National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for 100-watt high pressure

  1. Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator Test results for low and high temperature thermoelectric...

  2. Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Test results for low and high temperature thermoelectric generators (TEG) those for a 530-watt BiTe TEG; design and construction of a 100-watt high temperature TEG currently in fabrication.

  3. Sandia Energy - High Pressure Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Pressure Chemistry Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Combustion Chemistry Combustion Kinetics High Pressure Chemistry High Pressure ChemistryAshley...

  4. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  5. High pressure melt ejection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, W.W.; Brockmann, J.E.; Pilch, M.

    1983-01-01

    Recent probabilistic risk assessments have identified the potential for reactor pressure vessel failure while the reactor coolant system is at elevated pressure. The analyses postulate that the blowdown of steam and hydrogen into the reactor cavity will cause the core material to be swept from the cavity region into the containment building. The High Pressure Melt Streaming (HIPS) program is an experimental study of the high pressure ejection of molten material and subsequent interactions within a concrete cavity. The program focuses on using prototypic system conditions and scaled models of reactor geometries to accurately simulate the ex-vessel processes during high-pressure accident sequences. Scaling analyses of the experiment show that the criteria established for core debris removal from the cavity are met or exceeded. Tests are performed at two scales, representing 1/10th and 1/20th linear reproductions of the Zion reactor plant. Results of the 1/20th scale tests are presented.

  6. High pressure counterflow CHF.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walkush, Joseph Patrick

    1975-01-01

    This is a report of the experimental results of a program in countercurrent flow critical heat flux. These experiments were performed with Freon 113 at 200 psia in order to model a high pressure water system. An internally ...

  7. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  8. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  9. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  10. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  11. High pressure storage vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Qiang

    2013-08-27

    Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

  12. Steam Oxidation at High Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL; Carney, Casey [URS

    2013-07-19

    A first high pressure test was completed: 293 hr at 267 bar and 670{degrees}C; A parallel 1 bar test was done for comparison; Mass gains were higher for all alloys at 267 bar than at 1 bar; Longer term exposures, over a range of temperatures and pressures, are planned to provide information as to the commercial implications of pressure effects; The planned tests are at a higher combination of temperatures and pressures than in the existing literature. A comparison was made with longer-term literature data: The short term exposures are largely consistent with the longer-term corrosion literature; Ferritic steels--no consistent pressure effect; Austenitic steels--fine grain alloys less able to maintain protective chromia scale as pressure increases; Ni-base alloys--more mass gains above 105 bar than below. Not based on many data points.

  13. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

  14. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  15. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.

    2003-06-03

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based system. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  16. High pressure ceramic joint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA); Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA)

    1993-01-01

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  17. High pressure ceramic joint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, M.E.; Harkins, B.D.

    1993-11-30

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 4 figures.

  18. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bean, Vern E. (Frederick, MD); Long, Frederick G. (Ijamsville, MD)

    1984-01-01

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  19. High pressure and high temperature apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voronov, Oleg A.

    2005-09-13

    A design for high pressure/high temperature apparatus and reaction cell to achieve .about.30 GPa pressure in .about.1 cm volume and .about.100 GPa pressure in .about.1 mm volumes and 20-5000.degree. C. temperatures in a static regime. The device includes profiled anvils (28) action on a reaction cell (14, 16) containing the material (26) to be processed. The reaction cell includes a heater (18) surrounded by insulating layers and screens. Surrounding the anvils are cylindrical inserts and supporting rings (30-48) whose hardness increases towards the reaction cell. These volumes may be increased considerably if applications require it, making use of presses that have larger loading force capability, larger frames and using larger anvils.

  20. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Markey, J.K.

    1989-11-14

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0 to 30 C. 2 figs.

  1. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Markey, John K. (New Haven, CT)

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0.degree. to 30.degree. C.

  2. Electokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic system having no moving parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force and for manipulating fluids. Electro-osmotic flow is used to provide a valve and means to compress a fluid or gas in a capillary-based system. By electro-osmotically moving an electrolyte between a first position opening communication between a fluid inlet and outlet and a second position closing communication between the fluid inlet and outlet the system can be configured as a valve. The system can also be used to generate forces as large as 2500 psi that can be used to compress a fluid, either a liquid or a gas.

  3. Method of producing a high pressure gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Zollinger, William T.

    2006-07-18

    A method of producing a high pressure gas is disclosed and which includes providing a container; supplying the container with a liquid such as water; increasing the pressure of the liquid within the container; supplying a reactant composition such as a chemical hydride to the liquid under pressure in the container and which chemically reacts with the liquid to produce a resulting high pressure gas such as hydrogen at a pressure of greater than about 100 pounds per square inch of pressure; and drawing the resulting high pressure gas from the container.

  4. High-pressure microhydraulic actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosier, Bruce P. (San Francisco, CA) [San Francisco, CA; Crocker, Robert W. (Fremont, CA) [Fremont, CA; Patel, Kamlesh D. (Dublin, CA) [Dublin, CA

    2008-06-10

    Electrokinetic ("EK") pumps convert electric to mechanical work when an electric field exerts a body force on ions in the Debye layer of a fluid in a packed bed, which then viscously drags the fluid. Porous silica and polymer monoliths (2.5-mm O.D., and 6-mm to 10-mm length) having a narrow pore size distribution have been developed that are capable of large pressure gradients (250-500 psi/mm) when large electric fields (1000-1500 V/cm) are applied. Flowrates up to 200 .mu.L/min and delivery pressures up to 1200 psi have been demonstrated. Forces up to 5 lb-force at 0.5 mm/s (12 mW) have been demonstrated with a battery-powered DC-DC converter. Hydraulic power of 17 mW (900 psi@ 180 uL/min) has been demonstrated with wall-powered high voltage supplies. The force and stroke delivered by an actuator utilizing an EK pump are shown to exceed the output of solenoids, stepper motors, and DC motors of similar size, despite the low thermodynamic efficiency.

  5. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-08

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  6. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-26

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  7. High-Pressure Hydrogen Tank Testing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Many types of compressed hydrogen tanks have been certified worldwide and demonstrated in several prototype fuel cell vehicles. The following information discusses high-pressure hydrogen tank...

  8. Development of novel high pressure instrumentation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiao

    2015-06-29

    piston-cylinder type high pressure cells were developed for high-pressure chemistry studies. These cells were designed to pressurise large amount of liquid sample (particular for water-based sample) up to 800 MPa in a controllable manner. Each design...

  9. Portable high precision pressure transducer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piper, Thomas C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Marchant, Norman J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bolton, Steven M. (Pocatello, ID)

    1994-01-01

    A high precision pressure transducer system for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum florescent display.

  10. Portable high precision pressure transducer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piper, T.C.; Morgan, J.P.; Marchant, N.J.; Bolton, S.M.

    1994-04-26

    A high precision pressure transducer system is described for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum fluorescent display. 2 figures.

  11. Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam Low-pressure process steam requirements are usually met by throttling high- pressure steam, but a portion of the...

  12. High-pressure studies of ammonia hydrates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Craig W.

    2014-06-28

    Ammonia and water are major components of many planetary bodies, from comets and icy moons such as Saturn's Titan to the interiors of the planets Neptune and Uranus. Under a range of high pressures and/or low temperatures known ...

  13. High-pressure synthesis of electronic materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penny, George B. S.

    2010-01-01

    High-pressure techniques have become increasingly important in the synthesis of ceramic and metallic solids allowing the discovery of new materials with interesting properties. In this research dense solid oxides have ...

  14. High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells track 3: enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) | geothermal 2015 peer review Complete FiberCopper Cable Solution for...

  15. High pressure ceramic heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkins, B.D.; Ward, M.E.

    1998-09-22

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a strengthening reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the strengthening reinforcing member. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 5 figs.

  16. High pressure ceramic heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA); Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a strengthening reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the strengthening reinforcing member. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  17. High pressure ceramic heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA); Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the reinforcing member and having a strengthening member wrapped around the refractory material. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  18. DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE High Pressure Laminar Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE High Pressure Laminar Burning Velocity Measurements S. P data Cellularity Real residuals Results Future plans High Pressure Laminar Burning Velocity temperature 725 K High Pressure Laminar Burning Velocity Measurements October 27, 2008 Page 3 #12;System

  19. High pressure, high current, low inductance, high reliability sealed terminals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; McKeever, John W. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-03-23

    The invention is a terminal assembly having a casing with at least one delivery tapered-cone conductor and at least one return tapered-cone conductor routed there-through. The delivery and return tapered-cone conductors are electrically isolated from each other and positioned in the annuluses of ordered concentric cones at an off-normal angle. The tapered cone conductor service can be AC phase conductors and DC link conductors. The center core has at least one service conduit of gate signal leads, diagnostic signal wires, and refrigerant tubing routed there-through. A seal material is in direct contact with the casing inner surface, the tapered-cone conductors, and the service conduits thereby hermetically filling the interstitial space in the casing interior core and center core. The assembly provides simultaneous high-current, high-pressure, low-inductance, and high-reliability service.

  20. High pressure chemistry of substituted acetylenes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chellappa, Raja; Dattelbaum, Dana; Sheffield, Stephen; Robbins, David

    2011-01-25

    High pressure in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments were performed on substituted polyacetylenes: tert-butyl acetylene [TBA: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-C{triple_bond}CH] and ethynyl trimethylsilane [ETMS: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-Si{triple_bond}CH] to investigate pressure-induced chemical reactions. The starting samples were the low temperature crystalline phases which persisted metastably at room temperature and polymerized beyond 11 GPa and 26 GPa for TBA and ETMS respectively. These reaction onset pressures are considerably higher than what we observed in the shockwave studies (6.1 GPa for TBA and 6.6 GPa for ETMS). Interestingly, in the case of ETMS, it was observed with fluid ETMS as starting sample, reacts to form a semi-crystalline polymer (crystalline domains corresponding to the low-T phase) at pressures less than {approx}2 GPa. Further characterization using vibrational spectroscopy is in progress.

  1. High pressure water jet mining machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barker, Clark R. (Rolla, MO)

    1981-05-05

    A high pressure water jet mining machine for the longwall mining of coal is described. The machine is generally in the shape of a plowshare and is advanced in the direction in which the coal is cut. The machine has mounted thereon a plurality of nozzle modules each containing a high pressure water jet nozzle disposed to oscillate in a particular plane. The nozzle modules are oriented to cut in vertical and horizontal planes on the leading edge of the machine and the coal so cut is cleaved off by the wedge-shaped body.

  2. A University Consortium on High Pressure, Lean Combustion for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Pressure, Lean Combustion for Efficient and Clean IC Engines (UM - lead, MIT, UCB) A University Consortium on High Pressure, Lean Combustion for Efficient and Clean IC Engines...

  3. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with BackpressureTurbine...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    high-pressure boilers with backpressure turbine-generators as part of optimized steam systems. STEAM TIP SHEET 22 Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure...

  4. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators When specifying a new boiler, consider a high-pressure boiler with a backpressure steam turbine-generator placed...

  5. BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Presented at the 2007...

  6. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  7. High pressure injection of dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glensvig, M.; Sorenson, S.C.; Abata, D.

    1996-12-31

    Partially oxygenated hydrocarbons produced from natural gas have been shown to be viable alternate fuels for the diesel engine, showing favorable combustion characteristics similar to that of diesel fuel but without exhaust particulates and with significantly reduced NO{sub x} emissions and lower engine noise. Further, engine studies have demonstrated that such compounds, like dimethyl ether (DME), can be injected at much lower pressures than conventional diesel fuel with better overall performance. This experimental study compares the injection of DME to that of conventional diesel fuel. Both fuels were injected into a quiescent high pressure chamber containing Nitrogen at pressures up to 25 atmospheres at room temperature with a pintle nozzle and jerk pump. Comparisons were obtained with high speed photography using a Hycam camera. Results indicate that there are significant differences in spray geometry and penetration which are not predictable with analytical models currently used for diesel fuels.

  8. Viscosities of natural gases at high pressures and high temperatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, Anup

    2007-09-17

    Estimation of viscosities of naturally occurring petroleum gases provides the information needed to accurately work out reservoir-engineering problems. Existing models for viscosity prediction are limited by data, especially at high pressures...

  9. Engine having a high pressure hydraulic system and low pressure lubricating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2000-01-01

    An engine includes a high pressure hydraulic system having a high pressure pump and at least one hydraulically-actuated device attached to an engine housing. A low pressure engine lubricating system is attached to the engine housing and includes a circulation conduit fluidly connected to an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  10. High pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daughton, Christian G. (San Pablo, CA); Sakaji, Richard H. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A gradient mixer which effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum "band-broadening".

  11. High-pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daughton, C.G.; Sakaji, R.H.

    1982-09-08

    A gradient mixer effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum band-broadening.

  12. Cavity closure arrangement for high pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amtmann, Hans H. (San Diego, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A closure arrangement for a pressure vessel such as the pressure vessel of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor wherein a liner is disposed within a cavity penetration in the reactor vessel and defines an access opening therein. A closure is adapted for sealing relation with an annular mounting flange formed on the penetration liner and has a plurality of radially movable locking blocks thereon having outer serrations adapted for releasable interlocking engagement with serrations formed internally of the upper end of the penetration liner so as to effect high strength closure hold-down. In one embodiment, ramping surfaces are formed on the locking block serrations to bias the closure into sealed relation with the mounting flange when the locking blocks are actuated to locking positions.

  13. Theory of high pressure hydrogen, made simple

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magdau, Ioan B; Ackland, Graeme J

    2015-01-01

    Phase I of hydrogen has several peculiarities. Despite having a close-packed crystal structure, it is less dense than either the low temperature Phase II or the liquid phase. At high pressure, it transforms into either phase III or IV, depending on the temperature. Moreover, spectroscopy suggests that the quantum rotor behaviour disappears with pressurisation, without any apparent phase transition. Here we present a simple thermodynamic model for this behaviour based on packing atoms and molecules and discuss the thermodynamics of the phase boundaries. We also report first principles molecular dynamics calculations for a more detailed look at the same phase transitions.

  14. High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruhe, Thomas C. (Duquesne, PA); Rao, Pilaka P. (Baghlingampalli, IN)

    1994-01-01

    An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

  15. High-pressure coal fuel processor development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenhalgh, M.L. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

  16. Effect of high pressure on structural oddities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnstone, Russell D. L.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the effect of pressure on crystal structures that are in some way unusual. The aim was to investigate whether pressure could be used to force these ‘structural oddities’ to conform to more conventional ...

  17. Low energy high pressure miniature screw valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Gary J. (Sandia Park, NM); Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-12-12

    A low energy high pressure screw valve having a valve body having an upper portion and a lower portion, said lower portion of said valve body defining an inlet flow passage and an outlet flow passage traversing said valve body to a valve seat, said upper portion of said valve body defining a cavity at said valve seat, a diaphragm restricting flow between said upper portion of said valve body and said lower portion, said diaphragm capable of engaging said valve seat to restrict fluid communication between said inlet passage and said outlet passage, a plunger within said cavity supporting said diaphragm, said plunger being capable of engaging said diaphragm with said valve seat at said inlet and outlet fluid passages, said plunger being in point contact with a drive screw having threads engaged with opposing threads within said upper portion of said valve body such engagement allowing motion of said drive screw within said valve body.

  18. Negative pressure effects in high-pressure oxygen-intercalated C{sub 60}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schirber, J.E.; Assink, R.A.; Samara, G.A.; Morosin, B.; Loy, D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    1995-06-01

    We have observed unexpected and as yet unexplained negative pressure effects in high-oxygen-pressure-treated C{sub 60} in which the orientational ordering temperature is greatly depressed. Such effects are not observed in identical studies with nitrogen.

  19. Structural behaviour of niobium oxynitride under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Bharat Bhooshan Poswal, H. K. Pandey, K. K. Sharma, Surinder M.; Yakhmi, J. V.; Ohashi, Y.; Kikkawa, S.

    2014-04-24

    High pressure investigation of niobium oxynitrides (NbN{sub 0.98}O{sub 0.02}) employing synchrotron based angle dispersive x-ray diffraction experiments was carried out in very fine pressure steps using membrane driven diamond anvil cell. Ambient cubic phase was found to be stable up to ?18 GPa. At further high pressure cubic phase showed rhombohedral distortion.

  20. Competition between vitrification and crystallization of methanol at high pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vos, Willem L.

    Competition between vitrification and crystallization of methanol at high pressure Marco J. P methanol at high pressure up to 33 GPa at room temperature with x-ray diffraction, optical polarization and vitrification is observed when methanol is superpressed beyond the freezing pressure of 3.5 GPa: between 5

  1. Structure of crystalline methanol at high pressure David R. Allan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vos, Willem L.

    Structure of crystalline methanol at high pressure David R. Allan Department of Physics structure, including all atomic positions, of methanol at high pressure and room temperature pressure of methanol is 3.5 GPa. In practice however, it is very easy to superpress the liquid phase

  2. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Nicholas J.; Gauthe, Beatrice L. L. E.; Templer, Richard H.; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M.; Terrill, Nick J.; Rogers, Sarah E.

