Flauzino Neto, Daniel Pasquini

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Genome Sequence of the Ethene- and Vinyl Chloride-Oxidizing Actinomycete Nocardioides sp Strain JS614  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nocardioides sp. strain JS614 grows on ethene and vinyl chloride (VC) as sole carbon and energy sources and is of interest for bioremediation and biocatalysis. Sequencing of the complete genome of JS614 provides insight into the genetic basis of alkene oxidation, supports ongoing research into the physiology and biochemistry of growth on ethene and VC, and provides biomarkers to facilitate detection of VC/ethene oxidizers in the environment. This is the first genome sequence from the genus Nocardioides and the first genome of a VC/ethene-oxidizing bacterium.

Coleman, Nicholas V [University of Sydney, Australia; Wilson, Neil L [University of Sydney, Australia; Barry, Kerrie [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Shunsheng [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Israni, Sanjay [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kim, Edwin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Richardson, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Schmutz, Jeremy [Stanford University; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Thompson, Sue [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Spain, Jim C [Georgia Institute of Technology; Gossett, James G [Cornell University; Mattes, Timothy E [University of Iowa

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Anodic polymerization of vinyl ethylene carbonate in Li-Ion battery electrolyte  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study of the anodic oxidation of vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC) was conducted with post-mortem analysis of reaction products by ATR-FTIR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The half-wave potential (E1/2) for oxidation of VEC is ca. 3.6 V producing a resistive film on the electrode surface. GPC analysis of the film on a gold electrode produced by anodization of a commercial Li-ion battery electrolyte containing 2 percent VEC at 4.1 V showed the presence of a high molecular weight polymer. IR analysis indicated polycarbonate with alkyl carbonate rings linked by aliphatic methylene and methyl branches.

Chen, Guoying; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Gao, Liu; Ross Jr., Philip N.

2005-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

31

Plug repairs of marine glass fiber / vinyl ester laminates subjected to in-plane shear stress or in-plane bending moment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Glass fiber / vinyl ester composite laminates represent an important class of modem fiber composites being proposed or used in state-of-the-art shipbuilding. This thesis examined the effectiveness of chopped strand mat ...

Urrutia Valenzuela, Roberto

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Effect of irradiation on the surface microhardness of pure poly(vinyl fluoride), poly(vinylidene fluoride) and their isomorphic blends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many widely used polymers suffer main chain scission or crosslinking depending upon various physical parameters when exposed to radiation. Crosslinking and scission are two opposite consequences of irradiation. The preparation of pure Poly(vinyl fluoride) ...

A. K. Gupta; R. Bajpai; J. M. Keller

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

The effects of nitric acid and silane surface treatments on carbon fibers and carbon/vinyl ester composites before and after seawater exposure.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research focuses on carbon fiber treatment by nitric acid and 3- (trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate silane, and how this affects carbon/vinyl ester composites. These composites offer… (more)

Langston, Tye A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Potential Problems with Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate for Photovoltaic Packaging (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support electrical isolation, optical coupling, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about -15 C. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Due to increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL 1703.

Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K, M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Alternate fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas: Vinyl acetate monomer. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There has been a long-standing desire on the part of industry and the U.S. Department of Energy to replace the existing ethylene-based vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) process with an entirely synthesis gas-based process. Although there are a large number of process options for the conversion of synthesis gas to VAM, Eastman Chemical Company undertook an analytical approach, based on known chemical and economic principles, to reduce the potential candidate processes to a select group of eight processes. The critical technologies that would be required for these routes were: (1) the esterification of acetaldehyde (AcH) with ketene to generate VAM, (2) the hydrogenation of ketene to acetaldehyde, (3) the hydrogenation of acetic acid to acetaldehyde, and (4) the reductive carbonylation of methanol to acetaldehyde. This report describes the selection process for the candidate processes, the successful development of the key technologies, and the economic assessments for the preferred routes. In addition, improvements in the conversion of acetic anhydride and acetaldehyde to VAM are discussed. The conclusion from this study is that, with the technology developed in this study, VAM may be produced from synthesis gas, but the cost of production is about 15% higher than the conventional oxidative acetoxylation of ethylene, primarily due to higher capital associated with the synthesis gas-based processes.

Richard D. Colberg; Nick A. Collins; Edwin F. Holcombe; Gerald C. Tustin; Joseph R. Zoeller

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Poly(vinyl alcohol)-based buffering membranes for isoelectric trapping separations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Isoelectric trapping (IET) in multicompartment electrolyzers (MCE) has been widely used for the electrophoretic separation of ampholytic compounds such as proteins. In IET, the separation occurs in the buffering membranes that form a step-wise pH gradient in the MCE. Typically, buffering membranes have been made by copolymerizing acrylamide with Immobiline compounds, which are acidic and basic acylamido buffers. One major problem, however, is that these buffering membranes are not stable when exposed to high concentrations of acid and base due to hydrolysis of the amide bonds. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-based, or PVA-based, membranes were made as an alternative to the polyacrylamide-based membranes since they provide more hydrolytic and mechanical stability. Four mid-pH, PVA-based buffering membranes that contain single ampholytes were synthesized. These buffering membranes were used to trap small molecular weight pI markers for up to three hours, and were also used in desalting experiments to remove strong electrolytes from a solution of ampholytes. Additionally, the membranes were used in IET experiments to separate mixtures of pI markers, and to fractionate the major proteins in chicken egg white. The membranes did not show any degradation when stored in 3 M NaOH for up to 6 months and were shown to tolerate current densities as high as 16 mA/cm2. In addition, six series of PVA-based membranes, whose pH values can be tuned over the 3 < pH < 10 range, were synthesized by covalently binding aminodicarboxylic acids, and monoamines or diamines to the PVA matrix. These tunable buffering membranes were used in trapping experiments to trap ampholytes for up to three hours, and in desalting experiments to remove strong electrolytes from a solution of ampholytes. These tunable buffering membranes were also used in IET experiments to separate proteins, some with pI values that differ by only 0.1 pH unit. The tunable buffering membranes did not show any signs of degradation when exposed to 3 M NaOH for up to 3 months, and could be used in IET experiments with current densities as high as 20 mA/cm2. These tunable buffering membranes are expected to broaden the application areas of isoelectric trapping separations.

Craver, Helen C.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Properties of thermo-chemically surface treated carbon fibers and of their epoxy and vinyl ester composites  

SciTech Connect

High strength carbon fibers were surface treated by a continuous gas phase thermo-chemical surface treatment. The surface and the mechanical properties of the fibers were investigated before and after treatment and compared to the properties obtained with a conventional industrial electro-chemical surface treatment. An increase of the oxygen atomic content from 3 % to 20 % with a preferential generation of carboxylic acid functionalities and hydroxyl groups was highlighted after the thermo-chemical surface treatment, compared to an oxygen atomic content of 7 % and a wide variety of oxygen moieties with the electro-chemical surface treatment. The tensile strength of the fibers increased slightly after the thermo-chemical surface treatment and remained the same after the electro-chemical surface treatment. Short beam shear and 90 flexural tests of composites revealed that the improvement of interfacial adhesion with a vinyl ester matrix was limited, revealing that oxidation of the carbon fiber surface alone cannot tremendously improve the mechanical properties of carbon fiber-vinyl ester composites. Atomic force microscopy showed that the creation of roughness with both surface treatments at a nanometric scale. Although the surface is slightly rougher after the electro-chemical surface treatment and is expected to lead to higher adhesion due to mechanical interlocking between the fiber surface and the matrix, the effect of covalent bonding coming from the high concentration of chemical groups on the surface results in higher adhesion strength, as obtained with the thermo-chemical surface treatment.

Vautard, Frederic [ORNL; Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Development of a copper-catalyzed amidation-base-promoted cyclization sequence for the synthesis of 2-aryl- and 2-vinyl1-4 quinolones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A direct two-step method for the preparation of 2-aryl- and 2-vinyl-4-quinolones that utilizes a copper-catalyzed amidation of ortho-halophenones followed by a base-promoted Camps cyclization of the resulting N-(2-keto-aryl)amides ...

Jones, Carrie Preston

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Liver Hypertrophy After Percutaneous Portal Vein Embolization: Comparison of N-Butyl-2-Cyanocrylate Versus Sodium Acrylate-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer Particles in a Swine Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Percutaneous portal vein embolization (PPVE) induces hypertrophy of the future liver remnant before hepatic resection. The ideal embolic material has not yet been determined. We compared N-butyl-2-cyanocrylate (NBCA) with sodium acrylate-vinyl alcohol copolymer particles using a swine model. Materials and Methods: Twelve pigs underwent PPVE. Six pigs (group A) were embolized with NBCA, and 6 pigs (group B) were embolized with sodium acrylate-vinyl alcohol copolymer particles. Computed tomographic volumetry of the embolized lobe (EL) and the nonembolized lobe (NEL), along with liver function tests, was performed before and at 14 and 28 days after embolization. Tissue samples from both lobes were taken 14 and 28 days after PPVE. Results: NEL-volume and NEL-ratio increases were significantly higher in group A at 14 and 28 days after PPVE (78 and 52% and 91 and 66%, respectively) than in group B (32 and 12% and 28 and 10%, respectively) (p < 0.05). Percent change of the EL-volume was significantly higher for group A at 28 days after PPVE. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups regarding hepatocyte proliferation on the NEL and apoptosis on the EL at both time intervals. Conclusion: PPVE using NBCA is more efficient and causes more NEL hypertrophy than microspheres.

Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: gtsoumakidou@yahoo.com [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 2nd Department of Radiology, Medical School, General University Hospital Attikon (Greece); Theocharis, Stamatis, E-mail: theocharis@ath.forthnet.gr [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School (Greece); Ptohis, Nikolaos, E-mail: nikptohis@yahoo.gr; Alexopoulou, Efthimia, E-mail: ealex64@hotmail.com [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 2nd Department of Radiology, Medical School, General University Hospital Attikon (Greece); Mantziaras, George, E-mail: gmantziaras@yahoo.com [Academy of Athens, Biomedical Research Foundation (Greece); Kelekis, Nikolaos L., E-mail: kelnik@med.uoa.gr; Brountzos, Elias N., E-mail: ebrountz@med.uoa.gr [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 2nd Department of Radiology, Medical School, General University Hospital Attikon (Greece)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Vinyl Chloride  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and Research (CEDR), Phi Delta Kappa International, 1999. 37. Sorenson SB, Peterson JG, Richardson BA. Child

Bandettini, Peter A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "110-75-8 2-chloroethyl vinyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces,transfer at the siding surface. Direct solar radiation tosiding, reflected solar radiation from nearby surfaces,

Hart, Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the University of California, nor any of their employees,of the University of California. The views and opinions ofof the University of California. Research Needs: Glass Solar

Hart, Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

The impact of improved materials in poly(vinyl chloride)-based endotracheal tubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Endotracheal tubes (ETs) are used to aid artificial ventilation in millions of medical patients every year and are known to invoke the proliferative phase in the cell linings. The technical objective of this work was to ...

Domike, Kristin Rebecca, 1981-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Dispersant optimization using design of experiments for SiC/vinyl ester nanocomposites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

×, respectively. Strain 0.5 wt. % SiC with MPS and W966 #1 (didn't break) 0.5 wt. % SiC with MPS and W966 #2 neat #1 (bend test Strain 1 vol. % SiC with 1-octanol and decane

Yong, V; Hahn, H T

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Anodic polymerization of vinyl ethylene carbonate in Li-Ion battery electrolyte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R.A. Sutula, F. McLamon, Battery Rsearch Pograms of theof Energy, in Selected Battery Topics. Proceedings of theEthylene Carbonate in Li-Ion Battery Electrolyte Guoying

Chen, Guoying; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Gao, Liu; Ross Jr., Philip N.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Effect of pulse intensity distributions on fragment internal energy in the infrared multiphoton dissociation of vinyl  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of pulse intensity distributions on fragment internal energy in the infrared multiphoton the rovibra- tional energy distributions of fragmentsl formed in the infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD energies of the frag- ment can be well characterized in terms of a Boltzmann distribution with a single

Zare, Richard N.

47

Localized Plasticity in the Streamlined Genomes of Vinyl Chloride Respiring Dehalococcoides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conceived and designed the experiments: PJM SFB FEL AMS.Performed the experiments: PJM SFB KMR.Analyzed the data: PJM SFB JAM JG KMR RW EG AL SH FEL AMS.

McMurdie, Paul J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Monodisperse SiC/vinyl ester nanocomposites: Dispersant formulation, synthesis, and characterization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and S.F. Zhandarov: Carbon fibers and composites with epoxyepoxy resin com- posites, 22 carbon fiber filled epoxy resin

Yong, Virginia; Hahn, H. Thomas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

ORIGINAL PAPER Natural Fiber Reinforced Poly(vinyl chloride) Composites: Effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, electric wires, window profiles, siding, etc. Recently, wood fiber reinforced PVC is getting more popular straw, rice husk, and pine fiber) and loading level of styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) block copolymer on composite properties was investigated. Mechanical analysis showed that storage modulus

50

Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (sPOSS) hybrid membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(HY-2006-I). REFERENCES 1. Surampudi S, Narayanan SR, Vamos E, Frank H, Halpert G, LaConti A, Kosek J

Mather, Patrick T.

51

S M Stoller Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project - 4.5...  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

ND 4.8 0.96 ugl 218-01-9 Chrysene ND 4.8 0.96 ugl 111-91-1 bis(2-Chloroethoxy)methane ND 4.8 0.96 ugl 111-44-4 bis(2-Chloroethyl)ether ND 4.8 1.9 ugl ND Not detected...

52

Model Predictive Control of a Nonlinear Large-Scale Process Network Used in the Production of Vinyl Acetate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Roman Symbols a i Vapor heat capacity/enthalpy coefficientkg ? C a Ż i Liquid heat capacity/enthalpy coefficient forspecies i b i Vapor heat capacity/enthalpy coefficient for

Tu, TungSheng

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Model Predictive Control of a Nonlinear Large-Scale Process Network Used in the Production of Vinyl Acetate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

well as two byproducts: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water (Hoperation units. The carbon dioxide removal unit and thekmol/min enters the carbon dioxide removal system where the

Tu, TungSheng

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Model Predictive Control of a Nonlinear Large-Scale Process Network Used in the Production of Vinyl Acetate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Compressor, heat exchanger, heaters andtemperature of the heat exchanger, and the pressure drop inreactor (RCT ), a heat exchanger (HX), a separator (SEP ), a

Tu, TungSheng

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Effects of POSS fiber sizing on the mechanical and thermal properties of carbon/vinyl ester composites.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The degradation of polymer composites in moist environments is a limiting factor in the advancement of composite technology. The key to mitigate this degradation is… (more)

Powell, Felicia M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Grafting onto wool. XX. Graft copolymerization of vinyl monomers by use of redox initiators. Comparison of monomer reactivities  

SciTech Connect

Methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethylacrylate (EA) have been graft copolymerized onto Himachali wool in aqueous medium by using a ferrous ammonium sulfate-hydrogen peroxide (FAS-H/sub 2/O/sub 2/) system as redox initiator. Percentage of grafting has been determined as functions of concentration of monomer, molar ratio of (FAS)/(H/sub 2/O/sub 2/), time, and temperature. Percentage of grafting is found to depend upon the molar ratio of (FAS)/(H/sub 2/O/sub 2/). An attempt has been made to compare the reactivities of the acceptor monomer (MMA and EA) with that of the donor monomer (VAc) toward grafting onto wool.

Misra, B.N.; Singha, A.S.; Sharma, R.K.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Mechanical behavior of nanostructured hybrids based on poly(vinyl alcohol)/bioactive glass reinforced with functionalized carbon nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study reports the synthesis and characterization of novel tridimensional porous hybrids based on PVA combined with bioactive glass and reinforced by chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT) for potential use in bone tissue engineering. The ...

H. S. Mansur, M. M. Pereira, H. S. Costa, A. A. P. Mansur

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Model Predictive Control of a Nonlinear Large-Scale Process Network Used in the Production of Vinyl Acetate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a continuous catalytic distillation process. Journal ofof the azeotropic distillation column using a feed-forwardand the azeotropic distillation in Figure 2.1 are assumed to

Tu, TungSheng

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Index of Semiconductor Process Gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Hydrogen Bromide, HBr. Vinyl Fluoride. C 2 H 3 F. Hydrogen Chloride, HCl. Vinyl Chloride. C 2 H 3 Cl. Hydrogen Fluoride, HF. Trimethyl Gallium. ...

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

60

Acidic Ion Exchange Membrane - Energy Innovation Portal  

Technology Marketing Summary In this invention we report the synthesis of a copolymer of vinyl phosphonic acid (VPA) and vinyl zirconium phosphorous (VZP) acid has ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "110-75-8 2-chloroethyl vinyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Hysteresis mechanism and reduction method in the bottom-contact pentacene thin-film transistors with cross-linked poly,,vinyl alcohol...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Korean Phys. Soc. 44, 181 2004 . 8 R. Schroeder, L. A. Majewski, and M. Grell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3201 Raoul Schroeder, Leszek A. Majewski, Monika Voigt, and Martin Grell, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26, 69 2005 . 14 Tingkai Li, Sheng Teng Hsu, Bruce Ulrich, Hong Ying, Lisa Stecker, Dave Evans, Yoshi Ono, Jer

Lee, Jong Duk

62

Laser-induced implantation of silver particles into poly(vinyl alcohol) films and its application to electronic-circuit fabrication on encapsulated organic electronics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, we propose a new laser-induced implantation based approach for embedding electronic interconnects in this study. Direct implantations of silver particles, vaporized by a pulsed laser from a silver film initially pre-coated on a transparent ... Keywords: Embedded electronic circuits, Encapsulation, Laser-induced implantation, Organic thin-film transistors, Polymeric light-emitting diodes

Kun-Tso Chen; Yu-Hsuan Lin; Jeng-Rong Ho; J.-W. John Cheng; Sung-Ho Liu; Jin-Long Liao; Jing-Yi Yan

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

What’s in Your Water?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

vinyl chloride, and carbon dioxide under methanogenicof  nitrogen  and  carbon   dioxide,  to  maintain  an  

Polasko, Alexandra

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Jan Obrzut  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 1989). Structural characterization of vinylidene fluoride vinyl fluoride copolymers, Guerra, G; Didino, G; Centore, R, et al. ...

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Antithrombogenic and antibiotic composition and methods of preparation thereof  

SciTech Connect

Antithrombogenic and antibiotic composition of matter and method of preparation thereof. A random copolymer of a component of garlic and a biocompatible polymer has been prepared and found to exhibit antithrombogenic and antibiotic properties. Polymerization occurs selectively at the vinyl moiety in 2-vinyl-4H-1,3-dithiin when copolymerized with N-vinyl pyrrolidone.

Hermes, Robert E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Valencia, Spain, 6-10 September 2010, 4AV.3.115 NON-LINEAR MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE (EVA) AND ITS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that address the issue of reliability and long-term stability need adequate models that incorporate these non of EVA rises by 2 orders of magnitude. Keywords: Encapsulation, Mechanics, PV Module, Modeling, Polymer mechanical analyses (DMA) and relaxation/creep experiments. Mechanical investigations of PV modules

67

Chemical Emissions of Residential Materials and Products: Review of Available Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of 2-butoxyethanol emissions from selected consumer productsfrom vinyl flooring in the emission cell “FLEC". Atmosphericfrom household product emissions in the presence of ozone: A

Willem, Henry

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Arasteh, Howdy Goudey, Christian Kohler, and Stephen E. Selkowitz. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding., 2011. 2010 Gustavsen, Arlid, Goce Talev, Dariush K....

69

Christian Kohler  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Arasteh, Howdy Goudey, Christian Kohler, and Stephen E. Selkowitz. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding., 2011. Download: PDF (1.39 MB) 2010 Gustavsen, Arlid,...

70

Technology Partnerships Office  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... NRB) in broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy to ... photo ablate hydrophilic poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) hydro gels and ...

71

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

constructed with ?-inch plywood with a vinyl or PVC skin orto the high surface area of plywood paneling, all THUs hadstandards for all plywood and particleboard materials using

Parthasarathy, Srinandini

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY ON FORMALDEHYDE EMISSIONS IN TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

constructed with ?-inch plywood with a vinyl or PVC skin ortile, gypsum board, shiplap, plywood, terracotta brick) thatsamples are all made from plywood. Humidity Equilibration

Parthasarathy, Srinandini

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

New Boston, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

County, Ohio. It falls under Ohio's 2nd congressional district.12 Registered Energy Companies in New Boston, Ohio Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors References US Census...

74

Indoor Residential Chemical Emissions as Risk Factors for Children...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The identified risk factors include specific organic compounds such as formaldehyde, benzene, and phthalates, as well as indoor materials or finishes such as vinyl flooring,...

75

Techniques and Technologies for Field Detection of Asbestos Containing Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Asbestos has been used in numerous applications at DOE sites including sprayed-on fireproofing, asphalt and vinyl floor tile, and asbestos-cement(transite) siding.

76

Window performance for human thermal comfort  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Heat Transfer through Windows”. ASHRAE Transactions 93,Performance of Vinyl-framed Windows”. Proc. 5 th Conf. Onet al. 2003b, "Operable Windows, Personal Control & Occupant

Huizenga, C; Zhang, H.; Mattelaer, P.; Yu, T.; Arens, Edward A; Lyons, P.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Indoor air quality and the emissions of VOCs from interior ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

How to Cite. Tshudy, J. A. (1995), Indoor air quality and the emissions of VOCs from interior products. J Vinyl Addit Technol, 1: 155–158. doi: ...

78

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other ... ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; PHENOL; PLASTICIZERS; ... of TMPB-DIB (a plasticizer found in vinyl . ...

79

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Emissions of TMPB-DIB (a plasticizer found in vinyl products) were found to be higher than values reported in comparable housing by Hodgson et al.,3.

80

Choose building products that avoid toxic emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Choose building products that avoid toxic emissions. ... (PVC or vinyl) products have a wide range of chlorine that ... and also the plasticizers in ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "110-75-8 2-chloroethyl vinyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Emission Factors For Formaldehyde - Home | Energy Analysis ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Emissions of TMPB-DIB (a plasticizer found in vinyl products) were found to be higher than values reported in comparable housing by Hodgson et al.,3.

82

Licenses Available in Chemicals | Tech Transfer | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Uses Thereof 201002471 Interfacial controlled fusion of individual femtoliter droplets on demand 201002484 Approach to prepare selectively deuterated vinyl pyridines 201002516...

83

NISTTech  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... sized spots using a tunable multi-photon laser coupled to a confocal microscope to photo ablate hydrophilic poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) hydro gels and ...

84

Characterization of Arsenic Contamination on Rust from Ton Containers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The speciation and spatial distribution of arsenic on rusted steel surfaces affects both measurement and removal approaches. The chemistry of arsenic residing in the rust of ton containers that held the chemical warfare agents bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (sulfur mustard) and 2-chlorovinyldichloroarsine (Lewisite) is of particular interest, because while the agents have been decontaminated, residual arsenic could pose a health or environmental risk. The chemistry and distribution of arsenic in rust samples was probed using imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). Arsenic in the +3 and or +5 oxidation state is homogeneously distributed at the very top-most layer of the rust samples, and is intimately associated with iron. Sputter depth profiling followed by SIMS and XPS shows As at a depth of several nm, in some cases in a reduced form. The SEM/EDX experiments show that As is present at a depth of several microns, but is inhomogeneously distributed; most locations contained oxidized As at concentrations of a few percent, however several locations showed very high As in a metallic form. These results indicate that the rust material must be removed if the steel containers are to be cleared of arsenic.

Gary S. Groenewold; Recep Avci; Robert V. Fox; Muhammedin Deliorman; Jayson Suo; Laura Kellerman

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination  

SciTech Connect

New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including an inner layer of activated carbon fabric, which is well-suited for the decontamination of both personnel and equipment. This paper describes the development of a composite nonwoven pad and compares efficacy test results for this pad with results from testing other decontamination systems. The efficacy of the dry nonwoven fabric pad was demonstrated specifically for decontamination of the chemical warfare blister agent bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (H or sulfur mustard). GC/MS results indicate that the composite fabric was capable of significantly reducing the vapor hazard from mustard liquid absorbed into the nonwoven dry fabric pad. The mustard adsorption efficiency of the nonwoven pad was significantly higher than particulate activated carbon (p=0.041) and was similar to the currently fielded US military M291 kit (p=0.952). The nonwoven pad has several advantages over other materials, especially its non-particulate, yet flexible, construction. This composite fabric was also shown to be chemically compatible with potential toxic and hazardous liquids, which span a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals, including a concentrated acid, an organic solvent and a mild oxidant, bleach.

Ramkumar, S S; Love, A; Sata, U R; Koester, C J; Smith, W J; Keating, G A; Hobbs, L; Cox, S B; Lagna, W M; Kendall, R J

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

All-Weather Hydrogen Peroxide-Based Decontamination of CBRN Contaminants  

SciTech Connect

A hydrogen peroxide-based decontaminant, Decon Green, is efficacious for the decontamination of chemical agents VX (S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate), GD (Soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and HD (mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide); the biological agent anthrax (Bacillus anthracis); and radiological isotopes Cs-137 and Co-60; thus demonstrating the ability of this decontamination approach to ameliorate the aftermath of all three types of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Reaction mechanisms afforded for the chemical agents are discussed as are rationales for the enhanced removal efficacy of recalcitrant 60Co on certain surfaces. Decontaminants of this nature can be deployed, and are effective, at very low temperatures (-32 ?C), as shown for studies done with VX and HD simulants, without the need for external heat sources. Finally, the efficacy of a lower-logistics, dry decontaminant powder concentrate (utilizing the solid active-oxygen compounds peracetyl borate and Peroxydone) which can be reconstituted with water in the field prior to use, is presented.

Wagner, George W.; Procell, Lawrence R.; Sorrick, David C.; Lawson, Glenn E.; Wells, Claire M.; Reynolds, Charles M.; Ringelberg, D. B.; Foley, Karen L.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Blanchard, David L.

2010-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

87

Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination  

SciTech Connect

The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid identification of practical and effective decontamination approaches, this paper reviews pathways of CWA degradation by natural means as well as those resulting from deliberately applied solutions and technologies; these pathways and technologies are compared and contrasted. We then review various technologies, both traditional and recent, with some emphasis on decontamination materials used for surfaces that are difficult to clean. Discussion is limited to the major threat CWA, namely sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate), and the G-series nerve agents. The principal G-agents are GA (tabun, ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), GB (sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and GD (soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). The chemical decontamination pathways of each agent are outlined, with some discussion of intermediate and final degradation product toxicity. In all cases, and regardless of the CWA degradation pathway chosen for decontamination, it will be necessary to collect and analyze pertinent environmental samples during the treatment phase to confirm attainment of clearance levels.

Talmage, Sylvia Smith [ORNL; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Munro, Nancy B [ORNL; King, J. [U.S. Army Environmental Center

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

A Versatile Catalyst System for Suzuki?Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reactions of C(sp[superscript 2])-Tosylates and Mesylates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A catalyst system for the Suzuki?Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of aryl and vinyl tosylates and mesylates has been developed. This catalyst displays excellent functional group tolerance and allows the coupling of ...

Bhayana, Brijesh

89

Infrared Thermography Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hollow vs. Foam-Filled Vinyl Windows Hollow vs. Foam-Filled Vinyl Windows Hollow vs. Foam-filled Vinyl Windows (100K) These two windows are the same except for what is inside the vinyl frames. The frame on the left is hollow, while the frame on the right is filled with insulating foam. The units have the same insulated glazing unit, a superwindow with R-8 center of glass. The hollow window frame allows air to circulate inside the frame; this convective effect is observed by noticing the frame temperatures are cooler at the bottom than at the top. The foam-filled window doesnÌt show this effect. These windows are being cooled on the back side with wind at -15°C (5°F). For more information contact: Howdy Goudey Building Technologies Program 510-486-6046 (fax) Return to the IRlab page Building Technologies | Energy & Environment Division | Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

90

MOLECULAR BEAM STUDIES OF UNIMOLECULAR REACTIONS: Cl, F + C2H3Br  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pro~ of fluorine and chlorine atoms with vinyl bromide areheated nickle oven at The chlorine source was similar,the tot&l energy for the chlorine re&ction &nd FWHM ~ 4.2 kJ

Buss, Richard J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Speciality conference on: toxic substances in the air environment  

SciTech Connect

Papers presented are divided into the following categories: toxic substances legislation; arsenic; vinyl chloride; and emerging problems in toxic emission. Seven papers were abstracted and indexed individually for ERA/EDB. (JGB)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Supplemental Section 106 Compliance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and a flat-roofed ell at the right of the faade. A small deck has been added atop the flat roof. All visible windows have been replaced with vinyl windows. According to County...

93

Techniques for reducing exposures to volatile organic compounds associated with new construction and renovation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

applied to gypsum board and plywood substrates. This wasapplied to 1.1-m 2 of plywood. The carpet and vinyl flooringThe SGLPs were applied to plywood. The two non-VOC paints,

Hodgson, A.T.; Shimer, D.A.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS – FINAL REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Development Hardwood Plywood Lawrence Berkeley Nationalconstructed of 1/8-inch plywood with a vinyl or PVC skin orone material, the Cavalier plywood cabinet wall (490 µg m -2

Maddalena, Randy L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

The development of palladium-catalysts for organic synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 1. Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions of aryl and heteroaryl halides with aryl-, heteroaryl and vinyl boronic acids proceed in very good to excellent yield with the use of 2-(2',6'-dimethoxybiphenyl)-dicyclohexylphosphine, ...

Martinelli, Joseph R

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Direct synthesis of pyridine and pyrimidine derivatives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I. Synthesis of Substituted Pyridine Derivatives via the Ruthenium-Catalyzed Cycloisomerization of 3-Azadienynes. The two-step conversion of various N-vinyl and N-aryl amides to the corresponding substituted pyridines and ...

Hill, Matthew D. (Matthew Dennis)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Green chemistry : dense carbon dioxide and water as environmentally benign reaction media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) was investigated in scCO?, and the cycloaddition between cyclopentadiene and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) was studied in an scCO?/liquid water environment. Nitrogen chemistry, specifically the synthesis of nitrogen ...

Allen, Andrew J. (Andrew John), 1978-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Methods for Measuring Friction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Selected solid friction tests per ASTM standards...for Coefficient of Friction Vinyl and wool tiles (preparation only) Any apparatus E 303 (E-17 on traveled surfaces) Measuring Surface

99

BEESE ET AL. VOL. 7 ' NO. 4 ' 34343446 ' 2013 www.acsnano.org  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, spinning from CNT aerogel, and twisting or rolling of CNT films, as summarized in a recent review article coating on the surface of the DWNT bundles interacts strongly with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) through

Espinosa, Horacio D.

100

BEESE ET AL. VOL. XXX ' NO. XX ' 000000 ' XXXX www.acsnano.org  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, spinning from CNT aerogel, and twisting or rolling of CNT films, as summarized in a recent review article coating on the surface of the DWNT bundles interacts strongly with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) through

Espinosa, Horacio D.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "110-75-8 2-chloroethyl vinyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

An analysis of residential window waterproofing systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The prevalence of vinyl nail-on windows in the North American new home construction market has prompted ASTM International to write ASTM E2112-01 "Standard Practice for Installation of Exterior Windows, Doors and Skylights". ...

Parsons, Austin, 1959-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Welcome to the Efficient Windows Collaborative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Break Metal Non-metal Frames There is a variety of non-metal framing materials for windows including, wood, wood with metalvinyl cladding, vinyl, hybrid, and composites. This...

103

An analysis of residential window waterproofing systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The prevalence of vinyl nail-on windows in the North American new home construction market has prompted ASTM International to write ASTM E2112-01 "Standard Practice for… (more)

Parsons, Austin, 1959-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a primate suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a primate an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition including gamma vinylGABA. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of nicotine addiction by treating a patient with an effective amount of a composition including gamma vinylGABA.

Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

An approach to catalytic asymmetric electrocyclization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

petroleum ether 40-60 Ph phenyl ppm parts per million Pr propyl q quartet Rf retention factor rt room temperature s singlet sept septet t triplet t tertiary TBAF tetrabutylammonium fluoride TBS tert... demonstrated by Nelson.73 In this case, we observed the formation of lactone 75 by vinyl nucleophile addition to the corresponding aldehydes 71 and 72. We require a less basic source of vinyl anion, or a bulkier ester such as tert-butyl, to prevent any...

Kothari, Abhishek

2010-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

106

The hydration of reactive cement-in-polymer dispersions studied by nuclear magnetic resonance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The behaviour of two novel cement-in-polymer (c/p) dispersions, namely cement-in-poly(vinyl acetate) and cement-in-poly(vinyl alcohol) upon exposure to water at room temperature was investigated by a combination of various NMR methods. The swelling, cracking, and the water ingress were monitored non-destructively using {sup 1}H single point imaging. The hydration of the cement matrix was investigated using {sup 29}Si NMR whilst {sup 13}C CPMAS NMR spectra allowed the quantification of the kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction of poly(vinyl acetate) into poly(vinyl alcohol). The polymer controls the rate of water ingress and swelling which in turn determines the behaviour of the c/p dispersions upon exposure to water. For the cement-in-poly(vinyl alcohol), the rates of water ingress and swelling are much faster than the hydration of the clinker whilst for the cement-in-poly(vinyl acetate) the slow rates of the two processes allow the formation of a cementious matrix which assures the stability of the sample.

Olaru, A.M. [Institut fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie, RWTH Aachen University, Templergraben 55, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Weichold, O. [DWI an der RWTH Aachen, e. V., Pauwelsstrasse 8, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Adams, A., E-mail: aadams@mc.rwth-aachen.de [Institut fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie, RWTH Aachen University, Templergraben 55, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

Sulfur mustard-induced increase in intracellular free calcium level and arachidonic acid release from cell membrane  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of action of the alkylating agent bis-(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (sulfur mustard, SM) was studied using the in thai vitro mouse neuroblastoma-rat glioma hybrid NG 108-1 S clonal p cell line model. Following 0.3 mM SM exposure, cell viability remained high (>80% of untreated control) up to 9 hr and then declined steadily to about 40% of control after 20-24 hr. During the early period of SM exposure, when there was no significant cell viability loss, the following effects were observed. The cellular glutathione level decreased 20% after 1 hr and 34% after 6 hr. Between 2 and 6 hr, there was a time-dependent increase (about 10 to 30%) in intracellular free calcium (Ca2+), which was localized to the limiting membrane of swollen endoplasmic reticula and mitochondria, to euchromatin areas of the nucleus, and to areas of the cytosol and plasma membrane. Moreover,there was also a time-dependent increase in the release of isotopically labeled arachidonic acid ((3H)AA) from cellular membranes. Increase in (3H)AA release was 28% at 3 hr and about 60-80% between 6 and 9 hr. This increase in I3HIAA release was inhibited by quinacrine (20 uM), which is a phospholipase (PLA2) inhibitor. At 16 hr after SM exposure, there was a large increase (about 200% of control) in I3HIAA release, which was coincident with a 50% loss of cell viability. These results suggest a Ca2+-mediated toxic mechanism of SM via PLA2 activation and arachidonate release.

Ray, R.; Legere, R.H.; Majerus, B.J.; Petrali, J.P.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

108

PROGRESS REPORT NO. 52 FOR DECEMBER 1, 1957 THROUGH FEBRUARY 28, 1958  

SciTech Connect

Some approximate values of the concentrations of the chlorine ion and the mean activity coefficients of HCl in Dowex 50, as functions of the mean activity of HCl are given. The KCl uptake by anion-exchange resins, Dowex 1 and 2, is plotted. Ion-exchange phase properties of HCl were determined from freezing point measurements. The thermodynamic acid dissociation constants of HClO/sub 4/, HCl, HNO/sub 3/, HBr, and HGaCl/sub 4/ in water-saturated bis(2- chloroethyl) ether, were obtained from couductometric measurements. The distribution behavior of InBr/sub 3/ and IuCl/sub 3/ in HBr and HCl was studied. Information is given on the extraction of Zn and Ag from chloride solutions by dioctylamine salts. Ion exchange equilibria between hexammino-cobalt(III) and chloro-pentammino-cobalt(In ions in respect to La ions in Dowex 50 NaR are plotted. Typical radiochemical activation analyses for K in geologic materials are tabulated. The postulated nuclear level scheme and the calculiated and experimental positron decay following ( gamma ,n) activation of Br/sup 79/ are shown for Br/sup 78/. Cumulative fission yields in the deuteron fission of U/sup 235/ are tabulated. Cosmic ray data obtained with a new highcounting rate meson monitor are plotted. The equipment used and data obtained in a search for long- lived particles with mass ~ 550m/sub e/ in the cosmic-ray flux at sea level are shown. The excited states of Ni/sup 58/ and Ni/sup 61/ obtained from (d,p) reactions of Ni/sup 58/ and Ni/sup 60/ are tabulated. (For preceding period see AECU-3685.) (M.H.R.)

1958-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

109

Aging Studies of VCE Dismantlement Returns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

VCE is an ethylene/vinyl acetate/vinyl alcohol terpolymer binder for filled elastomers which is designed to accept high filler loadings. Filled elastomer parts consist of the binder (VCE), a curing agent (Hylene MP, diphenol-4-4{prime}-methylenebis(phenylcarbamate)), a processing aid (LS, lithium stearate), and filler particles (typically 70% fraction by weight). The curing of the filled elastomer parts occurs from the heat-activated reaction between the hydroxyl groups of VCE with the Hylene MP curing agent, resulting in a cross-linked network. The final vinyl acetate content is typically between 34.9 and 37.9%, while the vinyl alcohol content is typically between 1.27 and 1.78%. Surveillance data for this material is both scarce and scattered, complicating the assessment of any aging trends in systems. In addition, most of the initial surveillance efforts focused on mechanical properties such as hardness and tensile strength, and chemical information is therefore lacking. Material characterization and aging studies had been performed on previous formulations of the VCE material but the Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) starting copolymer is no longer commercially available. New formulations with replacement EVA materials are currently being established and will require characterization as well as updated aging models.

Letant, S; Alviso, C; Pearson, M; Albo, R; Small, W; Wilson, T; Chinn, S; Maxwell, R

2011-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

110

Method for making carbon films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area ([approx equal]1000 m[sup 2] /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160 C for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750 C in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750--850 C for between 1--6 hours. 2 figs.

Tan, M.X.

1999-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

111

Method for making carbon films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area (.apprxeq.1000 m.sup.2 /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160.degree. C. for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750-850.degree. C. for between 1-6 hours.

Tan, Ming X. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Carbon Film Electrodes For Super Capacitor Applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area (.apprxeq.1000 m.sup.2 /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160.degree. C. for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750-850.degree. C. for between 1-6 hours.

Tan, Ming X. (Livermore, CA)

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

113

Passivation-free solid state battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiCoO{sub 2}, LiNiO{sub 2} and LiV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and their derivatives. 5 figs.

Abraham, K.M.; Peramunage, D.

1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

114

Passivation-free solid state battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Peramunage, Dharmasena (Norwood, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Process for radiation grafting hydrogels onto organic polymeric substrates  

SciTech Connect

An improved process for radiation grafting of hydrogels onto organic polymeric substrates is provided comprising the steps of incorporating an effective amount of cupric or ferric ions in an aqueous graft solution consisting of N-vinyl-2 - pyrrolidone or mixture of N-vinyl-2 - pyrrolidone and other monomers, e.g., 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, propylene glycol acrylate, acrylamide, methacrylic acid and methacrylamide, immersing an organic polymeric substrate in the aqueous graft solution and thereafter subjecting the contacted substrate with ionizing radiation.

Ratner, Buddy D. (Seattle, WA); Hoffman, Allan S. (Seattle, WA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Developing the Manufacturing Process for VCE: Binder for Filled Elastomers  

SciTech Connect

This topical report presents work completed to re-establish the manufacturing process for poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) terpolymer called VCE. The new VCE formulations meet the material requirements and have lower melt viscosity, which results in improved production for the next assembly. In addition, the reaction conditions were optimized in order to achieve a satisfactory conversion rate to enable production in a single work shift. Several equipment and process changes were made to yield a manufacturing process with improved product quality, yield, efficiency, and worker safety.

E.A. Eastwood

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

In-situ stabilization of radioactive zirconium swarf  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method for treating ignitable cutting swarf in accordance with the present invention involves collecting cutting swarf in a casting mold underwater and injecting a binder mixture comprising vinyl ester styrene into the vessel to fill void volume; and form a mixture comprising swarf and vinyl ester styrene; and curing the mixture. The method is especially useful for stabilizing the ignitable characteristics of radioactive zirconium cutting swarf, and can be used to solidify zirconium swarf, or other ignitable finely divided material, underwater. The process could also be performed out of water with other particulate wastes. 6 figs.

Hess, C.C.

1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

118

In-situ stabilization of radioactive zirconium swarf  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method for treating ignitable cutting swarf in accordance with the present invention involves collecting cutting swarf in a casting mold underwater and injecting a binder mixture comprising vinyl ester styrene into the vessel to fill void volume; and form a mixture comprising swarf and vinyl ester styrene; and curing the mixture. The method is especially useful for stabilizing the ignitable characteristics of radioactive zirconium cutting swarf, and can be used to solidify zirconium swarf, or other ignitable finely divided material, underwater. The process could also be performed out of water with other particulate wastes.

Hess, Clay C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

In-situ stabilization of radioactive zirconium swarf  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method for treating ignitable cutting swarf in accordance with the present invention involves collecting cutting swarf in a casting mold underwater and injecting a binder mixture comprising vinyl ester styrene into the vessel to fill void volume; and form a mixture comprising swarf and vinyl ester styrene; and curing the mixture. The method is especially useful for stabilizing the ignitable characteristics of radioactive zirconium cutting swarf, and can be used to solidify zirconium swarf, or other ignitable finely divided material, underwater. The process could also be performed out of water with other particulate wastes.

Hess, Clay C.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

High temperature polymer concrete  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is concerned with a polymer concrete composition, which is a two-component composition useful with many bases including metal. Component A, the aggregate composition, is broadly composed of silica, silica flour, portland cement, and acrylamide, whereas Component B, which is primarily vinyl and acrylyl reactive monomers, is a liquid system.

Fontana, J.J.; Reams, W.

1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "110-75-8 2-chloroethyl vinyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders using GVG  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to the use of gamma vinyl-GABA (GVG) to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders, and to reduce or eliminate behaviors associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders.

Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Radioiodinated glucose analogues for use as imaging agents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN); Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN); Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Silicon dendritic web material process development. Second quarterly report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The properties of the cells to be used in the first 30 cm by 60 cm module are given. The average efficiency was 12.4 +- 0.8%. The highest efficiency measured was 14.2%. A satisfactory lamination has been made with polyvinyl butyral replacing ethylene vinyl acetate.

Stapleton, R. E.; Meier, D. L.; Sienkiewicz, L.; Campbell, R. B.; Rai-Choudhury, P.

1980-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

125

Weatherization pays big dividends  

SciTech Connect

Weather Windows, do-it-yourself indoor vinyl storm windows, are a major project of the Duke Power Co. Weatherization Program. Various weatherization programs in existence across the United States are discussed, emphasizing their public relations aspects as well as the service they provide to customers regarding savings on electric bills. 1 figure.

Gorzelnik, E.F.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Polymerizable 2(2-hydroxynaphthyl)2H-benzotriazole compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Benzotriazole compounds having the formula: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is H, Cl, or OCH.sub.3 ; R.sub.2 is a hydroxynaphthyl group; and R.sub.3 is a vinyl unsaturated polymerizable group. Homopolymers or copolymers thereof are effective as UV light stabilizers and absorbers.

Gomez, P.M.; Neidlinger, H.H.

1991-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

127

Initiated chemical vapor deposition of fluoropolymer coatings for the surface modification of complex geometries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a one-step, soventless process that can be used to produce polymeric thin films. The iCVD technique has been used to polymerize a wide variety of vinyl monomers such as glycidyl ...

Gupta, Malancha, 1980-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Soluble Synthetic Analogs of Malaria Pigment: Structure of Mesohematin Anhydride [FeIII(MP-IX)]2 and Solution Interaction with Chloroquine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changing the vinyl groups of hematin anhydride to either ethyl or hydrogen groups results in increased solubility (Por=porphyrin). Determination of the weak binding constants of the antimalarial drug chloroquine to dimers of these hematin anhydride analogues suggests that solution-phase heme/drug interactions alone are unlikely to be the origin of the action of the drug.

D Bohle; E Dodd; A Kosar; L Sharma; P Stephens; L Suarez; D Tazoo

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

129

Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Literature, pages 8487, Montreal, Canada, June 8, 2012. c 2012 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Throughout history, we have examples of artists observing each other's works and reprising the same subjects:Matt Flynn. CENTER: HELLA JONGERIUS Sample Blanket Repurposed fabrics,wool,polyester thread, needle to Mary Kahlenberg Wool,linen,vinyl,double weave with discontinuous tabby and manipulated inlay,48" x 56

130

AN INTRODUCTION TO ASBESTOS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5.3.1 Furnace Insulation 5.3.2 Pipe Insulation 5.3.3 Ceilings and Walls 5.4 Building Interiors asbestos cement insulation, asbestos cement board, asbestos cement tiles, vinyl asbestos tiles, or plaster in some Dalhousie buildings. 4. To clean up in areas where asbestos dust may be present, use a wet mop

Brownstone, Rob

131

Buildings Energy Data Book: 1.4 Environmental Data  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

3 3 "Typical" Construction Waste Estimated for a 2,000-Square-Foot Home (1) Material Solid Sawn Wood 20% 6 Engineered Wood 18% 5 Drywall 25% 6 Cardboard (OCC) 8% 20 Metals 2% 1 Vinyl (PVC) (3) 2% 1 Masonry (4) 13% 1 Hazardous Materials 1% - Other 13% 11 Total (5) 100% 50 Note(s): Source(s): 1) See Table 2.2.7 for materials used in the construction of a new single-family home. 2) Volumes are highly variable due to compressibility and captured air space in waste materials. 3) Assuming 3 sides of exterior clad in vinyl siding. 4) Assuming a brick veneer on home's front facade. 5) Due to rounding, sum does not add up to total. NAHB's Internet web site, www.nahb.org, Residential Construction Waste: From Disposal to Management, Oct. 1996. 150 150 1,000 50 1,050 8,000

132

Sandia National Laboratories: 13,051 lbs of Carpet Sent for Reuse  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

13,051 lbs of Carpet Sent for Reuse 13,051 lbs of Carpet Sent for Reuse November 01, 2011 carpet for reuse Sandia National Laboratories/NM has found a new home for excess carpet generated during interior renovations of its existing buildings. Sandia's Pollution Prevention (P2) Team has been collecting vinyl backed and foam backed (polyurethane) carpet for many years; however it was limited to recycling opportunities due to the lack of options in the carpet industry. Previous shipments sent out for recycle were delivered to Interface Carpet in Atlanta, GA, where the manufacture has an extensive recycling program that recycles vinyl backed carpet in addition to the nylon fiber surface. Unfortunately, the polyurethane backed carpet is non recyclable and sent for waste-to-energy recovery. forklift carrying carpet

133

An Exploration of Wall Retrofit Best Practices  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments were performed to examine wall retrofit options including replacing the cladding, adding insulation under the cladding, and multiple sealing methods that can be used when installing replacement windows in well-built or loosely-built rough openings. These experiments included thermal measurements in a hot box and air-leakage measurements. The retrofit claddings considered included wood-lap siding, vinyl siding, and vinyl siding with an integrated and formed foam insulation. Retrofit insulations included expanded and extruded polystyrene and foil-faced polyisocyanurate in various thicknesses. Air sealing methods for replacement windows included traditional caulking, exterior trim variations, loose-fill fiberglass, low-expansion foam, self-expanding foam inserts, and specialty tape. Results were applied to a model to estimate whole-house energy impacts for multiple climates.

Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Petrie, Thomas [ORNL; Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Hulvey, Kimberly D [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Measurement of the Osmotic Properties of Thin Polymer Films and Biological Tissue Samples  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new type of micro-osmometer is described in which water absorption of small tissue samples is measured by a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The swelling of the sample deposited on the surface of a quartz crystal is determined by monitoring the change in resonance frequency of the quartz sensor as a function of the vapor pressure in the surrounding environment. The measurement principle is verified by studying the water uptake of poly(vinyl alcohol) films. Reasonable agreement is found between the results obtained by the QCM-based osmometer and previous osmotic pressure measurements made on a similar poly(vinyl alcohol) sample. The feasibility of the new method is demonstrated by measuring the osmotic response of tissue-engineered cartilage samples. It is found that the osmotic pressure of cartilage substantially increases with culture time. The present result is consistent with cartilage models, suggesting that the proteoglycan content governs the compressive resistance of the tissue.

Ferenc Horkay; Iren Horkayne-szakaly; Peter J. Basser

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Cyanoethylated Compounds as Additives in Lithium/Lithium Ion Batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

1998-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

136

Solid polymer electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to Li ion (Li{sup +}) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}, LiAsF{sub 6}, and LiClO{sub 4}. 2 figs.

Abraham, K.M.; Alamgir, M.; Choe, H.S.

1995-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

137

Treatment of PCP addiction and PCP addiction-related behavior  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to phencyclidine (PCP). The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of PCP.

Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Injection Molding Compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 5   Common thermoplastic and thermoset molding compounds...(r) (s) (t) Phenolic Distributor caps, plastic ash trays (a) (b) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) (q) (r) (s) (t) Urethane Automotive body panels, bumpers (a) (d) (e) (g) (i) (l) (m) (o) (q) (r) (t) Vinyl ester Composite car/truck springs, wheels (b) (d) (e) (g) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) (p)...

139

Biomimetic hydrogel materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel biomimetic hydrogel materials and methods for their preparation. Hydrogels containing acrylamide-functionalized carbohydrate, sulfoxide, sulfide or sulfone copolymerized with a hydrophilic or hydrophobic copolymerizing material selected from the group consisting of an acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylate, methacrylate, vinyl and a derivative thereof present in concentration from about 1 to about 99 wt %. and methods for their preparation. The method of use of the new hydrogels for fabrication of soft contact lenses and biomedical implants.

Bertozzi, Carolyn (Albany, CA); Mukkamala, Ravindranath (Houston, TX); Chen, Qing (Albany, CA); Hu, Hopin (Albuquerque, NM); Baude, Dominique (Creteil, FR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Biomimetic Hydrogel Materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel biomimetic hydrogel materials and methods for their preparation. Hydrogels containing acrylamide-functionalized carbohydrate, sulfoxide, sulfide or sulfone copolymerized with a hydrophilic or hydrophobic copolymerizing material selected from the group consisting of an acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylate, methacrylate, vinyl and a derivative thereof present in concentration from about 1 to about 99 wt %. and methods for their preparation. The method of use of the new hydrogels for fabrication of soft contact lenses and biomedical implants.

Bertozzi, Carolyn (Albany, CA), Mukkamala, Ravindranath (Houston, TX), Chen, Oing (Albany, CA), Hu, Hopin (Albuquerque, NM), Baude, Dominique (Creteil, FR)

2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "110-75-8 2-chloroethyl vinyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

1993-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

143

Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of automotive battery separators. Environmental research brief  

SciTech Connect

The WMAC team at the University of Louisville performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures automotive battery separators. Two types of separators-polyethylene/silica sheet and vinyl rib-are produced. The team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that waste spill absorbents are generated in large quantities and at a significant waste management cost, and that waste reduction could result from using wringable, reusable aborbents.

Fleischman, M.; Schmidt, P.; Roberts, D.; Looby, G.P.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Replication of N[superscript 2],3-Ethenoguanine by DNA Polymerases  

SciTech Connect

The unstable DNA adduct N2,3-ethenoguanine, a product of both exposure to the carcinogen vinyl chloride and of oxidative stress, was built into an oligonucleotide, using an isostere strategy to stabilize the glycosidic bond. This modification was then used to examine the cause of mutations by DNA polymerases, in terms of both the biochemistry of the lesion and a structure of the lesion within a polymerase.

Zhao, Linlin; Christov, Plamen P.; Kozekov, Ivan D.; Pence, Matthew G.; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Rizzo, Carmelo J.; Egli, Martin; Guengerich, F. Peter (Vanderbilt)

2012-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

145

Investigation of Alternative Waste Forms for GTCC 14C Filters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report demonstrates that both cement and vinyl ester-styrene (VES) are viable engineering solutions for the immobilization of Greater than Class C (GTCC) 14C filters. The number of power plants installing submicron-size cartridge filters has increased with the incentive of radiation dose reduction. However, utilities are experiencing difficulty disposing of these filters due to significant increases in 14C concentrations. By implementing the concentration averaging recommendations of this study, nuc...

2001-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

Integrated Materials and Construction Practices (IMCP) for Concrete Pavement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stainless steels: AlSl 302 8055 480 15.1 3.91 17.3 20.0 22.8 25.4 512 559 585 606 AlSl 304 1670 7900 477 14 and rubber pad -- -- -- 1.38 0.217 Tile (asphalt, linoleum, vinyl) -- -- -- 1.26 0.009 Masonry Materials.1 -- -- expanded shale, clay, or slate; 1600 0.79 0.84 -- expanded slags; cinders; 1280 0.54 0.84 -- pumice

147

Solid polymer electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Choe, Hyoun S. (Waltham, MA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

CuC1 thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell for producing copper having a dense graphite anode electrode and a dense graphite cathode electrode disposed in a CuCl solution. An anion exchange membrane made of poly(ethylene vinyl alcohol) and polyethylenimine cross-linked with a cross-linking agent selected from the group consisting of acetone, formaldehyde, glyoxal, glutaraldehyde, and mixtures thereof is disposed between the two electrodes.

Fan, Qinbai (Chicago, IL); Liu, Renxuan (Chicago, IL)

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

149

Silicon dendritic web material process development. First quarterly report, March 28-June 30, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Initial values of pressure, power, and speed have been determined for seam bonding interconnects to dendritic web solar cells. Satisfactory bond strengths and high yield have been achieved without cell damage. However, in case of processing large numbers of cells for module fabrication, further testing is required to assure reproducibility of this technique. Various techniques have been developed for fabricating solar modules by lamination using ethylene vinyl acetate with a glass superstrate, and no cell breakage has been noted.

Campbell, R. B.; Stapleton, R. E.; Sienkiewicz, L.; Rai-Choudhury, P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Cyanoethylated compounds as additives in lithium/lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Microbial based chlorinated ethene destruction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mixed culture of Dehalococcoides species is provided that has an ability to catalyze the complete dechlorination of polychlorinated ethenes such as PCE, TCE, cDCE, 1,1-DCE and vinyl chloride as well as halogenated ethanes such as 1,2-DCA and EDB. The mixed culture demonstrates the ability to achieve dechlorination even in the presence of high source concentrations of chlorinated ethenes.

Bagwell, Christopher E. (Aiken, SC); Freedman, David L. (Clemson, SC); Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Bratt, William B. (Atlanta, GA); Wood, Elizabeth A. (Marietta, GA)

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

152

Neutron Absorbing Alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for making homogeneous copolymers of vinylpyrrolidone (VP) and vinyl acetate (VA) which form clear aqueous solutions and have high cloud points. The process involves precharging VP and VA monomers in a predetermined ratio, and then feeding VP and VA at a predetermined rate, the ratio of the components in the initial charge and the feeding rates for the monomer being selected in accordance with the reactivity rates of the monomers towards copolymerization as opposed to homopolymerization.

Zhong, Yuanzhen (Wayne, NJ), Parikh, Hemant (Harriman, NY); Smith, Terry E. (Murray, KY)

2002-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

153

Radiation-hardened polymeric films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10/sup 15/ to 10/sup 21/ molecules of dopant/cm/sup 3/. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

Arnold, C. Jr.; Hughes, R.C.; Kepler, R.G.; Kurtz, S.R.

1984-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

154

Radiation-hardened polymeric films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10.sup.15 to 10.sup.21 molecules of dopant/cm.sup.3. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

Arnold, Jr., Charles (Albuquerque, NM); Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Kepler, R. Glen (Albuquerque, NM); Kurtz, Steven R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

1990-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

156

Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

Fontana, Jack J. (Shirley, NY); Elling, David (Centereach, NY); Reams, Walter (Shirley, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical and overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt% calcined coke breeze, 40 wt% vinyl ester resin with 3.5 wt% modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag. 4 tabs.

Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

1988-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

158

Calculations of Bacteriochlorophyll g primary donors in photosynthetic Heliobacteria. How to shift the energy of a phototrap by 2000 cm{sup -1}  

SciTech Connect

Heliobacteria are a recently uncovered class of photosynthetic bacteria comprised of a novel chromophore, bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) g. Only the substitution of a vinyl; group for an acetyl group on ring I distinguishes the macrocycle of BChl g from that of the more common BChl b. The different substituents impart small differences of 30 nm or {approx} 500 cm{sup -1} in the Qy transitions of the chromophores in vitro but result in 2000-cm{sup -1} differences in the energies of the primary donors in reaction centers containing BChls b (960 nm) and BChls g (800)nm. INDO/s calculations are presented that consider whether this large spectral shift reflects a different mode of aggregation or architecture for the primary donor in Heliobacteria or whether the observed difference can be explained in terms of the dimers or special pairs found in organisms comprised of BChls b or a. Calculations based on the crystallographic coordinates of the BChls b in Rhodopseudomonas viridis with the acetyl groups replaced by vinyls yield good agreement with the observed Qy energies of BChl g monomers in vitro. The calculations are also extended to predict the spectral properties of an as-yet undiscovered organism comprised of BChls {open_quotes}h{close_quotes}, hypothetical vinyl-substituted analogues of BChls a. The calculations may also offer some guidelines for the considerable effort now devoted to chlorin-based artificial photosynthetic models. Introduction of acetyl functions or other polar substients that can conjugate with the chlorin {pi} system clearly provide simple synthetic avenues to modulate the optical properties of porphinoid monomers; effects that are further enhanced by dimerization, as evidenced by the large differences in the BCgls g and b in vivo. 31 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Thompson, M.A.; Fajer, J. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

1992-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

159

Public Meeting Transcript: Sustainable Design Standards for Federal Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA UNITED STATES OF AMERICA OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY PUBLIC MEETING SUSTAINABLE DESIGN STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL BUILDINGS U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 Room 8E-089 Wednesday July 28, 2010 Chair: Cyrus Nasseri Department of Energy (FEMP) Facilitator: Jim Raba Department of Energy Executive Court Reporters (301) 565-0064 2 Participants Identified: Mark Ames American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air- Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Margo Appel US Department of Energy (DOE) Todd Apple Dupont Tim Ballo Earthjustice John Barry International Union of Operating Engineers National Training Fund Allen Blakey The Vinyl Institute

160

 

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

energy energy The proposed activity includes implementing the following list of energy efficiency improvements in existing Tribal buildings: * Foam Insulation for the Administration Building * Install new Energy Star oil furnace at the Maintenance Garage * Install new Energy Star oil furnace at the Construction Office * Window replacement at the Family Support Building and Department of Social Services using Energy Star qualified Double Hung Vinyl Windows * Install new Energy Star oil furnace at Terrance House Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants Saint Regis Mohawk Tribe Energy Efficiency Retrofits Saint Regis Mohawk Tribe New York Nov 2, 2009 Jane Summerson Print Form for Records Submit via E-mail Billie Newland Digitally signed by Billie Newland

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "110-75-8 2-chloroethyl vinyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

2010SR05.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Big Top Tent Keeps TRU Waste Trucks, Tanks Big Top Tent Keeps TRU Waste Trucks, Tanks Dry before Inspection and Shipping Big Top Aids Solid Waste Management in Shipping Protocol Aiken, S.C. - Important projects for the Recovery Act - and not a circus act - are being performed under the Big Top at Solid Waste Management facility at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The jumbo-size vinyl tent with a metal frame measuring 160 feet long, 24 feet wide, and

162

Environment/Health/Safety/Security (EHSS)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 JHA Templates Construction JHA 2013 Instructions Mobilization & Overall Scope of Work Abatement (Lead, Asbestos & Mold) Aerial and Scissor Lifts ASHRAE Testing 110 Acoustical Ceilings (T-bar) All Terrain & Powered Industrial Trucks (PIT) Arborist - Vegetation Management Blank JHA Cabinetry Installation Carpentry, Forming, Framing or Wood Working Chemical Use Concrete Work - Truck & Pumping Confined Space Containment ... Dust Particulate Isolation Core Drilling Concrete (wet method) Crane Lifts Demolition Electrical Work (LOTO) Excavating, Trenching & Pot Holing Fall Protection Flooring Installation Carpet - Sheet Vinyl - VCT - Ceramic Tile Hot Tap Insulation (Wall or Pipe with PVC fittings) Ladders Mechanical Ducting Operating Hand, Power Tools & Equipment

163

Public Meeting Transcript: Sustainable Design Standards for Federal Buildings  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY PUBLIC MEETING SUSTAINABLE DESIGN STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL BUILDINGS U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 Room 8E-089 Wednesday July 28, 2010 Chair: Cyrus Nasseri Department of Energy (FEMP) Facilitator: Jim Raba Department of Energy Executive Court Reporters (301) 565-0064 2 Participants Identified: Mark Ames American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air- Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Margo Appel US Department of Energy (DOE) Todd Apple Dupont Tim Ballo Earthjustice John Barry International Union of Operating Engineers National Training Fund Allen Blakey The Vinyl Institute Nadine Block Sustainable Forestry Initiative

164

Ultra Accelerated Testing of PV Module Components  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Using concentrated natural sunlight at the NREL High Flux Solar Furnace, we have exposed several materials to acceleration factors of up to 400 times the normal outdoor UV exposure dose. This accelerated rate allows the exposure of materials such that a year of outdoor exposure can be simulated in about 5 hours. We have studied the solarization of cerium containing glass, the degradation of ethylene vinyl acetate laminated between borosilicate glass, and the yellowing of standard polystyrene test coupons. The first two candidates are of interest to the photovoltaics (PV) program, and the last candidate material is a widely used dosimeter for ultra violet (UV) exposure in accelerated weathering chambers

Pitts, J. R.; King, D. E.; Bingham, C.; Czanderna, A. W.