    2010-06-15

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  3. High Pressure Rotary Shaft Sealing Mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietle, Lannie (Sugar Land, TX); Gobeli, Jeffrey D. (Houston, TX)

    2001-05-08

    A laterally translatable pressure staged rotary shaft sealing mechanism having a seal housing with a shaft passage therein being exposed to a fluid pressure P1 and with a rotary shaft being located within the shaft passage. At least one annular laterally translatable seal carrier is provided. First and second annular resilient sealing elements are supported in axially spaced relation by the annular seal carriers and have sealing relation with the rotary shaft. The seal housing and at least one seal carrier define a first pressure staging chamber exposed to the first annular resilient sealing element and a second pressure staging chamber located between and exposed to the first and second annular resilient sealing elements. A first fluid is circulated to the first pressure chamber at a pressure P1, and a second staging pressure fluid is circulated to the second pressure chamber at a fraction of pressure P1 to achieve pressure staging, cooling of the seals. Seal placement provides hydraulic force balancing of the annular seal carriers.

  4. Single stage high pressure centrifugal slurry pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Daniel, Arnold D. (Alameda, CA)

    1984-03-27

    Apparatus is shown for feeding a slurry to a pressurized housing. An impeller that includes radial passages is mounted in the loose fitting housing. The impeller hub is connected to a drive means and a slurry supply means which extends through the housing. Pressured gas is fed into the housing for substantially enveloping the impeller in a bubble of gas.

  5. Notes 11. High pressure floating ring seals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    San Andres, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Floating ring seals for compressors: leakage and force coefficients, seal lock up and effect on rotor stability, recommendations to reduce seal cross-coupled effects. Long oil seals as pressure barriers in industrial mixers: leakage and force...

  6. High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from Practical Field Experience with High Pressure Gaseous Fuels Natural Gas Vehicle Cylinder Safety, Training and Inspection Project The Compelling Case for Natural Gas Vehicles...

  7. Evaluation of high-pressure drilling fluid supply systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, M.C.; Reichman, J.M.; Theimer, K.J.

    1981-10-01

    A study was undertaken to help determine the technical and economic feasibility of developing a high-pressure fluid-jet drilling system for the production of geothermal wells. Three system concepts were developed and analyzed in terms of costs, component availability, and required new-component development. These concepts included a single-conduit system that supplies the downhole cutting nozzles directly via surface-located high-pressure pumps; a single-conduit system utilizing low-pressure surface pumps to supply and operate a high-pressure downhole pump, which in turn supplies the cutting nozzles; and a dual-conduit system supplying surface-generated high-pressure fluid for cutting via one conduit and low-pressure scavenging fluid via the other. It is concluded that the single-conduit downhole pump system concept has the greatest potential for success in this application. 28 figures, 11 tables.

  8. High temperature pressurized high frequency testing rig and test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De La Cruz, Jose; Lacey, Paul

    2003-04-15

    An apparatus is described which permits the lubricity of fuel compositions at or near temperatures and pressures experienced by compression ignition fuel injector components during operation in a running engine. The apparatus consists of means to apply a measured force between two surfaces and oscillate them at high frequency while wetted with a sample of the fuel composition heated to an operator selected temperature. Provision is made to permit operation at or near the flash point of the fuel compositions. Additionally a method of using the subject apparatus to simulate ASTM Testing Method D6079 is disclosed, said method involving using the disclosed apparatus to contact the faces of prepared workpieces under a measured load, sealing the workface contact point into the disclosed apparatus while immersing said contact point between said workfaces in a lubricating media to be tested, pressurizing and heating the chamber and thereby the fluid and workfaces therewithin, using the disclosed apparatus to impart a differential linear motion between the workpieces at their contact point until a measurable scar is imparted to at least one workpiece workface, and then evaluating the workface scar.

  9. varicose veins smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    diabetes kidney failure dementia thrombosis high anorexia nervosa hormone replacement varicose veins underactive thyroid cystitis incontinence breast cancer obesity bulimia nervosa anorexia nervosa hormone obesity bulimia nervosa anorexia nervosa hormone replacement varicose veins smoking high blood pressure

  10. Subsea intensifier supplies high pressure to downhole safety valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    A subsea high-pressure hydraulic intensifier (HPI) is now available as an alternative method of operating downhole surface-controlled subsea safety valves (SCSSVs). By generating high hydraulic pressures on the seafloor, the system eliminates need for transmitting high pressure via hose from surface. The new intensifier can generate up to 15,000 psi (1,035 bar) from the 3,000-psi (210-bar) low pressure actuator supply already within the umbilical. It uses low pressure hydraulic fluid acting on a large-area piston to push a second piston, one-fifth the cross sectional area, acting in a second hydraulic circuit. To reduce pulsation, the unit is double acting, with one piston drawing in fluid while the other discharges it. This paper reviews the design, performance, and construction of this equipment.

  11. Neutron scattering at high pressure D. B. McWhan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    715 Neutron scattering at high pressure D. B. McWhan Room 1D-234, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974, U scattering at steady-state and pulsed sources are reviewed. The pressure cells available at most neutron 10 GPa have been made. For elastic scattering, a comparison is made between neutron scattering and X

  12. High-pressure stability relations, crystal structures, and physical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-pressure stability relations, crystal structures, and physical properties of perovskite and post-perovskite of NaNiFsub 3 Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  13. High-pressure computational and experimental studies of energetic materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunter, Steven

    2013-11-28

    On account of the high temperatures and pressures experienced by energetic materials during deflagration and detonation, it is important to know not only the physical properties of these materials at ambient temperatures ...

  14. DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    February 8-9, 2005, the Department of Energy held the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting at Argonne National Laboratory. The purpose of...

  15. Sandia Energy - High-Pressure and High-Temperature Neutron Reflectomet...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Temperature Neutron Reflectometry Cell for Solid-Fluid Interface Studies Home Carbon Capture & Storage Climate News News & Events Carbon Capture Carbon Storage High-Pressure...

  16. Gas Viscosity at High Pressure and High Temperature 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ling, Kegang

    2012-02-14

    . Although viscosity of some pure components such as methane, ethane, propane, butane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and binary mixtures of these components at low-intermediate pressure and temperature had been studied intensively and been understood thoroughly...

  17. Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Leavitt

    2010-03-31

    A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

  18. High-Pressure Flame Speed Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energy neutron ComputedHigh-Performance

  19. Calcium peroxide from ambient to high pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Joseph R.; Needs, Richard J.; Pickard, Chris J.

    2015-02-06

    of the University of Cambridge High Performance Computing Service (http://www.hpc.cam.ac.uk/), as well as the ARCHER UK National Supercomputing Ser- vice (http://www.archer.ac.uk/). Financial support was provided by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Re- search...

  20. Interfacial tension in high-pressure carbon dioxide mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun, B.S.; Wilkinson, G.T.

    1995-12-01

    High-pressure interfacial- and surface-tension phenomena govern the migration and recovery of oil and gas from hydrocarbon reservoirs. The phenomena are of particular relevance to phase separation and mass transfer in light hydrocarbon fractionation plants and in propane deasphalting in lubricating oil refining. Interfacial tensions of carbon dioxide-water-alcohol mixtures were measured at temperatures in the range 5--71 C and pressures 0.1--18.6 MPa, using the capillary rise method. The alcohols were methanol (0.136 mf), ethanol (to 0.523 mf), and isopropyl alcohol (to 0.226 mf). Interfacial tension (IFT) decreased linearly with both temperature and pressure din the low-pressure range (gaseous CO{sub 2}) but was largely independent of pressure at high pressure (liquid or supercritical CO{sub 2}). There was a zone in the vicinity of the critical pressure of CO{sub 2}-as much as 20 C below and 10 C above the carbon dioxide critical temperature--where IFT became small. This is attributed to the formation of a second CO{sub 2}-rich phase. The isotherms exhibited a crossover pressure near 3 MPa for all systems examined.

  1. Confinement of hydrogen at high pressure in carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lassila, David H. (Aptos, CA); Bonner, Brian P. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-12-13

    A high pressure hydrogen confinement apparatus according to one embodiment includes carbon nanotubes capped at one or both ends thereof with a hydrogen-permeable membrane to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough. A hydrogen confinement apparatus according to another embodiment includes an array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes each having first and second ends, the second ends being capped with palladium (Pd) to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough as a function of palladium temperature, wherein the array of carbon nanotubes is capable of storing hydrogen gas at a pressure of at least 1 GPa for greater than 24 hours. Additional apparatuses and methods are also presented.

  2. Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems: Applicability to Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostival, A.; Rivkin, C.; Buttner, W.; Burgess, R.

    2013-11-01

    Pressure relief devices (PRDs) are viewed as essential safety measures for high-pressure gas storage and distribution systems. These devices are used to prevent the over-pressurization of gas storage vessels and distribution equipment, except in the application of certain toxic gases. PRDs play a critical role in the implementation of most high-pressure gas storage systems and anyone working with these devices should understand their function so they can be designed, installed, and maintained properly to prevent any potentially dangerous or fatal incidents. As such, the intention of this report is to introduce the reader to the function of the common types of PRDs currently used in industry. Since high-pressure hydrogen gas storage systems are being developed to support the growing hydrogen energy infrastructure, several recent failure incidents, specifically involving hydrogen, will be examined to demonstrate the results and possible mechanisms of a device failure. The applicable codes and standards, developed to minimize the risk of failure for PRDs, will also be reviewed. Finally, because PRDs are a critical component for the development of a successful hydrogen energy infrastructure, important considerations for pressure relief devices applied in a hydrogen gas environment will be explored.

  3. 1 6 High-Temperature-High-Pressure Diffractometry R. J. Angel*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downs, Robert T.

    1 6 High- Temperature-High-Pressure Diffractometry R. J. Angel* Bayerisches Geoinstitut 20015 *Present address: Department ofGeological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 INTRODUCTION Effective techniques for conducting high-pressure and high-temperature single-crystal X

  4. Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westerfield, Curtis L. (Espanola, NM); Morris, John S. (Los Alamos, NM); Agnew, Stephen F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear. A cell is described which, in combination with Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, permits the spectroscopic investigation of boundary layers under conditions of high temperature, high pressure and shear.

  5. Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westerfield, C.L.; Morris, J.S.; Agnew, S.F.

    1997-01-14

    Diamond anvil cell is described for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear. A cell is described which, in combination with Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, permits the spectroscopic investigation of boundary layers under conditions of high temperature, high pressure and shear. 4 figs.

  6. Structural Behaviour of Uranium Sulfide under High Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shareef, F.; Singh, S.; Gour, A.; Bhardwaj, P.; Sarwan, M.; Dubey, R. [High Pressure Research Lab, Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal-462026 (India); Singh, R. K. [ITM University, Gurgaon, Haryana-122017 (India)

    2011-07-15

    The study of pressure induced structural phase transition of uranium sulphide, which crystallizes in rock salt (B1) structure, has been performed using the well described three body interaction model (TBIPM). Our present TBIP model consists of long range coulombic interaction, three body interactions, Hafemeister and Flygare type short-range overlap repulsion extended upto the second neighbor ions and the van der Waals interaction. The present results are in good agreement with the available experimental data on the phase transition pressure (Pt = 80.2 GPa). So it can be considered as an adequate and suitable model to perform high pressure studies.

  7. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energy neutronHigh-Pressure MOF Research YieldsHigh-Pressure

  8. Reinvestigation of high pressure polymorphism in hafnium metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandey, K. K. Sharma, Surinder M.; Gyanchandani, Jyoti; Dey, G. K.; Somayazulu, M.; Sikka, S. K.

    2014-06-21

    There has been a recent controversy about the high pressure polymorphism of Hafnium (Hf). Unlike, the earlier known ??? structural transition at 38?±?8?GPa, at ambient temperature, Hrubiak et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 111, 112612 (2012)] did not observe it till 51?GPa. They observed this transition only at elevated temperatures. We have reinvestigated the room temperature phase diagram of Hf, employing x-ray diffraction (XRD) and DFT based first principles calculations. Experimental investigations have been carried out on several pure and impure Hf samples and also with different pressure transmitting media. Besides demonstrating the significant role of impurity levels on the high pressure phase diagram of Hf, our studies re-establish room temperature ??? transition at high pressures, even in quasi-hydrostatic environment. We observed this transition in pure Hf with equilibrium transition pressure P{sub o}?=?44.5?GPa; however, with large hysteresis. The structural sequence, transition pressures, the lattice parameters, the c/a ratio and its variation with compression for the ? and ? phases as predicted by our ab-initio scalar relativistic (SR) calculations are found to be in good agreement with our experimental results of pure Hf.

  9. An experimental investigation of high temperature, high pressure paper drying 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Kamal Raoji

    1994-01-01

    T=1 49 oc alternate T 204 oc some T= 204 oc atternote 2 4 6 6 10 12 Number of Passes o el 0 E ta el J O Sl o el I 0 0. 9 0. 8 0. 7 0. 6 0. 5 0, 4 0. 3 02 0. 1 0. 0 contac t pressure 1. 4 MPa T= 93 aC some T= 93a...C alternate ? a ? T=149 OC Same T=149 ocalternate T=204 oc same T=204 oc alternate 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Number of Passes 1. 0 0. 9 0. 8 CL I3 07 0 0. 6 le 0. 5 ln 0. 4 0 0. 3 o 0. 2 0. 1 0. 0 contac t pressure 2. 1 MPa I . z' ~ T= 93 oC some...

  10. High Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and High Pressure X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy Studies of Adsorbate Structure, Composition and Mobility during Catalytic Reactions on A Model Single Crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montano, M.O.

    2006-01-01

    Exchanger In STM experiments in general, and especially high-pressure andPressure STM Chamber Scan Head Sample Stage Tips Tip Exchangerlow base pressure. Once the sample or tip exchanger has been

  11. Pressure and Temperature effects on the High Pressure Phase Transformation in Zirconium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Escobedo-Diaz, Juan P.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Brown, Donald W.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Rigg, Paulo A.; Bronkhorst, Curt A.; Addessio, Francis L.; Lookman, Turab

    2012-06-20

    At high pressure zirconium is known to undergo a phase transformation from the hexagonal close packed (HCP) alpha phase ({alpha}) to the simple hexagonal omega phase ({omega}). Under conditions of shock loading, the high-pressure omega phase is retained upon release. However, the hysteresis in this transformation is not well represented by equilibrium phase diagrams. For this reason, the influence of peak shock pressure and temperature on the retention of omega phase in Zr is explored in this study. In situ VISAR measurements along with post-mortem metallographic and neutron diffraction characterization of soft recovered specimens have been utilized to quantify the volume fraction of retained omega phase, morphology of the shocked alpha and omega phases, and qualitatively understand the kinetics of this transformation. This understanding of the role of peak shock stress will be utilized to address physics to be encoded in our present macro-scale models.

  12. High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Design, demonstrate, and qualify high-temperature high pressure zonal isolation devices compatible with the high temperature downhole Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) environment.

  13. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure. These were dust and noise. The dust exposure was found to be minimal, which would be expected due to the wet environment inherent in the technology, but noise exposure was at a significant level. Further testing for noise is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, fall hazards, slipping hazards, hazards associated with the high pressure water, and hazards associated with air pressure systems.

  14. LX-17 Deflagration at High Pressures and Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koerner, J; Maienschein, J; Black, K; DeHaven, M; Wardell, J

    2006-10-23

    We measure the laminar deflagration rate of LX-17 (92.5 wt% TATB, 7.5 wt% Kel-F 800) at high pressure and temperature in a strand burner, thereby obtaining reaction rate data for prediction of thermal explosion violence. Simultaneous measurements of flame front time-of-arrival and temporal pressure history allow for the direct calculation of deflagration rate as a function of pressure. Additionally, deflagrating surface areas are calculated in order to provide quantitative insight into the dynamic surface structure during deflagration and its relationship to explosion violence. Deflagration rate data show that LX-17 burns in a smooth fashion at ambient temperature and is represented by the burn rate equation B = 0.2P{sup 0.9}. At 225 C, deflagration is more rapid and erratic. Dynamic deflagrating surface area calculations show that ambient temperature LX-17 deflagrating surface areas remain near unity over the pressure range studied.