1998-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

165

Polyvinylpyrrolidone/Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Composite Based 36 deg. YX LiTaO{sub 3} Surface Acoustic Wave For Hydrogen Gas Sensing Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Poly-vinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP)/Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWNTs) based Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors are fabricated and characterized, and their performances towards hydrogen gas are investigated. The PVP/MWNTs fibers composite are prepared by electrospinning of the composite aqueous solution deposited directly onto the active area of SAW transducers. Via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the morphology of the deposited nanostructure material is observed. From the dynamic response, frequency shifts of 530 Hz (1%H{sub 2}) and 11.322 kHz (0.25%H{sub 2}) are recorded for the sensors contain of 1.525 g and 1.025 g PVP concentrations, respectively.

Chee, Pei Song; Arsat, Rashidah [Faculty of Electrical Eng and Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Malaysia); He Xiuli [State Key laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Arsat, Mahyuddin [Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Malaysia); Wlodarski, Wojtek [School of Electrical and Computer Eng. RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia); Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

166

New Barrier Coating Materials for PV Module Backsheets: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This conference paper describes the high moisture barrier high resistivity coatings on polyethylene terepthalate (PET) have been fabricated and characterized for use in PV module back sheet applications. These thin film barriers exhibit water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) as low as 0.1 g/m2-day at 37.8 C and have shown excellent adhesion (> 10 N/mm) to both ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and PET even after filtered xenon arc lamp UV exposure. The WVTR and adhesion values for this construction are compared to and shown to be superior to candidate polymeric backsheet materials.

Barber, G. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S. H.; Pern, J.; McMahon, T. J.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from impeding the flow of fluid in a fluid system. An additive is contacted with clathrate hydrate masses in the system to prevent those clathrate hydrate masses from impeding fluid flow. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member and/or six member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and hydroxyethylcellulose, either in combination or alone.

Sloan, Jr., Earle D. (Golden, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

CFD Simulation of Airflow in Ventilated Wall System Report #9  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this report was to examine air movements in vinyl and brick ventilation cavities in detail, using a state of the art CFD commercial modeling tool. The CFD activity was planned to proceed the other activities in order to develop insight on the important magnitudes of scales occurring during ventilation air flow. This information generated by the CFD model was to be used to modify (if necessary) and to validate the air flow dynamics already imbedded in the hygrothermal model for the computer-based air flow simulation procedures. A comprehensive program of advanced, state-of-the-art hygrothermal modeling was then envisaged mainly to extend the knowledge to other wall systems and at least six representative climatic areas. These data were then to be used to provide the basis for the development of design guidelines. CFD results provided timely and much needed answers to many of the concerns and questions related to ventilation flows due to thermal buoyancy and wind-driven flow scenarios. The relative strength between these two mechanisms. Simple correlations were developed and are presented in the report providing the overall pressure drop, and flow through various cavities under different exterior solar and temperature scenarios. Brick Rainscreen Wall: It was initially expected that a 50 mm cavity would offer reduced pressure drops and increased air flow compared to a 19 mm cavity. However, these models showed that the size of the ventilation slots through the wall are the limiting factor rather than the cavity depth. Of course, once the slots are enlarged beyond a certain point, this could change. The effects of natural convection within the air cavities, driven by the temperature difference across the cavity, were shown to be less important than the external wind speed (for a wind direction normal to the wall surface), when wind action is present. Vinyl Rainscreen Wall: The CFD model of the vinyl rainscreen wall was simpler than that for the brick wall. Constant wall temperatures were used rather than conjugate heat transfer. Although this is appropriate for a thin surface with little heat capacity, it does mean that an empirical correlation between solar radiation (and perhaps wind speed) and vinyl temperature is required to use these results appropriately. The results developed from this CFD model were correlated to weather parameters and construction details so that they can be incorporated into ORNL s advanced hygrothermal models MOISTURE- EXPERT.

Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Karagiozis, Achilles N [ORNL

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

U.S. Department of Energy NEPA Categorical Exclusion Determination Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

AK AK Project Title ID-TEP-NEZ PERCE TRIBE Location: Tribal NEZ PERCE TRIBE FOA Number: DE-FOA-0000423 Proposed Action or Project Descriptio The Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho proposes to conduct building retrofits to the Nez Perce Tribal Executive Committee (NPTEC)/Office of Legal Counsel (OLC) (1970), Veteran's Memorial Building (1977-78), Pi Nee Waus Community Building (1963), Water Resources Building (1978), and Boy's and Girl's Club (newer facility). Energy efficiency measures proposed on the five buildings would include: the four older buildings would receive vinyl, double-pane, Low-E windows; increased blown-in attic insulation; and

170

Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources. Annual performance report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to design and synthesize novel monomers which orginate from renewable biological sources and to carry out their rapid, efficient, pollution-free and energy efficient cationic polymerization to useful products under the influence of ultraviolet light or heat. A summary of the results of the past year`s research on cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources is presented. Three major areas of investigation corresponding to the different classes of naturally occurring starting materials were investigated; epoxidized terpenes and natural rubber and vinyl ethers from alcohols and carbohydrates.

Crivello, J.V.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to design and synthesize novel monomers which orginate from renewable biological sources and to carry out their rapid, efficient, pollution-free and energy efficient cationic polymerization to useful products under the influence of ultraviolet light or heat. A summary of the results of the past year's research on cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources is presented. Three major areas of investigation corresponding to the different classes of naturally occurring starting materials were investigated; epoxidized terpenes and natural rubber and vinyl ethers from alcohols and carbohydrates.

Crivello, J.V.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.6 Residential Home Improvement  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

6 6 2010-2011 National Professional Remodeling Cost and Amount Recouped in Resale Value Envelope Siding Replacement - Vinyl 11.4 8.2 72% Window Replacement - Vinyl 11.1 7.9 72% Window Replacement - Wood 12.0 8.7 72% Roofing Replacement 21.5 12.8 60% Entry Door Replacement - Fiberglass 3.6 2.1 60% Entry Door Replacement - Steel 1.2 1.2 102% Remodel Minor Kitchen Remodel 21.7 15.8 73% Major Kitchen Remodel 58.4 40.1 69% Bathroom Remodel 16.6 10.7 64% Attic Bedroom Remodel 51.4 37.1 72% Basement Remodel 64.5 45.2 70% Home Office Remodel 28.9 13.2 46% Additions Deck Addition - Wood 11.0 8.0 73% Deck Addition - Composite 15.6 10.3 66% Bathroom Addition 40.7 21.7 53% Garage Addition 60.6 35.9 59% Sunroom Addition 75.2 36.5 49% Family Room Addition 85.7 53.6 63% Master Suite Addition 108.1 68.1 63% Two-Story Addition 165.2 107.3 65%

173

Final Technical Report for DOE Grant, number DE-FG02-05ER15701; Probing Surface Chemistry Under Catalytic Conditions: Olefin Hydrogenation,Cyclization and Functionalization.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The specific goal of this work was to understanding the catalytic reactions pathways for the synthesis of vinyl acetate over Pd, Au and PdAu alloys. A combination of both experimental methods (X-ray and Auger spectroscopies, low-energy ion scattering (LEIS), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and theory (Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and Monte Carlo methods under various different reactions) were used to track the surface chemistry and the influence of alloying. The surface intermediates involved in the various reactions were characterized using reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy and LEED to identify the nature of the surface species and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) to follow the decomposition pathways and measure heats of adsorption. These results along with those from density functional theoretical calculations were used determine the kinetics for elementary steps. The results from this work showed that the reaction proceeds via the Samanos mechanism over Pd surfaces whereby the ethylene directly couples with acetate to form an acetoxyethyl intermediate that subsequently undergoes a beta-hydride elimination to form the vinyl acetate monomer. The presence of Au was found to modify the adsorption energies and surface coverages of important surface intermediates including acetate, ethylidyne and ethylene which ultimately influences the critical C-H activation and coupling steps. By controlling the surface alloy composition or structure one can begin to control the steps that control the rate and even the mechanism.

Neurock, Matthew

2011-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

174

Virtual Optical Comparator  

SciTech Connect

The Virtual Optical Comparator, VOC, was conceived as a result of the limitations of conventional optical comparators and vision systems. Piece part designs for mechanisms have started to include precision features on the face of parts that must be viewed using a reflected image rather than a profile shadow. The VOC concept uses a computer generated overlay and a digital camera to measure features on a video screen. The advantage of this system is superior edge detection compared to traditional systems. No vinyl charts are procured or inspected. The part size and expensive fixtures are no longer a concern because of the range of the X-Y table of the Virtual Optical Comparator. Product redesigns require only changes to the CAD image overlays; new vinyl charts are not required. The inspection process is more ergonomic by allowing the operator to view the part sitting at a desk rather than standing over a 30 inch screen. The procurement cost for the VOC will be less than a traditional comparator with a much smaller footprint with less maintenance and energy requirements.

Thompson, Greg

2008-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

175

Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Groundwater Monitoring Report: Fourth quarter 1991 and 1991 summary  

SciTech Connect

During fourth quarter 1991, tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene (vinyl chloride), total radium, mercury, and lead exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread contaminants; 55 (49%) wells exhibited elevated tritium activities, and 24 (21%) wells exhibited elevated trichloroethylene concentrations. Tritium and trichloroethylene levels exceeding the PDWS also occurred in several wells in Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree). Levels of manganese, total organic halogens, nickel, iron, 1,1-dichloroethane, aluminum, nonvolatile beta, and trichlorofluoromethane that exceeded Flag 2 criteria were found in one or more wells beneath the MWMF. Downgradient wells in the three hydrostratigraphic units at the MWMF contained elevated levels of tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, total radium, chloroethene (vinyl chloride), lead, mercury, manganese, total organic halogens, nickel, iron, 1,1-dichloroethane, aluminum, nonvolatile beta, or trichlorofluoromethane. Groundwater samples from 81 (72%) of the monitoring wells at the MWMF and adjacent facilities contained elevated levels of several contaminants.

Thompson, C.Y.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Surface nano-patterning through styrene adsorption on Si(100)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an ab initio study of the structural and electronic properties of styrene molecules adsorbed on the dimerized Si(100) surface at different coverages, ranging from the single-molecule to the full monolayer. The adsorption mechanism primarily involves the vinyl group via a [2+2] cycloaddition process that leads to the formation of covalent Si-C bonds and a local surface derelaxation, while it leaves the phenyl group almost unperturbed. The investigation of the functionalized surface as a function of the coverage (e.g. 0.5 -- 1 ML) and of the substrate reconstruction reveals two major effects. The first results from Si dimer-vinyl interaction and concerns the controlled variation of the energy bandgap of the interface. The second is associated to phenyl-phenyl interactions, which gives rise to a regular pattern of electronic wires at surface, stemming from the pi-pi coupling. These findings suggest a rationale for tailoring the surface nano-patterning of the surface, in a controlled way.

A. Calzolari; A. Ruini; M. J. Caldas; E. Molinari

2005-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

177

Comparing Surfaces and Engineered Interfaces using Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) and Injected SAMs Silanes  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to show a comparison between property changes by formation of a self-assembled monolayer on the surface of PPG synthetic precipitated silica, which is a technique developed at PNNL, and by adding the SAMs silane chemical directly into the mixing bowl. These coatings have the potential to greatly increase the bond strength and enhance other properties between the particle and the rubber matrix of a rubber compound. Tensile testing measured peak stress and elongation at break. The increase in tensile strength shows how well the polymer-filler interfacial adhesion is doing. The study used five different SAM systems with a sulfur cured styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) tire rubber formulation. The three propylsilanes were propyl triethoxysilane, allyl triethoxysilane and 3-mercaptopropyl triethoxysilane. Five combinations of silanes were used in this study. The application of the silanes were 100% propyl triethoxy silane (100% Alkyl); a 10/90 mixture of allyl and propyl triethoxy silanes (10% vinyl/90% alkyl); a 50/50 mixture of the allyl and propyl (50% vinyl/50% alkyl); a 10/90mixture of 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane and propyl trimethoxysilane (10% mercaptan/90% alkyl) and lastly a 50/50 3-mercaptopropyl and propylsilanes (50% mercaptan/alkyl). The data not only shows improvement with SAMs, the peak stress data (ultimate strength) shows that the by changing the amount of silane content can change the physical properties

Morris, Mark J.; Simmons, Kevin L.

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Hydrogenation of Acetylene-Ethylene Mixtures over Pd and Pd-Ag Alloys: First-Principles Based Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The kinetics for the selective hydrogenation of acetylene-ethylene mixtures over model Pd(111) and bimetallic Pd-Ag alloy surfaces were examined using first principles based kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations to elucidate the effects of alloying as well as process conditions (temperature and hydrogen partial pressure). The mechanisms that control the selective and unselective routes which included hydrogenation, dehydrogenation and C-?C bond breaking pathways were analyzed using first-principle density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results were used to construct an intrinsic kinetic database that was used in a variable time step kinetic Monte Carlo simulation to follow the kinetics and the molecular transformations in the selective hydrogenation of acetylene-ethylene feeds over Pd and Pd-Ag surfaces. The lateral interactions between coadsorbates that occur through-surface and through-space were estimated using DFT-parameterized bond order conservation and van der Waal interaction models respectively. The simulation results show that the rate of acetylene hydrogenation as well as the ethylene selectivity increase with temperature over both the Pd(111) and the Pd-Ag/Pd(111) alloy surfaces. The selective hydrogenation of acetylene to ethylene proceeds via the formation of a vinyl intermediate. The unselective formation of ethane is the result of the over-hydrogenation of ethylene as well as over-hydrogenation of vinyl to form ethylidene. Ethylidene further hydrogenates to form ethane and dehydrogenates to form ethylidyne. While ethylidyne is not reactive, it can block adsorption sites which limit the availability of hydrogen on the surface and thus act to enhance the selectivity. Alloying Ag into the Pd surface decreases the overall rated but increases the ethylene selectivity significantly by promoting the selective hydrogenation of vinyl to ethylene and concomitantly suppressing the unselective path involving the hydrogenation of vinyl to ethylidene and the dehydrogenation ethylidene to ethylidyne. This is consistent with experimental results which suggest only the predominant hydrogenation path involving the sequential addition of hydrogen to form vinyl and ethylene exists over the Pd-Ag alloys. Ag enhances the desorption of ethylene and hydrogen from the surface thus limiting their ability to undergo subsequent reactions. The simulated apparent activation barriers were calculated to be 32-44 kJ/mol on Pd(111) and 26-31 kJ/mol on Pd-Ag/Pd(111) respectively. The reaction was found to be essentially first order in hydrogen over Pd(111) and Pd-Ag/Pd(111) surfaces. The results reveal that increases in the hydrogen partial pressure increase the activity but decrease ethylene selectivity over both Pd and Pd-Ag/Pd(111) surfaces. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Mei, Donghai; Neurock, Matthew; Smith, C Michael

2009-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

179

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The ``IQNP`` agent is an antagonist for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor. Since the IQNP molecule has two asymmetric centers and either cis or trans isomerism of the vinyl iodide, there are eight possible isomeric combinations. In this report, the systematic synthesis, purification and animal testing of several isomers of radioiodinated ``IQNP`` are reported. A dramatic and unexpected relation between the absolute configuration at the two asymmetric centers and the stereochemistry of the vinyl iodide on receptor specificity was observed. The E-(R)(R) isomer shows specific and significant localization (per cent dose/gram at 6 hours) in receptor-rich cerebral structures (i.e. Cortex = 1.38 + 0.31; Striatum = 1.22 + 0.20) and low uptake in tissues rich in the M{sub 2} subtype (Heart = 0.10; Cerebellum = 0.04). In contrast, the E-(R)(S) isomer shows very low receptor-specific uptake (Cortex = 0.04; Striatum = 0.02), demonstrating the importance of absolute configuration at the acetate center. An unexpected and important observation is that the stereochemistry of the vinyl iodine appears to affect receptor subtype specificity, since the Z-(R,S)(R) isomer shows much higher uptake in the heart (0.56 + 0.12) and cerebellum (0.17 + 0.04). Studies are now in progress to confirm these exciting results in vitro. Progress has also continued during this period with several collaborative programs. The first large-scale clinical tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator prototype (500 mCi) was fabricated and supplied to the Center for Molecular Medicine and Immunology (CMMI), in Newark, New Jersey, for Phase I clinical trials of rhenium-188-labeled anti CEA antibodies for patient treatment. Collaborative studies are also continuing in conjunction with the Nuclear Medicine Department at the University of Massachusetts where a generator is in use to compare the biological properties of {open_quotes}direct{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}indirect{close_quotes} labeled antibodies.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; Hsieh, B.T.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Lambert, C.R.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Techniques and Technologies for Field Detection of Asbestos Containing Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE-Environmental Management DOE-Complex Wide Techniques and Technologies for Field Detection of Asbestos Containing Materials Challenge Asbestos has been used in numerous applications at DOE sites including sprayed-on fireproofing, asphalt and vinyl floor tile, and asbestos-cement (transite) siding. Inhalation of asbestos can result in non-malignant asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma in workers. Currently, 40 CFR 763, Subpart E requires a certain number of bulk samples of suspected asbestos-containing material (ACM) to be collected within each designated homogeneous area (HA). If real time (or near-real), in-situ detection techniques/technologies of ď‚Ł 5, and preferably ď‚Ł 3 weight percent asbestos, were available, sample numbers

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "110-75-8 2-chloroethyl vinyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Fume Hood Sash Stickers Increases Laboratory Safety and Efficiency at Minimal Cost  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

confused by labels placed at 18 inches confused by labels placed at 18 inches that say "Place Sash here for Maximum Safety." The authors of these labels have confused "maximum" and "minimum", not realizing that a hood is least safe when fully open. A Basic Solution To address the confusion at the University of California, a lab manager and a hood safety specialist designed a bold vinyl sticker to attach on the exterior sidewall of a fume hood (Figure 1). The sticker cleverly uses the ubiquitous traffic light color scheme, with a red zone above 18 inches, and a large arrow pointing down with the words, "More Safe, Less Energy" changing from yellow at the midpoint to green at the bottom when the sash is closed completely. Interestingly,

182

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

11 - 23820 of 29,416 results. 11 - 23820 of 29,416 results. Download Contractor Fee Payments- Portsmouth Paducah Project Office See the amount of fees earned on EM's major contracts for each evaluated fee period and the total contract to date at the Portsmouth Paducah Project Office on these charts. http://energy.gov/em/downloads/contractor-fee-payments-portsmouth-paducah-project-office Download Techniques and Technologies for Field Detection of Asbestos Containing Materials Asbestos has been used in numerous applications at DOE sites including sprayed-on fireproofing, asphalt and vinyl floor tile, and asbestos-cement(transite) siding. http://energy.gov/em/downloads/techniques-and-technologies-field-detection-asbestos-containing Article Former Assistant Secretary Reflects on Career High Point Leading

183

To: John R. Novak Radiation Safety - IRS From: G. T. Lonergan Radiation Safety - II§  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

7, 19% 7, 19% To: John R. Novak Radiation Safety - IRS From: G. T. Lonergan Radiation Safety - II§ Subject: Extrusion of Billets, Titus Metals, Inc., Waterloo, Iowa A grpup of ANL aqloyees consisting of LE. Walker and S. Matsas (MET), E. Leverens (SSE), I(. C.~Buffy'(SPM), and G. T. Lonergan (IRS), traveled to Waterloo, Iowa, on June 29 where they accomplished the extrusion of U308 billets into fuel plates for Argonaut. Prior to beginning the extrusion operation, the floor area around the press, run-out table, stretch straightener, and all accessible portions of the press were surveyed. No activity was detected. The floor area from the furnace (uhere the billets were heated) to the press was coveredwith a layer of vinyl approximately 48fl wide and topped

184

Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - Publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 PUBLICATIONS 5 PUBLICATIONS Links to individual papers are provided when available online. These links will take you to other web sites and will open in a new window. Subscription may be required to access online publications. Carbon J. Bernholc, W. Lu, S. M. Nakhmanson, V. Meunier, and M. Buongiorno Nardelli, "Multiscale Simulations of Quantum Structures," p. 18 in Proceedings of DoD 2005 Users Group Conference, IEEE Computer Society (2005). J.-G. Che and H. P. Cheng, "First-Principles Investigation of a Monolayer of C60 on h-BN/Ni(111)," Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 72, 115436 (2005). K. A. S. Fernando, Y. Lin, B. Zhou, R. Joseph, L. F. Allard, and Y.-P. Sun, "Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol)-Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Related Nanocomposites," J. Nanosci. Nanotech. 5 (7), 1050 (2005).

185

Greenbelt Homes Pilot Energy Efficiency Program Phase 1 Summary: Existing Conditions and Baseline Energy Use  

SciTech Connect

A multi-year pilot energy efficiency retrofit project has been undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 co-operative of circa 1930 and '40 homes. The three predominate construction methods of the townhomes in the community are materials common to the area and climate zone including 8" CMU block, wood frame with brick veneer and wood frame with vinyl siding. GHI has established a pilot project that will serve as a basis for decision making for the roll out of a decade-long community upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency to the building envelope and equipment with the modernization of other systems like plumbing, mechanical equipment, and cladding.

Wiehagen, J.; Del Bianco, M.; Wood, A.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

41 - 20950 of 28,560 results. 41 - 20950 of 28,560 results. Download Techniques and Technologies for Field Detection of Asbestos Containing Materials Asbestos has been used in numerous applications at DOE sites including sprayed-on fireproofing, asphalt and vinyl floor tile, and asbestos-cement(transite) siding. http://energy.gov/em/downloads/techniques-and-technologies-field-detection-asbestos-containing Article Former Assistant Secretary Reflects on Career High Point Leading EM: 'Well Worth the Effort' WASHINGTON, D.C. - In an occasional EM Update series, we feature interviews with former EM Assistant Secretaries to reflect on their achievements and challenges in the world's largest nuclear cleanup and to discuss endeavors in life after EM. http://energy.gov/em/articles/former-assistant-secretary-reflects-career-high-point-leading-em-well-worth-effort

187

Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

MI-City-Clinton, Charter Township of MI-City-Clinton, Charter Township of Location: City Clinton, Charter MI Township of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Proposed Action or Project Description: 1) Energy efficiency retrofits (install vinyl siding) at the Heritage Estates Senior Center, and 2) upgrade of existing street lights. Conditions: None Categorical Exclusion(s) Applied: B2.5, B5.1 *-For the complete DOE National Environmental Policy Act regulations regarding categorical exclusions, see Subpart D of 10 CFR10 21 This action would not: threaten a violation of applicable statutory, regulatory, or permit requirements for environment, safety, and health, including DOE and/or Executive Orders; require siting, construction, or major expansion of waste storage, disposal, recovery, or

188

Program or Field Office: Office of Legacy Management Project Title and I.D. No.: Bioremediation Injection and Related Activities at the Pinellas Site, Largo, Florida,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bioremediation Injection and Related Activities at the Pinellas Site, Largo, Florida, Bioremediation Injection and Related Activities at the Pinellas Site, Largo, Florida, LM 13-13 Location: Largo, Florida Proposed Action or Project Description: DOE proposes to use a Geoprobe to inject emulsified edible soybean oil (EEO) and anaerobic microbial solution into the surficial aquifer at the 4.5 Acre Site adjacent to the DOE Young - Rainey STAR Center (Pinellas Site) in Largo, Florida. The proposed action would enhance naturally occurring anaerobic biodegradation, thereby reducing vinyl chloride contamination along the southwest boundary of the 4.5 Acre Site. Dehalococcoides ethenogenes (DHE) is a type of microbe that occurs naturally in the aquifer. Bioaugmentation with a commercially available DHE culture used in conjunction with the EEO would maximize the efficiency of contaminant biodegradation. No genetically engineered or

189

Indoor Residential Chemical Emissions as Risk Factors for Children's  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Indoor Residential Chemical Emissions as Risk Factors for Children's Indoor Residential Chemical Emissions as Risk Factors for Children's Respiratory Health Speaker(s): Mark Mendell Date: February 23, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Most research into the effects of residential indoor air exposures on asthma and allergies has focused on exposures to biologic allergens, moisture and mold, endotoxin, or combustion byproducts. A growing body of research suggests that chemical emissions from common indoor materials and finishes have adverse effects, including increased risk of asthma, allergies, and pulmonary infections. The identified risk factors include specific organic compounds such as formaldehyde, benzene, and phthalates, as well as indoor materials or finishes such as vinyl flooring, carpet, paint, and plastics. This presentation presents a brief review of studies

190

ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW for CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION DETERMINATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Casper Service Center Garage Door Insulation Casper Service Center Garage Door Insulation Natrona County, Wyoming A. Brief Description of Proposal: Western Area Power Administration (Western) would replace the insulation in the garage door at the Casper Service Center (CSC), Natrona County, Wyoming. The vinyl-faced fiberglass insulation replacement would include all insulation batts damaged from roof leaks. The proposed work at CSC consists of the following: maintenance crews would remove the damaged insulation and replace and install new fiberglass insulation batts in the garage door. All work would be conducted within the existing service center yard and directly outside of the buildings. B. Number and Title of the Categorical Exclusion Being Applied: (See text in 10 CFR Part 1021, Subpart D.)

191

The Risk Assessment Information System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2-DICHLOROETHANE 2-DICHLOROETHANE NOTE: Although the toxicity values presented in these toxicity profiles were correct at the time they were produced, these values are subject to change. Users should always refer to the Toxicity Value Database for the current toxicity values. May 1994 Prepared by Dennis M. Opresko, Ph.D., Chemical Hazard Evaluation and Communication Program, Biomedical and Environmental Information Analysis Section, Health Sciences Research Division, *, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Prepared for OAK RIDGE RESERVATION ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION PROGRAM. *Managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. 1,2-Dichloroethane is used primarily in the manufacture of vinyl chloride, as well as in the synthesis of tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene,

192

Novel PMDA-ODA Polyimide/Polystyrene Nanocomposite Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Separation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 59703005) Novel PMDA-ODA Polyimide/Polystyrene Nanocomposite Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Separation Zhi-Kang Xu*, Li Xiao, Jianli Wang, You-Yi Xu Institute of Polymer Science, Zhejiang University, 310027, Hangzhou, P. R. China Tel: +86-571-7951342-8218, E-mail: xuzk@ipsm.zju.edu.cn ABSTRACT Using N,N-dimethylacetalamide (DMAc) as the suspension media of polystyrene (PS) and poly[styrene-co-(4-vinyl-pyridin)] (PSVP) nanoparticles, in- situ condensation polymerization of dianhydride and diamine was carried out and homogenous polyamic acid solution containing the nanoparticles were obtained. Novel PMDA-ODA nanocomposite membranes with various contents of nanoparticles were prepared by the casting of polyamic acid solution followed

193

ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW for CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION DETERMINATION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Casper Service Center Garage Door Insulation Casper Service Center Garage Door Insulation Natrona County, Wyoming A. Brief Description of Proposal: Western Area Power Administration (Western) would replace the insulation in the garage door at the Casper Service Center (CSC), Natrona County, Wyoming. The vinyl-faced fiberglass insulation replacement would include all insulation batts damaged from roof leaks. The proposed work at CSC consists of the following: maintenance crews would remove the damaged insulation and replace and install new fiberglass insulation batts in the garage door. All work would be conducted within the existing service center yard and directly outside of the buildings. B. Number and Title of the Categorical Exclusion Being Applied: (See text in 10 CFR Part 1021, Subpart D.)

194

Polybenzimidazole compounds  

SciTech Connect

A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Pocatello, ID)

2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

195

Method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from impeding the flow of fluid in a fluid system. An additive is contacted with clathrate hydrate masses in the system to prevent those clathrate hydrate masses from impeding fluid flow. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and hydroxyethylcellulose, either in combination or alone. Additives can also contain multiple cyclic chemical groupings having different size rings. One such additive is sold under the name Gaffix VC-713.

Sloan, E.D. Jr.

1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

196

The national energy requirements of residential windows in the U.S.: Today and tomorrow  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an end-use analysis of the national energy requirements of US residential window technologies. The authors estimate that the current US stock of 19 billion square feet of residential windows is responsible for 1.7 quadrillion BTUs (or quads) per year of energy use--1.3 quads of heating and 0.4 quads of cooling energy--which represents about 2% of total US energy consumption. They show that national energy use due to windows could be reduced by 25% by the year 2010 through accelerated adoption of currently available, advanced window technologies such as low-e and solar control low-e coatings, vinyl and wood frames, and superwindows. The authors evaluate the economics of the technologies regionally, considering both climatic and energy price variations, and find that the technologies would be cost effective for most consumers.