  15. Microhole High-Pressure Jet Drill for Coiled Tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Theimer; Jack Kolle

    2007-06-30

    Tempress Small Mechanically-Assisted High-Pressure Waterjet Drilling Tool project centered on the development of a downhole intensifier (DHI) to boost the hydraulic pressure available from conventional coiled tubing to the level required for high-pressure jet erosion of rock. We reviewed two techniques for implementing this technology (1) pure high-pressure jet drilling and (2) mechanically-assisted jet drilling. Due to the difficulties associated with modifying a downhole motor for mechanically-assisted jet drilling, it was determined that the pure high-pressure jet drilling tool was the best candidate for development and commercialization. It was also determined that this tool needs to run on commingled nitrogen and water to provide adequate downhole differential pressure and to facilitate controlled pressure drilling and descaling applications in low pressure wells. The resulting Microhole jet drilling bottomhole assembly (BHA) drills a 3.625-inch diameter hole with 2-inch coil tubing. The BHA consists of a self-rotating multi-nozzle drilling head, a high-pressure rotary seal/bearing section, an intensifier and a gas separator. Commingled nitrogen and water are separated into two streams in the gas separator. The water stream is pressurized to 3 times the inlet pressure by the downhole intensifier and discharged through nozzles in the drilling head. The energy in the gas-rich stream is used to power the intensifier. Gas-rich exhaust from the intensifier is conducted to the nozzle head where it is used to shroud the jets, increasing their effective range. The prototype BHA was tested at operational pressures and flows in a test chamber and on the end of conventional coiled tubing in a test well. During instrumented runs at downhole conditions, the BHA developed downhole differential pressures of 74 MPa (11,000 psi, median) and 90 MPa (13,000 psi, peaks). The median output differential pressure was nearly 3 times the input differential pressure available from the coiled tubing. In a chamber test, the BHA delivered up to 50 kW (67 hhp) hydraulic power. The tool drilled uncertified class-G cement samples cast into casing at a rate of 0.04 to 0.17 m/min (8 to 33 ft/hr), within the range projected for this tool but slower than a conventional PDM. While the tool met most of the performance goals, reliability requires further improvement. It will be difficult for this tool, as currently configured, to compete with conventional positive displacement downhole motors for most coil tubing drill applications. Mechanical cutters on the rotating nozzle head would improve cutting. This tool can be easily adapted for well descaling operations. A variant of the Microhole jet drilling gas separator was further developed for use with positive displacement downhole motors (PDM) operating on commingled nitrogen and water. A fit-for-purpose motor gas separator was designed and yard tested within the Microhole program. Four commercial units of that design are currently involved in a 10-well field demonstration with Baker Oil Tools in Wyoming. Initial results indicate that the motor gas separators provide significant benefit.

  16. Capillary toroid cavity detector for high pressure NMR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Downers Grove, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Honer Glen, IL); ter Horst, Marc (Chapel Hill, NC)

    2007-09-11

    A Toroid Cavity Detector (TCD) is provided for implementing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of chemical reactions under conditions of high pressures and temperatures. A toroid cavity contains an elongated central conductor extending within the toroid cavity. The toroid cavity and central conductor generate an RF magnetic field for NMR analysis. A flow-through capillary sample container is located within the toroid cavity adjacent to the central conductor to subject a sample material flowing through the capillary to a static magnetic field and to enable NMR spectra to be recorded of the material in the capillary under a temperature and high pressure environment.

  17. Performance of Lanthanum Strontium Manganite Electrodes at High Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomsen, Edwin C.; Coffey, Greg W.; Pederson, Larry R.; Marina, Olga A.

    2009-06-15

    The high-pressure performance of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM), LSM-zirconia, and LSM/ceria composite electrodes was studied by impedance spectroscopy and dc methods. Electrode resistances decreased in proportion to P(O2)1/2 for the LSM electrode in both cathodic and anodic directions to at least 100 atm, a decrease that was attributed to dissociative oxygen adsorption, surface diffusion, and related phenomena. For the LSM-20/zirconia composite electrode, resistances decreased in proportion to P(O2)1/4 across the entire pressure range considered. Two principal features appeared in the impedance spectra, one that showed a P(O2)1/4 dependence attributed to charge transfer reactions, and one that was nearly pressure-independent, possibly due to transport in the zirconia portion of the composite. For the LSM-20/ceria composite electrode, resistances decreased as P(O2)0.3-0.4 at high pressure, depending on temperature. Two features appeared in the impedance spectra: one at low to intermediate frequency having a P(O2)1/2 dependence and one at high frequency having a P(O2)1/4 dependence. These features are attributed to dissociative oxygen adsorption and to charge transfer reactions, respectively. Results suggest that cathodic losses can be substantially lowered by operation of solid oxide fuel cells at greater than ambient pressure.

  18. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The Husky{trademark} is an ultra high pressure waterjet cutting tool system. The pump is mounted on a steel tube frame which includes slots for transport by a forklift. The Husky{trademark} features an automatic shutdown for several conditions such as low oil pressure and high oil temperature. Placement of the Husky{trademark} must allow for a three foot clearance on all sides for operation and service access. At maximum continuous operation, the output volume is 7.2 gallons per minute with an output pressure of 40,000 psi. A diesel engine provides power for the system. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  19. Pressure dependence on the reaction propagation rate of PETN at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foltz, M.F.

    1993-04-01

    The reaction propagation rate (RPR) of the sensitive high explosive pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) was measured in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) over the pressure range of 2--20 GPa. The experimental technique used is the same as that previously reported. The RPR data shows that it burns one to two orders of magnitude faster in the DAC than 1,3,5,-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and nitromethane (CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}) respectively. The PETN RPR curve did not show sample pressure-dependent behavior like that of nitromethane, but instead varied abruptly like the RPR curve of TATB. In order to interpret these changes, static-pressure DAC mid-IR FTIR spectra were taken of micro-pellets of PETN embedded in KBr. The relationship between changes in the spectra, the RPR curve, and published single crystal PETN wedge test data are discussed.

  20. Low pressure high speed Stirling air engine. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, M.A.

    1980-06-16

    The purpose of this project was to design, construct and test a simple, appropriate technology low pressure, high speed, wood-fired Stirling air engine of 100 W output. The final design was a concentric piston/displacer engine of 454 in. bore and 1 in. stroke with a rhombic drive mechanism. The project engine was ultimately completed and tested, using a propane burner for all tests as a matter of convenience. The 100 W aim was exceeded, at atmospheric pressure, over a wide range of engine speed with the maximum power being 112 W at 1150 rpm. A pressure can was constructed to permit pressurization; however the grant funds were running out, and the only pressurized power test attempted was unsuccessful due to seal difficulties. This was a disappointment because numerous tests on the 4 cubic inch engine suggested power would be more than doubled with pressurization at 25 psig. A manifold was designed and constructed to permit operation of the engine over a standard No. 40 pot bellied stove. The engine was run successfully, but at reduced speed and power, over this stove. The project engine started out being rather noisy in operation, but modifications ultimately resulted in a very quiet engine. Various other difficulties and their solutions also are discussed. (LCL)

  1. Lubricants under high local pressure: Liquids act like solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueser, Martin

    Lubricants under high local pressure: Liquids act like solids Schmierstoffe unter hohem lokalem Druck: Flu¨ ssigkeiten verhalten sich wie Fest- stoffe M. H. Mu¨ ser A lubricant layer solidifies when confining surfaces slide past each other induces flow in the lubricant layer that is akin of plastic flow

  2. Reduction of Film Coolant in High Pressure Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirsum Institute of Power Plant Technology, Steam and Gas Turbines, RWTH Aachen Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ingo RöhleReduction of Film Coolant in High Pressure Turbines Bachelor Thesis in Computational Engineering Institute of Propulsion Technology, German Aerospace Center #12;Abstract Gas turbine development has been

  3. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-5-2014_High-Temperature, High-Pressure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    values at 533 K (gray dashed line). Suggested Citation: Gamwo, I. K.; Tapriyal, D.; Enick, R. M.; McHugh, M. A.; Morreale, B. D. High Temperature, High Pressure Equation of...

  4. High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-04-21

    High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Details of the experimental method, results and data analysis are discussed herein and briefly compared to other AP based materials that have been measured in this apparatus.

  5. High-pressure lubricity at the meso- and nanoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Vanossi; A. Benassi; N. Varini; E. Tosatti

    2013-01-11

    The increase of sliding friction upon increasing load is a classic in the macroscopic world. Here we discuss the possibility that friction rise might sometimes turn into a drop when, at the mesoscale and nanoscale, a confined lubricant film separating crystalline sliders undergoes strong layering and solidification. Under pressure, transitions from N to N-1 layers may imply a change of lateral periodicity of the crystallized lubricant sufficient to alter the matching of crystal structures, influencing the ensuing friction jump. A pressure-induced friction drop may occur as the shear gradient maximum switches from the lubricant middle, marked by strong stick-slip with or without shear melting, to the crystalline slider-lubricant interface, characterized by smooth superlubric sliding. We present high pressure sliding simulations to display examples of frictional drops, suggesting their possible relevance to the local behavior in boundary lubrication.

  6. Transport signatures of quantum critically in Cr at high pressure.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaramillo, R.; Feng, Y.; Wang, J.; Rosenbaum, T. F.

    2010-08-03

    The elemental antiferromagnet Cr at high pressure presents a new type of naked quantum critical point that is free of disorder and symmetry-breaking fields. Here we measure magnetotransport in fine detail around the critical pressure, P{sub c} {approx} 10 GPa, in a diamond anvil cell and reveal the role of quantum critical fluctuations at the phase transition. As the magnetism disappears and T {yields} 0, the magntotransport scaling converges to a non-mean-field form that illustrates the reconstruction of the magnetic Fermi surface, and is distinct from the critical scaling measured in chemically disordered Cr:V under pressure. The breakdown of itinerant antiferromagnetism only comes clearly into view in the clean limit, establishing disorder as a relevant variable at a quantum phase transition.

  7. Static and dynamic high pressure experiments on cerium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Brian J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Velisavljevic, Nenad [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cherne, Frank J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stevens, Gerald [NST, STL; Tschauner, Oliver [UNIV OF NEVADA

    2011-01-25

    There is a scientific need to obtain dynamic data to develop and validate multi phase equation-of-state (EOS) models for metals. Experiments are needed to examine the relevant pure phases, to locate phase boundaries and the associated transition kinetics, and other material properties such as strength. Cerium is an ideal material for such work because it exhibits a complex multiphase diagram at relatively moderate pressures readily accessible using standard shock wave methods. In the current work, shock wave (dynamic) and diamond anvil cell (static) experiments were performed to examine the high pressure, low temperature region of the phase diagram to obtain EOS data and to search for the {alpha}-{var_epsilon} boundary. Past work examining the shock-melt transition and the low-pressure {gamma}-{alpha} transition will be presented in brief followed by details of recent results obtained from DAC and double-shock experiments.

  8. Modified approaches for high pressure filtration of fine clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, J.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. [Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Removal of moisture from fine (minus 28 mesh) clean coal to 20% or lower level is difficult using the conventional vacuum dewatering technique. High pressure filtration technique provides an avenue for obtaining low moisture in fine clean coal. This paper describes a couple of novel approaches for dewatering of fine clean coal using pressure filtration which provides much lower moisture in fine clean coal than that obtained using conventional pressure filter. The approaches involve (a) split stream dewatering and (b) addition of paper pulp to the coal slurry. For Pittsburgh No. 8 coal slurry, split stream dewatering at 400 mesh provided filter cake containing 12.9% moisture compared to 24.9% obtained on the feed material. The addition of paper pulp to the slurry provided filter cake containing about 17% moisture.

  9. Proposal for high pressure RF cavity test in the MTA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    In order to demonstrate the feasibility of high pressure hydrogen gas filled RF (HPRF) cavities for muon ionization cooling, an HPRF cavity must be tested with a high intensity charged beam. When an HPRF cavity is irradiated with an intense beam each incident particle generates about 1000 electrons and ions per cubic centimeter in a high pressure cavity via ionization. These ionization electrons are influenced by the RF field and the RF quality factor goes down. This Q factor reduction will be a problem with a multi bunch beam, e.g., a muon beam for a muon collider consists of a 12 to 20 bunch train beam with 5 ns timing gap. Thus, the RF field must recover in few nano seconds. We propose to use a 400 MeV proton beam in the MTA and measure a beam loading effect in the HPRF cavity and study the recovery mechanism of the RF field.

  10. High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡High HIGHofWaste

  11. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energy neutron ComputedHigh-PerformanceHigh-Pressure MOF

  12. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energy neutron ComputedHigh-PerformanceHigh-Pressure

  13. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Swanson; Daniel Laudal

    2008-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Coal and Environmental Systems has as its mission to develop advanced gasification-based technologies for affordable, efficient, zero-emission power generation. These advanced power systems, which are expected to produce near-zero pollutants, are an integral part of DOE's Vision 21 Program. DOE has also been developing advanced gasification systems that lower the capital and operating costs of producing syngas for chemical production. A transport reactor has shown potential to be a low-cost syngas producer compared to other gasification systems since its high-throughput-per-unit cross-sectional area reduces capital costs. This work directly supports the Power Systems Development Facility utilizing the KBR transport reactor located at the Southern Company Services Wilsonville, Alabama, site. Over 2800 hours of operation on 11 different coals ranging from bituminous to lignite along with a petroleum coke has been completed to date in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The EERC has established an extensive database on the operation of these various fuels in both air-blown and oxygen-blown modes utilizing a pilot-scale transport reactor gasifier. This database has been useful in determining the effectiveness of design changes on an advanced transport reactor gasifier and for determining the performance of various feedstocks in a transport reactor. The effects of different fuel types on both gasifier performance and the operation of the hot-gas filter system have been determined. It has been demonstrated that corrected fuel gas heating values ranging from 90 to 130 Btu/scf have been achieved in air-blown mode, while heating values up to 230 Btu/scf on a dry basis have been achieved in oxygen-blown mode. Carbon conversions up to 95% have also been obtained and are highly dependent on the oxygen-coal ratio. Higher-reactivity (low-rank) coals appear to perform better in a transport reactor than the less reactive bituminous coals. Factors that affect TRDU product gas quality appear to be coal type, temperature, and air/coal ratios. Testing with a higher-ash, high-moisture, low-rank coal from the Red Hills Mine of the Mississippi Lignite Mining Company has recently been completed. Testing with the lignite coal generated a fuel gas with acceptable heating value and a high carbon conversion, although some drying of the high-moisture lignite was required before coal-feeding problems were resolved. No ash deposition or bed material agglomeration issues were encountered with this fuel. In order to better understand the coal devolatilization and cracking chemistry occurring in the riser of the transport reactor, gas and solid sampling directly from the riser and the filter outlet has been accomplished. This was done using a baseline Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the Peabody Energy North Antelope Rochelle Mine near Gillette, Wyoming.

  14. Intermittently-fed high-pressure gasifier process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, John M. (Dunlap, IL); Zadoks, Abraham L. (Peoria, IL)

    1993-11-30

    An improved gasifier adapted for gasifying a predetermined charge of non-gaseous fuel into fuel gas. Each charge of non-gaseous fuel, which may have optional conditioning materials added to it, is intermittently fed to a gasifier chamber where each charge is partially burned with high-pressure air supplied thereto. High-pressure and temperature fuel gas is produced which is cleansed prior to passing out of the gasifier chamber. After gasification of the charge of fuel is is ended, the gasifier chamber is vented. The residue of the burned charge in the gasifier chamber is removed, along with the contaminated or reacted conditioning materials, and replaced by a fresh charge. The subject invention provides a feasible way of continuously fueling an internal combustion engine with gasified fuel and is compact enough to be practical for even mobile applications.

  15. Intermittently-fed high-pressure gasifier process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, J.M.; Zadoks, A.L.

    1993-11-30

    An improved gasifier is described which is adapted for gasifying a predetermined charge of non-gaseous fuel into fuel gas. Each charge of non-gaseous fuel, which may have optional conditioning materials added to it, is intermittently fed to a gasifier chamber where each charge is partially burned with high-pressure air supplied thereto. High-pressure and temperature fuel gas is produced which is cleansed prior to passing out of the gasifier chamber. After gasification of the charge of fuel is ended, the gasifier chamber is vented. The residue of the burned charge in the gasifier chamber is removed, along with the contaminated or reacted conditioning materials, and replaced by a fresh charge. The subject invention provides a feasible way of continuously fueling an internal combustion engine with gasified fuel and is compact enough to be practical for even mobile applications. 3 figures.

  16. Vibratory high pressure coal feeder having a helical ramp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farber, Gerald (Elmont, NY)

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus and method for feeding powdered coal from a helical ramp into a high pressure, heated, reactor tube containing hydrogen for hydrogenating the coal and/or for producing useful products from coal. To this end, the helical ramp is vibrated to feed the coal cleanly at an accurately controlled rate in a simple reliable and trouble-free manner that eliminates complicated and expensive screw feeders, and/or complicated and expensive seals, bearings and fully rotating parts.

  17. Soot formation in high pressure laminar diffusion flames Ahmet E. Karatas *, mer L. Glder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, Ömer L.

    Review Soot formation in high pressure laminar diffusion flames Ahmet E. Karatas¸ *, Ömer L. Gülder online 30 June 2012 Keywords: High pressure soot formation High pressure combustion Laminar diffusion laminar co-flow diffusion flames burning at elevated pressures. First, a brief review of soot formation

  18. Devices and process for high-pressure magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoyt, David W; Sears, Jr., Jesse A; Turcu, Romulus V.F.; Rosso, Kevin M; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2014-04-08

    A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) rotor is detailed that includes a high-pressure sample cell that maintains high pressures exceeding 150 bar. The sample cell design minimizes pressure losses due to penetration over an extended period of time.

  19. Vitiated ethane oxidation in a high-pressure flow reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, K.M.; Bowman, C.T.