Frost, K.; Eto, J.; Arasteh, D.; Yazdanian, M.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Microwavable thermal energy storage material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

198

Materials Testing for PV Module Encapsulation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Important physical properties of materials used in PV module packaging are presented. High-moisture-barrier, high-resistivity, adhesion-promoting coatings on polyethyl-ene terephthalate (PET) films have been fabricated and characterized for use in PV module application and com-pared to standard polymer backsheet materials. Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and an encapsulant replacement for EVA are studied for their water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and adhesion properties. WVTR, at test conditions up to 85C/100% relative humidity (RH), and adhesion val-ues are measured before and after filtered xenon arc lamp ultraviolet (UV) exposure and damp heat exposure at 85C/85% RH. Water ingress is quantified by weight gain and embedded humidity sensors.

Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S.; Pern, J.; McMahon, T.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from impeding the flow of fluid in a fluid system. An additive is contacted with clathrate hydrate masses in the system to prevent those clathrate hydrate masses from impeding fluid flow. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and hydroxyethylcellulose, either in combination or alone. Additives can also contain multiple cyclic chemical groupings having different size rings. One such additive is sold under the name Gaffix VC-713.

Sloan, Jr., Earle D. (Golden, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Impacts of humidity and temperature on the performance of transparent conducting zinc oxide.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of humidity and temperature on a zinc oxide based transparent conducting oxide (TCO) was assessed under accelerated aging conditions. An in situ electroanalytical method was used to monitor the electrical properties for a conducting zinc oxide under controlled atmospheric (humidity, temperature and irradiation) conditions. A review of thin film photovoltaic (PV) literature has shown one major failure mode of cells/modules is associated with the ingress of water into modules in the field. Water contamination has been shown to degrade the performance of the TCO in addition to corroding interconnects and other conductive metals/materials associated with the module. Water ingress is particularly problematic in flexible thin film PV modules since traditional encapsulates such as poly(ethyl vinyl acetate) (EVA) have high water vapor transmission rates. The accelerated aging studies of the zinc oxide based TCOs will allow acceleration factors and kinetic parameters to be determined for reliability purposes.

Granata, Jennifer E.; Yaklin, Melissa A.; Schneider, Duane Allen; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Norman, Kirsten

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "110-75-8 2-chloroethyl vinyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Additive combinations and fuels containing them  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An additive combination for improving the cold flow properties of distillate fuels comprises a combination of: (A) a distillate flow improver which is an ethylene containing polymer, preferably a copolymer of ethylene with unsaturated esters, e.g., vinyl acetate; (B) a hydrocarbon polymer of C/sub 2/ to C/sub 3/0 olefin of number average molecular weight of 103 to 106 or derivatized version thereof, for example copolymers of ethylene and propylene, or polyisobutylene, which are used as lubricating oil V.I. improvers; and (C) a polar oil soluble compound which includes amides, salts, carboxylates, sulfonates, sulfates, phosphates, phenates and borates, having hydrocarbon solubilizing groups, for example salts and amides of polycarboxylic acid such as phthalic anhydride reacted with hydrogenated secondary tallow amine.

Lewtas, K.; Oswald, A.A.; Rehrer, D.H.; Rossi, A.; Tack, R.D.

1983-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

202

Multiplexed Activity-based Protein Profiling of the Human Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus Reveals Large Functional Changes upon Exposure to Human Serum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental and metabolic adaptability is critical for survival of the fungal human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus in the immunocompromised lung. We employed an activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) approach utilizing a new aryl vinyl sulfonate probe and a serine hydrolase probe combined with quantitative LC-MS based accurate mass and time (AMT) tag proteomics for the identification of functional pathway adaptation of A. fumigatus to environmental variability relevant to pulmonary Invasive Aspergillosis. When the fungal pathogen was grown with human serum, metabolism and energy processes were markedly decreased compared to no serum culture. Additionally, functional pathways associated with amino acid and protein biosynthesis were limited as the fungus scavenged from the serum to obtain essential nutrients. Our approach revealed significant metabolic adaptation by A. fumigatus, and provides direct insight into this pathogen’s ability to survive and proliferate.

Wiedner, Susan D.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Pederson, Leeanna M.; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Fortuin, Suereta; Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Shukla, Anil K.; Ansong, Charles; Panisko, Ellen A.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.

2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

203

FABRICATION OF A NEW TYPE OF DOUBLE SHELL TARGET HAVING A PVA INNER LAYER  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 The General Atomics Target Fabrication team was tasked in FY03, under its ICF Target Support contract, to make a new type of double-shell target. its specifications called for the outer shell to have an inner lining of PVA (poly(vinyl alcohol)) that would keep the xenon gas fill from occupying the target wall. The inner shell consisted of a glass shell coated with 2000 {angstrom} of silver and filled with 9 atm of deuterium. Furthermore, the delivery deadline was less than seven weeks away. This paper describes the fielding of this double-shell target, made possible through the combined efforts of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and General Atomics target fabrication specialists.

STEINMAN,D.A; WALLACE,R; GRANT,S.E; HOPPE,M.L; SMITH,JR.J.N

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Anion permselective membrane. [For redox fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experimental anion permeselective membranes were improved and characterized for use as separators in a chemical redox, power storage cell being developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The goal of minimal Fe/sup +3/ ion transfer was achieved for each candidate membrane system. Minimal membrane resistivity was demonstrated by reduction of film thickness using synthetic backing materials but usefulness of thin membranes was limited by the scarcity of compatible fabrics. The most durable and useful backing fabrics were modacrylics. One membrane, a copolymer of 4 vinylpyridine and vinyl benzylchloride was outstanding in overall electrochemical and physical properties. Long term (1000 hrs) membrane chemical and thermal durability in redox environment was shown by three candidate polymers and two membranes. The remainder had good durability at ambient temperature. Manufacturing capability was demonstrated for large scale production of membrane sheets 5.5 ft/sup 2/ in area for two candidate systems.

Alexander, S.S.; Hodgdon, R.B.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Composition and method for encapsulating photovoltaic devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition and method for encapsulating a photovoltaic device which minimizes discoloration of the encapsulant. The composition includes an ethylene-vinyl acetate encapsulant, a curing agent, an optional ultraviolet light stabilizer, and/or an optional antioxidant. The curing agent is preferably 1,1-di-(t-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane; the ultraviolet light stabilizer is bis-(N-octyloxy-tetramethyl) piperidinyl sebacate and the antioxidant is selected from the group consisting of tris (2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) phosphite, tetrakis methylene (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate) methane, octadecyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate, and 2,2'-ethylidene bis(4,6-di-t-butylphenyl) fluorophosponite. The composition is applied to a solar cell then cured. The cured product contains a minimal concentration of curing-generated chromophores and resists UV-induced degradation.

Pern, Fu-Jann (Golden, CO)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Microwavable thermal energy storage material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments. 3 figs.

Salyer, I.O.

1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

207

Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1993 and 1993 summary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During fourth quarter 1993, 10 constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chloroethane (vinyl chloride), 1,1-dichloroethylene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), lead, mercury, or tetrachloroethylene also exceeded standards in one or more wells. Elevated constituents were found in numerous Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 1}, (Barnwell/McBean) wells and in two Aquifer Unit 2A (Congaree) wells. The groundwater flow direction and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

Butler, C.T.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Control of Moisture Ingress into Photovoltaic Modules  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During long-term exposure of photovoltaic modules to environmental stress, the ingress of water into the module is correlated with decreased performance. By using diffusivity measurements for water through encapsulants such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), we have modeled moisture ingress using a finite-element analysis with atmospheric data from various locations such as Miami, Florida. This analysis shows that because of the high diffusivity of EVA, even an impermeable glass back-sheet alone is incapable of preventing significant moisture ingress from the edges for a 20-year lifecycle. This result has led us to investigate ways to protect modules from moisture through the use of different encapsulating chemistries and materials.

Kempe, M. D.

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Waste management health risk assessment: A case study of a solid waste landfill in South Italy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An integrated risk assessment study has been performed in an area within 5 km from a landfill that accepts non hazardous waste. The risk assessment was based on measured emissions and maximum chronic population exposure, for both children and adults, to contaminated air, some foods and soil. The toxic effects assessed were limited to the main known carcinogenic compounds emitted from landfills coming both from landfill gas torch combustion (e.g., dioxins, furans and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) and from diffusive emissions (vinyl chloride monomer, VCM). Risk assessment has been performed both for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects. Results indicate that cancer and non-cancer effects risk (hazard index, HI) are largely below the values accepted from the main international agencies (e.g., WHO, US EPA) and national legislation ( and ).

Davoli, E., E-mail: enrico.davoli@marionegri.i [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Environmental Health Sciences Department, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy); Fattore, E.; Paiano, V.; Colombo, A.; Palmiotto, M. [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Environmental Health Sciences Department, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy); Rossi, A.N.; Il Grande, M. [Progress S.r.l., Via Nicola A. Porpora 147, 20131 Milano (Italy); Fanelli, R. [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Environmental Health Sciences Department, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

210

The binding of herbicidal halovinyl anilides to the photosystem II Q sub B site and the relationship between affinities and molecular characteristics  

SciTech Connect

A new class of herbicidal halovinyl anilides, which inhibit photosynthetic electron transport, have been shown to inhibit {sup 14}C-atrazine binding in spinach thylakoid membranes. A scatchard analysis of the {sup 14}C-atrazine binding inhibition of the lead compound, LY221204, has shown it to be a competitive inhibitor. Preliminary QSAR (quantitative structure activity relationship) studies suggested that 75-80% of the variance in vivo activity could be explained by size and electronic properties and that activity increased with smaller and more electron releasing substituents. To analyze the effects of these properties on intrinsic activity, a larger QSAR study was undertaken. Atrazine binding inhibition data was generated for a group of substituted, non-conjugated vinyl anilides at 1 and 10 {mu}M concentrations and plotted as a function of physicochemical parameters. The results will be presented.

Eilers, R.J.; Crouse, G.D.; Durst, G.L.; Streusand, V.J.; Manly, C.J.; Webster, J.D. (DowElanco, Greenfield, IN (USA))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1994 and 1994 summary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Eighty-nine wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane, a common laboratory contaminant, and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1994. Benzene, chloroethene (vinyl chloride), 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloropropane, gross alpha, mercury, nonvolatile beta, tetrachloroethylene, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 140 ft/year during first and fourth quarters 1994.

NONE

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Module Encapsulant Diagnostic and Modeling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Encapsulant materials are used in photovoltaic devices for mechanical support, electrical isolation, and protection against corrosion. The ability of an encapsulant to protect against surface corrosion is related to its adhesional strength. The adhesion of candidate encapsulants under accelerated environmental stress was examined to determine what materials have the best hydrolytic stability and are more likely to reduce corrosion rates. Under environmental exposure, the ingress of water has been correlated with increased corrosion rates. The diffusivity of different encapsulants has been measured to determine how long it takes for water to enter a module. The high diffusivity of ethylene vinyl acetate indicates that, even with the use of an impermeable back-sheet, moisture from the sides will diffuse throughout the entire module. To significantly reduce moisture ingress requires a true hermetic seal, the use of an encapsulant loaded with desiccant, or the use of a very low diffusivity encapsulant.

Kempe, M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Research on stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon multijunction modules  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes research on semiconductor and non-semiconductor materials to enhance the performance of multi-band-gap, multijunction panel with an area greater than 900 cm[sup 2] by 1992. Double-junction and triple-junction cells are mode on a Ag/ZnO back reflector deposited on stainless steel substrates. An a-SiGe alloy is used for the i-layer in the bottom and the middle cells; the top cell uses an amorphous silicon alloy. After the evaporation of an antireflection coating, silver grids and bus bars are put on the top surface and the panel is encapsulated in an ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/Tefzel structure to make a 1-ft[sup 2] monolithic module.

Guha, S. (United Solar Systems Corp., Troy, MI (United States))

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Research on stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon multijunction modules. Semiannual subcontract report, 1 January 1992--30 June 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes research on semiconductor and non-semiconductor materials to enhance the performance of multi-band-gap, multijunction panel with an area greater than 900 cm{sup 2} by 1992. Double-junction and triple-junction cells are mode on a Ag/ZnO back reflector deposited on stainless steel substrates. An a-SiGe alloy is used for the i-layer in the bottom and the middle cells; the top cell uses an amorphous silicon alloy. After the evaporation of an antireflection coating, silver grids and bus bars are put on the top surface and the panel is encapsulated in an ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/Tefzel structure to make a 1-ft{sup 2} monolithic module.

Guha, S. [United Solar Systems Corp., Troy, MI (United States)

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Research on stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon multijunction modules. Final subcontract report, 1 January 1991--31 August 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The principal objective of this program is to conduct research on semiconductor materials and non-semiconductor materials to enhance the performance of multibandgap, multijunction, large-area amorphous silicon-based alloy modules. The goal for this program is to demonstrate stabilized module efficiency of 12% for multijunction modules of area greater than 900 cm{sup 2}. Double-junction and triple-junction cells are made on Ag/ZnO back reflector deposited on stainless steel substrates. The top cell uses a-Si alloy; a-SiGe alloy is used for the i layer in the middle and the bottom cells. After evaporation of antireflection coating, silver grids and bus bars are put on the top surface, and the panel is encapsulated in an ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/Tefzel structure to make a one-square-foot monolithic module.

Guha, S. [United Solar Systems Corp., Troy, MI (United States)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Fume Hood Sash Stickers Increases Laboratory Safety and Efficiency at Minimal Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

confused by labels placed at 18 inches confused by labels placed at 18 inches that say "Place Sash here for Maximum Safety." The authors of these labels have confused "maximum" and "minimum", not realizing that a hood is least safe when fully open. A Basic Solution To address the confusion at the University of California, a lab manager and a hood safety specialist designed a bold vinyl sticker to attach on the exterior sidewall of a fume hood (Figure 1). The sticker cleverly uses the ubiquitous traffic light color scheme, with a red zone above 18 inches, and a large arrow pointing down with the words, "More Safe, Less Energy" changing from yellow at the midpoint to green at the bottom when the sash is closed completely. Interestingly,

217

Ohio's 2nd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ohio. Ohio. Registered Energy Companies in Ohio's 2nd congressional district AHL-TECH Ameridian Speciality Services CECO Environmental Corp CIMx Software Cinergy Ventures II LLC DELTEC INC Eagle Energy LLC Global Energy Inc Green Builder Media /Green Builder College Icon Solar Power, LLC Innovative Solutions Unlimited, LLC (InSolves) KATZEN International Inc Macy's Manuta Chemical Consulting Inc. Melink Industries Melink Solar OnPower Inc Pilus Energy SEMCO THOR Turner Hunt Ocean Renewable LLC The Utilities Group Inc Ultimate Best Buy LLC Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors Vision Energy Energy Generation Facilities in Ohio's 2nd congressional district Melink Solar Canopy at the Cincinnati Zoo Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Ohio%27s_2nd_congressional_district&oldid=196998

218

Dudley Herschbach: Chemical Reactions and Molecular Beams  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dudley Herschbach: Dudley Herschbach: Chemical Reactions and Molecular Beams Resources with Additional Information Dudley Herschbach Courtesy of Texas A&M University As a co-recipient of the 1986 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 'Dudley Herschbach was cited for "providing a much more detailed understanding of how chemical reactions take place". Using molecular beams, he studied elementary reactions such as K + CH3I and K + Br2, where it became possible to correlate reaction dynamics with the electronic structures of reactants and products. Exchanges proceeded through a persistent complex that lasted for many rotational periods, with product angular distributions reflecting the degree of reagent entanglement. Later this work was extended to H + Cl2, Cl + HI, halogen substitution reactions with vinyl and allyl halides, as well as such systems as Xe + Ar2 → XeAr + Ar. Herschbach has been a pioneer in the measurement and theoretical interpretation of vector properties of reaction dynamics, a field known as "molecular stereodynamics".

219

Use of Melt Flow Rate Test in Reliability Study of Thermoplastic Encapsulation Materials in Photovoltaic Modules  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Use of thermoplastic materials as encapsulants in photovoltaic (PV) modules presents a potential concern in terms of high temperature creep, which should be evaluated before thermoplastics are qualified for use in the field. Historically, the issue of creep has been avoided by using thermosetting polymers as encapsulants, such as crosslinked ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA). Because they lack crosslinked networks, however, thermoplastics may be subject to phase transitions and visco-elastic flow at the temperatures and mechanical stresses encountered by modules in the field, creating the potential for a number of reliability and safety issues. Thermoplastic materials investigated in this study include PV-grade uncured-EVA (without curing agents and therefore not crosslinked); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); and three polyolefins (PO), which have been proposed for use as PV encapsulation. Two approaches were used to evaluate the performance of these materials as encapsulants: module-level testing and a material-level testing.

Moseley, J.; Miller, D.; Shah, Q.-U.-A. S. J.; Sakurai, K.; Kempe, M.; Tamizhmani, G.; Kurtz, S.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Thai group set to invest in Chinese petchem complex  

SciTech Connect

A $5-billion refinery and petrochemical complex is planned by Thailand's Charoen Pokphand (Bangkok) at the seaport of Nimpoh, near Shanghai. The company has discussed the project with the central government of China, and state oil and petrochemicals company Sinopec (Beijing) is due to complete a feasibility study within the next two months. Charoen's plastics processing subsidiary, Kuo Shen (Hong Kong), is expected to hold 70% in the venture, Sinopec 20%, and the Chinese government the remaining 10%. Western companies have been invited to participate. Solvay (Brussels), a 49% partner with Charoen Pokphand in the Vinythai polyvinyl chloride (PVC) joint venture at Map Ta Pud, Thailand, has not yet made a commitment. The 5-million m.t./year oil refinery would feed the complex, which will be based on a 450,000-m.t./year ethylene plant, downstream aromatics units, and a range of derivatives plants. The complex, which falls outside the many announced for Thailand's current five-year economic plan, is expcted to be implemented in stages. To begin with, a 120,000-m.t./year PVC plant will be built that will be fed on imported vinyl chloride monomer. Charoen is in discussions with process licensers, including Solvay, European Vinyl Corp., BFGoodrich, and Shinetsu. Half the PVC output will be consumed by Kuo Shen in China, where Charoen has several plastics processing units, including one in Shanghai and one in Nimpoh. Meanwhile, Sinopec's Hong Kong subsidiary is seeking partners to invest in joint venture projects in China. Sinopec president Liu Xuemin says the company is willing to cooperate with overseas companies to establish small petrochemical projects. In addition, Sinopec is negotiating with officials of Dayang in Jiangsu province and the special economic zone of Shen Zhen, near Hong Kong, on joint ventures for plastics and food additives.

Alperowicz, N.

1993-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "110-75-8 2-chloroethyl vinyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

GABA in the nucleus accumbens shell participates in the central regulation of feeding behavior  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have demonstrated previously that injections of 6,7dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione into the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) elicits pronounced feeding in satiated rats. This glutamate antagonist blocks AMPA and kainate receptors and most likely increases food intake by disrupting a tonic excitatory input to the AcbSh, thus decreasing the firing rate of a population of local neurons. Because the application of GABA agonists also decreases neuronal activity, we hypothesized that administration of GABA agonists into the AcbSh would stimulate feeding in satiated rats. We found that acute inhibition of cells in the AcbSh via administration of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol or the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen elicited intense, dose-related feeding without altering water intake. Muscimol-induced feeding was blocked by coadministration of the selective GABAA receptor blocker bicuculline, but not by the GABAB receptor blocker saclofen. Conversely, baclofen-induced feeding was blocked by coadministration of saclofen, but was not affected by bicuculline. Furthermore, we found that increasing local levels of GABA by administration of a selective GABA-transaminase inhibitor, ?-vinyl-GABA, elicited robust feeding in satiated rats, suggesting a physiological role for endogenous AcbSh GABA in the control of feeding. A mapping study showed that although some feeding can be elicited by muscimol injections near the lateral ventricles, the ventromedial AcbSh is the most sensitive site for eliciting feeding. These findings demonstrate that manipulation of GABAsensitive cells in the AcbSh can have a pronounced, but specific, effect on feeding behavior in rats. They also constitute the initial description of a novel and potentially important component of the central mechanisms controlling food intake. Key words: GABA; food intake; nucleus accumbens shell; muscimol; baclofen; feeding behavior; ?-vinyl-GABA The nucleus accumbens is a basal forebrain structure that is perhaps best known for being an important constituent of the neural systems mediating reward and reinforcement (Koob and

Thomas R. Stratford; Ann E. Kelley

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating  

SciTech Connect

This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North America. The second task dealt with a study of current lamination processes in the various laminate industries, and development of concepts for integrating RF lamination into new or existing processes. The third task explored the use of a non-destructive technique for analyzing laminate adhesion with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The fourth task focused on developing concepts for curved glass lamination using RF lamination. The fifth and sixth tasks together comprised an analysis of laminate product markets, ranking for applicability and commercialization potential, and the development of commercialization strategies for those products. In addition, throughout the project as new experimental data and conventional process data were obtained, the benefits analysis of RF lamination was refined. The goals of the project described above were achieved, positioning RF lamination for the next stage growth envisioned in the original Industrial Grand Challenge proposal. Working with Pilkington North America, lamination of flat autoglass with PVB was achieved, meeting all 16 stringent industry tests. In particular, PVB laminates made with RF lamination passed environmental tests including the high temperature, 120 C bake test, without significant formation of bubbles (defects). The adhesion of PVB to glass was measured using the pummel method. Adhesion values ranging from 1 to 7 out of 10 were obtained. The significant process parameters affecting the environmental and adhesion performance were identified through a designed experiment. Pre-lamination process variables including PVB storage humidity and the de-airing process (vacuum or nip rolling) were significant, as well as the level of pressure applied to the laminate during the RF process. Analysis of manufacturing with RF lamination equipment, based on the processes developed indicated that 3 RF presses could replace a typical auto-industry autoclave to achieve equal or greater throughput with possibly less capital cost and smaller footprint. Concepts for curved lamination identifying castable molds for

Allan, Shawn M.

2012-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

223

Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating  

SciTech Connect

This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North America. The second task dealt with a study of current lamination processes in the various laminate industries, and development of concepts for integrating RF lamination into new or existing processes. The third task explored the use of a non-destructive technique for analyzing laminate adhesion with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The fourth task focused on developing concepts for curved glass lamination using RF lamination. The fifth and sixth tasks together comprised an analysis of laminate product markets, ranking for applicability and commercialization potential, and the development of commercialization strategies for those products. In addition, throughout the project as new experimental data and conventional process data were obtained, the benefits analysis of RF lamination was refined. The goals of the project described above were achieved, positioning RF lamination for the next stage growth envisioned in the original Industrial Grand Challenge proposal. Working with Pilkington North America, lamination of flat autoglass with PVB was achieved, meeting all 16 stringent industry tests. In particular, PVB laminates made with RF lamination passed environmental tests including the high temperature, 120 ���°C bake test, without significant formation of bubbles (defects). The adhesion of PVB to glass was measured using the pummel method. Adhesion values ranging from 1 to 7 out of 10 were obtained. The significant process parameters affecting the environmental and adhesion performance were identified through a designed experiment. Pre-lamination process variables including PVB storage humidity and the de-airing process (vacuum or nip rolling) were significant, as well as the level of pressure applied to the laminate during the RF process. Analysis of manufacturing with RF lamination equipment, based on the processes developed indicated that 3 RF presses could replace a typical auto-industry autoclave to achieve equal or greater throughput with possibly less capital cost and smaller footprint. Concepts for curved lamination id

Allan, Shawn M.; Baranova, Inessa; Poley, Joseph; Reis, Henrique

2012-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

224

Catalytic studies of supported Pd-Au catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although Pd-Au high-surface area catalysts are used in industry to improve activity and selectivity, a thorough understanding of the nature of these enhancements is lacking. A molecular-level understanding of catalytic reactions under actual reaction conditions is the ultimate goal. This thesis is mainly focused on the application of Pd-Au supported catalysts for vinyl acetate synthesis and CO oxidation reactions using highsurface area catalysts. We have attempted to improve the conventional Pd-Au based catalyst by synthesizing novel acetate-based and polymer-based catalysts. The corresponding catalytic reactivity and selectivity were measured and compared to conventional Pd-Au based catalyst systems. Subsequent characterization was performed using characterization techniques, such as, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From our bimetallic catalytic studies, it was evident that the addition of Au to Pd leads to increased reactivity and selectivity. This surface modification is an important factor in the altered reaction kinetics for vinyl acetate (VA) synthesis and CO oxidation reactions. Promoted and unpromoted Pd-Au/SiO2/K+ catalyst were used for VA synthesis and the effect of pre-adsorbed O2, acetic acid and the role of oxygen were explored. The VA reaction rate of novel acetate-based Pd-Au/SiO2 catalyst was 3.5 times higher than conventional Pd-Au catalysts. Also, 100% selectivity was obtained for acetate-based Pd-Au/SiO2 at 130 oC and the VA formation rate was comparable to that of conventional Pd-Au catalysts. Therefore, the acetate-based Pd-Au/SiO2 catalyst seems very promising and can be explored further. Also, Pd(1):Au(4)/SiO2 catalysts demonstrate 100% CO conversion at much lower temperatures (90 oC) compared with other Pd-Au based catalysts. Furthermore, we were successful in obtaining sufficient CO oxidation activity with increased metal loading (5 wt%) and these catalysts did not deactivate under above-ambient reaction temperature conditions, which make 1:4 Pd- Au/SiO2 catalyst a good candidate for further exploration in CO oxidation reactions.

Boopalachandran, Praveenkumar

225

Asymmetric Hydrogenations of Chiral Acyclic Alkenes for Important Chiron Syntheses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogenation of "largely unfunctionalized" alkenes has been an active area of research for about a decade. Many catalysts have been prepared but we noticed that comparatively few substrates have been studied and none of these hydrogenations provided useful chirons for the organic synthesis area. That motivated us to investigate asymmetric hydrogenations of chiral acyclic alkenes, which are seldom used for hydrogenations and usually the reactions are fully substrate controlled. It emerged that such reactions could provide a concise entry points into chirons that can be used to prepare many natural products. Asymmetric hydrogenations of functionalized, but not coordinatively functionalized, alkenes have been used to prepare several chirons for syntheses ofpolyketide natural products using our N,carbene Crabtree's catalyst analog. Starting from optically active starting materials (eg Roche esters, lactic acid, glyceraldehyde dimethyl ketals, amino acids), highly optically active chiral alkenes can be made in several steps with high yield. With the iridium catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenations, chiral ethers, 1,3-hydroxymethyl chiron, alpha-methyl-beta-hydroxy-gamma-methyl chiron, alpha-methyl-gamma-alkyl-gamma-amino acid can be obtained with high stereoselectivities. With those well developed methodologies, (-)-dihydromyoporone, (-)-spongidepsin, (-)-invictolide have been prepared with high efficiency. Not like the vinyl acetate, which can be hydrogenated quite well with many Rh catalysts, the alkyl vinyl ether does not have a coordination functional group nearby, hence it is a difficult substrate for asymmetric hydrogenation and there are relatively few iv reports. Also the simple alkyl enol ether is quite acid sensitive and the Pfatlz's type N,PIr catalysts cannot hydrogenate the simple alkyl enol ethers well under the standard hydrogenation conditions. We explored many alkyl enol ethers and found some of them can be hydrogenated efficiently (50 bar H2, 1 mol percent N,carbene-Ir catalyst, 25 degree C) with high enantioselectivities (up to 98 percent ee). This study led us to suspect that more protons were produced when N,P-Ir catalyst precursors were used relative to the corresponding carbene catalyst since the former only gave complex mixture when being used. DF calculations and several other experiments supported this postulation.

Zhu, Ye

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Observation and Nature of Non-statistical Dynamics in Ordinary Organic Reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Statistical models like Transition State Theory (TST) and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) Theory have generally been successful in predicting the rates and selectivities of chemical reactions. However, these statistical models can fail to explain experimental results of ordinary organic reactions. For these reactions, consideration of nonstatistical dynamic effects or the detailed motion and momenta of the atoms is necessary to account for the experimental observations. Dynamic effects have been found to be important in a growing number of reactions and the nature of these effects can be varied. One of the most interesting reactions investigated is the ozonolysis of vinyl ethers. Ozonolysis of a homologous series of vinyl ethers in solution exhibit experimental product ratios wherein the selectivity among cleavage pathways increases with the size of the alkyl group to an extent that is far less than RRKM theory would predict. Trajectory studies account for the observed selectivities and support a mechanism involving a competition between cleavage of the primary ozonide and intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution. A recent theoretical study from our group predicted that a highly asynchronous organocatalytic Diels-Alder (DA) reaction, which is concerted in the potential energy surface, is stepwise in the free energy surface. Kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) were measured for three DA reactions. We envision that the entropic barrier may have several experimental consequences such as unusual isotope effects due to extensive recrossing. Preliminary results for the organocatalytic reaction show an intramolecular KIE close to unity that cannot be reconciled with statistical theories. This is in contrast with Lewis-acid catalyzed and thermal DA reactions, which exhibit substantial "normal" intramolecular KIEs that are in accord with TST predictions. Finally, the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of cylohexanone in water was investigated. KIEs were measured for the oxidation of cyclohexanone with peracetic acid and trifluoroperacetic acid. When using peracetic acid as the oxidant, the alkyl migration was determined to be the rate-determining step based on significant intermolecular KIEs on the carbonyl and alpha-methylene carbons. A change in the rate-determining step is seen when trifluoroperacetic acid is used. Only the carbonyl carbon exhibits a significant isotope effect. Theoretical predictions provide an experimental picture of the transition states and qualitatively support these conclusions.

Quijano, Larisa Mae 1984-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

On the Reaction Mechanism of Acetaldehyde Decomposition on Mo(110)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The strong Mo-O bond strength provides promising reactivity of Mo-based catalysts for the deoxygenation of biomass-derived oxygenates. Combining the novel dimer saddle point searching method with periodic spin-polarized density functional theory calculations, we investigated the reaction pathways of a acetaldehyde decomposition on the clean Mo(110) surface. Two reaction pathways were identified, a selective deoxygenation and a nonselective fragmentation pathways. We found that acetaldehyde preferentially adsorbs at the pseudo 3-fold hollow site in the ?2(C,O) configuration on Mo(110). Among four possible bond (?-C-H, ?-C-H, C-O and C-C) cleavages, the initial decomposition of the adsorbed acetaldehyde produces either ethylidene via the C-O bond scission or acetyl via the ?-C-H bond scission while the C-C and the ?-C-H bond cleavages of acetaldehyde leading to the formation of methyl (and formyl) and formylmethyl are unlikely. Further dehydrogenations of ethylidene into either ethylidyne or vinyl are competing and very facile with low activation barriers of 0.24 and 0.31 eV, respectively. Concurrently, the formed acetyl would deoxygenate into ethylidyne via the C-O cleavage rather than breaking the C-C or the C-H bonds. The selective deoxygenation of acetaldehyde forming ethylene is inhibited by relatively weaker hydrogenation capability of the Mo(110) surface. Instead, the nonselective pathway via vinyl and vinylidene dehydrogenations to ethynyl as the final hydrocarbon fragment is kinetically favorable. On the other hand, the strong interaction between ethylene and the Mo(110) surface also leads to ethylene decomposition instead of desorption into the gas phase. This work was financially supported by the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC). Computing time was granted by a user project (emsl42292) at the Molecular Science Computing Facility in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL). This work was financially supported by the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC). Computing time was granted by a user project (emsl42292) at the Molecular Science Computing Facility in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL). The EMSL is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national scientific user facility located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and supported by the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Mei, Donghai; Karim, Ayman M.; Wang, Yong

2012-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

228

Historical Material Analysis of DC745U Pressure Pads  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Enhance Surveillance mission, it is the goal to provide suitable lifetime assessment of stockpile materials. This report is an accumulation of historical publication on the DC745U material and their findings. It is the intention that the B61 LEP program uses this collection of data to further develop their understanding and potential areas of study. DC745U is a commercially available silicone elastomer consisting of dimethyl, methyl-phenyl, and methyl-vinyl siloxane repeat units. Originally, this material was manufactured by Dow Corning as Silastic{reg_sign} DC745U at their manufacturing facility in Kendallville, IN. Recently, Dow Corning shifted this material to the Xiameter{reg_sign} brand product line. Currently, DC745U is available through Xiameter{reg_sign} or Dow Corning's distributor R. D. Abbott Company. DC745U is cured using 0.5 wt% vinyl-specific peroxide curing agent known as Luperox 101 or Varox DBPH-50. This silicone elastomer is used in numerous parts, including two major components (outer pressure pads and aft cap support) in the W80 and as pressure pads on the B61. DC745U is a proprietary formulation, thus Dow Corning provides limited information on its composition and properties. Based on past experience with Dow Corning, DC745U is at risk of formulation changes without notification to the costumer. A formulation change for DC745U may have a significant impact because the network structure is a key variable in determining material properties. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of historical DC745U studies and identify gaps that need to be addressed in future work. Some of the previous studies include the following: 1. Spectroscopic characterization of raw gum stock. 2. Spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical studies on cured DC745U. 3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and solvent swelling studies on DC745U with different crosslink densities. 4. NMR, solvent swelling, thermal, and mechanical studies on thermally aged DC745U. 5. NMR, solvent swelling, thermal, and mechanical studies on radiolytically aged DC745U. Each area is reviewed and further work is suggested to improve our understanding of DC745U for systems engineering, surveillance, aging assessments, and lifetime assessment.

Ortiz-Acosta, Denisse [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

229

Technical support document for proposed 1994 revision of the MEC thermal envelope requirements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the development of the proposed revision of the Council of American Building Officials` (CABO) 1994 supplement to the 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for maximum component U{sub 0}-value. The 1994 amendments to the 1993 MEC were established in last year`s code change cycle and did not change the envelope requirements. The research underlying the proposed MEC revision was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Standards program. The goal of this research was to develop revised guidelines based on an objective methodology that determines the most cost-effective (least total cost) combination of energy conservation measures (ECMs) (insulation levels and window types) for residential buildings. This least-cost set of ECMs was used as a basis for proposing revised MEC maximum U{sub 0}-values (thermal transmittances). ECMs include window types (for example, double-pane vinyl) and insulation levels (for example, R-19) for ceilings, walls, and floors.

Conner, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Enhancement of mechanical strength of TiO{sub 2}/high-density polyethylene composites for bone repair with silane-coupling treatment  

SciTech Connect

Mechanical properties of composites made up of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and silanated TiO{sub 2} particles for use as a bone-repairing material were investigated in comparison with those of the composites of HDPE with unsilanized TiO{sub 2} particles. The interfacial morphology and interaction between silanated TiO{sub 2} and HDPE were analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The absorption in spectral bands related to the carboxyl bond in the silane-coupling agent, the vinyl group in the HDPE, and the formation of the ether bond was studied in order to assess the influence of the silane-coupling agent. The SEM micrograph showed that the 'bridging effect' between HDPE and TiO{sub 2} was brought about by the silane-coupling agent. The use of the silane-coupling agent and the increase of the hot-pressing pressure for shaping the composites facilitated the penetration of polymer into cavities between individual TiO{sub 2} particles, which increased the density of the composite. Therefore, mechanical properties such as bending yield strength and Young's modulus increased from 49 MPa and 7.5 GPa to 65 MPa and 10 GPa, respectively, after the silane-coupling treatment and increase in the hot-pressing pressure.

Hashimoto, Masami [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan)]. E-mail: masami@jfcc.or.jp; Takadama, Hiroaki [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan)]. E-mail: takadama@jfcc.or.jp; Mizuno, Mineo [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan)]. E-mail: mizuno@jfcc.or.jp; Kokubo, Tadashi [Research Institute for Science and Technology, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai 487-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: kokubo@isc.chubu.ac.jp

2006-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

231

Use of Sequential Injection Analysis to construct a Potentiometric Electronic Tongue: Application to the Multidetermination of Heavy Metals  

SciTech Connect

An automated potentiometric electronic tongue (ET) was developed for the quantitative determination of heavy metal mixtures. The Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) technique was used in order to automate the obtaining of input data, and the combined response was modeled by means of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The sensor array was formed by four sensors: two based on chalcogenide glasses Cd sensor and Cu sensor, and the rest on poly(vinyl chloride) membranes Pb sensor and Zn sensor. The Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) sensors were first characterized with respect to one and two analytes, by means of high-dimensionality calibrations, thanks to the use of the automated flow system; this characterization enabled an interference study of great practical utility. To take profit of the dynamic nature of the sensor's response, the kinetic profile of each sensor was compacted by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and the extracted coefficients were used as inputs for the ANN in the multidetermination applications. In order to identify the ANN which provided the best model of the electrode responses, some of the network parameters were optimized. Finally analyses were performed employing synthetic samples and water samples of the river Ebro; obtained results were compared with reference methods.

Mimendia, Aitor; Merkoci, Arben; Valle, Manel del [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Chemistry Dept., Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Legin, Andrey [Chemistry Dept, St. Petersburg University, Universitetskaya nab. 7/9, 199034 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2009-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

232

Advanced development of PV encapsulants. Annual subcontract report, 30 December 1992--31 March 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work under Phase II of a Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology project to conduct laboratory problem definition with an emphasis on controlled aging studies to evaluate the influence of various compositional, processing, and operating parameters on ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) discoloration. In support of future accelerated UV aging studies (AAS) of coupon-sized EVA laminates, an Atlas xenon arc Ci35A Weather-Ometer was procured, installed, and calibrated for temperature and irradiance. In preparing for the AAS studies, UV-visible spectroscopy measurements were performed on various types of low-iron glass, representive of materials used for module superstrates. It was discovered that the transmission spectra of some of the grades in the UV region from 250 to 400 nm was significantly different. Older grades of Solatex and solite, and StarPhire 'cut off' well below 290 nm, while newer grades of Solatex and Solite, and StarPhire and Airphire greatly reduce the UV transmittance between 280 and 330 nm. Controlled aging studies are presently underway at 0.55 W/m2, 340 nm, and 100 degrees C, and we expect comparative data on yellowing to be available soon.

Holley, W.; Agro, S.; Galica, J.; Thoma, L.; White, R.; Yorgensen, R. [Springborn Labs., Inc., Enfield, CT (United States)] [Springborn Labs., Inc., Enfield, CT (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Field Evaluation of the Potential for Creep in Thermoplastic Encapsulant Materials: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There has been recent interest in the use of thermoplastic encapsulant materials in photovoltaic modules to replace chemically crosslinked materials, e.g., ethylene-vinyl acetate. The related motivations include the desire to: reduce lamination time or temperature; use less moisture-permeable materials; use materials with better corrosion characteristics or with improved electrical resistance. However, the use of any thermoplastic material in a high-temperature environment raises safety and performance concerns, as the standardized tests currently do not expose the modules to temperatures in excess of 85 degrees C, though fielded modules may experience temperatures above 100 degrees C. Here we constructed eight pairs of crystalline-silicon modules and eight pairs of glass/encapsulation/glass thin-film mock modules using different encapsulant materials of which only two were designed to chemically crosslink. One module set was exposed outdoors with insulation on the back side in Arizona in the summer, and an identical set was exposed in environmental chambers. High precision creep measurements (+/- 20 um) and performance measurements indicate that despite many of these polymeric materials being in the melt state during outdoor deployment, very little creep was seen because of their high viscosity, temperature heterogeneity across the modules, and the formation of chemical crosslinks in many of the encapsulants as they aged. In the case of the crystalline silicon modules, the physical restraint of the backsheet reduced the creep further.

Kempe, M. D.; Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S. R.; Moseley, J. M.; Shah, Q.; Tamizhmani, G.; Sakurai, K.; Inoue, M.; Doi, T.; Masuda, A.; Samuels, S. L.; Vanderpan, C. E.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Testing Protocol for Module Encapsulant Creep (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recently there has been an interest in the use of thermoplastic encapsulant materials in photovoltaic modules to replace chemically crosslinked materials, e.g., ethylene-vinyl acetate. The related motivations include the desire to: reduce lamination time or temperature; use less moisture-permeable materials; or use materials with better corrosion characteristics. However, the use of any thermoplastic material in a high-temperature environment raises safety and performance concerns, as the standardized tests currently do not expose the modules to temperatures in excess of 85C, yet modules may experience temperatures above 100C in operation. Here we constructed eight pairs of crystalline-silicon modules and eight pairs of glass/encapsulation/glass mock modules using different encapsulation materials of which only two were designed to chemically crosslink. One module set was exposed outdoors with insulation on the back side in Arizona in the summer, and an identical set was exposed in environmental chambers. High precision creep measurements and performance measurements indicate that despite many of these polymeric materials being in the melt state at some of the highest outdoor temperatures achievable, very little creep was seen because of their high viscosity, temperature heterogeneity across the modules, and in the case of the crystalline-silicon modules, the physical restraint of the backsheet. These findings have very important implications for the development of IEC and UL qualification and safety standards, and in regards to the necessary level of cure during the processing of crosslinking encapsulants.

Kempe, M. D.; Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.; Moseley, J. M.; Shah, Q.; Tamizhmani, G.; Sakurai, K.; Inoue, M.; Doi, T.; Masuda, A.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Effect of electrolyte additives in improving the cycle and calendar life of graphite/Li{sub1.1}[Ni{sub1/3}Co{sub1/3}Mn{sub1/3}]{0.9}O{sub 2} Li-ion cells.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lithium-rich layered metal oxide Li{sub 1.1}[Ni{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}]{sub 0.9}O{sub 2} was investigated as a potential positive electrode material for high-power batteries for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. In order to evaluate the power and life characteristics of the graphite/Li{sub 1.1}[Ni{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}]{sub 0.9}O{sub 2} cell chemistry, hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) and accelerated calendar life tests were conducted on several pouch cells containing electrolytes with and without additives. The data show that the cells containing 0.5 wt% lithium bis(oxalate)borate (LiBOB) or vinyl ethyl carbonate (VEC) additives, or the novel lithium difluoro(oxalato)borate (LiDFOB) additive, have much improved cycle and calendar life performance.

Liu, J.; Chen, Z.; Busking, S.; Belharouak, I.; Amine, K.; Chemical Engineering

2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

236

Additives and method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from detrimentally impeding the possible flow of a fluid susceptible to clathrate hydrate formation. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include polymers having lactam rings. Additives can also contain polyelectrolytes that are believed to improve conformance of polymer additives through steric hindrance and/or charge repulsion. Also, polymers having an amide on which a C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} group is attached to the nitrogen and/or the carbonyl carbon of the amide may be used alone, or in combination with ring-containing polymers for enhanced effectiveness. Polymers having at least some repeating units representative of polymerizing at least one of an oxazoline, an N-substituted acrylamide and an N-vinyl alkyl amide are preferred.

Sloan, E.D. Jr.; Christiansen, R.L.; Lederhos, J.P.; Long, J.P.; Panchalingam, V.; Du, Y.; Sum, A.K.W.

1997-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

237

Synthesis of palladium-doped silica nanofibers by sol-gel reaction and electrospinning process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanofiber is drawing great attention nowadays with their high surface area per volume and flexibility in surface functionalities that make them favorable as a proton exchange membrane in fuel cell application. In this study, incorporation of palladium nanoparticles in silica nanofibers was prepared by combination of a tetraorthosilane (TEOS) sol-gel reaction with electrospinning process. This method can prevent the nanoparticles from aggregation by direct mixing of palladium nanoparticles in silica sol. The as-produced electrospun fibers were thermally treated to remove poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and condensation of silanol in silica framework. PVP is chosen as fiber shaping agent because of its insulting and capping properties for various metal nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the silica fibers and Pd nanoparticles on the fibers. Spun fibers with average diameter ranged from 100nm to 400nm were obtained at optimum operating condition and distribution of Pd nanoparticles on silica fibers was investigated.

San, Thiam Hui; Daud, Wan Ramli Wan; Kadhum, Abdul Amir Hassan; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Kamarudin, Siti Kartom; Shyuan, Loh Kee; Majlan, Edy Herianto [Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

238

Fort Devens: Cold Climate Market-Rate Townhomes Targeting HERS Index of 40, Harvard, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Achieving aggressive energy efficiency targets requires tight coordination and clear communication among owners, designers, builders, and subcontractors. For this townhome project, MassDevelopment, the quasi-governmental agency owner, selected Metric Development of Boston, teaming with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) and Cambridge Seven Architects, to build very high performing market-rate homes. Fort Devens is part of a decommissioned army base in working-class Harvard, Massachusetts, approximately one hour northwest of Boston. The team proposed 12 net zero energy-ready townhomes, meaning that the application of renewable energy systems would result in annual net zero energy use in the homes. The homes were also designed to achieve a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Index Score of 41 before adding renewables. For this project, CARB drew on its experience working with Rural Development Inc. on a series of affordable townhomes in northern Massachusetts. The team carefully planned the site to maximize solar access, daylighting, and efficient building forms. The basic strategy was to design a very efficient thermal enclosure while minimizing incremental cost increases compared with standard construction. Using BEopt modeling software, the team established the requirements of the enclosure and investigated multiple assembly options. They settled on double-wall construction with dense-pack cellulose fill. High performance vinyl windows (U-0.24, solar heat gain coefficient [SHGC]-0.22), a vented R-59 attic, and exceptional air sealing completed the package.

Metzger, C.; Zoeller, W.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Thailand's downstream projects proliferate  

SciTech Connect

Thailand continues to press expansion and modernization of its downstream sector. Among recent developments: Construction of an olefins unit at Thailand's second major petrochemical complex and a worldscale aromatics unit in Thailand is threatened by rising costs. Thailand's National Petrochemical Corp (NPC) let a 9 billion yen contract to Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. and C. Itoh and Co. for a dual fuel cogeneration power plant at its Mab Ta Phud, Rayong province, petrochemical complex. Financing is in place to flash a green light for a $530 million Belgian-Thai joint venture sponsoring a worldscale polyvinyl chloride/vinyl chloride monomer plant in Thailand. Work is more than 50% complete on the $345 million second phase expansion of Thai Oil's Sri Racha refinery in Chon Buri province. Petroleum Authority of Thailand (PTT) endorsed a plan to install two more natural gas processing plants in Thailand to meet rapidly growing domestic demand for petroleum gas.

1991-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

240

Mesoscale assembly of NiO nanosheets into spheres  

SciTech Connect

NiO solid/hollow spheres with diameters about 100 nm have been successfully synthesized through thermal decomposition of nickel acetate in ethylene glycol at 200 deg. C. These spheres are composed of nanosheets about 3-5 nm thick. Introducing poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) surfactant to reaction system can effectively control the products' morphology. By adjusting the quantity of PVP, we accomplish surface areas-tunable NiO assembled spheres from {approx}70 to {approx}200 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. Electrochemical tests show that NiO hollow spheres deliver a large discharge capacity of 823 mA h g{sup -1}. Furthermore, these hollow spheres also display a slow capacity-fading rate. A series of contrastive experiments demonstrate that the surface area of NiO assembled spheres has a noticeable influence on their discharge capacity. - Graphical abstract: The mesoscale assembly of NiO nanosheets into spheres have been achieved by a solvothermal method. N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms show the S{sub BET} of NiO is tunable. NiO spheres show large discharge capacity and slow capacity-fading rate.

Zhang Meng, E-mail: meng_zhang@haut.edu.c [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou, Henan 450007 (China); Yan Guojin; Hou Yonggai; Wang Chunhua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou, Henan 450007 (China)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "110-75-8 2-chloroethyl vinyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Revised Petition To Establish A New Generic Subclass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Petition to the Federal Trade Commission (the “Commission”) for the establishment of a new generic subclass within the existing polyester category for fibers made from poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (“PTT”) to restate and supplement the contents of the Petition dated February, 21, 2006 in order to address certain questions raised by the Commission. Petitioners note the Commission’s April 18, 2006 action taken in response to the February 21, 2006 Petition assigning the designation “PTT001 ” for PTT fiber for temporary use until a final determination is made by the Commission as to the merits of this Petition. Petitioners propose in order of preference the following names for a new generic subclass of polyester that may be used with respect to PTT fibers: 1. triexta; 2. resisoft; and 3. durares. 1 Mohawk was founded more than 120 years ago and today is the leading producer and distributor of flooring worldwide. Mohawk products serve all major flooring categories: carpet, rugs, hardwood, laminate, ceramic tile, and vinyl flooring. Mohawk has launched a line of carpets manufactured from PTT and sells such carpets under the trademark SmartStrand. 2 Founded in 1802, DuPont is a science company operating in more than 70 countries. DuPont offers a wide range of innovative products and services for markets including agriculture, nutrition, electronics, communications, safety and protection, home and construction, transportation and apparel. DuPont markets PTT under the trademark Sorona®. 3

unknown authors

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Performance testing of grout-based waste forms for the solidification of anion exchange resins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The solidification of spent ion exchanges resins in a grout matrix as a means of disposing of spent organic resins produced in the nuclear fuel cycle has many advantages in terms of process simplicity and economy, but associated with the process is the potential for water/cement/resins to interact and degrade the integrity of the waste form solidified. Described in this paper is one possible solution to preserving the integrity of these solidified waste forms: the encapsulation of beaded anion exchange resins in grout formulations containing ground granulated blast furnace slag, Type I-II (mixed) portland cement, and additives (clays, amorphous silica, silica fume, and fly ash). The results of the study reported herein show the cured waste form tested has a low leach rate for nitrate ion from the resin (and a low leach rate is inferred for Tc-99) and acceptable durability as assessed by the water immersion and freezing/thawing test protocols. The results also suggest a tested surrogate waste form prepared in vinyl ester styrene binder performs satisfactorily against the wetting/drying criterion, and it should offer additional insight into future work on the solidification of spent organic resins. 26 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Morgan, I.L.; Bostick, W.D.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Structural foam-core panels in Northwest HUD-code manufactured housing: A preliminary assessment of opportunities and obstacles  

SciTech Connect

This investigation of structural foam-core panels (foam panels) in manufactured housing was initiated during the Super Good Cents (SGC) program. The SGC program limited allowable glazing area because of the relatively high thermal losses associated with most windows. Due to their superior thermal performance, foam panels appeared to be a viable option to allow increased glazing area without compromising the thermal integrity of the wall. With the inception of the Manufactured-Housing Acquisition Program (MAP), however, the focus of this study has shifted. MAP permits unlimited glazing area if expensive, super-efficient, vinyl-framed, argon-gas-filled, low-emissivity coated windows are installed. Although MAP permits unlimited glazing area, a foam panel wall could allow the use of less expensive windows, larger window area, or less insulation and still provide the required thermal performance for the building. Bonneville contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to investigate the feasibility of using foam panels in HUD-code manufactured housing. This study presents the results from a product and literature search. The potential barriers and benefits to the use of foam panels are determined from a regional survey of the HUD-code manufacturers and foam panel producers.

Durfee, D.L.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Plasma Surface Modification of Polymer Backsheets: Origins of Future Interfacial Barrier/Backsheet Failure (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Flexible polymer substrates coated with inorganic oxide moisture barriers are a potential replacement for glass backsheets in thin-film PV (photovoltaic) modules. Silicon oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) represents one potential new backsheet candidate. Barrier deposition runs at NREL have included a nitrogen-rich plasma pretreatment prior to barrier deposition with the intention of cleaning the PET surface and enhancing adhesion of the SiO{sub x}N{sub y} barrier film to PET; however, test coupons of PET/barrier/EVA/TPE failed after damp-heat exposure. (EVA is ethylene vinyl acetate and TPE is Tedlar{reg_sign}-PET-EVA). PET substrates exposed to plasma conditions similar to those used in pretreatment were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to reveal that new low molecular weight PET fragments were created at the PET surface. These fragments are responsible for barrier/PET interfacial failure and barrier transfer to the EVA encapsulant side following damp heat exposure.

Pankow, J. W.; Glick, S. H.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Investigation of proposed process sequence for the array automated assembly task. Phase I and II. Final report, October 1, 1977-June 30, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A selected process sequence for the low cost fabrication of photovoltaic modules was defined during this contract. Each part of the process sequence was looked at regarding its contribution to the overall dollars per watt cost. During the course of the research done, some of the initially included processes were dropped due to technological deficiencies. The printed dielectric diffusion mask, codiffusion of the n+ and p+ regions, wraparound front contacts and retention of the diffusion oxide for use as an AR coating were all the processes that were removed for this reason. Other process steps were retained to achieve the desired overall cost and efficiency. Square wafers, a polymeric spin-on PX-10 diffusion source, a p+ back surface field and silver front contacts are all processes that have been recommended for use in this program. The printed silver solderable pad for making contact to the aluminum back was replaced by an ultrasonically applied tin-zinc pad. Also, the texturized front surface was dropped as inappropriate for the sheet silicon likely to be available in 1986. Progress has also been made on the process sequence for module fabrication. A shift from bonding with a conformal coating to laminating with ethylene vinyl acetate and a glass superstrate is recommended for further module fabrication. The finalized process sequence is described.

Mardesich, N.; Garcia, A.; Eskenas, K.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Bioremediation of Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Sediments Augmented with a Dehalococcoides Consortia  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC there are a number of sites contaminated with Chlorinated Ethenes (CE) due to past disposal practices. Sediments from two CE contaminated SRS locations were evaluated for trichloroethylene (TCE) biodegradation through anaerobic laboratory microcosms. The testing included addition of amendments and bioaugmentation of sediments. The anaerobic microcosms were first amended with substrates including acetate, lactate, molasses, soybean oil, methanol, sulfate, yeast extract, Regenesis HRC(R), and MEAL (methanol, ethanol, acetate, lactate mixture). Microcosms were analyzed after biostimulation for 9 months and no significant TCE biodegradation was observed. At 10 months, additional TCE, fresh amendments, and a mixed culture containing Dehalococcoides ethenogenes were added to active microcosms. A significant decrease in TCE concentrations and an increase in biodegradation products cis-dichloroethylene (cDCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) were noted within 2 weeks of bioaugmentation. Microcosms amended with lactate and sulfate showed complete transformation of TCE (3 ppm) to ethene within 40 days after bioaugmentation. Microcosms amended with other substrates - soybean oil, acetate, yeast extract, and methanol - also show enhanced biodegradation of TCE to ethene. Microcosms amended with molasses and Regenesis HRC showed limited TCE transformation. No TCE transformation was seen in killed control microcosms. On the basis of these successful results, plans are underway for field-scale in-situ deployment of biostimulation/bioaugmentation at SRS.

McKinsey, P.C.

2003-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

247

Production of high-energy chemicals using solar energy heat. Project 8999, final report for the period September 1, 1977--May 31, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The first phase of a study to identify candidate processes and products suitable for future exploitation using high-temperature solar energy is presented. This phase has been principally analytical, consisting of techno-economic studies, thermodynamic assessments of chemical reactions and processes, and the determination of market potentials for major chemical commodities that use significant amounts of fossil resources today. The objective was to identify energy-intensive processes that would be suitable for the production of chemicals and fuels using solar energy process heat. Of particular importance was the comparison of relative costs and energy requirements for the selected solar product versus costs for the product derived from conventional processing. The assessment methodology used a systems analytical approach to identify processes and products having the greatest potential for solar energy-thermal processing. This approach was used to establish the basis for work to be carried out in subsequent phases of development. It has been the intent of the program to divide the analysis and process identification into the following three distinct areas: (1) process selection, (2) process evaluation, and (3) ranking of processes. Four conventional processes were selected for assessment namely, methanol synthesis, styrene monomer production, vinyl chloride monomer production, and terephthalic acid production.

Dafler, J.R.; Sinnott, J.; Novil, M.; Yudow, B.D.; Rackoff, M.G.

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Additives and method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from detrimentally impeding the possible flow of a fluid susceptible to clathrate hydrate formation. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include polymers having lactam rings. Additives can also contain polyelectrolytes that are believed to improve conformance of polymer additives through steric hinderance and/or charge repulsion. Also, polymers having an amide on which a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 group is attached to the nitrogen and/or the carbonyl carbon of the amide may be used alone, or in combination with ring-containing polymers for enhanced effectiveness. Polymers having at least some repeating units representative of polymerizing at least one of an oxazoline, an N-substituted acrylamide and an N-vinyl alkyl amide are preferred.

Sloan, Jr., Earle Dendy (Golden, CO); Christiansen, Richard Lee (Littleton, CO); Lederhos, Joseph P. (Wheatridge, CO); Long, Jin Ping (Dallas, TX); Panchalingam, Vaithilingam (Lakewood, CO); Du, Yahe (Golden, CO); Sum, Amadeu Kun Wan (Golden, CO)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Methods of forming single source precursors, methods of forming polymeric single source precursors, and single source precursors and intermediate products formed by such methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods of forming single source precursors (SSPs) include forming intermediate products having the empirical formula 1/2{L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'X.sub.2}.sub.2, and reacting MER with the intermediate products to form SSPs of the formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2, wherein L is a Lewis base, M is a Group IA atom, N is a Group IB atom, M' is a Group IIIB atom, each E is a Group VIB atom, each X is a Group VIIA atom or a nitrate group, and each R group is an alkyl, aryl, vinyl, (per)fluoro alkyl, (per)fluoro aryl, silane, or carbamato group. Methods of forming polymeric or copolymeric SSPs include reacting at least one of HE.sup.1R.sup.1E.sup.1H and MER with one or more substances having the empirical formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2 or L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'(X).sub.2 to form a polymeric or copolymeric SSP. New SSPs and intermediate products are formed by such methods.

Fox, Robert V.; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin; Margulieux, Kelsey R.; Holland, Andrew W.

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

250

Experimental results for diffusion and infiltration of moisture in concrete masonry walls exposed to hot and humid climates  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents experimental test results for heat and moisture migration in walls exposed to hot and humid climates. The research was conducted to study the problem of mold and mildew caused by moisture transfer into walls of concrete masonry unit (CMU) type construction by diffusion and convective transport by air infiltration. This type of construction is common in commercial buildings in the southern US. The tests were conducted in two phases. Phase 1 evaluated heat and moisture transfer by diffusion. Phase 2 testing involved air infiltration through the test walls. Data were also collected to determine the rate at which the test walls would dry out without infiltration present. Test results indicate that an exterior vapor retarder will reduce the moisture migration into the wall and thereby lower the moisture accumulation due to infiltration when a vapor retarder (such as vinyl wallpaper) is used for the interior surface treatment. Testing also showed that while the exterior wall treatment does have an effect on reducing the total moisture accumulation in the test walls, the interior wall treatment has a much larger impact when infiltration is present. The data support a proposed criterion for the onset of mold and mildew, which requires a monthly average surface relative humidity of 80% with temperatures between 32 F and 105 F.

Hosni, M.H.; Sipes, J.M.; Wallis, M.H.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Successful bioremediation with compost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An Air Force Base has begun using a composting process developed by a private company to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons on site. In the process, a layer of compost is placed on top of the sealer to prevent accidental damage by the equipment. Then a layer of contaminated soil is applied, followed by another layer of compost and a final layer of turkey manure supplied by a local farmer on top. Two passes are made with the Scat to provide thorough mixing. Different techniques were examined to turn volumes of the material and it was found that this equipment works very well for smaller batches. After mixing, materials are covered with a gray, vinyl-coated nylon cover to protect the pile from the elements and encourage bacterial growth. The tarp is tied to eyelets inserted every five feet along the curb of the treatment area. Although not specifically developed for hazardous materials, PXS has piloted the process to handle PCBs, trichlorethylene, benzopyrene and other chemicals found around wood preservative plants, manufactured gas plants and military installations. It is seen that they are all degraded: first the white rot degrades them and then the bacteria metabolizes them.

Not Available

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Mesophases in polyethylene, polypropylene, and poly(1-butene)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper contains new views about the amorphous and partially ordered phases of the three polymers listed in the title. The discussion is based on information on structure, thermodynamic stability, and large-amplitude molecular motion. Polyethylene is the basic backbone of all alkene polymers, and the other two are the first members of the vinyl polymers which have stereospecifically placed alkyl side chains. Their multiphase structures consist of metastable crystals, mesophases, and surrounding rigid and mobile amorphous fractions. All these phases have sizes ranging from micrometer dimensions down to nanometers. Besides the phase structures, information about the molecular coupling between the phases must be considered. Depending on temperature, the polymer phases can vary from solid (rigid) to liquid (mobile). New knowledge is also gained by cross-comparison of the title polymers. The experimental information was gained from (a) various forms of slow, fast, and temperature-modulated thermal analysis to identify equilibrium and non-equilibrium states, (b) measurement of structure and morphology at various length scales, and (c) tracing of the large-amplitude molecular motion, the kinetics of order/disorder changes, and the liquid/solid transitions (glass transitions). It is shown that much more needs to be known about the various phases and their coupling to characterize a given polymer and to fine-tune its properties for a given application.