    2009-10-15

    Vitiated combustion processes offer the potential to improve the thermodynamic efficiency in hydrocarbon-fueled combustion systems, providing a subsequent decrease in energy-specific CO{sub 2} emissions along with a decrease in the emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter. The present work comprises an experimental and modeling study of vitiated ethane oxidation in a high-pressure flow reactor, with pressures of 1-6 bar, O{sub 2} mole fractions of 3.5-7.0%, temperatures of 1075-1100 K and 15-18 mole.% H{sub 2}O. Time-history measurements of species are used to characterize the overall rate of reaction and track the fuel-carbon through intermediate and product species. A one-dimensional mixing-reacting model that accounts for partial oxidation during reactant mixing is used in conjunction with a detailed kinetic mechanism. Changes in competing pathways due to variations in pressure and O{sub 2} mole fraction give rise to the complex pressure dependence seen in the experiments. (author)

  20. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energy neutronHigh-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural

  1. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energy neutronHigh-Pressure MOF Research Yields

  2. FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

    FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS DETERMINATION DU and Technology, Norway ABSTRACT Pressure drop experiments on natural gas flow at 80 to 120 bar pressure and high of natural gas at typical operating pressures (100-180 bar). At such Reynolds numbers the classical Colebrook

  3. The effect of condensate dropout on pressure transient analysis of a high-pressure gas condensate well 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Briens, Frederic Jean-Louis

    1986-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF CONDENSATE DROPOUT ON PRESSURE TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF A HIGH-PRESSURE GAS CONDENSATE NELL A thesis FREDERIC JEAN-LOUIS BRIENS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillement of the requirements i...'or the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1986 Major Subject : Petr oleum Engineering THE EFFECT OF CONDENSATE DROPOUT ON PRESSURE TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF A HIGH-PRESSURE GAS CONDENSATE WELL A thesis by FREDERIC JEAN-LOUiS SRIENS Approved as to style...

  4. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This information will lead to a variety of beneficial applications including pressure switches, smart body armor, pressure sensors, or shock absorbing materials. A recent review...

  5. System Study: High-Pressure Core Spray 1998–2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure core spray (HPCS) at 8 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCS results.

  6. Argon difluoride (ArF2) stabilized at high pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurzyd?owski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    On account of the rapid development of noble gas chemistry in the past half-century both xenon and krypton compounds can now be isolated in macroscopic quantities. The same though does not hold true for the next lighter group 18 element, argon, which forms only isolated molecules stable solely in low-temperature matrices or supersonic jet streams. Here we present theoretical investigations into a new high-pressure reaction pathway which enables synthesis of Ar-bearing compounds in bulk and at room temperature.

  7. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998-2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  8. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998–2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  9. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy, Ph.D. Title: ProfessorHigh-Pressure MOF Research Yields

  10. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy, Ph.D. Title: ProfessorHigh-Pressure MOF Research

  11. High-Pressure Melt Streaming (HIPS) program plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, W.; Brockmann, J.; Pilch, M.

    1984-08-01

    The Zion Probabilistic Safety Study (ZPSS) envisions accident sequences that could lead to failure of the reactor vessel while the primary system is pressurized. The resulting ejection of molten core material into the reactor cavity followed by the blowdown of steam and hydrogen is shown to cause the debris to enter into the containment region. The High Pressure Melt Streaming (HIPS) program has been developed to provide an experimental and analytical investigation of the scenario described above. One-tenth linear scale models of the Zion cavity region will be used to investigate the debris dispersal phenomena. Smaller-scale experiments (SPIT-tests) are also used to study high-velocity jets, jet-water interactions, and 1/20th scale cavity geometries. Both matrices are developed using a factorial design approach. The document describes certain aspects of the ZPSS ex-vessel phenomena, the experimental matrices, test equipment, and instrumentation, and the program's analytical efforts. Preliminary data from SPIT testing are included.

  12. DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WHYTE, DG; JERNIGAN, TC; HUMPHREYS, DA; HYATT, AW; LASNIER, CJ; PARKS, PB; EVANS, TE; TAYLOR, PL; KELLMAN, AG; GRAY, DS; HOLLMANN, EM

    2002-10-01

    OAK A271 DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION. High-pressure gas jets of neon and argon are used to mitigate the three principal damaging effects of tokamak disruptions: thermal loading of the divertor surfaces, vessel stress from poloidal halo currents and the buildup and loss of relativistic electrons to the wall. The gas jet penetrates as a neutral species through to the central plasma at its sonic velocity. The injected gas atoms increase up to 500 times the total electron inventory in the plasma volume, resulting in a relatively benign radiative dissipation of >95% of the plasma stored energy. The rapid cooling and the slow movement of the plasma to the wall reduce poloidal halo currents during the current decay. The thermally collapsed plasma is very cold ({approx} 1-2 eV) and the impurity charge distribution can include > 50% fraction neutral species. If a sufficient quantity of gas is injected, the neutrals inhibit runaway electrons. A physical model of radiative cooling is developed and validated against DIII-D experiments. The model shows that gas jet mitigation, including runaway suppression, extrapolates favorably to burning plasmas where disruption damage will be more severe. Initial results of real-time disruption detection triggering gas jet injection for mitigation are shown.

  13. Smart Onboard Inspection of High Pressure Gas Fuel Cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshears, D.L.; Starbuck, J.M.

    1999-09-27

    The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel in automotive applications is not widespread primarily because of the high cost and durability of the composite storage tanks. Tanks manufactured using carbon fiber are desirable in weight critical passenger vehicles because of the low density of carbon fiber. The high strength of carbon fiber also translates to a weight reduction because thinner wall designs are possible to withstand the internal pressure loads. However, carbon fiber composites are prone to impact damage that over the life of the storage tank may lead to an unsafe condition for the vehicle operator. A technique that potentially may be a reliable indication of developing hazardous conditions in composite fuel tanks is imbedded fiber optics. The applicability of this technique to onboard inspection is discussed and results from preliminary lab testing indicate that fiber optic sensors can reliably detect impact damage.

  14. Very low pressure high power impulse triggered magnetron sputtering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre; Andersson, Joakim

    2013-10-29

    A method and apparatus are described for very low pressure high powered magnetron sputtering of a coating onto a substrate. By the method of this invention, both substrate and coating target material are placed into an evacuable chamber, and the chamber pumped to vacuum. Thereafter a series of high impulse voltage pulses are applied to the target. Nearly simultaneously with each pulse, in one embodiment, a small cathodic arc source of the same material as the target is pulsed, triggering a plasma plume proximate to the surface of the target to thereby initiate the magnetron sputtering process. In another embodiment the plasma plume is generated using a pulsed laser aimed to strike an ablation target material positioned near the magnetron target surface.

  15. Comparison of diesel spray combustion in different high-temperature, high-pressure facilities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christiansen, Caspar; Hermant, Laurent; Malbec, Louis-Marie; Bruneaux, Gilles; Genzale, Caroline L.; Pickett, Lyle M.; Schramm, Jesper

    2010-05-01

    Diesel spray experiments at controlled high-temperature and high-pressure conditions offer the potential for an improved understanding of diesel combustion, and for the development of more accurate CFD models that will ultimately be used to improve engine design. Several spray chamber facilities capable of high-temperature, high-pressure conditions typical of engine combustion have been developed, but uncertainties about their operation exist because of the uniqueness of each facility. For the IMEM meeting, we describe results from comparative studies using constant-volume vessels at Sandia National Laboratories and IFP. Targeting the same ambient gas conditions (900 K, 60 bar, 22.8 kg/m{sup 3}, 15% oxygen) and sharing the same injector (common rail, 1500 bar, KS1.5/86 nozzle, 0.090 mm orifice diameter, n-dodecane, 363 K), we describe detailed measurements of the temperature and pressure boundary conditions at each facility, followed by observations of spray penetration, ignition, and combustion using high-speed imaging. Performing experiments at the same high-temperature, high-pressure operating conditions is an objective of the Engine Combustion Network (http://www.ca.sandia.gov/ECN/), which seeks to leverage the research capabilities and advanced diagnostics of all participants in the ECN. We expect that this effort will generate a high-quality dataset to be used for advanced computational model development at engine conditions.

  16. Electrical conductivity of wadsleyite at high temperatures and high pressures Lidong Dai a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrical conductivity of wadsleyite at high temperatures and high pressures Lidong Dai a,b , Shun 2009 Editor: L. Stixrude Keywords: electrical conductivity wadsleyite oxygen fugacity frequency water The electrical conductivity of wadsleyite aggregates has been determined under the broad range of thermodynamic

  17. High- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure, high-velocity gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halcomb, Danny L. (Camden, OH); Mohler, Jonathan H. (Spring Valley, OH)

    1990-10-16

    A high- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure and high-velocity gases comprises an oxidizable metal, an oxidizing reagent, and a high-temperature-stable gas-producing additive selected from the group consisting of metal carbides and metal nitrides.

  18. MODELING AND CONTROL OF A HIGH PRESSURE COMBINED AIR/FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barth, Eric J.

    MODELING AND CONTROL OF A HIGH PRESSURE COMBINED AIR/FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM Chao Yong Eric J. Barth.j.barth@vanderbilt.edu ABSTRACT A high pressure combined air-fuel injection system is designed and tested for an experimental free the compressor's reservoir, and high pressure fuel to mix and then inject into a combustion chamber. This paper

  19. Optical characterization of InN layers grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietz, Nikolaus

    Optical characterization of InN layers grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition M. Alevli properties of InN layers grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition have been studied. Raman, infrared at elevated temperatures, a high-pressure chemical vapor deposition HPCVD system has been established at GSU.6

  20. High-pressure coal fuel processor development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenhalgh, M.L. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

  1. Pressure Resistance Welding of High Temperature Metallic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. Jerred; L. Zirker; I. Charit; J. Cole; M. Frary; D. Butt; M. Meyer; K. L. Murty

    2010-10-01

    Pressure Resistance Welding (PRW) is a solid state joining process used for various high temperature metallic materials (Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys of MA957, MA754; martensitic alloy HT-9, tungsten etc.) for advanced nuclear reactor applications. A new PRW machine has been installed at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls for conducting joining research for nuclear applications. The key emphasis has been on understanding processing-microstructure-property relationships. Initial studies have shown that sound joints can be made between dissimilar materials such as MA957 alloy cladding tubes and HT-9 end plugs, and MA754 and HT-9 coupons. Limited burst testing of MA957/HT-9 joints carried out at various pressures up to 400oC has shown encouraging results in that the joint regions do not develop any cracking. Similar joint strength observations have also been made by performing simple bend tests. Detailed microstructural studies using SEM/EBSD tools and fatigue crack growth studies of MA754/HT-9 joints are ongoing.

  2. TENSILE TESTING OF CARBON STEEL IN HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, A; Thad Adams, T; Ps Lam, P

    2007-05-02

    An infrastructure of new and existing pipelines and systems will be required to carry and to deliver hydrogen as an alternative energy source under the hydrogen economy. Carbon and low alloy steels of moderate strength are currently used in hydrogen delivery systems as well as in the existing natural gas systems. It is critical to understand the material response of these standard pipeline materials when they are subjected to pressurized hydrogen environments. The methods and results from a testing program to quantify hydrogen effects on mechanical properties of carbon steel pipeline and pipeline weld materials are provided. Tensile properties of one type of steel (A106 Grade B) in base metal, welded and heat affected zone conditions were tested at room temperature in air and high pressure (10.34 MPa or 1500 psig) hydrogen. A general reduction in the materials ability to plastically deform was noted in this material when specimens were tested in hydrogen. Furthermore, the primary mode of fracture was changed from ductile rupture in air to cleavage with secondary tearing in hydrogen. The mechanical test results will be applied in future analyses to evaluate service life of the pipelines. The results are also envisioned to be part of the bases for construction codes and structural integrity demonstrations for hydrogen service pipeline and vessels.

  3. Development of Designer Diamond Technology for High-Pressure-High Temperature Experiments in Support of the Stockpile Stewardship

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vohra, Yogesh, K.

    2003-08-27

    OAK B127 Development of Designer Diamond Technology for High-Pressure-High Temperature Experiments in Support of the Stockpile Stewardship

  4. Vacuum surface flashover and high pressure gas streamers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elizondo, J.M.; Krogh, M.L.; Smith, D.; Stolz, D.; Wright, S.N. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Div.; Sampayan, S.E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Vitello, P.; Tishchenko, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Pre-breakdown current traces obtained during high pressure gas breakdown and vacuum surface flashover show similar signatures. The initial pre-breakdown current spike, a flat constant current phase, and the breakdown phase with voltage collapse and current surge differ mostly in magnitude. Given these similarities, a model, consisting of the initial current spike corresponding to a fast precursor streamer (ionization wave led by a photoionizing front), the flat current stage as the heating or glow phase, and the terminal avalanche and gap closure, is applied to vacuum surface flashover. A simple analytical approximation based on the resistivity changes induced in the vacuum and dielectric surface is presented. The approximation yields an excellent fit to pre-breakdown time delay vs applied field for previously published experimental data. A detailed kinetics model that includes surface and gas contributions is being developed based in the initial approximation.

  5. On the atomic line profiles in high pressure plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janssen, J. F. J.; Gnybida, M.; Rijke, A. J.; Dijk, J. van [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)] [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Suijker, J. L. G. [Philips Lighting R and D Category Professional Lamps, P.O. Box 80020, 5600 JM Eindhoven (Netherlands)] [Philips Lighting R and D Category Professional Lamps, P.O. Box 80020, 5600 JM Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-11-14

    In a previous contribution to this journal [H. P. Stormberg, J. Appl. Phys. 51(4), 1963 (1980)], Stormberg presented an analytical expression for the convolution of Lorentz and Levy line profiles, which models atomic radiative transitions in high pressure plasmas. Unfortunately, the derivations are flawed with errors and the final expression, while correct, is accompanied by misguiding comments about the meaning of the symbols used therein, in particular the “complex error function.” In this paper, we discuss the broadening mechanisms that give rise to Stormberg's model and present a correct derivation of his final result. We will also provide an alternative expression, based on the Faddeeva function, which has decisive computational advantages and emphasizes the real-valuedness of the result. The MATLAB/Octave scripts of our implementation have been made available on the publisher's website for future reference.

  6. Preconcentrator with high volume chiller for high vapor pressure particle detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L

    2013-10-22

    Apparatus and method for collecting particles of both high and low vapor pressure target materials entrained in a large volume sample gas stream. Large volume active cooling provides a cold air supply which is mixed with the sample gas stream to reduce the vapor pressure of the particles. In embodiments, a chiller cools air from ambient conditions to 0-15.degree. C. with the volumetric flow rate of the cold air supply being at least equal to the volumetric flow rate of the sample gas stream. In further embodiments an adsorption media is heated in at least two stages, a first of which is below a threshold temperature at which decomposition products of the high vapor pressure particle are generated.

  7. Equations of state of ice VI and ice VII at high pressure and high temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bezacier, Lucile; Hanfland, Michael; Journaux, Baptiste; Perrillat, Jean-Philippe; Cardon, Hervé; Daniel, Isabelle

    2014-09-14

    High-pressure H{sub 2}O polymorphs among which ice VI and ice VII are abundant in the interiors of large icy satellites and exo-planets. Knowledge of the elastic properties of these pure H{sub 2}O ices at high-temperature and high-pressure is thus crucial to decipher the internal structure of icy bodies. In this study we assess for the first time the pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) relations of both polycrystalline pure ice VI and ice VII at high pressures and temperatures from 1 to 9 GPa and 300 to 450 K, respectively, by using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The PVT data are adjusted to a second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and give V{sub 0} = 14.17(2) cm{sup 3}?mol{sup ?1}, K{sub 0} = 14.05(23) GPa, and ?{sub 0} = 14.6(14) × 10{sup ?5} K{sup ?1} for ice VI and V{sub 0} = 12.49(1) cm{sup 3}?mol{sup ?1}, K{sub 0} = 20.15(16) GPa, and ?{sub 0} = 11.6(5) × 10{sup ?5} K{sup ?1} for ice VII.

  8. High-pressure cell for neutron diffraction with in situ pressure control at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, Matthew K.; Ridley, Christopher J.; Bocian, Artur; Kamenev, Konstantin V.; Kirichek, Oleg; Manuel, Pascal; Khalyavin, Dmitry; Azuma, Masaki; Attfield, J. Paul

    2014-04-15

    Pressure generation at cryogenic temperatures presents a problem for a wide array of experimental techniques, particularly neutron studies due to the volume of sample required. We present a novel, compact pressure cell with a large sample volume in which load is generated by a bellow. Using a supply of helium gas up to a pressure of 350 bar, a load of up to 78 kN is generated with leak-free operation. In addition, special fiber ports added to the cryogenic center stick allow for in situ pressure determination using the ruby pressure standard. Mechanical stability was assessed using finite element analysis and the dimensions of the cell have been optimized for use with standard cryogenic equipment. Load testing and on-line experiments using NaCl and BiNiO{sub 3} have been done at the WISH instrument of the ISIS pulsed neutron source to verify performance.