Androsch, Rene J [ORNL; Di Lorenzo, Maria [ORNL; Schick, Christoph [Rostock University, Rostock, Germany; Wunderlich, Bernhard {nmn} [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Examination of a Standardized Test for Evaluating the Degree of Cure of EVA Encapsulation (Presentation)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The curing of cross-linkable encapsulation is a critical consideration for photovoltaic (PV) modules manufactured using a lamination process. Concerns related to ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) include the quality (e.g., expiration and uniformity) of the films or completion (duration) of the cross-linking of the EVA within a laminator. Because these issues are important to both EVA and module manufacturers, an international standard has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the degree of cure for EVA encapsulation. The present draft of the standard calls for the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the rapid, enabling secondary (test) method. Both the residual enthalpy- and melt/freeze-DSC methods are identified. The DSC methods are calibrated against the gel content test, the primary (reference) method. Aspects of other established methods, including indentation and rotor cure metering, were considered by the group. Key details of the test procedure will be described.

Miller, D.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Gu, X.; Haldeman, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Malguth, E.; Reid, C.; Shioda, T.; Schulze, S.; Wang, Z.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Surface Treatment of Carbon Fibers by Continuous Gaseous System  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical performance of carbon fiber-polymer composites strongly depends on interfacial adhesion, which is function of types of carbon fiber, surface chemistry, physical and chemical interactions, and mechanical interlocking. Untreated and unsized high strength carbon fibers were oxidized by continuous thermochemical and atmospheric plasma treatment. Surface properties were investigated before and after treatment (chemistry, topography), as well as their mechanical properties. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed a significant increase of the oxygen atomic content from 3% to around 20% and the analysis of the carbon peak showed that carboxylic acid functionalities and hydroxyl groups were generated. An observation of the fiber surface by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy did not show any dramatic change of the fiber morphology and surface topography. A Raman spectroscopy analysis exhibited that the weak boundary layers and debris remaining at the surface of untreated fibers were removed. No significant damage of the mechanical properties (tensile strength) was noticed. The influence of the changes of the surface properties on interfacial adhesion of carbon fiber-epoxy and -vinyl ester matrix was evaluated using 90 flexural and short beam shear tests with unidirectional coupons. A significant increase of the 90 flexural and short beam shear strength showed that the interfacial adhesion between carbon fibers and epoxy resins was improved. The observation of the fracture profile by scanning electron microcopy confirmed those results, as the rupture of the coupons after surface treatment was more cohesive.

Vautard, Frederic [ORNL; Paulauskas, Felix L [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL; Warren, Charles David [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Remedial evaluation of a UST site impacted with chlorinated hydrocarbons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During assessment and remedial planning of an underground storage tank (UST) site, it was discovered that chlorinated hydrocarbons were present. A network of selected wells were sampled for analysis of halogenated volatile organics and volatile organic compounds to determine the extent of constituents not traditionally associated with refined petroleum motor fuel products. The constituents detected included vinyl chloride, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), bromodichloromethane, and 2-chloroethylvinyl ether. These analytical data were evaluated as to what effect the nonpetroleum hydrocarbon constituents may have on the remedial approach utilized the site hydrogeologic properties to its advantage and took into consideration the residential nature of the impacted area. The geometry of the dissolved plume is very flat and broad, emanating from the site and extending downgradient under a residential area situated in a transmissive sand unit. Ground-water pumping was proposed from two areas of the dissolved plume including five wells pumping at a combined rate of 55 gallons per minute (gpm) at a downgradient position, and two wells on-site to remove free product and highly impacted ground water. Also, to assist in remediation of the dissolved plume and to control vapors, a bioventing system was proposed throughout the plume area.

Ilgner, B.; Rainey, E. (Geraghty and Miller, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)); Ball, M.; Schutt, M.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Performance Degradation of Encapsulated Monocrystalline-Si Solar Cells upon Accelerated Weathering Exposures: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Presented at 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: Performed accelerated exposures to study performance reliability/materials degradation of encapsulated c-Si cells using weathering protocols in 2 weatherometers. We have performed accelerated exposures to study performance reliability and materials degradation of a total of forty-one 3-cm x 3-cm monocrystalline-Si (c-Si) solar cells that were variously encapsulated using accelerated weathering protocols in two weatherometers (WOMs), with and without front specimen water sprays. Laminated cells (EVA/c-Si/EVA, ethylene vinyl acetate) with one of five superstrate/substrate variations and other features including with and without: (i) load resistance, (ii) Al foil light masks, and (iii) epoxy edge-sealing were studied. Three additional samples, omitting EVA, were exposed under a full-spectrum solar simulator, or heated in an oven, for comparison. After exposures, cell performance decreased irregularly, but to a relatively greater extent for samples exposed in WOM where light, heat, and humidity cycles were present (solar simulator or oven lacked such cycles). EVA laminates in the samples masked with aluminum (Al) foils were observed to retain moisture in WOM with water spray. Moisture effects caused substantial efficiency losses probably related in part to increasing series resistance.

Glick, S. H.; Pern, F. J.; Watson, G. L.; Tomek, D.; Raaff, J.

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Development studies for a novel wet oxidation process  

SciTech Connect

A catalytic wet oxidation process (DETOX), which uses an acidic iron solution to oxidize organic compounds to carbon dioxide, water, and other simple products, was investigated as a potential method for the treatment of multicomponent hazardous and mixed wastes. The organic compounds picric acid, poly(vinyl chloride), tetrachlorothiophene, pentachloropyridine, Aroclor 1260 (a polychlorinated biphenyl), and hexachlorobenzene were oxidized in 125 ml reaction vessels. The metals arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cerium (as a surrogate for plutonium), chromium, lead, mercury, neodymium (as a surrogate for uranium), nickel, and vanadium were tested in the DETOX solution. Barium, beryllium, cerium, chromium, mercury, neodymium, nickel, and vanadium were all found to be very soluble (>100 g/l) in the DETOX chloride-based solution. Arsenic, barium, cadmium, and lead solubilities were lower. Lead could be selectively precipitated from the DETOX solution. Chromium(VI) was reduced to relatively non-toxic chromium(III) by the solution. Six soils were contaminated with arsenic, barium, beryllium, chromium, lead, and neodymium oxides at approximately 0.1% by weight, and benzene, trichloroethene, mineral oil, and Aroclor 1260 at approximately 5% by weight total, and 5.g amounts treated with the DETOX solution in unstirred 125. ml reaction bombs. It is felt that soil treatment in a properly designed system is entirely possible despite incomplete oxidation of the less volatile organic materials in these unstirred tests.

Dhooge, P.M.; Hakim, L.B.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Annual subcontract report, 1 January 1996--31 December 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes Solarex`s accomplishments during this phase of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) program. During this reporting period, Solarex researchers converted 79% of production casting stations to increase ingot size and operated them at equivalent yields and cell efficiencies; doubled the casting capacity at 20% the cost of buying new equipment to achieve the same capacity increase; operated the wire saws in a production mode with higher yields and lower costs than achieved on the ID saws; purchased additional wire saws; developed and qualified a new wire-guide coating material that doubles the wire-guide lifetime and produces significantly less scatter in wafer thickness; ran an Al paste back-surface-field process on 25% of all cells in manufacturing; completed environmental qualification of modules using cells produced by an all-print metallization process; qualified a vendor-supplied Tedlar/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) laminate to replace the combination of separate sheets of EVA and Tedlar backsheet; substituted RTV adhesive for the 3M Very High Bond tape after several field problems with the tape; demonstrated the operation of a prototype unit to trim/lead attach/test modules; demonstrated the use of light soldering for solar cells; demonstrated the operation of a wafer pull-down system for cassetting wet wafers; and presented three PVMaT-related papers at the 25th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference.

Wohlgemuth, J. [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Examination of a Standardized Test for Evaluating the Degree of Cure of EVA Encapsulation: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The curing of cross-linkable encapsulation is a critical consideration for photovoltaic (PV) modules manufactured using a lamination process. Concerns related to ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) include the quality (e.g., expiration and uniformity) of the films or completion (duration) of the cross-linking of the EVA within a laminator. Because these issues are important to both EVA and module manufacturers, an international standard has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the degree of cure for EVA encapsulation. The present draft of the standard calls for the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the rapid, enabling secondary (test) method. Both the residual enthalpy- and melt/freeze-DSC methods are identified. The DSC methods are calibrated against the gel content test, the primary (reference) method. Aspects of other established methods, including indentation and rotor cure metering, were considered by the group. Key details of the test procedure will be described.

Miller, D. C.; Gu, X.; Haldenman, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Malguth, E.; Reid, C. G.; Shioda, T.; Schulze, S. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

INDEPENDENT TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE BUILDING 100 PLUME, FORMER DOE PINELLAS SITE (YOUNG - RAINEY STAR CENTER), LARGO, FLORIDA  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated groundwater associated with Building 100 at the Young-Rainey Science, Technology, and Research Center, formerly the DOE Pinellas plant, is the primary remedial challenge that remains to be addressed at the site. Currently, Building 100 is an active industrial facility that is now owned and operated by the Pinellas county government. Groundwater samples collected from monitoring wells recently installed near the southern boundary of the site suggest that contaminated groundwater has migrated off the plant site. In response to the challenges presented by the Building 100 plume, the Office of Legacy Management (LM) requested assistance from the DOE Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation (EM-32) to provide a review team to make technical recommendations so that they can efficiently and effectively address characterization and remediation of the plume. The review team was unanimous in the conclusion that a dynamic strategy that combines a phased implementation of direct push samplers, sensors, and tools can be used to better delineate the extent of contamination, control plume migration, and rapidly remediate the contaminated groundwater at the site. The initial efforts of the team focused on reviewing the site history and data, organizing the information into a conceptual model, identifying appropriate technologies, and recommending an integrated strategy. The current groundwater data from the site indicate a two-lobed plume extending to the east and south. To the east vinyl chloride is the primary contaminant of concern, to the south, vinyl chloride and cis1, 2-DCE are the primary contaminants. The limited data that are available suggest that reductive dechlorination of the TCE is already occurring but is not sufficient to prevent offsite migration of low concentrations of TCE daughter products. The team recommends that DOE pursue a strategy that builds on the natural cleansing capacity of the subsurface with reductive methods including biostimulation and/or bioaugmentation to provide a sustainable remediation system within the flow path of the plume. Additional data will be required to implement this approach and will include: (1) Better delineation of the nature and extent of contamination; (2) Demonstration the plume is currently stable or shrinking; and (3) Demonstration the full reductive dechlorination is occurring. The technical team recommends that DOE use a phased approach to identify residual contamination and to provide rapid installation of remedies. Matrices of characterization and remediation sensors, technologies, and tools were developed by the team in order to match the specific conditions and requirements of the site. The team provides a specific example of remedy that includes the incorporation of a dynamic characterization strategy moving from minimally invasive to more aggressive field techniques, the consideration of multiple complementary remediation approaches based on a spatiotemporally phased approach keyed to the different demands of different parts of the plume, and the integration and sequencing of the characterization and remediation activities.

Eddy-Dilek, C.; Rossabi, J.; Amidon, M.; Riha, B.; Kaback, D.

2010-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "110-75-8 2-chloroethyl vinyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Interstellar Isomers: The Importance of Bonding Energy Differences  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present strong detections of methyl cyanide, vinyl cyanide, ethyl cyanide and cyanodiacetylene molecules with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) toward the Sgr B2(N) molecular cloud. Attempts to detect the corresponding isocyanide isomers were only successful in the case of methyl isocyanide for its J(K)=1(0)-0(0) transition, which is the first interstellar report of this line. To determine the spatial distribution of methyl isocyanide, we used archival Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA) array data for the J(K)=4(K)-3(K) (K=0-3) transitions but no emission was detected. From ab initio calculations, the bonding energy difference between the cyanide and isocyanide molecules is >8500 cm^-1 (>12,000 K). That we detect methyl isocyanide emission with a single antenna (Gaussian beamsize(Omega_B)=1723 arcsec^2) but not with an interferometer (Omega_B=192 arcsec^2), strongly suggests that methyl isocyanide has a widespread spatial distribution toward the Sgr B2(N) region. Thus, large-scale, non-thermal processes in the surrounding medium may account for the conversion of methyl cyanide to methyl isocyanide while the LMH hot core, which is dominated by thermal processes, does not produce a significant amount of methyl isocyanide. Ice analog experiments by other investigators have shown that radiation bombardment of methyl cyanide can produce methyl isocyanide, thus supporting our observations. We conclude that isomers separated by such large bonding energy differences are distributed in different interstellar environments, making the evaluation of column density ratios between such isomers irrelevant unless it can be independently shown that these species are co-spatial.

Anthony J. Remijan; J. M. Hollis; F. J. Lovas; D. F. Plusquellic; P. R. Jewell

2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

262

Polymer Solidification and Stabilization: Adaptable Processes for Atypical Wastes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vinyl Ester Styrene (VES) and Advanced Polymer Solidification (APS{sup TM}) processes are used to solidify, stabilize, and immobilize radioactive, pyrophoric and hazardous wastes at US Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) sites, and commercial nuclear facilities. A wide range of projects have been accomplished, including in situ immobilization of ion exchange resin and carbon filter media in decommissioned submarines; underwater solidification of zirconium and hafnium machining swarf; solidification of uranium chips; impregnation of depth filters; immobilization of mercury, lead and other hazardous wastes (including paint chips and blasting media); and in situ solidification of submerged demineralizers. Discussion of the adaptability of the VES and APS{sup TM} processes is timely, given the decommissioning work at government sites, and efforts by commercial nuclear plants to reduce inventories of one-of-a-kind wastes. The VES and APS{sup TM} media and processes are highly adaptable to a wide range of waste forms, including liquids, slurries, bead and granular media; as well as metal fines, particles and larger pieces. With the ability to solidify/stabilize liquid wastes using high-speed mixing; wet sludges and solids by low-speed mixing; or bead and granular materials through in situ processing, these polymer will produce a stable, rock-hard product that has the ability to sequester many hazardous waste components and create Class B and C stabilized waste forms for disposal. Technical assessment and approval of these solidification processes and final waste forms have been greatly simplified by exhaustive waste form testing, as well as multiple NRC and CRCPD waste form approvals. (authors)

Jensen, C. [Diversified Technologies Services, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

False negative rate and other performance measures of a sponge-wipe surface sampling method for low contaminant concentrations.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces is known to vary due to sampling methodology, techniques, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. A series of tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge-wipe method. Specific factors evaluated were the effects of contaminant concentrations and surface materials on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD) - and the uncertainties of these quantities. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show a roughly linear dependence of surface roughness on RE, where the smoothest surfaces have the highest mean RE values. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3 x 10{sup -3} to 1.86 CFU/cm{sup 2}). The FNR data were consistent with RE data, showing a trend of smoother surfaces resulting in higher REs and lower FNRs. Stainless steel generally had the lowest mean FNR (0.123) and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD{sub 90} varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm{sup 2} on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. Selecting sampling locations on the basis of surface roughness and using roughness to interpret spore recovery data can improve sampling. Further, FNR values, calculated as a function of concentration and surface material, can be used pre-sampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance, and post-sampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

Einfeld, Wayne; Krauter, Paula A.; Boucher, Raymond M.; Tezak, Mathew; Amidan, Brett G. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA); Piepel, Greg F. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Synthesis and Evaluation of Inexpensive CO2 Thickeners Designed by Molecular Modeling The Synthesis and Evaluation of Inexpensive CO2 Thickeners Designed by Molecular Modeling DE-FC26-04NT15533 Project Goal The goal of this project is to use molecular modeling and experimental results to design inexpensive, environmentally benign, CO2-soluble compounds that can decrease the mobility of CO2 at typical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) reservoir conditions. Performers University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA Yale University, New Haven, CT Background The research group previously formulated the only known CO2 thickener, a (fluoroacrylate-styrene) random copolymer, but this proof-of-concept compound was expensive and environmentally unacceptable because it was fluorous. They then identified the most CO2-soluble, high-molecular-weight, conventional polymer composed solely of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen: poly(vinyl acetate), or PVAc. PVAc could not dissolve at pressures below the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP), however. The current research effort, therefore, was directed at using molecular modeling and experimental tools to design polymers that are far more CO2-soluble than PVAc. The subsequent goal was to incorporate this polymer into a thickening agent that will dissolve in CO2 below the MMP and generate a two- to ten-fold decrease in CO2 mobility at concentrations of 0.01–1.0 percent by weight. Although most of the thickeners envisioned are copolymers, researchers will also evaluated several small hydrogen-bonding agents and surfactants with oligomeric (very short polymer) tails that form viscosity-enhancing structures in solution , and novel CO2 soluble surfactants that may be able to generate foams in situ as they mix with reservoir brine (without the need for the injection of alternating slugs of water).

265

Application of fundamental kinetic modeling to industrial chlorination and partial oxidation processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Fundamental Kinetic Modeling (FKM) method is able to use a growing amount of elementary kinetic rate constant data to simulate industrial reactions and therefore gain insight and predictive capabilities beyond those of traditional empirical kinetic models. Because traditional empirical kinetic models often simplify the underlying kinetics into a single overall reaction, these recently determined values cannot be used directly. In addition to simulating irreducible chemical events as opposed to an overall reaction, the FKM does not make assumptions about microscopic reversibility. To obtain the reverse rate constants, the thermophysical properties for the species are required. Advances in computing technology have made ab initio quantum chemical calculations feasible for oxygenated and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Thermophysical properties for species that cannot be obtained experimentally are now available with greater accuracy than using prior estimating techniques. The FKM method is able to use these values to obtain information about temperature and concentration profiles as well as product distributions and selectivities for a variety of reactor configurations. The application of the FKM method to industrial reactions could be used to optimize existing operating conditions or to predict novel processes. One such chemistry is the oxychlorination of ethane to vinyl chloride. The problem is most easily solved in three steps: the development of a thermal chlorination model, the development of a partial oxidation model, and the combination of the two models with the necessary additional species and reactions. This work focuses on the first two steps. A thermal chlorination model is verified against two sources of experimental data with good quantitative agreement. In addition, differences in product distributions are explained by examining the kinetic pathways. Also, an existing partial oxidation model is combined with newly calculated thermophysical properties. The agreement with two experimental data sources is not as good quantitatively; however, qualitative agreement is observed. Areas for improvement to obtain quantitative agreement are determined.

Han, Joseph Hsiao-Tien

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Predicted concentrations in new relocatable classrooms of volatile organic compounds emitted from standard and alternate interior finish materials  

SciTech Connect

Relocatable classrooms (RCs) are widely employed by California school districts to satisfy rapidly expanding space requirements due to population growth and class size reduction policies. There is public concern regarding indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in schools, particularly in RCs, but very little data to support or dispel these concerns. Several studies are investigating various aspects of IEQ in California schools. This laboratory-based study focused on evaluating the emissions of toxic and/or odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, from materials used to finish the interiors of new RCs. Furthermore, the study implemented a procedure for VOC source reduction by testing and selecting lower-emitting materials as substitutes for standard materials. In total, 17 standard and alternate floor coverings, wall panels and ceiling panels were quantitatively tested for emissions of VOCs using smallscale environmental chambers. Working with the largest northern California manufacturer of conventional RCs and two school districts, specifications were developed for four new RCs to be produced in early summer 2001. Two of these will be predominantly finished with standard materials. Alternate carpet systems, an alternate wall panel covering and an alternate ceiling panel were selected for the two other RCs based on the results of the laboratory study and considerations of cost and anticipated performance and maintenance. Particular emphasis was placed on reducing the concentrations of VOCs on California agency lists of toxic compounds. Indoor concentrations of toxic and odorous VOCs were estimated for the four classrooms by mass balance using the measured VOC emission factors, exposed surface areas of the materials in the RCs, and three ventilation rate scenarios. Results indicate that reductions in the concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde phenol, di(ethylene glycol) butyl ether, vinyl acetate, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone should be achieved as the result of the source reduction procedure.

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Fisk, William J.; Shendell, Derek G.; Apte, Michael G.

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Complete detoxification of short chain chlorinated aliphatic compounds: Isolation of halorespiring organisms and biochemical studies of the dehalogenating enzyme systems. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'Widespread use and careless handling, storage and disposal practices, have lead to the dissemination of chlorinated short chain aliphatics into groundwater systems. These compounds are toxic and the presence of chlorinated ethenes and chlorinated propanes in the environment is of public concern. Halorespiration is a newly recognized anaerobic process by which certain bacteria use chlorinated compounds as terminal electron acceptors in their energy metabolism. In contrast to co-metabolic dechlorination, which is fortuitous, slow, and without benefit to the organisms, halorespiration, characterized by high dechlorination rates, is a specific metabolic process beneficial to the organism. The goals are to isolate and characterize organisms which use chlorinated ethenes (including tetrachloroethene [PCE], trichloroethene [TCE], cis-dichloroethene [cis-DCE], and vinyl chloride [VC], or 1,2-dichloropropane [1,2-D]) as electron acceptors in their energy metabolism. Better understanding of the physiology and phylogeny of the halorespiring organisms as well as the biochemistry of the dehalogenating enzyme systems, will greatly enhance the authors knowledge of how these organisms can successfully be employed in the bioremediation of contaminated sites. This report summarizes the results of 1.5 years of a 2-year project. Anaerobic microcosms were established using a variety of geographically distinct sediments. In several microcosms complete dechlorination of PCE to ethene (ETH), and 1,2-D to propene was observed. Upon subsequent transfers to anaerobic medium, four sediment-free, methanogenic enrichment cultures were obtained that dechlorinated PCE to ETH, and two cultures that dechlorinated 1,2-D to propene. 2-Bromoethanesulfonate (BES), a well known inhibitor of methanogens, did not inhibit the dechlorination of 1,2-D to propene or the dechlorination of PCE to cis-DCE. However, the complete dechlorination of PCE to VC and ETH was severely inhibited. They could also show that BES inhibited the dechlorination of chloroethenes in cultures without methanogens. Therefore, BES should not be used to attribute dechlorination activities to methanogens.'

Tiedje, J.M.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

A general solution-chemistry route to the synthesis LiMPO{sub 4} (M=Mn, Fe, and Co) nanocrystals with [010] orientation for lithium ion batteries  

SciTech Connect

A general and efficient solvothermal strategy has been developed for the preparation of lithium transition metal phosphate microstructures (LiMnPO{sub 4}, LiFePO{sub 4}, and LiCoPO{sub 4}), employing ethanol as the solvent, LiI as the Li source, metal salts as the M sources, H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} as the phosphorus source, and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) as the carbon source and template. This route features low cost, environmental benign, and one-step process for the cathode material production of Li-ion batteries without any complicated experimental setups and sophisticated operations. The as-synthesized LiMPO{sub 4} microstructures exhibit unique, well-shaped and favorable structures, which are self-assembled from microplates or microrods. The b axis is the preferred crystal growth orientation of the products, resulting in a shorter lithium ion diffusion path. The LiFePO{sub 4} microstructures show an excellent cycling stability without capacity fading up to 50 cycles when they are used as a cathode material in lithium-ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: A general and efficient solvothermal strategy has been developed for the preparation of lithium transition metal phosphate microstructures under solvothermal conditions in the presence of PVP. Highlights: > A general and efficient solvothermal strategy has been developed for the preparation of LiMPO{sub 4} microstructures. > This route features low cost, environmental benign, and one-step process. > The LiMPO{sub 4} microstructures exhibit unique, well-shaped, and favorable structures. > The LiFePO{sub 4} microstructures show an excellent cycling stability up to 50 cycles as a cathode material of lithium-ion batteries.

Su Jing [Key Laboratory of Cluster Science, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Chemistry, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wei Bingqing; Rong Jiepeng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Yin Wenyan; Ye Zhixia; Tian Xianqing; Ren Ling [Key Laboratory of Cluster Science, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Chemistry, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Cao Minhua, E-mail: caomh@bit.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Cluster Science, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Chemistry, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Hu Changwen [Key Laboratory of Cluster Science, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Chemistry, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

269

False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method  

SciTech Connect

Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10x10^-3 to 1.86 CFU/cm^2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (>1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm^2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

Krauter, Paula; Piepel, Gregory F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matthew S.; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Adhesion Strength Study of EVA Encapsulants on Glass Substrates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An extensive peel-test study was conducted to investigate the various factors that may affect the adhesion strength of photovoltaic module encapsulants, primarily ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), on glass substrates of various laminates based on a common configuration of glass/encapsulant/backfoil. The results show that"pure" or"absolute" adhesion strength of EVA-to-glass was very difficult to obtain because of tensile deformation of the soft, semi-elastic EVA layer upon pulling. A mechanically"strong enough" backing foil on the EVA was critical to achieving the"apparent" adhesion strength. Peel test method with a 90-degree-pull yielded similar results to a 180-degree-pull. The 90-degree-pull method better revealed the four stages of delamination failure of the EVA/backfoil layers. The adhesion strength is affected by a number of factors, which include EVA type, formulation, backfoil type and manufacturing source, glass type, and surface priming treatment on the glass surface or on the backfoil. Effects of the glass-cleaning method and surface texture are not obvious. Direct priming treatments used in the work did not improve, or even worsened, the adhesion. Aging of EVA by storage over~5 years reduced notably the adhesion strength. Lower adhesion strengths were observed for the blank (unformulated) EVA and non-EVA copolymers, such as poly(ethylene-co-methacrylate) (PEMA) or poly(ethylene-co-butylacrylate) (PEBA). Their adhesion strengths increased if the copolymers were cross-linked. Transparent fluoropolymer superstrates such as TefzelTM and DureflexTM films used for thin-film PV modules showed low adhesion strengths to the EVA at a level of~2 N/mm.

Pern, F. J.; Glick, S. H.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

US/UK second level panel discussions on the health and value of: Ageing and lifetime predictions (u)  

SciTech Connect

Many healthy physics, engineering, and materials exchanges are being accomplished in ageing and lifetime prediction that directly supports US and UK Stockpile Management Programs. Lifetime assessment studies of silicon foams under compression - Joint AWE/LANLlLLNL study of compression set in stress cushions completed. Provides phenomenological prediction out to 50 years. Polymer volatile out-gassing studies - New exchange on the out-gassing of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) using isotopic {sup 13}C labeling studies to interrogate mechanistic processes. Infra-red (IR) gas cell analytical capabilities developed by AWE will be used to monitor polymer out-gassing profiles. Pu Strength ageing Experiments and Constitutive Modeling - In recently compared modeling strategies for ageing effects on Pu yield strength at high strain rates, a US/UK consensus was reached on the general principle that the ageing effect is additive and not multiplicative. The fundamental mechanisms for age-strengthening in Pu remains unknown. Pu Surface and Interface Reactions - (1) US/UK secondment resulted in developing a metal-metal oxide model for radiation damaged studies consistent with a Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) potential; and (2) Joint US/UK collaboration to study the role of impurities in hydride initiation. Detonator Ageing (wide range of activities) - (1) Long-term ageing study with field trials at Pantex incorporating materials from LANL, LLNL, SNL and AWE; (2) Characterization of PETN growth to detonation process; (3) Detonator performance modeling; and (4) Performance fault tree analysis. Benefits are a unified approach to lifetime prediction that Includes: materials characterization and the development of ageing models through improved understanding of the relationship between materials properties, ageing properties and detonator performance.

Castro, Richard G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

272

PVMaT improvements in the manufacturing of the PVI Powergrid{trademark}: Final technical report, 27 October 1997--31 October 1998  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Photovoltaics International, LLC (PVI), is improving the manufacturing of the Powergrid{trademark} under the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) program in five basic areas: development of an advanced, state-of-the-art lens extrusion system; development of an advanced, state-of-the-art module side extrusion system; development of a second generation automated receiver assembly station; development of low-cost roll-formed steel panel frame members; and development of an automated module assembly process with low usage of volatile organic compounds and hazardous materials. The results of the program were as follows: (1) Manufacturing improvements have led to dramatic improvements in performance, quality, durability and cost. (2) The first ever ethylene vinyl acetate encapsulation system for photovoltaic concentrators was developed, thereby eliminating volatile organic compounds and hazardous materials in the encapsulation process. (3) An in-house extrusion system was developed that produces the highest quality cell assemblies at low labor cost. (4) An advanced automated cell assembly station was developed that produces quality cell assemblies at low labor cost. (5) Solvents have been eliminated in the module assembly eliminating volatile organic compounds and hazardous materials. (6) Roll formed steel panel frame members have been introduced to production that have dramatically reduced cost. (7) A snap-together module assembly has been developed that provides low-cost field assembly of components and thereby also greatly reduced shipping cost. The Powergrid has the potential to be very low cost in the short term. The PVI PVMaT program should allow PVI to reach the cost goals set by the company. This, in turn, will allow PVI to become a substantial player in the PV market and will allow the DOE goals of increased application of PV to become a reality.

Kaminar, N.R.; Alexander, T.; Amaya, J.; Bottenberg, W.R.; Carrie, P.; Chen, K.; Hobden, P.; Lawyer, G.; Zimmermann, J.; Sherring, C.

1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

273

Syntheses and applications of soluble polyisobutylene (PIB)-supported transition metal catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soluble polymer supports facilitate the recovery and recycling of expensive transition metal complexes. Recently, polyisobutylene (PIB) oligomers have been found to be suitable polymer supports for the recovery of a variety of transition metal catalysts using liquid/liquid biphasic separations after a homogeneous reaction. Our work has shown that PIB-supported Ni(II) and Co(II) ?-diketonates prepared from commercially available vinyl terminated PIB oligomers possess catalytic activity like that of their low molecular weight analogs in Mukaiyama epoxidation of olefins. Carboxylic acid terminated PIB derivatives can act as carboxylate ligands for Rh(II) cyclopropanation catalysts. An achiral PIB-supported Rh(II) carboxylate catalyst showed good activity in cyclopropanation of styrene in hydrocarbon solvents, and could be easily recycled nine times by a post reaction extraction. Further application of PIB supports in asymmetric cyclopropanation reactions were investigated using PIBsupported arenesulfonyl Rh(II) prolinates derived from L-proline as examples. The PIBsupported chiral Rh carboxylates demonstrated moderate activity and were recovered and reused for four to five cycles. The prolinate catalyst prepared from PIB-anisole also showed encouraging enantioselectivity and about 8% ee and 13% ee were observed on trans- and cis-cyclopropanation product respectively. Finally, PIB oligomers can be modified in a multi step sequence to prepare PIBsupported chiral bisoxazolines that can in turn be used to prepare active, recyclable PIBsupported Cu(I) bisoxazoline complexes for olefin cyclopropanation. These chiral copper catalysts showed moderate catalytic activity and good stereoselectivity in cyclopropanation of styrene. A chiral ligand prepared from D-phenylglycinol provided the most effective stereo control and gave the trans- and cis-cyclopropanation product in 94% ee and 68% ee respectively. All three PIB-supported chiral bisoxazoline-Cu(I) catalysts could be reused five to six times.