  9. High Performance Fuel Desing for Next Generation Pressurized Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mujid S. Kazimi; Pavel Hejzlar

    2006-01-31

    The use of internally and externally cooled annular fule rods for high power density Pressurized Water Reactors is assessed. The assessment included steady state and transient thermal conditions, neutronic and fuel management requirements, mechanical vibration issues, fuel performance issues, fuel fabrication methods and econmic assessment. The investigation was donducted by a team from MIT, Westinghouse, Gamma Engineering, Framatome ANP, and AECL. The analyses led to the conclusion that raising the power density by 50% may be possible with this advanced fuel. Even at the 150% power level, the fuel temperature would be a few hundred degrees lower than the current fuel temperatre. Significant economic and safety advantages can be obtained by using this fuel in new reactors. Switching to this type of fuel for existing reactors would yield safety advantages, but the economic return is dependent on the duration of plant shutdown to accommodate higher power production. The main feasiblity issue for the high power performance appears to be the potential for uneven splitting of heat flux between the inner and outer fuel surfaces due to premature closure of the outer fuel-cladding gap. This could be overcome by using a very narrow gap for the inner fuel surface and/or the spraying of a crushable zirconium oxide film at the fuel pellet outer surface. An alternative fuel manufacturing approach using vobropacking was also investigated but appears to yield lower than desirable fuel density.

  10. High-pressure studies on molecular systems at ambient and low temperatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cameron, Christopher Alistair

    2015-06-30

    Pressure and temperature are two environmental variables that are increasingly being exploited by solid-state researchers probing structure-property relationships in the crystalline state. Modern high-pressure apparatus ...

  11. High Temperature Electrolysis Pressurized Experiment Design, Operation, and Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G.K. Housley; K. DeWall; L. Moore-McAteer

    2012-09-01

    A new facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for pressurized testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. Pressurized operation is envisioned for large-scale hydrogen production plants, yielding higher overall efficiencies when the hydrogen product is to be delivered at elevated pressure for tank storage or pipelines. Pressurized operation also supports higher mass flow rates of the process gases with smaller components. The test stand can accommodate planar cells with dimensions up to 8.5 cm x 8.5 cm and stacks of up to 25 cells. It is also suitable for testing other cell and stack geometries including tubular cells. The pressure boundary for these tests is a water-cooled spool-piece pressure vessel designed for operation up to 5 MPa. Pressurized operation of a ten-cell internally manifolded solid oxide electrolysis stack has been successfully demonstrated up 1.5 MPa. The stack is internally manifolded and operates in cross-flow with an inverted-U flow pattern. Feed-throughs for gas inlets/outlets, power, and instrumentation are all located in the bottom flange. The entire spool piece, with the exception of the bottom flange, can be lifted to allow access to the internal furnace and test fixture. Lifting is accomplished with a motorized threaded drive mechanism attached to a rigid structural frame. Stack mechanical compression is accomplished using springs that are located inside of the pressure boundary, but outside of the hot zone. Initial stack heatup and performance characterization occurs at ambient pressure followed by lowering and sealing of the pressure vessel and subsequent pressurization. Pressure equalization between the anode and cathode sides of the cells and the stack surroundings is ensured by combining all of the process gases downstream of the stack. Steady pressure is maintained by means of a backpressure regulator and a digital pressure controller. A full description of the pressurized test apparatus is provided in this report. Results of initial testing showed the expected increase in open-cell voltage associated with elevated pressure. However, stack performance in terms of area-specific resistance was enhanced at elevated pressure due to better gas diffusion through the porous electrodes of the cells. Some issues such as cracked cells and seals were encountered during testing. Full resolution of these issues will require additional testing to identify the optimum test configurations and protocols.

  12. Bonfire Tests of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tanks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These slides were presented at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27 – 29, 2010, in Beijing, China.

  13. High-pressure solvent extraction of methane from geopressured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    followed by conventional mechanical pumping. The contributions of hydraulic (pressure) energy recovery and geothermal power production are also assessed. For deep injection into...

  14. X-ray Imaging of Shock Waves Generated by High-Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, Sol M.

    , the fuel jets can exceed supersonic speeds and result in gaseous shock waves. High-pressure, high-speed monochromat- ic x-radiography to probe the high-speed fuel sprays and show the generation of shock waves. We studied a high-pressure common-rail diesel injection system typical of that in a passenger car

  15. Size-dependent structure of silver nanoparticles under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koski, Kristie Jo

    2008-12-31

    Silver noble metal nanoparticles that are<10 nm often possess multiply twinned grains allowing them to adopt shapes and atomic structures not observed in bulk materials. The properties exhibited by particles with multiply twinned polycrystalline structures are often far different from those of single-crystalline particles and from the bulk. I will present experimental evidence that silver nanoparticles<10 nm undergo a reversible structural transformation under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 GPa. Results for nanoparticles in the intermediate size range of 5 to 10 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent rhombohedral distortion which has not been previously observed in bulk silver. I propose a mechanism for this transitiion that considers the bond-length distribution in idealized multiply twinned icosahedral particles. Results for nanoparticles of 3.9 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent orthorhombic distortion. This distortion is interpreted in the context of idealized decahedral particles. In addition, given these size-dependent measurements of silver nanoparticle compression with pressure, we have constructed a pressure calibration curve. Encapsulating these silver nanoparticles in hollow metal oxide nanospheres then allows us to measure the pressure inside a nanoshell using x-ray diffraction. We demonstrate the measurement of pressure gradients across nanoshells and show that these nanoshells have maximum resolved shear strengths on the order of 500 MPa to IGPa.

  16. Aerosol source term in high pressure melt ejection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockmann, J.E.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1984-11-01

    Pressurized ejection of melt from a reactor pressure vessel has been identified as an important element of a severe reactor accident. Copious aerosol production is observed when thermitically generated melts pressurized with nitrogen or carbon dioxide to 1.3 to 17 MPa are ejected into an air atmosphere. Aerosol particle size distributions measured in the tests have modes of about 0.5, 5, and > 10 ..mu..m. Mechanisms leading to formation of these multimodal size distributions are suggested. This aerosol is a potentially important fission product source term that has not been considered in previous severe accident analyses.

  17. High-pressure gasification of Montana subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, A.; Bryan, B.; Rehmat, A.

    1991-01-01

    A data base for the fluidized-bed gasification of different coals at elevated pressures has been developed at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with different ranks of coal at pressures up to 450 psig and at temperatures dictated by the individual coals. Adequate data have been obtained to characterize the effect of pressure on the gasification of Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal and North Dakota lignite. The results obtained with Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal are presented here. This program was funded by the Gas Research Institute. 9 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Materials for High-Pressure Fuel Injection Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, P.; Shyam, A.; Hubbard, C.; Howe, J.; Trejo, R.; Yang, N.; Pollard, M.

    2011-09-30

    The high-level goal of this multi-year effort was to facilitate the Advanced Combustion Engine goal of 20% improvement (compared to 2009 baseline) of commercial engine efficiency by 2015. A sub-goal is to increase the reliability of diesel fuel injectors by investigating modelbased scenarios that cannot be achieved by empirical, trial and error methodologies alone. During this three-year project, ORNL developed the methodology to evaluate origins and to record the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks emanating from holes that were electrodischarge machined (EDM), the method used to form spray holes in fuel injector tips. Both x-ray and neutron-based methods for measuring residual stress at four different research facilities were evaluated to determine which, if any, was most applicable to the fuel injector tip geometry. Owing to the shape and small volumes of material involved in the sack area, residual stress data could only be obtained in the walls of the nozzle a few millimeters back from the tip, and there was a hint of only a small compressive stress. This result was consistent with prior studies by Caterpillar. Residual stress studies were suspended after the second year, reserving the possibility of pursuing this in the future, if and when methodology suitable for injector sacks becomes available. The smooth specimen fatigue behavior of current fuel injector steel materials was evaluated and displayed a dual mode initiation behavior. At high stresses, cracks started at machining flaws in the surface; however, below a critical threshold stress of approximately 800 MPa, cracks initiated in the bulk microstructure, below the surface. This suggests that for the next generation for high-pressure fuel injector nozzles, it becomes increasingly important to control the machining and finishing processes, especially if the stress in the tip approaches or exceeds that threshold level. Fatigue tests were also conducted using EDM notches in the gage sections. Compared to the smooth specimens, EDM notching led to a severe reduction in total fatigue life. A reduction in fatigue life of nearly four orders of magnitude can occur at an EDM notch the approximate size of fuel injector spray holes. Consequently, the initiation and propagation behavior of cracks from small spray holes is relevant for generation of design quality data for the next generation diesel fuel injection devices. This is especially true since the current design methodologies usually rely on the less conservative smooth specimen fatigue testing results, and since different materials can have varying levels of notch fatigue resistance.

  19. Surface structure, composition, and polarity of indium nitride grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietz, Nikolaus

    grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition have been studied. Atomic hydrogen cleaning produced and heterostructures--which can be accomplished by low- pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition MOCVD --the- rium vapor pressure of nitrogen during growth. This requires different approaches in growing structures

  20. Instrumentation development for neutron scattering at high pressure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Junwei

    2012-11-29

    Neutron scattering at extremes of pressure is a powerful tool for studying the response of structural and magnetic properties of materials on microscopic level to applied stresses. However, experimental neutron studies ...

  1. An In-situ Tensile Test Apparatus for Polymers in High Pressure Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Pitman, Stan G.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Tucker, Joseph C.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Dahl, Michael E.

    2014-10-10

    Degradation of material properties by high-pressure hydrogen is an important factor in determining the safety and reliability of materials used in high-pressure hydrogen storage and delivery. Hydrogen damage mechanisms have a time dependence that is linked to hydrogen outgassing after exposure to the hydrogen atmosphere that makes ex-situ measurements of mechanical properties problematic. Designing in-situ measurement instruments for high-pressure hydrogen is challenging due to known hydrogen incompatibility with many metals and standard high-power motor materials like Nd. Here we detail the design and operation of a solenoid based in-situ tensile tester under high-pressure hydrogen environments up to 5,000 psi. Modulus data from high-density polyethylene (HDPE) samples tested under high-pressure hydrogen are also reported as compared to baseline measurements taken in air.

  2. An in situ tensile test apparatus for polymers in high pressure hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvine, K. J. Kafentzis, T. A.; Pitman, S. G.; Johnson, K. I.; Skorski, D.; Tucker, J. C.; Roosendaal, T. J.; Dahl, M. E.

    2014-10-15

    Degradation of material properties by high-pressure hydrogen is an important factor in determining the safety and reliability of materials used in high-pressure hydrogen storage and delivery. Hydrogen damage mechanisms have a time dependence that is linked to hydrogen outgassing after exposure to the hydrogen atmosphere that makes ex situ measurements of mechanical properties problematic. Designing in situ measurement instruments for high-pressure hydrogen is challenging due to known hydrogen incompatibility with many metals and standard high-power motor materials such as Nd. Here we detail the design and operation of a solenoid based in situ tensile tester under high-pressure hydrogen environments up to 42 MPa (6000 psi). Modulus data from high-density polyethylene samples tested under high-pressure hydrogen at 35 MPa (5000 psi) are also reported as compared to baseline measurements taken in air.

  3. Development of Designer Diamond Technology for High Pressure High Temperature Experiments in Support of Stockpile Stewardship Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vohra, Yogesh, K.

    2009-10-28

    The role of nitrogen in the fabrication of designer diamond was systematically investigated by adding controlled amount of nitrogen in hydrogen/methane/oxygen plasma. This has led to a successful recipe for reproducible fabrication of designer diamond anvils for high-pressure high-temperature research in support of stockpile stewardship program. In the three-year support period, several designer diamonds fabricated with this new growth chemistry were utilized in high-pressure experiments at UAB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The designer diamond anvils were utilized in high-pressure studies on heavy rare earth metals, high pressure melting studies on metals, and electrical resistance measurements on iron-based layered superconductors under high pressures. The growth chemistry developed under NNSA support can be adapted for commercial production of designer diamonds.

  4. Constant pressure high throughput membrane permeation testing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albenze, Erik J.; Hopkinson, David P.; Luebke, David R.

    2014-09-02

    The disclosure relates to a membrane testing system for individual evaluation of a plurality of planar membranes subjected to a feed gas on one side and a sweep gas on a second side. The membrane testing system provides a pressurized flow of a feed and sweep gas to each membrane testing cell in a plurality of membrane testing cells while a stream of retentate gas from each membrane testing cell is ported by a retentate multiport valve for sampling or venting, and a stream of permeate gas from each membrane testing cell is ported by a permeate multiport valve for sampling or venting. Back pressure regulators and mass flow controllers act to maintain substantially equivalent gas pressures and flow rates on each side of the planar membrane throughout a sampling cycle. A digital controller may be utilized to position the retentate and permeate multiport valves cyclically, allowing for gas sampling of different membrane cells over an extended period of time.

  5. High-temperature fiber optic cubic-zirconia pressure sensor - article no. 124402

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, W.; Pickrell, G.R.; Wang, A.B.

    2005-12-15

    There is a critical need for pressure sensors that can operate reliably at high temperatures in many industrial segments such as in the combustion section of gas turbine engines for both transportation and power generation, coal gasifiers, coal fired boilers, etc. Optical-based sensors are particularly attractive for the measurement of a wide variety of physical and chemical parameters in high-temperature and high-pressure industrial environments due to their small size and immunity to electromagnetic interference. A fiber optic pressure sensor utilizing single-crystal cubic zirconia as the sensing element is reported. The pressure response of this sensor has been measured at temperatures up to 1000{sup o}C. Additional experimental results show that cubic zirconia could be used for pressure sensing at temperatures over 1000{sup o}C. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a novel cubic-zirconia sensor for pressure measurement at high temperatures.

  6. OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR K.J. BACHMANN simulations as a fundamental design tool in developing a new prototype high pressure organometallic chemical vapor deposition (HPOMCVD) reactor for use in thin film crystal growth. The advantages of such a reactor

  7. Energy-transfer dynamics of high-pressure rovibrationally excited molecular H2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Augustine, Mathew P.

    Energy-transfer dynamics of high-pressure rovibrationally excited molecular H2 David J. Saiki 2005; published online 14 September 2005 The energy-transfer dynamics of high-pressure molecular H2 gas energy transfer is described and used to fit the experimental Raman scattering results obtained

  8. Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2001-01-01

    An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  9. Instrumentation development for magneto-transport and neutron scattering measurements at high pressure and low temperature 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Weiwei

    2013-07-01

    High pressure, high magnetic field and low temperature techniques are required to investigate magnetic transitions and quantum critical behaviour in different ferromagnetic materials to elucidate how novel forms of ...

  10. High pressure ejection of melt from a reactor pressure vessel. The discharge phase. Revision 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilch, M.; Tarbell, W.M.

    1985-09-01

    Recent probabilistic risk-assessment studies identified potential accident sequences in which reactor vessel failure occurs while the primary system is at elevated pressure. The phenomenology of the discharge phase is reviewed here. We propose an improved model for hole ablation following vessel failure, and we compare the model with experiment data. Gas blowthrough is identified as a mechanism that allows steam to escape through the vessel breach before melt ejection is complete. Gas blowthrough leads to pneumatic atomization of the remaining melt before significant depressurization of the primary system occurs.

  11. Development and utilization of a coiled tubing equipment package for work in high pressure wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adrichem, W.P. van; Gordon, D.G.; Newlands, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Cleanouts of deep, high pressure, high temperature gas wells are a common operation in South Texas. Until recently, these cleanouts required the use of snubbing units due to the high pressures encountered. This resulted in time consuming (7--12 days) and thus expensive operations. Because of this expense, efforts have been made to extend the application of coiled tubing (CT) to operations where wellhead pressures approach 10,000 psi. Testing of a specially equipped 1-1/4 inch CT unit in conditions simulating a 10,000 psi South Texas well cleanout proved that the use of a CT unit was a viable alternative to snubbing operations. Since then, some 50 high pressure cleanouts have been successfully performed at an average cost saving of 50% while taking 1--3 days to complete. This paper will focus on the operating parameters, the design, the testing and the field implementation of a high pressure CT unit.

  12. High-temperature, high-pressure bonding of nested tubular metallic components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quinby, Thomas C. (Kingston, TN)

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a tool for effecting high-temperature, high-compression bonding between the confronting faces of nested, tubular, metallic components. In a typical application, the tool is used to produce tubular target assemblies for irradiation in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators, the target assembly comprising a uranium foil and an aluminum-alloy substrate. The tool preferably is composed throughout of graphite. It comprises a tubular restraining member in which a mechanically expandable tubular core is mounted to form an annulus with the member. The components to be bonded are mounted in nested relation in the annulus. The expandable core is formed of individually movable, axially elongated segments whose outer faces cooperatively define a cylindrical pressing surface and whose inner faces cooperatively define two opposed, inwardly tapered, axial bores. Tapered rams extend respectively into the bores. The loaded tool is mounted in a conventional hot-press provided with evacuation means, heaters for maintaining its interior at bonding temperature, and hydraulic cylinders for maintaining a selected inwardly directed pressure on the tapered rams. With the hot-press evacuated and the loaded tool at the desired temperature, the cylinders are actuated to apply the selected pressure to the rams. The rams in turn expand the segmented core to maintain the nested components in compression against the restraining member. These conditions are maintained until the confronting faces of the nested components are joined in a continuous, uniform bond characterized by high thermal conductivity.

  13. Heat transfer and pressure drop data for high heat flux densities to water at high subcritical pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohsenow, Warren M.

    1951-01-01

    Local surface ooeffioients of heat t-ansfer, overall pressure drop data and mean friction factor are presented for heat flamms up to 3.52106 BtuAr ft2 for water flowing in a nickel tabe isder the following conditions: mass ...

  14. Lithium pellet injection into high pressure magnetically confined plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Böse, Brock (Brock Darrel)

    2010-01-01

    The ablation of solid pellets injected into high temperature magnetically confined plasmas is characterized by rapid oscillations in the ablation rate, and the formation of field aligned filaments in the ablatant. High ...

  15. Carrier concentration and surface electron accumulation in indium nitride layers grown by high pressure chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietz, Nikolaus

    pressure chemical vapor deposition R. P. Bhatta, B. D. Thoms,a A. Weerasekera, A. G. U. Perera, M. Alevli properties of InN layer grown by high pressure chemical vapor deposition have been studied by high-nitride alloys is challenging under low pressure process conditions due to higher equilibrium vapor pressure

  16. Hydrogen incorporation in stishovite at high pressure and symmetric hydrogen bonding in N-AlOOH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stixrude, Lars

    Hydrogen incorporation in stishovite at high pressure and symmetric hydrogen bonding in N significant amounts of hydrogen in stishovite under lower-mantle conditions. The enthalpy of solution pressure and temperature. We predict asymmetric hydrogen bonding in the stishovite^N-AlOOH solid solution

  17. Fermi Surface of Uranium at Ambient Pressure Gregory S. Boebinger, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    Fermi Surface of ­Uranium at Ambient Pressure Gregory S. Boebinger, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory DMR-Award 0654118 DC Field Facility User Program The fermi surface of ­Uranium has been measured surface of alpha-uranium at ambient pressure, Phys. Rev. B Rapid Commun., 80, 241101 (2009). B//c-axis B

  18. Alternated high-and low-pressure nitriding of austenitic stainless steel: Mechanisms and results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alternated high- and low-pressure nitriding of austenitic stainless steel: Mechanisms and results G a gas mixture of (N2 /H2):(50/50) in pressure, was applied to stainless-steel AISI 304. In the first penetrate far beyond the compound layer. These nitrogen atoms, uptaken into the austenitic stainless-steel

  19. Development test report for the high pressure water jet system nozzles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takasumi, D.S.

    1995-09-28

    The high pressure water jet nozzle tests were conducted to identify optimum water pressure, water flow rate, nozzle orifice size and fixture configuration needed to effectively decontaminate empty fuel storage canisters in KE-Basin. This report gives the tests results and recommendations from the these tests.

  20. APPLICATION OF CERAMICS TO HIGH PRESSURE FUEL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandler, Jr., William F.

    2000-08-20

    Diesel fuel systems are facing increased demands as engines with reduced emissions are developed. Injection pressures have increased to provide finer atomization of fuel for more efficient combustion, Figure 1. This increases the mechanical loads on the system and requires tighter clearances between plungers and bores to prevent leakage. At the same time, fuel lubricity has decreased as a byproduct of reducing the sulfur levels in fuel. Contamination of fuel by water and debris is an ever-present problem. For oil-lubricated fuel system components, increased soot loading in the oil results in increased wear rates. Additionally, engine manufacturers are lengthening warranty periods for engines and systems. This combination of factors requires the development of new materials to counteract the harsher tribological environment.

  1. High Pressure PEM Electrolysis: Status, Key Issues, and Challenges

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡High HIGH PERFORMANCE and1High

  2. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators - Steam Tip Sheet #22

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on installing high-pressure boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  3. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on installing high-pressure boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  4. Development of the High-Pressure Direct-Injection ISX G Natural Gas Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-08-01

    Fact sheet details work by Cummins and Westport Innovations to develop a heavy-duty, low-NOx, high-pressure direct-injection natural gas engine for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle activity.

  5. PLASTIC-PDMS HYBRID DEVICES FOR HIGH PRESSURE HYDROLYTICALLY STABLE ACTIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ram, Rajeev J.

    for microfluidic chip fabrication [1]. Plastics can be manufactured using mass fabrication technologies the functionality of PDMS with established plastic fabrication technologies. BACKGROUND Irreversible bonding betweenPLASTIC-PDMS HYBRID DEVICES FOR HIGH PRESSURE HYDROLYTICALLY STABLE ACTIVE MICROFLUIDICS Kevin S

  6. Design strategies for optimizing high burnup fuel in pressurized water reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Zhiwen, 1975-

    2003-01-01

    This work is focused on the strategy for utilizing high-burnup fuel in pressurized water reactors (PWR) with special emphasis on the full array of neutronic considerations. The historical increase in batch-averaged discharge ...

  7. High-pressure three-phase fluidization: Hydrodynamics and heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, X.; Jiang, P.; Fan, L.S.

    1997-10-01

    High-pressure operations are common in industrial applications of gas-liquid-solid fluidized-bed reactors for resid hydrotreating, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, coal methanation, methanol synthesis, polymerization, and other reactions. The phase holdups and the heat-transfer behavior were studied experimentally in three-phase fluidized beds over a pressure range of 0.1--15.6 MPa. Bubble characteristics in the bed are examined by direct flow visualization. Pressure effects on the bubble coalescence and breakup are analyzed mechanistically. The study indicates that the pressure affects the hydrodynamics and heat-transfer properties of a three-phase fluidized bed significantly. The average bubble size decreases and the bubble-size distribution becomes narrower with an increase in pressure. The bubble-size reduction leads to an increase in the transition gas velocity from the dispersed bubble regime to the coalesced bubble regime, an increase in the gas holdup, and a decrease in the liquid and solids holdups. The pressure effect is insignificant above 6 MPa. The heat-transfer coefficient between an immersed surface and the bed increases to a maximum at pressure 6--8 MPa and then decreases with an increase in pressure at a given gas and liquid flow rate. This variation is attributed to the pressure effects on phase holdups and physical properties of the gas and liquid phases. A mechanistic analysis revealed that the major heat-transfer resistance in high-pressure three-phase fluidized beds resides in a liquid film surrounding the heat-0transfer surface. An empirical correlation is proposed to predict the heat-transfer coefficient under high-pressure conditions.

  8. Innovative fuel designs for high power density pressurized water reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Dandong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    One of the ways to lower the cost of nuclear energy is to increase the power density of the reactor core. Features of fuel design that enhance the potential for high power density are derived based on characteristics of ...

  9. A device for debridement using high pressure water jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Ashley (Ashley A.)

    2014-01-01

    Removing devitalized tissue from chronic wounds through debridement is critical to promote wound healing. In this thesis, technology using high-speed water jets is explored toward applications for debridement. After ...

  10. Vehicle having hydraulic and power steering systems using a single high pressure pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2001-06-22

    A vehicle comprises a plurality of wheels attached to a vehicle housing. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a power steering system, including a fluid flow circuit, which is operably coupled to a number of the wheels. An internal combustion engine attached to the vehicle housing is connected to a hydraulically actuated system that includes a high pressure pump. An outlet of the high pressure pump is in fluid communication with the fluid flow circuit.

  11. Phase transitions in delafossite CuLaO{sub 2} at high pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salke, Nilesh P.; Rao, Rekha Gupta, M. K.; Mittal, R.; Garg, Alka B.; Achary, S. N.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2014-04-07

    Structural stability of a transparent conducting oxide CuLaO{sub 2} at high pressures is investigated using in-situ Raman spectroscopy, electrical resistance, and x-ray diffraction techniques. The present Raman investigations indicate a sequence of structural phase transitions at 1.8?GPa and 7?GPa. The compound remains in the first high pressure phase when pressure is released. Electrical resistance measurements carried out at high pressures confirm the second phase transition. These observations are further supported by powder x-ray diffraction at high pressures which also showed that a-axis is more compressible than c-axis in this compound. Fitting the pressure dependence of unit cell volume to 3{sup rd} order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, zero pressure bulk modulus of CuLaO{sub 2} is determined to be 154(25) GPa. The vibrational properties in the ambient delafossite phase of CuLaO{sub 2} are investigated using ab-initio calculations of phonon frequencies to complement the Raman spectroscopic measurements. Temperature dependence of the Raman modes of CuLaO{sub 2} is investigated to estimate the anharmonicity of Raman modes.

  12. High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  13. DEVELOPMENT OF ASME SECTION X CODE RULES FOR HIGH PRESSURE COMPOSITE HYDROGEN PRESSURE VESSELS WITH NON-LOAD SHARING LINERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawls, G.; Newhouse, N.; Rana, M.; Shelley, B.; Gorman, M.

    2010-04-13

    The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Project Team on Hydrogen Tanks was formed in 2004 to develop Code rules to address the various needs that had been identified for the design and construction of up to 15000 psi hydrogen storage vessel. One of these needs was the development of Code rules for high pressure composite vessels with non-load sharing liners for stationary applications. In 2009, ASME approved new Appendix 8, for Section X Code which contains the rules for these vessels. These vessels are designated as Class III vessels with design pressure ranging from 20.7 MPa (3,000 ps)i to 103.4 MPa (15,000 psi) and maximum allowable outside liner diameter of 2.54 m (100 inches). The maximum design life of these vessels is limited to 20 years. Design, fabrication, and examination requirements have been specified, included Acoustic Emission testing at time of manufacture. The Code rules include the design qualification testing of prototype vessels. Qualification includes proof, expansion, burst, cyclic fatigue, creep, flaw, permeability, torque, penetration, and environmental testing.

  14. Annealed high-density amorphous ice under pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    : 28 May 2006; doi:10.1038/nphys313 The well-known expansion of water on cooling below 277 K is one below 277 K responsible for lakes and seas freezing from the top down. This curious behaviour has been- order transition line between low- and high-density water below 220 K, but that cannot be tested

  15. Pyrolysis product distribution of a Victorian brown coal under high pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathe, C.; Li, C.Z.

    1999-07-01

    A Loy Yang brown coal sample was pyrolyzed in a wire-mesh reactor at pressures ranging from 100 kPa to 1000 kPa. Tar yield was found to be very sensitive to changes in heating rate, peak temperature, holding time and pressure. Tar yield decreased with increases in pressure at high heating rate. At low heating rate tar yield was not sensitive to changes in pressure. Char yields were found to be much less sensitive to changes in pressure and/or heating rate. UV absorption spectroscopy of the tar samples indicated that the yields of larger aromatic ring systems decreased with increasing pressure and/or decreasing heating rate. The effects of pressure are mainly due to the changes in the transportation of volatile precursors with pressure. Increases in pressure might have slowed down the bulk diffusion within meso- and macro-pores in char, which in turn have slowed down the Knudsen diffusion in the micro-pores due to the reduced concentration gradients for the Knudsen diffusion. During the extended stay within the char particle, volatile precursors were thermally cracked, leading to the retention of some larger aromatic ring systems as char and the release of other components as tar and gas.

  16. High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartmentHigh-EfficiencyPatrickMaterials

  17. High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartmentHigh-EfficiencyPatrickMaterialsTube

  18. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  19. LNG Vehicle High-Pressure Fuel System and ''Cold Energy'' Utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    powers,Charles A.; Derbidge, T. Craig

    2001-03-27

    A high-pressure fuel system for LNG vehicles with direct-injection natural gas engines has been developed and demonstrated on a heavy-duty truck. A new concept for utilizing the ''cold energy'' associated with LNG vehicles to generate mechanical power to drive auxiliary equipment (such as high-pressure fuel pumps) has also been developed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The high-pressure LNG fuel system development included the design and testing of a new type of cryogenic pump utilizes multiple chambers and other features to condense moderate quantities of sucked vapor and discharge supercritical LNG at 3,000 to 4,000 psi. The pump was demonstrated on a Class 8 truck with a Westport high-pressure direct-injection Cummins ISX engine. A concept that utilizes LNG's ''cold energy'' to drive a high-pressure fuel pump without engine attachments or power consumption was developed. Ethylene is boiled and superheated by the engine coolant, and it is cooled and condensed by rejecting h eat to the LNG. Power is extracted in a full-admission blowdown process, and part of this power is applied to pump the ethylene liquid to the boiler pressure. Tests demonstrated a net power output of 1.1. hp at 1.9 Lbm/min of LNG flow, which is adequate to isentropically pump the LNG to approximately 3,400 psi..

  20. Behavior of a hollow core photonic crystal fiber under high radial pressure for downhole application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadeghi, J., E-mail: j-sadeghi@sbu.ac.ir; Chenari, Z.; Ziaee, F. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Latifi, H., E-mail: latifi@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Santos, J. L., E-mail: josantos@fc.up.pt [INESC Porto—Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Física, da Faculdade de Ciências, da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2014-02-17

    Pressure fiber sensors play an important role in downhole high pressure measurements to withstand long term operation. The purpose of this paper is to present an application of hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) as a high pressure sensor head for downhole application based on dispersion variation. We used a high pressure stainless steel unit to exert pressure on the sensor. The experimental results show that different wavelengths based on sagnac loop interferometer have additive sensitivities from 5?×?10{sup ?5}?nm/psi at 1480?nm to 1.3?×?10{sup ?3}?nm/psi at 1680?nm. We developed a simulation to understand the reason for difference in sensitivity of wavelengths and also the relationship between deformation of HC-PCF and dispersion variation under pressure. For this purpose, by using the finite element method, we investigated the effect of structural variation of HC-PCF on spectral transformation of two linear polarizations under 1000?psi pressure. The simulation and experimental results show exponential decay behavior of dispersion variation from ?3.4?×?10{sup ?6} 1/psi to ?1.3?×?10{sup ?6} 1/psi and from ?5?×?10{sup ?6} 1/psi to ?1.8?×?10{sup ?6} 1/psi, respectively, which were in a good accordance with each other.

  1. High-pressure Raman spectroscopy of phase change materials (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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  2. High-pressure stability relations, crystal structures, and physical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers (Journal Article)SciTechHigh-contrastproperties of perovskite

  3. Working with SRNL - Our Facilities- High Pressure Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  4. Stability of coal microstructure on exposure to high pressures of helium.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakurovs, Richard [ORNL; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Blach, Tomasz P [ORNL; Cheng, Gang [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra-small angle neutron scattering (USANS) measurements of the structure of two Australian bituminous coals (particle size -1mm+0.5mm) before, during and after exposure to 155 bar of helium were made in order to identify any effects of pressure alone on the pore size distribution of coal, and any irreversible effects on exposure to high pressures of helium in the pore size range from 3 nm to 10 m. No irreversible effects on exposure were identified for any pore size. No effects of pressure on pore size distribution were observed, except for a small effect at a pore size of about 2 m for one coal. This study provides a convenient baseline for SANS and USANS investigations on sorption of gases at elevated pressures on coals, by distinguishing between the effect of pressure alone on coal pore size distribution as against the effect of the gas to be investigated.

  5. Progress Report for UNLV High Pressure Science and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mailhiot, C.; Pepper, D.; Lindle, D.; Nicol, M.

    1998-11-20

    In this report we present results of an in-depth analysis of the SP error densities for 29 satellites. These satellites were divided into three groups--Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Near Circular Orbit (NCO) and Highly Eccentric Orbit (HEO). Included in the first group were those satellites with eccentricities of less than 0.2 and perigees below 450km. The second group included satellites in near circular orbits (eccentricities of less than 0.015) and perigees from 700km to 1500km. The third group consisted of those satellites that were in highly eccentric orbits, namely those with eccentricities greater than 0.2. These satellites have perigees far into the thermosphere. Table 1 contains a summary of the orbit characteristics for the 29 satellites. In our study we attempted to unravel and elucidate the networks of relationships above. The satellite groupings and the report are organized in a way that reflects these efforts. We begin in Section 2 with a summary of the methods used in our analysis. One objective in this study was to establish a baseline for future work in satellite orbit propagators. Section 2 contains descriptions of the SP, truth orbits, and the satellite observation data used to establish this baseline. In the report we show how satellite error densities evolve in time up to thirty-six hours. We present error profiles, error histograms, rms errors and 95/9970 confidence limits for the along-track cross-track, and radial axes of motion for satellites in each of the three groupings. We present results of a regression analysis that establishes a physical model of the error densities. We also link the errors in the various regimes to the quality and quantity of the observational data.

  6. Systematic prediction of high-pressure melting curves of transition metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hieu, Ho Khac, E-mail: hieuhk@duytan.edu.vn [Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Danang (Viet Nam)

    2014-10-28

    The pressure effects on melting temperatures of transition metals have been studied based on the combination of the modified Lindemann criterion with statistical moment method in quantum statistical mechanics. Numerical calculations have been performed for five transition metals including Cu, Pd, Pt, Ni, and Mn up to pressure 100?GPa. Our results are in good and reasonable agreements with available experimental data. This approach gives us a relatively simple method for qualitatively calculating high-pressure melting temperature. Moreover, it can be used to verify future experimental and theoretical works. This research proposes the potential of the combination of statistical moment method and the modified Lindemann criterion on predicting high-pressure melting of materials.