Tian, Jianhua

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Solid Silicone Elastomer Material(DC745U)-Historical Overview and New Experimental Results  

SciTech Connect

DC745U is a silicone elastomer used in several weapon systems. DC745U is manufactured by Dow Corning and its formulation is proprietary. Risk changes without notification to the customer. {sup 1}H and {sup 29}Si{l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace} NMR have previously determined that DC745U contains {approx} 98.5% dimethyl siloxane, {approx}1.5% methyl-phenyl siloxane, and a small amount (<1%) of vinyl siloxane repeat units that are converted to crosslinking sites. The polymer is filled with {approx} 38 wt.% of a mixture of fumed silica and quartz. Some conclusions are: (1) DMA shows that crystallization does have an effect on the mechanical properties of DC745U; (2) DMA shows that the crystallization is time and temperature dependent; (3) Mechanical tests show that DC745U undergo a crystalline transition at temperatures below -50 C; (4) Rate and temperature does not have an effect above crystalline transition; (5) Crystalline transition occurs faster at colder temperatures; (6) The material remains responsive and recovers after warming it to temperature above -40 C; (7) We were able to review all previous historical data on DC745U; (8) Identified specific gaps in materials understanding; (9) Developed design of experiments and testing methods to address gaps associated with post-curing and low temperature mechanical behavior; (10) Resolved questions of post-cure and alleviated concerns associated with low temperature mechanical behavior with soak time and temperature; and (11) This work is relevant to mission-critical programs and for supporting programmatic work for weapon research.

Ortiz-Acosta, Denisse [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

275

Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Final Waste Forms (FWF) Technical Area Status Report (TASR) Working Group, the Vitrification Working Group (WG), and the Performance Standards Working Group were established as subgroups to the FWF Technical Support Group (TSG). The FWF TASR WG is comprised of technical representatives from most of the major DOE sites, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the EPA Office of Solid Waste, and the EPA`s Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). The primary activity of the FWF TASR Working Group was to investigate and report on the current status of FWFs for LLNM in this TASR. The FWF TASR Working Group determined the current status of the development of various waste forms described above by reviewing selected articles and technical reports, summarizing data, and establishing an initial set of FWF characteristics to be used in evaluating candidate FWFS; these characteristics are summarized in Section 2. After an initial review of available information, the FWF TASR Working Group chose to study the following groups of final waste forms: hydraulic cement, sulfur polymer cement, glass, ceramic, and organic binders. The organic binders included polyethylene, bitumen, vinyl ester styrene, epoxy, and urea formaldehyde. Section 3 provides a description of each final waste form. Based on the literature review, the gaps and deficiencies in information were summarized, and conclusions and recommendations were established. The information and data presented in this TASR are intended to assist the FWF Production and Assessment TSG in evaluating the Technical Task Plans (TTPs) submitted to DOE EM-50, and thus provide DOE with the necessary information for their FWF decision-making process. This FWF TASR will also assist the DOE and the MWIP in establishing the most acceptable final waste forms for the various LLMW streams stored at DOE facilities.

Mayberry, J.L.; DeWitt, L.M. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Darnell, R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Suncatcher and cool pool. Project report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Suncatcher is a simple, conical solar concentrating device that captures light entering clerestory windows and directs it onto thermal storage elements at the back of a south facing living space. The cone shape and inclination are designed to capture low angle winter sunlight and to reflect away higher angle summer sunlight. It is found that winter radiation through a Suncatcher window is 40 to 50% higher than through an ordinary window, and that the average solar fraction is 59%. Water-filled steal culvert pipes used for thermal storage are found to undergo less stratification, and thus to be more effective, when located where sunlight strikes the bottom rather than the top. Five Suncatcher buildings are described. Designs are considered for 32/sup 0/, 40/sup 0/ and 48/sup 0/ north latitude, and as the latitude increases, the inclination angle of the cone should be lowered. The Cool Pool is an evaporating, shaded roof pond which thermosiphons cool water into water-filled columns within a building. Preliminary experiments indicate that the best shade design has unimpeded north sky view, good ventilation, complete summer shading, a low architectural profile, and low cost attic vent lowers work. Another series of experiments established the satisfactory performance of the Cool Pool on a test building using four water-filled cylinders, two cylinders, and two cylinders connected to the Cool Pool through a heat exchanger. Although an unshaded pool cools better at night than a shaded one, daytime heat gain far offsets this advantage. A vinyl waterbag heat exchanger was developed for use with the Cool Pool. (LEW)

Hammond, J.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Synthesis of UV-absorbing carrier ampholytes for characterization of isoelectric membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Isoelectric focusing is one of the most important techniques in protein separations. Preparative-scale isoelectric separations often use buffering membranes (isoelectric membranes), but there are no good known methods for the characterization of their pI values. Therefore, UV-absorbing carrier ampholyte mixtures (UVCAs) have been synthesized, analytically characterized, and utilized for the characterization of the pI value of a buffering membrane. To synthesize the UVCAs, addition of a UV-absorbing electrophile, 3-phenoxypropyl bromide (PhOPrBr), to a pentaethylenehexamine (PEHA) carrier ampholyte backbone, resulted in an intermediate that was subsequently reacted with increasing amounts of acrylic acid (up to 8 equiv) and itaconic acid (up to 2 equiv) via Michael�s addition. The intermediates and final products were characterized by 1H-NMR and full-column imaging capillary isoelectric focusing techniques. An optimal blended mixture of selected UVCAs was first desalted and purified by isoelectric trapping and its composition verified by full-column imaging isoelectric focusing. The mixture of UVCAs possessed a broad pI distribution from approximately pH 3 � 10. By isoelectric trapping, the mixture was separated into two subfractions with a polyacrylamide-based isoelectric membrane of known pI as the separation membrane and poly(vinyl) alcohol-based buffering membranes as the restriction membranes. The pI of the most basic UV-active carrier ampholyte in the anodic fraction was determined to be 4.4 and the pI of the most acidic UV-active carrier ampholyte in the cathodic fraction was determined to be 4.4, confirming that the pH of the polyacrylamide-based isoelectric membrane was pH 4.4.

Hwang, Ann

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Large-scale controllable synthesis of dumbbell-like BiVO{sub 4} photocatalysts with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity  

SciTech Connect

The controllable synthesis of novel dumbbell-like BiVO{sub 4} hierarchical nanostructures has been successfully obtained via a simple hydrothermal route. The as-synthesized products were studied by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the nucleation and growth of the nanodumbbells were governed by an oriented aggregation growth mechanism. It is noteworthy that the concentration of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) and the volume ratio of H{sub 2}O to CH{sub 3}COOH were crucial to the growth of the final nanoarchitectures. Control experiments were also carried out to investigate the factors which impact on the morphology of the products. Furthermore, the as-prepared BiVO{sub 4} hierarchical nanostructures demonstrated the superior visible-light-driven photocatalytic efficiency, which is helpful for the separation and recycle considering their promising applications in harmful pollutants disposal. - Graphical Abstract: The controllable synthesis of novel dumbbell-like BiVO{sub 4} hierarchical nanostructures has been successfully obtained via a simple hydrothermal route; the as-prepared BiVO{sub 4} hierarchical nanostructures demonstrated the superior visible-light-driven photocatalytic efficiency. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dumbbell-like BiVO{sub 4} structures were synthesized and characterized for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The volume ratios of H{sub 2}O to CH{sub 3}COOH were crucial to the final morphologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Their photocatalytic activity was up to 90% under visible-light irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dumbbell-like BiVO{sub 4} structures may utilize the pollutant disposal.

Lu Yang [Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China); Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Luo Yongsong, E-mail: ysluo@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China); Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Kong Dezhi; Zhang Deyang; Jia Yonglei; Zhang Xinwei [Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

279

Thermal decomposition of CH{sub 3}CHO studied by matrix infrared spectroscopy and photoionization mass spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A heated SiC microtubular reactor has been used to decompose acetaldehyde and its isotopomers (CH{sub 3}CDO, CD{sub 3}CHO, and CD{sub 3}CDO). The pyrolysis experiments are carried out by passing a dilute mixture of acetaldehyde (roughly 0.1%-1%) entrained in a stream of a buffer gas (either He or Ar) through a heated SiC reactor that is 2-3 cm long and 1 mm in diameter. Typical pressures in the reactor are 50-200 Torr with the SiC tube wall temperature in the range 1200-1900 K. Characteristic residence times in the reactor are 50-200 {mu}s after which the gas mixture emerges as a skimmed molecular beam at a pressure of approximately 10 {mu}Torr. The reactor has been modified so that both pulsed and continuous modes can be studied, and results from both flow regimes are presented. Using various detection methods (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and both fixed wavelength and tunable synchrotron radiation photoionization mass spectrometry), a number of products formed at early pyrolysis times (roughly 100-200 {mu}s) are identified: H, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}, CO, CH{sub 2}=CHOH, HC{identical_to}CH, H{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 2}=C=O; trace quantities of other species are also observed in some of the experiments. Pyrolysis of rare isotopomers of acetaldehyde produces characteristic isotopic signatures in the reaction products, which offers insight into reaction mechanisms that occur in the reactor. In particular, while the principal unimolecular processes appear to be radical decomposition CH{sub 3}CHO (+M) {yields} CH{sub 3}+ H + CO and isomerization of acetaldehyde to vinyl alcohol, it appears that the CH{sub 2}CO and HCCH are formed (perhaps exclusively) by bimolecular reactions, especially those involving hydrogen atom attacks.

Vasiliou, AnGayle K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215 (United States); National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Piech, Krzysztof M.; Reed, Beth; Ellison, G. Barney [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215 (United States); Zhang Xu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109-8099 (United States); Nimlos, Mark R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Ahmed, Musahid; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg [Chemical Sciences Division, LBNL MS 6R-2100, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Osborn, David L. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 969 MS 9055, Livermore, California 94551-0969 (United States); David, Donald E. [Integrated Instrument Design Facility, CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0216 (United States); Urness, Kimberly N.; Daily, John W. [Center for Combustion and Environmental Research, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0427 (United States); Stanton, John F. [Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2012-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

280

Measuring the structure of thin soft matter films under confinement: A surface-force type apparatus for neutron reflection, based on a flexible membrane approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A unique surface force type apparatus that allows the investigation of a confined thin film using neutron reflection is described. The central feature of the setup consists of a solid substrate (silicon) and a flexible polymer membrane (Melinex{sup Registered-Sign }). We show that inflation of the membrane against the solid surface provides close and even contact between the interfaces over a large surface area. Both heavy water and air can be completely squeezed out from between the flexible film and the solid substrate, leaving them in molecular contact. The strength of confinement is controlled by the pressure used to inflate the membrane. Dust provides a small problem for this approach as it can get trapped between membrane and substrate to prevent a small part of the membrane from making good contact with the substrate. This results in the measured neutron reflectivity containing a small component of an unwanted reflection, between 10% and 20% at low confining pressures (1 bar) and between 1% and 5% at high confining pressures (5 bar). However, we show that this extra signal does not prevent good and clear information on the structure of thin films being extracted from the neutron reflectivity. The effects of confinement are illustrated with data from a poly(vinyl pyrollidone) gel layer in water, a polyelectrolyte multilayer in water, and with data from a stack of supported lipid-bilayers swollen with D{sub 2}O vapor. The data demonstrates the potential of this apparatus to provide information on the structure of thin films under confinement for a known confining pressure.

Vos, Wiebe M. de [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's close, BS8 1TS Bristol (United Kingdom); School of Physics, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, BS8 1TL Bristol (United Kingdom); Mears, Laura L. E.; Richardson, Robert M. [School of Physics, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, BS8 1TL Bristol (United Kingdom); Cosgrove, Terence; Prescott, Stuart W. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's close, BS8 1TS Bristol (United Kingdom); Dalgliesh, Robert M. [ISIS Neutron Source, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "110-75-8 2-chloroethyl vinyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Expensive Moisture/Insulation System Problems at Several Central Florida and South Texas Nursing Homes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

These nursing homes were designed and built in the 80's and 90's. They experienced similar design and construction deficiencies and expensive repairs. Some of the issues to be discussed in this paper are the interactions of architectural and HVAC shortcomings that result in a synergistic increase in mold, mildew, corrosion and rot. ASHRAE 62 requires 24 hour per day toilet exhaust and fresh air. What do you do to control humidity when the A/C duty cycles when the thermostat is satisfied? There needs to be humidity control designed into the HVAC system. Architects and contractors frequently take a "head in the sand" approach to wall and attic vapor barriers. This needs to be looked at realistically. We have seen several nursing homes whose moisture/sheet rock damage was severe due to design defects that allowed free interchange of hot humid air between the attic and the space inside interior partitions. Allowing air interchange between the attic and outdoors: can cause overheating of water in pipes in attics where temperaturs reach 150° F. increases condensation due to inadequate details in mechanical insulation on ducts and pipes Vinyl wall covering is well known to be a disaster in this climate but interior decorators continue to specify it on various walls. HVAC balance needs to be considered. Frequently the kitchen exhaust design is not coordinated with the HVAC engineer. There needs to be a reasonable balance between air in and air out of the building. When air is allowed to flow through the insulation system R value is reduced to near 0. In order to prevent mold and mildew and expensive failures, along with even more expensive lawsuits, the HVAC system design and the insulation system design must be integrated.

Lotz, W. A.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Second annual report  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe second year efforts in synthesis, characterization, and rheology to develop polymers with significantly improved efficiency in mobility control and conformance. These advanced polymer systems would maintain high viscosities or behave as virtual gels under low shear conditions and at elevated electrolyte concentrations. At high fluid shear rates, associates would deaggregate yielding low viscosity solutions, reducing problems of shear degradation or face plugging during injection. Polymeric surfactants were also developed with potential for use in higher salt, higher temperature reservoirs for mobilization of entrapped oil. Chapters include: Ampholytic terpolymers of acrylamide with sodium 3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanetrimethylammonium chloride; Hydrophilic sulfobetaine copolymers of acrylamide and 3-(2-acrylamido-methylpropane-dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate; Copolymerization of maleic anhydride and N-vinylformamide; Reactivity ratio of N-vinylformamide with acrylamide, sodium acrylate, and n-butyl acrylate; Effect of the distribution of the hydrophobic cationic monomer dimethyldodecyl(2-acrylamidoethyl)ammonium bromide on the solution behavior of associating acrylamide copolymers; Effect of surfactants on the solution properties of amphipathic copolymers of acrylamide and N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecyl-N-(2-acrylamidoethyl)ammonium bromide; Associative interactions and photophysical behavior of amphiphilic terpolymers prepared by modification of maleic anhydride/ethyl vinyl ether copolymers; Copolymer compositions of high-molecular-weight functional acrylamido water-soluble polymers using direct-polarization magic-angle spinning {sup 13}C NMR; Use of factorial experimental design in static and dynamic light scattering characterization of water soluble polymers; and Porous medium elongational rheometer studies of NaAMB/AM copolymer solutions.

McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Semiannual technical report, 1 January 1996--30 June 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two specific objectives of Solarex`s program are to reduce the manufacturing cost for polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic modules to less than $1.20/watt and to increase the manufacturing capacity by a factor of three. This report highlights accomplishments during the period of January 1 through June 30, 1996. Accomplishments include: began the conversion of production casting stations to increase ingot size; operated the wire saw in a production mode with higher yields and lower costs than achieved on the ID saws; developed and qualified a new wire guide coating material that doubles the wire guide lifetime and produces significantly less scatter in wafer thickness; completed a third pilot run of the cost-effective Al paste back-surface-field (BSF) process, verifying a 5% increase in cell efficiency and demonstrating the ability to process and handle the BSF paste cells; completed environmental qualification of modules using cells produced by an all-print metallization process; optimized the design of the 15.2-cm by 15.2-cm polycrystalline silicon solar cells; demonstrated the application of a high-efficiency process in making 15.2-cm by 15.2-cm solar cells; demonstrated that cell efficiency increases with decreasing wafer thickness for the Al paste BSF cells; qualified a vendor-supplied Tedlar/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) laminate to replace the combination of separate sheets of EVA and Tedlar backsheet; demonstrated the operation of a prototype unit to trim/lead attach/test modules; and demonstrated the operation of a wafer pull-down system for cassetting wet wafers.

Wohlgemuth, J. [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Kinetics of thermal de-chlorination of PVC under pyrolytic conditions  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several tests were performed in DTA/TGA for understanding the thermal behavior of pure PVC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We did a kinetic model for the de-chlorination of PVC molecule. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A temperature of 340 Degree-Sign C was defined as the optimum temperature for breaking the bond of chlorine in the PVC molecule. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The experimental validation of this temperature, led to a removal rate of 99.9% chlorine. - Abstract: Although PVC-containing wastes are an important potential source of energy they are frequently disposed in landfill. In thermal treatment processes such as pyrolysis and gasification, the presence of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), a compound with 56.7% of chlorine, may cause problems concerned with environmental protection, as consequence of the formation of hydrochloric acid, chlorine gas and dioxins, as well as corrosion phenomena of the reactor/equipment materials. Thus, a possible solution may involve a previous removal of the chlorine from PVC containing waste through a pyrolysis process at low temperatures before the material being submitted to a subsequent thermal treatment, for energetic valorization. In this work, a kinetic model for the thermal decomposition of PVC has been developed, in view of its de-chlorination. DTA/TGA testing at different temperatures indicated a first order reaction and an activation energy of 133,800 J/mol. An almost completed de-chlorination reaction was obtained at 340 Degree-Sign C under an inert atmosphere. The resulted material is a C{sub n}H{sub n} type polymer with potential to be used in an energy recovery process. Validation test performed at laboratory scale indicate that the temperature of 340 Degree-Sign C enables the removal of {approx}99.9% of the chlorine present in PVC. The chloride can be fixed in the form of an aqueous solution of HCl or calcium chloride, driving to an alternative full process with environmental benefits and reduction of the costs associated to the PCV - containing materials/wastes management.

Castro, Alexandra, E-mail: acastro@cvresiduos.pt [CVR - Centro para a Valorizacao de Residuos (Center for Waste Valorization), Guimaraes (Portugal); CT2M - Centre for Mechanical and Materials Technologies, Mechanical Engineering Department of Minho University, Guimaraes (Portugal); Soares, Delfim; Vilarinho, Candida; Castro, Fernando [CT2M - Centre for Mechanical and Materials Technologies, Mechanical Engineering Department of Minho University, Guimaraes (Portugal)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Preparation and Characterization of Paints and Coatings from Soy and Corn Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project was highly successful. A series of new waterborne polyurethane (PU)/acrylic hybrid latexes were successfully synthesized by the emulsion polymerization of acrylic monomers (butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate) in the presence of a soybean oil-based waterborne PU dispersion using potassium persulfate as an initiator. The waterborne PU dispersion was synthesized by a polyaddition reaction of toluene 2,4-diisocyanate and a soybean oil-based polyol (SOL). The resulting hybrid latexes, containing 15-60 wt % SOL as a renewable resource, are very stable and exhibit uniform particle sizes of {approx}125 nm as determined by transmittance electronic microscopy. The structure, thermal, and mechanical properties of the resulting hybrid latex films have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solid state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, extraction, and mechanical testing. Grafting copolymerization of the acrylic monomers onto the PU network occurs during the emulsion polymerization, leading to a significant increase in the thermal and mechanical properties of the resulting hybrid latexes. This work provides a new way of utilizing renewable resources to prepare environmentally friendly hybrid latexes with high performance for coating applications. In addition, a novel soybean oil-based vinyl-containing waterborne polyurethane (VPU) dispersion has been successfully synthesized from toluene 2,4-diisocyanate, dimethylol propionic acid and a 90:10 mixture of chlorinated soybean oil-based polyol and acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO). Then, a series of VPU/acrylic grafted latexes were prepared by emulsion graft copolymerization of acrylic monomers (40 wt% butyl acrylate and 60 wt% methyl methacrylate) in the presence of the VPU dispersion using potassium persulfate as an initiator. The structure, morphology, and thermal and mechanical properties of the resulting latexes, containing 15-60 wt% soybean oil-based polyols as a renewable resource, were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solid state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis and mechanical testing. The results indicated that graft copolymerization of the acrylic monomers onto the VPU network occurs during emulsion polymerization, leading to a significant increase in the thermal stability and mechanical properties of the resulting miscible grafted latexes. This work provides new environmentally-friendly latexes from a renewable resource with high performance for coating applications.

Larock, Richard C.

2009-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

286

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sixteen previously occupied temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess emissions of volatile organic compounds. The whole trailer emission factors wereevaluated for 36 VOCs including formaldehyde. Indoor sampling was carried out in the THUs located in Purvis staging yard in Mississippi, USA. Indoor temperature andrelative humidity (RH) were also measured in all the trailers during sampling. Indoor temperatures were varied (increased or decreased) in a selection of THUs using theheating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Indoor temperatures during sampling ranged from 14o C to 33o C, and relative humidity (RH) varied between 35percentand 74percent. Ventilation rates were increased in some trailers using bathroom fans and vents during some of the sampling events. Ventilation rates measured during some aselection of sampling events varied from 0.14 to 4.3 h-1. Steady state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 10 mu g-m-3 to 1000 mu g-m-3. The formaldehyde concentrations in the trailers were of toxicological significance. The effects of temperature, humidity and ventilation rates were also studied. A linearregression model was built using log of percentage relative humidity, inverse of temperature (in K-1), and inverse log ACH as continuous independent variables, trailermanufacturer as a categorical independent variable, and log of the chemical emission factors as the dependent variable. The coefficients of inverse temperature, log relativehumidity, log inverse ACH with log emission factor were found to be statistically significant for all the samples at the 95percent confidence level. The regression model wasfound to explain about 84percent of the variation in the dependent variable. Most VOC concentrations measured indoors in the Purvis THUs were mostly found to be belowvalues reported in earlier studies by Maddalena et al.,1,2 Hodgson et al.,3 and Hippelein4. Emissions of TMPB-DIB (a plasticizer found in vinyl products) were found to be higher than values reported in comparable housing by Hodgson et al.,3. Emissions of phenol were also found to be slightly higher than values reported in earlier studies1,2,3. This study can assist in retrospective formaldehyde exposure assessments of THUs where estimates of the occupants indoor formaldehyde exposures are needed.

Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Apte, Michael G.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Dosimetric measurements of Onyx embolization material for stereotactic radiosurgery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Arteriovenous malformations are often treated with a combination of embolization and stereotactic radiosurgery. Concern has been expressed in the past regarding the dosimetric properties of materials used in embolization and the effects that the introduction of these materials into the brain may have on the quality of the radiosurgery plan. To quantify these effects, the authors have taken large volumes of Onyx 34 and Onyx 18 (ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer doped with tantalum) and measured the attenuation and interface effects of these embolization materials. Methods: The manufacturer provided large cured volumes ({approx}28 cc) of both Onyx materials. These samples were 8.5 cm in diameter with a nominal thickness of 5 mm. The samples were placed on a block tray above a stack of solid water with an Attix chamber at a depth of 5 cm within the stack. The Attix chamber was used to measure the attenuation. These measurements were made for both 6 and 16 MV beams. Placing the sample directly on the solid water stack and varying the thickness of solid water between the sample and the Attix chamber measured the interface effects. The computed tomography (CT) numbers for bulk material were measured in a phantom using a wide bore CT scanner. Results: The transmission through the Onyx materials relative to solid water was approximately 98% and 97% for 16 and 6 MV beams, respectively. The interface effect shows an enhancement of approximately 2% and 1% downstream for 16 and 6 MV beams. CT numbers of approximately 2600-3000 were measured for both materials, which corresponded to an apparent relative electron density (RED) {rho}{sub e}{sup w} to water of approximately 2.7-2.9 if calculated from the commissioning data of the CT scanner. Conclusions: We performed direct measurements of attenuation and interface effects of Onyx 34 and Onyx 18 embolization materials with large samples. The introduction of embolization materials affects the dose distribution of a MV therapeutic beam, but should be of negligible consequence for effective thicknesses of less than 8 mm. The measured interface effects are also small, particularly at 6 MV. Large areas of high-density artifacts and low-density artifacts can cause errors in dose calculations and need to be identified and resolved during planning.

Roberts, Donald A.; Balter, James M.; Chaudhary, Neeraj; Gemmete, Joseph J.; Pandey, Aditya S. [Radiation Physics Division, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Division of Neurointerventional Radiology, Departments of Radiology and Neurosurgery, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Division of Neurointerventional Radiology, Departments of Radiology, Neurosurgery, and Otolaryngology, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

288

Blade System Design Study. Part II, final project report (GEC).  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Wind Speed Turbine program, Global Energy Concepts LLC (GEC)1 has studied alternative composite materials for wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt size range. This work in one of the Blade System Design Studies (BSDS) funded through Sandia National Laboratories. The BSDS program was conducted in two phases. In the Part I BSDS, GEC assessed candidate innovations in composite materials, manufacturing processes, and structural configurations. GEC also made recommendations for testing composite coupons, details, assemblies, and blade substructures to be carried out in the Part II study (BSDS-II). The BSDS-II contract period began in May 2003, and testing was initiated in June 2004. The current report summarizes the results from the BSDS-II test program. Composite materials evaluated include carbon fiber in both pre-impregnated and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) forms. Initial thin-coupon static testing included a wide range of parameters, including variation in manufacturer, fiber tow size, fabric architecture, and resin type. A smaller set of these materials and process types was also evaluated in thin-coupon fatigue testing, and in ply-drop and ply-transition panels. The majority of materials used epoxy resin, with vinyl ester (VE) resin also used for selected cases. Late in the project, testing of unidirectional fiberglass was added to provide an updated baseline against which to evaluate the carbon material performance. Numerous unidirectional carbon fabrics were considered for evaluation with VARTM infusion. All but one fabric style considered suffered either from poor infusibility or waviness of fibers combined with poor compaction. The exception was a triaxial carbon-fiberglass fabric produced by SAERTEX. This fabric became the primary choice for infused articles throughout the test program. The generally positive results obtained in this program for the SAERTEX material have led to its being used in innovative prototype blades of 9-m and 30-m length, as well as other non-wind related structures.

Griffin, Dayton A. (DNV Global Energy Concepts Inc., Seattle, WA)

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Side-by-Side Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the PNNL Lab Homes  

SciTech Connect

To examine the energy, air leakage, and thermal performance of highly insulating windows, a field evaluation was undertaken in a matched pair of all-electric, factory-built “Lab Homes” located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in Richland, Washington. The “baseline” Lab Home B was retrofitted with “standard” double-pane clear aluminum-frame slider windows and patio doors, while the “experimental” Lab Home A was retrofitted with Jeld-Wen® triple-pane vinyl-frame slider windows and patio doors with a U-factor of 0.2 and solar heat gain coefficient of 0.19. To assess the window, the building shell air leakage, energy use, and interior temperatures of each home were compared during the 2012 winter heating and summer cooling seasons. The measured energy savings in Lab Home B averaged 5,821 watt-hours per day (Wh/day) during the heating season and 6,518 Wh/day during the cooling season. The overall whole-house energy savings of Lab Home B compared to Lab Home A are 11.6% ± 1.53% for the heating season and 18.4 ± 2.06% for the cooling season for identical occupancy conditions with no window coverings deployed. Extrapolating these energy savings numbers based on typical average heating degree days and cooling degree days per year yields an estimated annual energy savings of 12.2%, or 1,784 kWh/yr. The data suggest that highly insulating windows are an effective energy-saving measure that should be considered for high-performance new homes and in existing retrofits. However, the cost effectiveness of the measure, as determined by the simple payback period, suggests that highly insulating window costs continue to make windows difficult to justify on a cost basis alone. Additional reductions in costs via improvements in manufacturing and/or market penetration that continue to drive down costs will make highly insulating windows much more viable as a cost-effective energy efficiency measure. This study also illustrates that highly insulating windows have important impacts on peak load, occupant comfort, and condensation potential, which are not captured in the energy savings calculation. More consistent and uniform interior temperature distributions suggest that highly insulated windows, as part of a high performance building envelope, may enable more centralized duct design and downsized HVAC systems. Shorter, more centralized duct systems and smaller HVAC systems to yield additional cost savings, making highly insulating windows more cost effective as part of a package of new construction or retrofit measures which achieve significant reductions in home energy use.

Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.; Bauman, Nathan N.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Scaleable production and separation of fermentation-derived acetic acid. Final CRADA report.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Half of U.S. acetic acid production is used in manufacturing vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) and is economical only in very large production plants. Nearly 80% of the VAM is produced by methanol carbonylation, which requires high temperatures and exotic construction materials and is energy intensive. Fermentation-derived acetic acid production allows for small-scale production at low temperatures, significantly reducing the energy requirement of the process. The goal of the project is to develop a scaleable production and separation process for fermentation-derived acetic acid. Synthesis gas (syngas) will be fermented to acetic acid, and the fermentation broth will be continuously neutralized with ammonia. The acetic acid product will be recovered from the ammonium acid broth using vapor-based membrane separation technology. The process is summarized in Figure 1. The two technical challenges to success are selecting and developing (1) microbial strains that efficiently ferment syngas to acetic acid in high salt environments and (2) membranes that efficiently separate ammonia from the acetic acid/water mixture and are stable at high enough temperature to facilitate high thermal cracking of the ammonium acetate salt. Fermentation - Microbial strains were procured from a variety of public culture collections (Table 1). Strains were incubated and grown in the presence of the ammonium acetate product and the fastest growing cultures were selected and incubated at higher product concentrations. An example of the performance of a selected culture is shown in Figure 2. Separations - Several membranes were considered. Testing was performed on a new product line produced by Sulzer Chemtech (Germany). These are tubular ceramic membranes with weak acid functionality (see Figure 3). The following results were observed: (1) The membranes were relatively fragile in a laboratory setting; (2) Thermally stable {at} 130 C in hot organic acids; (3) Acetic acid rejection > 99%; and (4) Moderate ammonia flux. The advantages of producing acetic acid by fermentation include its appropriateness for small-scale production, lower cost feedstocks, low energy membrane-based purification, and lower temperature and pressure requirements. Potential energy savings of using fermentation are estimated to be approximately 14 trillion Btu by 2020 from a reduction in natural gas use. Decreased transportation needs with regional plants will eliminate approximately 200 million gallons of diesel consumption, for combined savings of 45 trillion Btu. If the fermentation process captures new acetic acid production, savings could include an additional 5 trillion Btu from production and 7 trillion Btu from transportation energy.

Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

291

Photovoltaic manufacturing technology (PVMaT). Semiannual subcontract report, March 31, 1994--September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The following highlights key findings from this reporting period: while {open_quotes}standard cure{close_quotes} A9918P ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulant, laminated between low iron glass, shows significant yellowing after 17 weeks in a xenon-arc Weather-Ometer, {open_quotes}neat{close_quotes} EVA with no additives shows little or no yellowing after the same exposure; when similar laminates were prepared and exposed in the Weather-Ometer, using A9918P with the Lupersol 101 crosslinker removed from the encapsulant, color development after 10 weeks was reduced by approximately 2/3. This result strongly implicates Lupersol 101 in the discoloration of EVA encapsulant; similar Weather-Ometer aging studies of other laminates, prepared using EVA with various combinations of the A9918P additives, suggests that EVA discoloration arises primarily from Naugard P and an interaction of Lupersol 101 with Cyasorb UV-531. Transformation products of these additives appear to be giving rise to yellowing, rather than the Elvax 3185 resin itself; when Lupersol TBEC was substituted for Lupersol 101 in the encapsulant (i.e. {open_quotes}fast cure{close_quotes} 15295P formulation rather than the {open_quotes}standard cure{close_quotes} A9918P), the rate of yellowing was reduced by a factor of approximately 2.5; use of a cerium-oxide containing low-iron glass superstrate reduced the rate of yellowing of A9918P EVA by approximately 75%. When laminates were prepared and exposed using 15295P EVA and cerium-oxide containing glass superstrate, there was no visible yellowing. Analytical results show no measurable loss of acetic acid from very browned, field-aged EVA and no evidence of conjugated unsaturation; analysis also reveals the loss of Cyasorb UV-531 in both field-aged and laboratory U.V. aged samples, but only in the presence of Lupersol 101. This result supports the finding of an interaction of Lupersol 101 with UV-531 as contributing to color formation in the presence of U.V.

Holley, W.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS ? FINAL REPORT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four unoccupied FEMA temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess their indoor emissions of volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde. Measurement of whole-THU VOC and aldehyde emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of floor area) for each of the four THUs were made at FEMA's Purvis MS staging yard using a mass balance approach. Measurements were made in the morning, and again in the afternoon in each THU. Steady-state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 378 mu g m-3 (0.31ppm) to 632 mu g m-3 (0.52 ppm) in the AM, and from 433 mu g m-3 (0.35 ppm) to 926 mu g m-3 (0.78 ppm) in the PM. THU air exchange rates ranged from 0.15 h-1 to 0.39 h-1. A total of 45 small (approximately 0.025 m2) samples of surface material, 16 types, were collected directly from the four THUs and shipped to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The material samples were analyzed for VOC and aldehyde emissions in small stainless steel chambers using a standard, accurate mass balance method. Quantification of VOCs was done via gas chromatography -- mass spectrometry and low molecular weight aldehydes via high performance liquid chromatography. Material specific emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of material) were quantified. Approximately 80 unique VOCs were tentatively identified in the THU field samples, of which forty-five were quantified either because of their toxicological significance or because their concentrations were high. Whole-trailer and material specific emission factors were calculated for 33 compounds. The THU emission factors and those from their component materials were compared against those measured from other types of housing and the materials used in their construction. Whole THU emission factors for most VOCs were typically similar to those from comparative housing. The three exceptions were exceptionally large emissions of formaldehyde and TMPD-DIB (a common plasticizer in vinyl products), and somewhat elevated for phenol. Of these three compounds, formaldehyde was the only one with toxicological significance at the observed concentrations. Whole THU formaldehyde emissions ranged from 173 to 266 mu g m-2 h 1 in the morning and 257 to 347 mu g m-2 h-1 in the afternoon. Median formaldehyde emissions in previously studied site-built and manufactured homes were 31 and 45 mu g m-2 h-1, respectively. Only one of the composite wood materials that was tested appeared to exceed the HUD formaldehyde emission standard (430 mu g/m2 h-1 for particleboard and 130 mu g/m2 h-1 for plywood). The high loading factor (material surface area divided by THU volume) of composite wood products in the THUs and the low fresh air exchange relative to the material surface area may be responsible for the excessive concentrations observed for some of the VOCs and formaldehyde.

Salazar, Olivia; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Apte, Michael G.

2008-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

293

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Technologies Reference Shelf - Presentation on  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Increasing the Viscosity of CO2 to Improve EOR Performance Increasing the Viscosity of CO2 to Improve EOR Performance Increasing the Viscosity of CO2 to Improve EOR Performance Authors: D. Xing, NETL; R. Erick, NETL and University of Pittsburgh Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering; K. Trickett, J. Eastoe, M. Hollamby, and K.Mutch, Bristol University School of Chemistry; S. Rogers and R. Heenan, ISIS STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, UK; and D. Steytler, University of East Anglia School of Chemical Sciences, Norwich, UK. Venue: May 20, 2009, ISASF-ENSIC 9th International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids, Bordeaux, France, May 18-20, 2009. http://www.issf2009.cnrs.fr/ [external site] Abstract: About 1.5 billion standard cubic feet of CO2 is injected into US oil fields each day, resulting in the recovery of about 200,000 barrels per day of oil, but the low viscosity of CO2 results in viscous fingering and poor volumetric sweep efficiency. If the viscosity of dense CO2 could be increased by a factor of 2-20, much less CO2 would be required to recover the oil. Further, there would be no need for the injection of alternating slugs of water into the reservoir to reduce the relative permeability of the CO2. Researchers have identified two polymeric thickeners for CO2: a fluoroacrylate-styrene copolymer and a vinyl acetate-styrene copolymer. They have also hypothesized that it is possible to increase the viscosity (thicken) dense, high-pressure CO2 via the self-assembly of CO2-soluble surfactants into rod-like micelles. Three semi-fluorinated surfactants have been synthesized in order to test this concept; one with a monovalent cation and a single twin-tail, Na+1((COOCH2C4F8H)2CH2CHSO3)-1, and two with a divalent cation and two twin-tails, Ni+2(((COOCH2C4F8H)2CH2CHSO3)-1)2 and Co+2(((COOCH2C4F8H)2CH2CHSO3)-1)2. Phase behavior results indicate that all three surfactants are soluble to at least 5 wt% in CO2 at 295K and pressures less than 20 MPa. SANS results indicate that only the surfactants with divalent metal ions and two twin tails form cylindrical micelles in CO2. No viscosity enhancement was detected for the surfactant with the monovalent cation. Falling cylinder viscometry results will illustrate the degree of “CO2 thickening” that was achieved by the formation of rod-like micelles at relatively high shear rates. The mobility of the surfactant solution flowing through Berea sandstone was also provided to determine the effectiveness of the thickener at extremely low shear rates characteristic of enhanced oil recovery projects. The performance of the copolymeric and surfactant thickeners will be compared. The strategy for the development of CO2-soluble non-fluorous surfactants capable of forming rod-like micelles will also be presented.

294

Formaldehyde and Other Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions in Four FEMA  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Formaldehyde and Other Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions in Four FEMA Formaldehyde and Other Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions in Four FEMA Temporary Housing Units Title Formaldehyde and Other Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions in Four FEMA Temporary Housing Units Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Maddalena, Randy L., Marion L. Russell, Douglas P. Sullivan, and Michael G. Apte Journal Environmental Science and Technology Volume 43 Start Page Chapter Pagination 5626-5632 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Four unoccupied FEMA temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess their indoor emissions of volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde. Measurement of whole-THUVOC and aldehyde emission factors (µg h-1 per m2 of floor area) for each of the four THUs were made at FEMA's Purvis MS staging yard using a mass balance approach. Measurements were made in the morning, and again in the afternoon in each THU. Steady-state indoor formaldehydeconcentrations ranged from 378 µg m-3 (0.31ppm) to 632 µg m-3 (0.52 ppm) in the AM, and from 433 µg m-3 (0.35 ppm) to 926 µg m-3 (0.78 ppm) in the PM. THU air exchange rates ranged from 0.15 h-1 to 0.39 h-1. A total of 45 small (approximately 0.025 m2) samples of surface material, 16 types, were collected directly from the four THUs and shipped to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The material samples were analyzed for VOC and aldehyde emissions in small stainless steel chambers using a standard, accurate mass balance method. Quantification of VOCs was done via gas chromatography - mass spectrometry and low molecular weight aldehydes via high performance liquid chromatography. Material specific emission factors (µg h-1 per m2 of material) were quantified. Approximately 80 unique VOCs were tentatively identified in the THU field samples, of which forty-five were quantified either because of their toxicological significance or because their concentrations were high. Whole-trailer and materialspecific emission factors were calculated for 33 compounds. The THU emission factors and those from their component materials were compared against those measured from other types of housing and the materials used in their construction. Whole THU emission factors for most VOCs were typically similar to those from comparative housing. The three exceptions were exceptionally large emissions of formaldehyde and TMPD-DIB (a common plasticizer in vinyl products), and somewhat elevated for phenol. Of these three compounds, formaldehyde was theonly one with toxicological significance at the observed concentrations. Whole THU formaldehyde emissions ranged from 173 to 266 µg m-2 h-1 in the morning and 257 to 347 µg m-2 h-1 in the afternoon. Median formaldehyde emissions in previously studied site-built and manufactured homes were 31 and 45 µg m-2 h-1, respectively. Only one of the composite wood materials that was tested appeared to exceed the HUD formaldehyde emission standard (430 µg/m2 h-1 for particleboard and 130 µg/m2 h-1 for plywood). The high loading factor (materialsurface area divided by THU volume) of composite wood products in the THUs and the low fresh air exchange relative to the material surface area may be responsible for the excessive concentrations observed for some of the VOCs and formaldehyde

295

Novel Approaches to Immobilized Heteropoly Acid Systems for High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Polymer-Type Membranes - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Original research was carried out at the CSM and the 3M Company from March 2007 through September 2011. The research was aimed at developing new to the world proton electrolyte materials for use in hydrogen fuel cells, in particular with high proton conductivity under hot and dry conditions (>100mS/cm at 120°C and 50%RH). Broadly stated, the research at 3M and between 3M and CSM that led to new materials took place in two phases: In the first phase, hydrocarbon membranes that could be formed by photopolymerization of monomer mixtures were developed for the purpose of determining the technical feasibility of achieving the program's Go/No-Go decision conductivity target of >100mS/cm at 120°C and 50%RH. In the second phase, attempts were made to extend the achieved conductivity level to fluorinated material systems with the expectation that durability and stability would be improved (over the hydrocarbon material). Highlights included: Multiple lots of an HPA-immobilized photocurable terpolymer derived from di-vinyl-silicotungstic acid (85%), n-butyl acrylate, and hexanediol diacrylate were prepared at 3M and characterized at 3M to exhibit an initial conductivity of 107mS/cm at 120°C and 47%RH (PolyPOM85v) using a Bekktech LLC sample fixture and TestEquity oven. Later independent testing by Bekktech LLC, using a different preheating protocol, on the same material, yielded a conductivity value of approximately 20mS/cm at 120°C and 50%RH. The difference in measured values is likely to have been the result of an instability of properties for the material or a difference in the measurement method. A dispersed catalyst fuel cell was fabricated and tested using a 150Ľm thick HPA-based photocurable membrane (above, PolyPOM75v), exhibiting a current density of greater than 300mA/cm2 at 0.5V (H2/Air 800/1800sccm 70°C/75%RH ambient outlet pressure). Multiple lots of a co-polymer based on poly-trifluorovinylether (TFVE) derived HPA were synthesized and fabricated into films, Generation II films. These materials showed proton conductivities as high as 1 S/cm under high RH conditions. However, the materials suffered from compromised properties due to impure monomers and low molecular weights. Multiple lots of an HPA-immobilized fluoropolymer derived from preformed PVDF-HFP (Generation III films) were synthesized and formed into membranes at 3M and characterized at 3M to exhibit conductivity reaching approximately 75mS/cm at 120°C/40%RH using a Bekktech sample fixture and TestEquity oven (optimized membrane, at close of program). Initial fuel cell fabrication and testing for this new class of membrane yielded negative results (no measureable proton conductivity); however, the specific early membrane that was used for the two 5cm2 MEAs was later determined to have <1 mS/cm at 80°C/80%RH using the Bekktech fixture, vs. ca. 200 mS/cm at 80°C/80%RH for samples of the later-optimized type described above. Future work in this area (beyond the presently reported contract) should include additional attempts to fabricate and test fuel cells based on the later-optimized Generation II and III polymer. A manufacturing study was performed which predicted no difficulties in any future scale up of the materials.

Herring, Andrew M; Horan, James L; Aieta, Niccolo V; Sachdeva, Sonny; Kuo, Mei-Chen; Ren, Hui; Lingutla, Anitha; Emery, Michael; Haugen, Gregory M; Yandrasits, Michael A; Sharma, Neeraj; Coggio, William D; Hamrock, Steven J; Frey, Matthew H

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

296

Experimental Design for a Sponge-Wipe Study to Relate the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to the Concentration of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate for Six Surface Materials  

SciTech Connect

Two concerns were raised by the Government Accountability Office following the 2001 building contaminations via letters containing Bacillus anthracis (BA). These included the: 1) lack of validated sampling methods, and 2) need to use statistical sampling to quantify the confidence of no contamination when all samples have negative results. Critical to addressing these concerns is quantifying the probability of correct detection (PCD) (or equivalently the false negative rate FNR = 1 ? PCD). The PCD/FNR may depend on the 1) method of contaminant deposition, 2) surface concentration of the contaminant, 3) surface material being sampled, 4) sample collection method, 5) sample storage/transportation conditions, 6) sample processing method, and 7) sample analytical method. A review of the literature found 17 laboratory studies that focused on swab, wipe, or vacuum samples collected from a variety of surface materials contaminated by BA or a surrogate, and used culture methods to determine the surface contaminant concentration. These studies quantified performance of the sampling and analysis methods in terms of recovery efficiency (RE) and not PCD/FNR (which left a major gap in available information). Quantifying the PCD/FNR under a variety of conditions is a key aspect of validating sample and analysis methods, and also for calculating the confidence in characterization or clearance decisions based on a statistical sampling plan. A laboratory study was planned to partially fill the gap in PCD/FNR results. This report documents the experimental design developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for a sponge-wipe method. The study will investigate the effects on key response variables from six surface materials contaminated with eight surface concentrations of a BA surrogate (Bacillus atrophaeus). The key response variables include measures of the contamination on test coupons of surface materials tested, contamination recovered from coupons by sponge-wipe samples, RE, and PCD/FNR. The experimental design involves 16 test runs, to be performed in two blocks of eight runs. Three surface materials (stainless steel, vinyl tile, and ceramic tile) were tested in the first block, while three other surface materials (plastic, painted wood paneling, and faux leather) will be tested in the second block. The eight surface concentrations of the surrogate were randomly assigned to test runs within each block. Some of the concentrations will be very low and may present challenges for deposition, sampling, and analysis. However, such tests are needed to investigate RE and PCD/FNR over the full range of concentrations of interest. In each run, there will be 10 test coupons of each of the three surface materials. A positive control sample will be generated prior to each test sample. The positive control results will be used to 1) calculate RE values for the wipe sampling and analysis method, and 2) fit RE- and PCD-concentration equations, for each of the six surface materials. Data analyses will support 1) estimating the PCD for each combination of contaminant concentration and surface material, 2) estimating the surface concentrations and their uncertainties of the contaminant for each combination of concentration and surface material, 3) estimating RE (%) and their uncertainties for each combination of contaminant concentration and surface material, 4) fitting PCD-concentration and RE-concentration equations for each of the six surface materials, 5) assessing goodness-of-fit of the equations, and 6) quantifying the uncertainty in PCD and RE predictions made with the fitted equations.

Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Krauter, Paula; Einfeld, Wayne

2010-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

297

Evaluation of Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) forIndoor Air Applications: Conversion of Volatile Organic Compounds at LowPart-per-Billion Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

Efficient removal of indoor generated airborne particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in office buildings and other large buildings may allow for a reduction in outdoor air supply rates with concomitant energy savings while still maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in these buildings. Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaners have the potential to achieve the necessary reductions in indoor VOC concentrations at relatively low cost. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted with a scaled, prototype UVPCO device designed for use in a duct system. The experimental UVPCO contained two 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths coated with titanium dioxide and 3% by weight tungsten oxide. The monoliths were irradiated with 12 UVC lamps arranged in four banks. The UVPCO was challenged with four mixtures of VOCs typical of mixtures encountered in indoor air. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A cleaning product mixture contained three cleaning products with high market shares. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. A fourth mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady-state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} environmental chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate air samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor section. Concentrations of the mixtures were manipulated, with concentrations of individual VOCs mostly maintained below 10 ppb. Device flow rates were varied between 165 and 580 m{sup 3}/h. Production of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, formic acid, and acetic acid as reaction products was investigated. Conversion efficiency data were generated for 48 individual VOCs or groups of closely related compounds. Alcohols and glycol ethers were the most reactive chemical classes with conversion efficiencies often near or above 70% at the low flow rate and near 40% at the high flow rate. Ketones and terpene hydrocarbons were somewhat less reactive. The relative VOC conversion rates are generally favorable for treatment of indoor air since many contemporary products used in buildings employ oxygenated solvents. A commercial UVPCO device likely would be installed in the supply air stream of a building and operated to treat both outdoor and recirculated air. Assuming a recirculation rate comparable to three times the normal outdoor air supply rate, simple mass-balance modeling suggests that a device with similar characteristics to the study unit has sufficient conversion efficiencies for most VOCs to compensate for a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply without substantially impacting indoor VOC concentrations. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, formic acid, and acetic acid were produced in these experiments as reaction byproducts. No other significant byproducts were observed. A coupled steady-state mass balance model is presented and applied to VOC data from a study of a single office building. For the operating assumptions described above, the model estimated a three-fold increase in indoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations. The outcome of this limited assessment suggests that evaluation of the potential effects of the operation of a UVPCO device on indoor concentrations of these contaminants is warranted. Other suggested studies include determining VOC conversion efficiencies in actual buildings and evaluating changes in VOC conversion efficiency as monoliths age with long-term operation.

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

298

Parametric Evaluation of an Innovative Ultra-Violet PhotocatalyticOxidation (UVPCO) Air Cleaning Technology for Indoor Applications  

SciTech Connect

An innovative Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaning technology employing a semitransparent catalyst coated on a semitransparent polymer substrate was evaluated to determine its effectiveness for treating mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) representative of indoor environments at low, indoor-relevant concentration levels. The experimental UVPCO contained four 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths irradiated with nine UVA lamps arranged in three banks. A parametric evaluation of the effects of monolith thickness, air flow rate through the device, UV power, and reactant concentrations in inlet air was conducted for the purpose of suggesting design improvements. The UVPCO was challenged with three mixtures of VOCs. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. The third mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single-pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor. Thirteen experiments were conducted in total. In this UVPCO employing a semitransparent monolith design, an increase in monolith thickness is expected to result in general increases in both reaction efficiencies and absolute reaction rates for VOCs oxidized by photocatalysis. The thickness of individual monolith panels was varied between 1.2 and 5 cm (5 to 20 cm total thickness) in experiments with the office mixture. VOC reaction efficiencies and rates increased with monolith thickness. However, the analysis of the relationship was confounded by high reaction efficiencies in all configurations for a number of compounds. These reaction efficiencies approached or exceeded 90% for alcohols, glycol ethers, and other individual compounds including d-limonene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane. This result implies a reaction efficiency of about 30% per irradiated monolith face, which is in agreement with the maximum efficiency for the system predicted with a simulation model. In these and other experiments, the performance of the system for highly reactive VOCs appeared to be limited by mass transport of reactants to the catalyst surface rather than by photocatalytic activity. Increasing the air flow rate through the UVPCO device decreases the residence time of the air in the monoliths and improves mass transfer to the catalyst surface. The effect of gas velocity was examined in four pairs of experiments in which the air flow rate was varied from approximately 175 m{sup 3}/h to either 300 or 600 m{sup 3}/h. Increased gas velocity caused a decrease in reaction efficiency for nearly all reactive VOCs. For all of the more reactive VOCs, the decrease in performance was less, and often substantially less, than predicted based solely on residence time, again likely due to mass transfer limitations at the low flow rate. The results demonstrate that the UVPCO is capable of achieving high conversion efficiencies for reactive VOCs at air flow rates above the base experimental rate of 175 m{sup 3}/h. The effect of UV power was examined in a series of experiments with the building product mixture in which the number of lamps was varied between nine and three. For the most reactive VOCs in the mixture, the effects of UV power were surprisingly small. Thus, even with only one lamp in each section, there appears to be sufficient photocatalytic activity to decompose most of the mass of reactive VOCs that reach the catalyst surface. For some less reactive VOCs, the trend of decreasing efficiency with decreasing UV intensity was in general agreement with simulation model predictions.

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

299

Experimental Design for a Sponge-Wipe Study to Relate the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to the Concentration of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate for Six Surface Materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two concerns were raised by the Government Accountability Office following the 2001 building contaminations via letters containing Bacillus anthracis (BA). These included the: 1) lack of validated sampling methods, and 2) need to use statistical sampling to quantify the confidence of no contamination when all samples have negative results. Critical to addressing these concerns is quantifying the false negative rate (FNR). The FNR may depend on the 1) method of contaminant deposition, 2) surface concentration of the contaminant, 3) surface material being sampled, 4) sample collection method, 5) sample storage/transportation conditions, 6) sample processing method, and 7) sample analytical method. A review of the literature found 17 laboratory studies that focused on swab, wipe, or vacuum samples collected from a variety of surface materials contaminated by BA or a surrogate, and used culture methods to determine the surface contaminant concentration. These studies quantified performance of the sampling and analysis methods in terms of recovery efficiency (RE) and not FNR (which left a major gap in available information). Quantifying the FNR under a variety of conditions is a key aspect of validating sample and analysis methods, and also for calculating the confidence in characterization or clearance decisions based on a statistical sampling plan. A laboratory study was planned to partially fill the gap in FNR results. This report documents the experimental design developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for a sponge-wipe method. The testing was performed by SNL and is now completed. The study investigated the effects on key response variables from six surface materials contaminated with eight surface concentrations of a BA surrogate (Bacillus atrophaeus). The key response variables include measures of the contamination on test coupons of surface materials tested, contamination recovered from coupons by sponge-wipe samples, RE, and FNR. The experimental design involves 16 test runs, performed in two blocks of eight runs. Three surface materials (stainless steel, vinyl tile, and ceramic tile) were tested in the first block, while three other surface materials (plastic, painted wood paneling, and faux leather) were tested in the second block. The eight surface concentrations of the surrogate were randomly assigned to test runs within each block. Some of the concentrations were very low and presented challenges for deposition, sampling, and analysis. However, such tests are needed to investigate RE and FNR over the full range of concentrations of interest. In each run, there were 10 test coupons of each of the three surface materials. A positive control sample was generated at the same time as each test sample. The positive control results will be used to 1) calculate RE values for the wipe sampling and analysis method, and 2) fit RE- and FNR-concentration equations, for each of the six surface materials. Data analyses will support 1) estimating the FNR for each combination of contaminant concentration and surface material, 2) estimating the surface concentrations and their uncertainties of the contaminant for each combination of concentration and surface material, 3) estimating RE (%) and their uncertainties for each combination of contaminant concentration and surface material, 4) fitting FNR-concentration and RE-concentration equations for each of the six surface materials, 5) assessing goodness-of-fit of the equations, and 6) quantifying the uncertainty in FNR and RE predictions made with the fitted equations.

Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Krauter, Paula; Einfeld, Wayne

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Final Report, "Molecular Design of Hydrocarbon Oxidation Catalytic Processes"  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of this project had been to use model systems to correlate selectivities in partial oxidation catalysis with the presence of specific sites on the surface of the catalyst. Extensive work was performed this year on characterizing oxygen-treated nickel surfaces by chemical means. Specifically, the surface chemistry of ammonia coadsorbed with atomic oxygen on Ni(110) single-crystal surfaces was studied by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was determined that at intermediate oxygen coverages direct ammonia adsorption on nickel sites is suppressed, but a new high-temperature reaction regime is generated at 400 K where NHx surface fragments are rehydrogenated concurrently with the production of water and molecular hydrogen. The extensive isotope scrambling and hydrogen transfer seen from nitrogen- to oxygen-containing surface intermediates, and the optimum yields seen for this 400 K state at intermediate oxygen coverages, strongly suggest the direct interaction of the adsorbed ammonia with oxygen atoms at the end of the –Ni–O- rows that form upon reconstruction of the surface. Hydrogen transfer between ammonia and oxygen appears to take place directly via hydrogen bonding, and to be reversible but biased towards water formation. An equilibrium is reached between the produced water and the reacting surface oxygen and hydrogen. The strong influence of the OH surface groups on the thermal chemistry of the adsorbed ammonia was interpreted in terms of the adsorbing geometry of the OH groups on the surface, and of hydrogen bonding between adsorbed OH and NH3 species. In terms of alcohol reactivity, the adsorption of 2-iodoethanol, a precursor for the preparation of 2-hydroxyethyl and oxametallacycle surface species, was found to lead to two configurations involving either just the iodine atom or both iodine and hydroxyl ends of the molecule. A complex chemical behavior starts around 140 K with the production of small amounts of ethylene and water, most likely via the concerted decomposition or disproportionation of the adsorbed molecular species. The bulk of the 2-iodoethanol decomposes at about 150 K via an initial carbon-iodine scission to form –O(H)CH2CH2– (~80%) and 2-hydroxyethyl (~20%) intermediates. Two competing reactions are involved with the subsequent conversion of the 2-hydroxyethyl species around 160 K, a reductive elimination with surface hydrogen to yield ethanol, and a ?-H elimination to surface vinyl alcohol. The –O(H)CH2CH2–, on the other hand, dehydrogenates to a –OCH2CH2– oxametallacycle species about the same temperature. Both 2-hydroxyethyl and oxametallacycle species tautomerize to acetaldehyde, around 210 K and above 250 K, respectively, and some of that acetaldehyde desorbs while the rest decomposes to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. We contend that a better understanding of the surface chemistry of oxygen-containing surfaces can lead to better selectivities in catalysis. This is arguably the most important issue in the field of catalysis in the near future, and one that impacts several technologies of interest to DOE such as the manufacturing of speciality chemicals and the control and removal of pollutants. Additional work was performed on the characterization of the chemistry of methyl and methylene adsorbed species on oxygen-treated nickel surfaces. Complex chemistry was observed involving not only hydrogenation and dehydrogenation steps, but also C-C couplings and methylene insertions to produce heavier hydrocarbons, and oxygen insertion reactions that yield oxygenates. Finally, a dual titration technique employing xenon and a chemically sensitive probe was developed to identify minority catalytic sites on oxide surfaces. In the case of oxygen-treated Ni(110) single crystals, it was found that both hydrogen transfer with adsorbed water or ammonia and certain hydrocarbon hydrogenation reactions take place at the end of the –Ni–O rows that form in this system. Carbon and nitrogen oxides, on the other hand, display no pre

Professor Francisco Zaera

2007-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "110-75-8 2-chloroethyl vinyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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Novel Simulated moving bed technologies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cellulose and hemicellulose from plants and other biomass can be hydrolyzed to produce sugars (i.e. glucose and xylose). Once these sugars are separated from other impurities, they can serve as feedstock in fermentation to produce ethanol (as fuels), lactic acid, or other valuable chemicals. The need for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass has become abundantly clear over the last decade. However, the cost of producing fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate using existing technology is relatively high and has been a major obstacle. The objective of this project is to develop an efficient and economical simulated moving bed (SMB) process to recover fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate. Sulfuric acid can hydrolyze the cellulose and hemicellulose in biomass to sugars, but this process can generate byproducts such as acetic acid, and can lead to further degradation of the xylose to furfural and glucose to hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Also, lignin and other compounds in the biomass will degrade to various phenolic compounds. If the concentrations of these compounds exceed certain threshold levels, they will be toxic to the downstream fermentation, and will severely limit the usefulness of the derived sugars. Standard post-hydrolysis processing involves neutralization of sulfuric acid, usually with lime (calcium hydroxide). A study by Wooley et al.showed that the limed hydrolyzate gave a low ethanol yield in fermentation test (20% of theoretical yield compared to 77% of theoretical yield from fermentation of pure sugars). They showed that instead of adding lime, an ion exclusion chromatography process could be used to remove acids, as well as to isolate the sugars from the biomass hydrolyzate. In this project, we investigated the feasibility of developing an economical SMB process based on (1) a polymeric adsorbent, Dowex99, which was used by Wooley et al., (2) a second polymeric adsorbent, poly-4-vinyl pyridine (or PVP in short, Reilly Industries Inc., Indianapolis, IN), which has been used for organic acid separations, and (3) an activated carbon adsorbent. The adsorption isotherms and mass transfer parameters of the two polymeric adsorbents were estimated using single-component pulse tests and frontal tests. The parameters were then validated using batch elution chromatography test of a corn-stover hydrolyzate, which was provided gratis by NREL. The sugars recovered in batch chromatography were then fermented using yeast developed at Dr. Ho's LORRE laboratory. A standard mixture of pure sugars and an overlimed corn-stover hydrolyzate were fermented using the same procedure simultaneously. The fermentability of the overlimed hydrolyzate was the worst, and that of the sugars recovered using the PVP column was similar to that of the pure sugar mixture. The sugars recovered using the Dowex99 column had an intermediate fermentability. Since the sugars were the ''center cut'' in the Dowex99 column, a tandem SMB (two SMB's in series) design was needed to obtain sugars of high purity. By contrast, sugars were the fast-moving components in the PVP column, and only a single SMB was needed to recover sugars from the hydrolyzate. The impurities, such as sulfuric acid, acetic acid, HMF, and furfural, had higher affinities for PVP. Caustic regeneration was needed to efficiently remove these impurities from PVP. Therefore, a five-zone SMB, which includes a regeneration zone and a reequilibration zone, was developed. The isotherms and mass transfer parameters estimated from batch chromatography experiments were used in the design of SMB processes. A Standing Wave Design method was developed for the five-zone SMB and the tandem SMB. Cost analysis was carried out based on the resulting operating conditions. The analysis showed that the PVP five-zone SMB process was more economical than the Dowex99 tandem SMB process. The cost analysis also showed that elution and equipment costs are dominant for the Dowex99 SMB and the regeneration cost is dominant (60%) for the PVPSMB. Both the cost analysis and the fermentatio

Purdue University

2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z