  7. Stability analysis and testing of a train of centrifugal compressors for high pressure gas injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Memmott, E.A. [Dresser-Rand Co., Olean, NY (United States)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the rotor dynamic stability analysis and the PTC-10 Class 1 test of a three body centrifugal compressor train for high pressure natural gas injection services. This train had a full load full pressure string test on hydrocarbon gases to a final discharge pressure of 500 BAR (7250 PSIA). Each compressor is of the back to back configuration, and is equipped with tilting pad seals, damper bearings, and a honeycomb labyrinth at the division wall with shunt holes. The driver is a gas turbine.

  8. High Pressure Transformation of La4Cu3MoO12 to a Layered Perovskite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    High Pressure Transformation of La4Cu3MoO12 to a Layered Perovskite Douglas A. Vander Griend it stabilizes the perovskite structure. In this paper, we describe the HP synthesis of a new copper-rich layered perovskite, La4Cu3MoO12, which is isotypic with La2- CuSnO6.1 When synthesized at ambient pressure (AP

  9. Development of a High Pressure/High Temperature Down-hole Turbine Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben Plamp

    2008-06-30

    As oil & natural gas deposits become more difficult to obtain by conventional means, wells must extend to deeper more heat-intensive environments. The technology of the drilling equipment required to reach these depths has exceeded the availability of electrical power sources needed to operate these tools. Historically, logging while drilling (LWD) and measure while drilling (MWD) devices utilized a wireline to supply power and communication from the operator to the tool. Lithium ion batteries were used in scenarios where a wireline was not an option, as it complicated operations. In current downhole applications, lithium ion battery (LIB) packs are the primary source for electrical power. LIB technology has been proven to supply reliable downhole power at temperatures up to 175 °C. Many of the deeper well s reach ambient temperatures above 200 °C, creating an environment too harsh for current LIB technology. Other downfalls of LIB technology are cost, limitations on charge cycles, disposal issues and possible safety hazards including explosions and fires. Downhole power generation can also be achieved by utilizing drilling fluid flow and converting it to rotational motion. This rotational motion can be harnessed to spin magnets around a series of windings to produce power proportional to the rpm experienced by the driven assembly. These generators are, in most instances, driven by turbine blades or moyno-based drilling fluid pumps. To date, no commercially available downhole power generators are capable of operating at ambient temperatures of 250 °C. A downhole power g enerator capable of operation in a 250 °C and 20,000 psi ambient environment will be an absolute necessity in the future. Dexter Magnetic Technologies’ High-Pressure High-Temperature (HPHT) Downhole Turbine Generator is capable of operating at 250 °C and 20, 000 psi, but has not been tested in an actual drilling application. The technology exists, but to date no company has been willing to test the tool.

  10. DIRECT CORRELATION OF PROTEIN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION USING HIGH-PRESSURE X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, Sol M.

    protein Citrine as a model system under high-pressure perturbation. Citrine has been compressed by high Buz Michael Barstow, Ph. D. Cornell University 2009 A protein molecule is an intricate system whose is used to refer to my co-authors: Nozomi Ando, Chae Un Kim, and my advisor, Sol Gruner, to whom I owe

  11. Analyses of High Pressure Molten Debris Dispersion for a Typical PWR Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osamu KAawabata; Mitsuhiro Kajimoto [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    In such severe core damage accident, as small LOCAs with no ECCS injection or station blackout, in which the primary reactor system remains pressurized during core melt down, certain modes of vessel failure would lead to a high pressure ejection of molten core material. In case of a local failure of the lower head, the molten materials would initially be ejected into the cavity beneath the pressure vessel may subsequently be swept out from the cavity to the containment atmosphere and it might cause the early containment failure by direct contact of containment steel liner with core debris. When the contribution of a high-pressure scenario in a core damage frequency increases, early conditional containment failure probability may become large. In the present study, the verification analysis of PHOENICS code and the combining analysis with MELCOR and PHOENICS codes were performed to examine the debris dispersion behavior during high pressure melt ejection. The PHOENICS code which can treat thermal hydraulic phenomena, was applied to the verification analysis for melt dispersion experiments conducted by the Purdue university in the United States. A low pressure melt dispersion experiment at initial pressure 1.4 MPas used metal woods as a molten material was simulated. The analytical results with molten debris dispersion mostly from the model reactor cavity compartment showed an agreement with the experimental result, but the analysis result of a volumetric median diameter of the airborne debris droplets was estimated about 1.5 times of the experimental result. The injection rates of molten debris and steam after reactor vessel failure for a typical PWR plant were analyzed using the MELCOR code. In addition, PHOENICS was applied to a 3D analysis for debris dispersion with low primary pressure at the reactor vessel failure. The analysis result showed that almost all the molten debris were dispersed from the reactor vessel cavity compartment by about 45 seconds after the start of steam release. (authors)

  12. Microaspiration for high-pressure freezing: a new method for ultrastructural preservation of fragile and sparse tissues for TEM and electron tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Triffo, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    specimens by high-pressure freezing. In: The Science offor high-pressure freezing: a new method for ultrastructuralL.A. (1989) High-pressure freezing for the preservation of

  13. High-resolution thermal expansion measurements under helium-gas pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manna, Rudra Sekhar; Wolf, Bernd; Souza, Mariano de; Lang, Michael

    2012-08-15

    We report on the realization of a capacitive dilatometer, designed for high-resolution measurements of length changes of a material for temperatures 1.4 K Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To T Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 300 K and hydrostatic pressure P Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 250 MPa. Helium ({sup 4}He) is used as a pressure-transmitting medium, ensuring hydrostatic-pressure conditions. Special emphasis has been given to guarantee, to a good approximation, constant-pressure conditions during temperature sweeps. The performance of the dilatometer is demonstrated by measurements of the coefficient of thermal expansion at pressures P Asymptotically-Equal-To 0.1 MPa (ambient pressure) and 104 MPa on a single crystal of azurite, Cu{sub 3}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}, a quasi-one-dimensional spin S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet. The results indicate a strong effect of pressure on the magnetic interactions in this system.

  14. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Samarasinghe, Nalin; Fernando, Sandun; Faulkner, William B.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage.more »Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.« less

  15. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Samarasinghe, Nalin [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering; Fernando, Sandun [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering; Faulkner, William B. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering

    2012-01-01

    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage. Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.

  16. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samarasinghe, Nalin; Fernando, Sandun; Faulkner, William B.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage. Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.

  17. High pressure phase-transformation induced texture evolution and strengthening in zirconium metal: Experiment and modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Ruifeng; Weldon, David; Vogel, Sven C.; Zhang, Jianzhong; Brown, Donald W.; Wang, Yanbin; Reiche, Helmut M.; Wang, Shanmin; Du, Shiyu; et al

    2015-07-28

    We studied the phase-transition induced texture changes and strengthening mechanism for zirconium metal under quasi-hydrostatic compression and uni-axial deformation under confined high pressure using the deformation-DIA (D-DIA) apparatus. It is shown that the experimentally obtained texture for ?-phase Zr can be qualitatively described by combining a subset of orientation variants previously proposed in two different models. The determined flow stress for the high-pressure ?-phase is 0.5–1.2 GPa, more than three times higher than that of the ?-phase. Using first-principles calculations, we investigated the mechanical and electronic properties of the two Zr polymorphs. We find that the observed strengthening can bemore »attributed to the relatively strong directional bonding in the ? phase, which significantly increases its shear plastic resistance over the ?-phase Zr. The present findings provide an alternate route for Zr metal strengthening by high-pressure phase transformation.« less

  18. Numerical investigation of high-pressure combustion in rocket engines using Flamelet/Progress-variable models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coclite, A; De Palma, P; Pascazio, G

    2015-01-01

    The present paper deals with the numerical study of high pressure LOx/H2 or LOx/hydrocarbon combustion for propulsion systems. The present research effort is driven by the continued interest in achieving low cost, reliable access to space and more recently, by the renewed interest in hypersonic transportation systems capable of reducing time-to-destination. Moreover, combustion at high pressure has been assumed as a key issue to achieve better propulsive performance and lower environmental impact, as long as the replacement of hydrogen with a hydrocarbon, to reduce the costs related to ground operations and increase flexibility. The current work provides a model for the numerical simulation of high- pressure turbulent combustion employing detailed chemistry description, embedded in a RANS equations solver with a Low Reynolds number k-omega turbulence model. The model used to study such a combustion phenomenon is an extension of the standard flamelet-progress-variable (FPV) turbulent combustion model combined ...

  19. High-pressure structural and elastic properties of Tl?O?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomis, O., E-mail: osgohi@fis.upv.es; Vilaplana, R. [Centro de Tecnologías Físicas, MALTA Consolider Team, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 València (Spain); Santamaría-Pérez, D. [Departamento de Física Aplicada-ICMUV, MALTA Consolider Team, Universidad de Valencia, Edificio de Investigación, C/Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Spain); Earth Sciences Department, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT London (United Kingdom); Ruiz-Fuertes, J. [Departamento de Física Aplicada-ICMUV, MALTA Consolider Team, Universidad de Valencia, Edificio de Investigación, C/Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Spain); Geowissenschaften, Goethe-Universität, Altenhöferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Sans, J. A.; Manjón, F. J.; Mollar, M. [Instituto de Diseño para la Fabricación y Producción Automatizada, MALTA Consolider Team, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 València (Spain); and others

    2014-10-07

    The structural properties of Thallium (III) oxide (Tl?O?) have been studied both experimentally and theoretically under compression at room temperature. X-ray powder diffraction measurements up to 37.7 GPa have been complemented with ab initio total-energy calculations. The equation of state of Tl?O? has been determined and compared to related compounds. It has been found experimentally that Tl?O? remains in its initial cubic bixbyite-type structure up to 22.0 GPa. At this pressure, the onset of amorphization is observed, being the sample fully amorphous at 25.2 GPa. The sample retains the amorphous state after pressure release. To understand the pressure-induced amorphization process, we have studied theoretically the possible high-pressure phases of Tl?O?. Although a phase transition is theoretically predicted at 5.8 GPa to the orthorhombic Rh?O?-II-type structure and at 24.2 GPa to the orthorhombic ?-Gd?S?-type structure, neither of these phases were observed experimentally, probably due to the hindrance of the pressure-driven phase transitions at room temperature. The theoretical study of the elastic behavior of the cubic bixbyite-type structure at high-pressure shows that amorphization above 22 GPa at room temperature might be caused by the mechanical instability of the cubic bixbyite-type structure which is theoretically predicted above 23.5 GPa.

  20. Stages of destruction and elastic compression of granular nanoporous carbon medium at high pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Neklyudov; O. P. Ledenyov; N. B. Bobrova; A. A. Chupikov

    2015-05-14

    The granular nanoporous carbon medium, made of the cylindrical coal granules of the adsorbent of SKT 3, at an influence by the high pressures from 1MPa to 3GPa has been researched. The eight consecutive stages of the materials specific volume change, which is characterized by a certain dependence of the volume change on the pressure change, have been registered. It is shown that there is a linear dependence on the double log log plot of the materials specific volume change on the pressure for an every stage of considered process. The two stages are clearly distinguished such as a stage of materials mechanical destruction, and a stage of elastic compression of material without the disintegration of structure at a nanscale. The hysteresis dependence of the materials specific volume change on the pressure change at the pressure decrease is observed. The small disperse coal dust particles jettisoning between the high pressure cell and the base plate was observed, resulting in the elastic stress reduction in relation to the small disperse coal dust particles volume. The obtained research data can be used to improve the designs of air filters for the radioactive chemical elements absorption at the NPP with the aims to protect the environment.

  1. High-pressure coiled-tubing technology solves resin-sand-control problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    Operators of high-pressure offshore gas wells (> 5,000 psi) have had few options for controlling sand production. Sand-control (SC) processes can be economically prohibitive when they involve extensive mobilization, demobilization, and rig-up cost of the conventional offshore rig or hydraulic workover unit. Bullheading SC chemicals from the surface can damage the formation and prohibit production. Coiled-tubing (CT) technology now allows an offshore operator to remove extensive cement residue effectively from the wellbore and place chemical SC treatments in a high-pressure-gas environment. An example from the Gulf of Mexico illustrates the technology.

  2. Design, modeling, fabrication and testing of a piezoelectric microvalve for high pressure, high frequency hydraulic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, David C. (David Christopher)

    2002-01-01

    A piezoelectrically-driven hydraulic amplification microvalve for use in high specific power hydraulic pumping applications was designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized. High frequency, high force actuation ...

  3. High pressure studies on uranium and thorium silicide compounds: Experiment S. Yagoubi a,b,c,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svane, Axel Torstein

    High pressure studies on uranium and thorium silicide compounds: Experiment and theory S. Yagoubi a, USi3, as well as some non-stoichiometric phases presented in Table 1. Among the thoriumB-type) that a ferromagnetic ordering is reported, with TC = 127 K and a saturated moment of 0.1 lB [3]. Concerning the thorium

  4. Estimating hydration changes upon biomolecular reactions from osmotic stress, high pressure,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shimizu, Seishi

    Estimating hydration changes upon biomolecular reactions from osmotic stress, high pressure as a result of a biochemical process such as binding and allosteric effects? Volumetric and osmotic stress number from volumetric data, provides a quantitative condition to gauge the accuracy of osmotic stress

  5. Self-Diffusion Coefficients of Methane or Ethane Mixtures with Hydrocarbons at High Pressure by NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dysthe, Dag Kristian

    Self-Diffusion Coefficients of Methane or Ethane Mixtures with Hydrocarbons at High Pressure by NMR in homogeneous mixtures of methane + hexane, ethane + hexane, methane + octane, ethane + octan, methane + decane, ethane + decane, and methane + hexane + benzene over the whole concentration range, at 303.2 K and 333

  6. PlasticPDMS bonding for high pressure hydrolytically stable active microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ram, Rajeev J.

    to plastics. Plastics can be manufactured using mass fabrication technologies such as injection molding with established plastic mass fabri- cation technologies. Bonding technologies Bonding between PDMS and plasticsPlastic­PDMS bonding for high pressure hydrolytically stable active microfluidics Kevin S. Lee

  7. Carbon dioxide UV laser-induced fluorescence in high-pressure flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Tonghun

    Carbon dioxide UV laser-induced fluorescence in high-pressure flames W.G. Bessler a , C. Schulz a; in final form 16 May 2003 Published online 10 June 2003 Abstract Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of carbon dioxide is investigated with excitation between 215 and 255 nm with spectrally resolved detection in 5

  8. FLOW OF A FLUID THROUGH A POROUS SOLID DUE TO HIGH PRESSURE GRADIENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonito, Andrea

    applications involving the flow of fluids through a porous media, like the problems of enhanced oil recovery technical problem where such high pressure differentials are involved is that of extracting unconventional oil deposits such as shale which is becoming ever so important now. In this study, we show

  9. Aragonite pseudomorphs in high-pressure marbles of Syros, Greece John B. Bradya,*, Michelle J. Markleyb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brady, John B.

    Aragonite pseudomorphs in high-pressure marbles of Syros, Greece John B. Bradya,*, Michelle J in the blueschist to eclogite facies marbles of Syros, Greece. The rods show a shape-preferred orientation is unusually low (Carlson and Rosenfeld, 1981). Although marbles on the island of Syros (Cyclades, Greece

  10. Studies of Charge Exchange in a High?Pressure Pulsed Electron Impact Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, D. K. Sen; Hierl, Peter M.; Franklin, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A high pressure pulsed ion source has been used in a time?of?flight mass spectrometer in order to study the charge exchangereactions in Ar–H2 and Ar–D2 systems using the ion source in the ?ermák mode of operation. As the source was used in a pulsed...

  11. A compact high-performance low-field NMR apparatus for measurements on fluids at very high pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freedman, R.; Anand, V. Ganesan, K.; Tabrizi, P.; Torres, R.; Grant, B.; Catina, D.; Ryan, D.; Borman, C.; Krueckl, C.

    2014-02-15

    We discuss an innovative new high-performance apparatus for performing low-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation times and diffusion measurements on fluids at very high pressures and high temperatures. The apparatus sensor design and electronics specifications allow for dual deployment either in a fluid sampling well logging tool or in a laboratory. The sensor and electronics were designed to function in both environments. This paper discusses the use of the apparatus in a laboratory environment. The operating temperature and pressure limits, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the new system exceed by a very wide margin what is currently possible. This major breakthrough was made possible by a revolutionary new sensor design that breaks many of the rules of conventional high pressure NMR sensor design. A metallic sample holder capable of operating at high pressures and temperatures is provided to contain the fluid under study. The sample holder has been successfully tested for operation up to 36 Kpsi. A solenoid coil wound on a slotted titanium frame sits inside the metallic sample holder and serves as an antenna to transmit RF pulses and receive NMR signals. The metal sample holder is sandwiched between a pair of gradient coils which provide a linear field gradient for pulsed field gradient diffusion measurements. The assembly sits in the bore of a low-gradient permanent magnet. The system can operate over a wide frequency range without the need for tuning the antenna to the Larmor frequency. The SNR measured on a water sample at room temperature is more than 15 times greater than that of the commercial low-field system in our laboratory. Thus, the new system provides for data acquisition more than 200 times faster than was previously possible. Laboratory NMR measurements of relaxations times and diffusion coefficients performed at pressures up to 25 Kpsi and at temperatures up to 175?°C with crude oils enlivened with dissolved hydrocarbon gases (referred to as “live oils”) are shown. This is the first time low-field NMR measurements have been performed at such high temperatures and pressures on live crude oil samples. We discuss the details of the apparatus design, tuning, calibration, and operation. NMR data acquired at multiple temperatures and pressures on a live oil sample are discussed.

  12. Experimental Investigation on High-pressure, High-temperature Viscosity of Gas Mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davani, Ehsan

    2012-02-14

    was used to measure the viscosity of mixtures of nitrogen and methane, and mixtures of CO2 and methane at a pressure range of 5,000 to 25,000 psi, and a temperature range of 100 to 360 degrees F. The viscosity of mixtures of nitrogen and methane...

  13. Design and performance of a high-pressure Fischer-Tropsch fluidized bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, A.W.; Quarderer, G.J.; Cochran, G.A.; Conway, M.M. )

    1988-01-01

    A 900 kg/day, CO/H/sub 2/, high-pressure, fluidized bed, pilot reactor was designed from first principles to achieve high reactant conversions and heat removal rates for the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG's). Suppressed bubble growth at high pressure allowed high reactant conversions which nearly matched those obtained at identical conditions in a lab scale fixed bed reactor. For GHSV approximately 1400 hr/sup -1/ and T = 658 {Kappa} at P approximately 7000 {kappa}Pa, reactant conversion exceeded 75%. The reactor heat removal capability exceeded twice design performance with the fluidized bed easily operating under thermally stable conditions. The fluidized catalyst was a potassium promoted, molybdenum on carbon (Mo/{Kappa}/C) catalyst which did not produce any detrimental waxy products. Long catalyst lifetimes of 1000 hrs on steam between regenerations allowed the fluidized bed to be operated in a batch mode.

  14. TURBULENCE SETS THE INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR STAR FORMATION IN HIGH-PRESSURE ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rathborne, J. M.; Contreras, Y. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW, 1710 (Australia); Longmore, S. N.; Bastian, N. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Jackson, J. M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Kruijssen, J. M. D. [Max-Planck Institut fur Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Alves, J. F. [University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Bally, J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 8030 (United States); Foster, J. B. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101 New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Garay, G. [Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Testi, L. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Walsh, A. J., E-mail: Jill.Rathborne@csiro.au [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth (Australia)

    2014-11-10

    Despite the simplicity of theoretical models of supersonically turbulent, isothermal media, their predictions successfully match the observed gas structure and star formation activity within low-pressure (P/k < 10{sup 5} K cm{sup –3}) molecular clouds in the solar neighborhood. However, it is unknown whether or not these theories extend to clouds in high-pressure (P/k > 10{sup 7} K cm{sup –3}) environments, like those in the Galaxy's inner 200 pc central molecular zone (CMZ) and in the early universe. Here, we present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array 3 mm dust continuum emission within a cloud, G0.253+0.016, which is immersed in the high-pressure environment of the CMZ. While the log-normal shape and dispersion of its column density probability distribution function (PDF) are strikingly similar to those of solar neighborhood clouds, there is one important quantitative difference: its mean column density is one to two orders of magnitude higher. Both the similarity and difference in the PDF compared to those derived from solar neighborhood clouds match predictions of turbulent cloud models given the high-pressure environment of the CMZ. The PDF shows a small deviation from log-normal at high column densities confirming the youth of G0.253+0.016. Its lack of star formation is consistent with the theoretically predicted, environmentally dependent volume density threshold for star formation which is orders of magnitude higher than that derived for solar neighborhood clouds. Our results provide the first empirical evidence that the current theoretical understanding of molecular cloud structure derived from the solar neighborhood also holds in high-pressure environments. We therefore suggest that these theories may be applicable to understand star formation in the early universe.

  15. Studying single nanocrystals under high pressure using an x-ray nanoprobe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Lin; Ding Yang; Yang Wenge; Patel, Umesh; Xiao Zhili; Cai Zhonghou; Mao, Wendy L.; Mao Hokwang

    2011-04-15

    In this report, we demonstrate the feasibility of applying a 250-nm focused x-ray beam to study a single crystalline NbSe{sub 3} nanobelt under high-pressure conditions in a diamond anvil cell. With such a small probe, we not only resolved the distribution and morphology of each individual nanobelt in the x-ray fluorescence maps but also obtained the diffraction patterns from individual crystalline nanobelts with thicknesses of less than 50 nm. Single crystalline diffraction measurements on NbSe{sub 3} nanobelts were performed at pressures up to 20 GPa.

  16. Theory of melting at high pressures: Amending density functional theory with quantum Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shulenburger, L.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Mattsson, T. R.

    2014-10-01

    We present an improved first-principles description of melting under pressure based on thermodynamic integration comparing Density Functional Theory (DFT) and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) treatments of the system. The method is applied to address the longstanding discrepancy between density functional theory (DFT) calculations and diamond anvil cell (DAC) experiments on the melting curve of xenon, a noble gas solid where van der Waals binding is challenging for traditional DFT methods. The calculations show excellent agreement with data below 20 GPa and that the high-pressure melt curve is well described by a Lindemann behavior up to at least 80 GPa, a finding in stark contrast to DAC data.

  17. High-pressure orthorhombic ferromagnesite as a potential deep-mantle carbon carrier

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Jin; Lin, Jung -Fu; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2015-01-06

    In this study, knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of candidate deep-carbon carriers such as ferromagnesite [(Mg,Fe)CO3] at high pressure and temperature of the deep mantle is necessary for our understanding of deep-carbon storage as well as the global carbon cycle of the planet. Previous studies have reported very different scenarios for the (Mg,Fe)CO3 system at deep-mantle conditions including the chemical dissociation to (Mg,Fe)O+CO2, the occurrence of the tetrahedrally-coordinated carbonates based on CO4 structural units, and various high-pressure phase transitions. Here we have studied the phase stability and compressional behavior of (Mg,Fe)CO3 carbonates up to relevant lower-mantle conditions ofmore »approximately 120 GPa and 2400 K. Our experimental results show that the rhombohedral siderite (Phase I) transforms to an orthorhombic phase (Phase II with Pmm2 space group) at approximately 50 GPa and 1400 K. The structural transition is likely driven by the spin transition of iron accompanied by a volume collapse in the Fe-rich (Mg,Fe)CO3 phases; the spin transition stabilizes the high-pressure phase II at much lower pressure conditions than its Mg-rich counterpart. It is conceivable that the low-spin ferromagnesite phase II becomes a major deep-carbon carrier at the deeper parts of the lower mantle below 1900 km in depth.« less

  18. DOE Publishes Final Rule for the Request for Exclusion of 100 Watt R20

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE FederalThe Department ofFederalLED Luminaires |Short

  19. High Temperature, high pressure equation of state density correlations and viscosity correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tapriyal, D.; Enick, R.; McHugh, M.; Gamwo, I.; Morreale, B.

    2012-07-31

    Global increase in oil demand and depleting reserves has derived a need to find new oil resources. To find these untapped reservoirs, oil companies are exploring various remote and harsh locations such as deep waters in Gulf of Mexico, remote arctic regions, unexplored deep deserts, etc. Further, the depth of new oil/gas wells being drilled has increased considerably to tap these new resources. With the increase in the well depth, the bottomhole temperature and pressure are also increasing to extreme values (i.e. up to 500 F and 35,000 psi). The density and viscosity of natural gas and crude oil at reservoir conditions are critical fundamental properties required for accurate assessment of the amount of recoverable petroleum within a reservoir and the modeling of the flow of these fluids within the porous media. These properties are also used to design appropriate drilling and production equipment such as blow out preventers, risers, etc. With the present state of art, there is no accurate database for these fluid properties at extreme conditions. As we have begun to expand this experimental database it has become apparent that there are neither equations of state for density or transport models for viscosity that can be used to predict these fundamental properties of multi-component hydrocarbon mixtures over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Presently, oil companies are using correlations based on lower temperature and pressure databases that exhibit an unsatisfactory predictive capability at extreme conditions (e.g. as great as {+-} 50%). From the perspective of these oil companies that are committed to safely producing these resources, accurately predicting flow rates, and assuring the integrity of the flow, the absence of an extensive experimental database at extreme conditions and models capable of predicting these properties over an extremely wide range of temperature and pressure (including extreme conditions) makes their task even more daunting.

  20. Stability of the bituminous coal microstructure upon exposure to high pressures of helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Sakurovs; Andrzej P. Radliski; Yuri B. Melnichenko; Tomas Blach; Gang Cheng; Hartmut Lemmel; Helmut Rauch [CSIRO Energy Technology, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

    2009-09-15

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) measurements of the structure of two Australian bituminous coals (particle size of 1-0.5 mm) before, during, and after exposure to 155 bar of helium were made to identify any effects of pressure alone on the pore size distribution of coal and any irreversible effects upon exposure to high pressures of helium in the pore size range from 3 nm to 10 {mu}m. No irreversible effects upon exposure were identified for any pore size. No effects of pressure on pore size distribution were observed, except for a small effect at a pore size of about 2 {mu}m for one coal. This study provides a convenient baseline for SANS and USANS investigations on sorption of gases at elevated pressures on coals, by distinguishing between the effect of pressure alone on coal pore size distribution and against the effect of the gas to be investigated. 35 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. High-beta plasma effects in a low-pressure helicon plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corr, C. S.; Boswell, R. W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group (SP3), Research School of Physical Science and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2007-12-15

    In this work, high-beta plasma effects are investigated in a low-pressure helicon plasma source attached to a large volume diffusion chamber. When operating above an input power of 900 W and a magnetic field of 30 G a narrow column of bright blue light (due to Ar II radiation) is observed along the axis of the diffusion chamber. With this blue mode, the plasma density is axially very uniform in the diffusion chamber; however, the radial profiles are not, suggesting that a large diamagnetic current might be induced. The diamagnetic behavior of the plasma has been investigated by measuring the temporal evolution of the magnetic field (B{sub z}) and the plasma kinetic pressure when operating in a pulsed discharge mode. It is found that although the electron pressure can exceed the magnetic field pressure by a factor of 2, a complete expulsion of the magnetic field from the plasma interior is not observed. In fact, under our operating conditions with magnetized ions, the maximum diamagnetism observed is {approx}2%. It is observed that the magnetic field displays the strongest change at the plasma centre, which corresponds to the maximum in the plasma kinetic pressure. These results suggest that the magnetic field diffuses into the plasma sufficiently quickly that on a long time scale only a slight perturbation of the magnetic field is ever observed.

  2. Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dadfarnia, Mohsen; Nibur, Kevin A.; San Marchi, Christopher W.; Sofronis, Petros; Somerday, Brian P.; Foulk, James W., III; Hayden, Gary A.

    2010-07-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

  3. Comparison of high pressure transient PVT measurements and model predictions. Part I.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felver, Todd G.; Paradiso, Nicholas Joseph; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Rice, Steven F.; Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

    2010-07-01

    A series of experiments consisting of vessel-to-vessel transfers of pressurized gas using Transient PVT methodology have been conducted to provide a data set for optimizing heat transfer correlations in high pressure flow systems. In rapid expansions such as these, the heat transfer conditions are neither adiabatic nor isothermal. Compressible flow tools exist, such as NETFLOW that can accurately calculate the pressure and other dynamical mechanical properties of such a system as a function of time. However to properly evaluate the mass that has transferred as a function of time these computational tools rely on heat transfer correlations that must be confirmed experimentally. In this work new data sets using helium gas are used to evaluate the accuracy of these correlations for receiver vessel sizes ranging from 0.090 L to 13 L and initial supply pressures ranging from 2 MPa to 40 MPa. The comparisons show that the correlations developed in the 1980s from sparse data sets perform well for the supply vessels but are not accurate for the receivers, particularly at early time during the transfers. This report focuses on the experiments used to obtain high quality data sets that can be used to validate computational models. Part II of this report discusses how these data were used to gain insight into the physics of gas transfer and to improve vessel heat transfer correlations. Network flow modeling and CFD modeling is also discussed.

  4. Direct containment heating and aerosol generation during high-pressure-melt expulsion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, W.W.; Brockmann, J.E.; Washington, K.E.; Pilch, M.; Marx, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    Severe nuclear plant accidents can involve the degradation of the reactor core while the primary coolant system remains pressurized. Molten fuel reaching the lower head of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) may attack and fail the instrument guide tube penetrations, allowing the tube to be expelled from the vessel. The resulting aperture allows the molten fuel to be ejected into the cavity, followed by the blowdown of the contents of the primary system (high-pressure-melt ejection). Entrainment of the core debris in the cavity by the blowdown gases may cause high-temperature fuel particles to be carried into the containment building. Energy exchange between the particles and the atmosphere may cause heating and pressurizing of the containment (direct containment heating (DCH)). The complex phenomena associated with direct containment heating accident sequences are not well understood. This work describes a series of four experiments that have been performed to study and quantify the processes involved. The data from the experiments are used to guide the development of computer models to describe the response of containments under accident conditions.

  5. High pressure pair distribution function studies of Green River oil shale.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, K. W.; Chupas, P. J.; Locke, D. R.; Winans, R. E.; Pugmire, R. J.; Univ. of Utah

    2008-01-01

    The compression behavior of a silicate-rich oil shale from the Green River formation in the pressure range 0.0-2.4 GPa was studied using in situ high pressure X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) measurements for the sample contained within a Paris-Edinburgh cell. The real-space local structural information in the PDF, G(r), was used to evaluate the compressibility of the oil shale. Specifically, the pressure-induced reduction in the medium- to long-range atom distances ({approx}6-20 {angstrom}) yielded an average sample compressibility corresponding to a bulk modulus of ca. 61-67 GPa. A structural model consisting of a three phase mixture of the principal crystalline oil shale components (quartz, albite and Illite) provided a good fit to the ambient pressure PDF data (R {approx} 30.7%). Indeed the features in the PDF beyond {approx} {angstrom}, were similarly well fit by a single phase model of the highest symmetry, highly crystalline quartz component. The factors influencing the observed compression behavior are discussed.

  6. Laminar burn rates of gun propellants measured in the high-pressure strand burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaugh, J. E., LLNL

    1997-10-01

    The pressure dependence of the laminar burn rate of gun propellants plays a role in the design and behavior of high-performance guns. We have begun a program to investigate the effects of processing variables on the laminar burn rates, using our high-pressure strand burner to measure these rates at pressures exceeding 700 MPa. We have burned JA2 and M43 propellant samples, provided by Dr. Arpad Juhasz, ARL, from propellant lots previously used in round-robin tests. Our results at room temperature are in accord with other measurements. In addition, we present results measured for propellant that has been preheated to 50 C before burning. We used our thermochemical equilibrium code, CHEETAH, to help interpret the simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements taken during the testing, and show examples of its use. It has been modified to provide performance measures and equations of state for the products that are familiar to the gun-propellant community users of BLAKE.

  7. Understanding Depth Variation of Deep Seismicity from in situ Measurements of Mineral Strengths at High Pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Strengths of major minerals of Earth's mantle have been measured using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction at high pressures. Analysis of the diffraction peak widths is used to derive the yield strengths. Systematic analysis of the experimental result for olivine, wadsleyite, ringwoodite and perovskite indicates that minerals in the upper mantle, the transition zone and the lower mantle have very distinct strength character. Increasing temperature weakens the upper mantle mineral, olivine, significantly. At high temperature and high pressure, the transition zone minerals, wadsleyite and ringwoodite, have higher strengths than the upper mantle mineral. Among all the minerals studied, the lower mantle mineral, perovskite, has the highest strength. While both the upper mantle and the transition zone minerals show a notable strength drop, the strength of the lower mantle mineral shows just an increase of relaxation rate (no strength drop) when the temperature is increased stepwise by 200 K. The strength characteristics of these major mantle minerals at high pressures and temperatures indicate that yield strength may play a crucial role in defining the profile of deep earthquake occurrence with depth.

  8. Staged, High-Pressure Oxy-Combustion Technology: Development and Scale-Up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Axelbaum, Richard; Xia, Fei; Gopan, Akshay; Kumfer, Benjamin

    2014-09-30

    Washington University in St. Louis and its project partners are developing a unique pressurized oxy-combustion process that aims to improve efficiency and costs by reducing the recycling of flue gas to near zero. Normally, in the absence of recycled flue gas or another inert gas, combustion of fuel and oxygen results in a dramatic increase in temperature of the combustion products and radiant energy, as compared to combustion in air. High heat flux to the boiler tubes may result in a tube surface temperatures that exceed safe operating limits. In the Staged Pressurized Oxy-Combustion (SPOC) process, this problem is addressed by staging the delivery of fuel and by novel combustion design that allows control of heat flux. In addition, the main mode of heat transfer to the steam cycle is by radiation, as opposed to convection. Therefore, the requirement for recycling large amounts of flue gas, for temperature control or to improve convective heat transfer, is eliminated, resulting in a reduction in auxiliary loads. The following report contains a detailed summary of scientific findings and accomplishments for the period of Oct. 1, 2013 to Sept 30, 2014. Results of ASPEN process and CFD modelling activities aimed at improving the SPOC process and boiler design are presented. The effects of combustion pressure and fuel moisture on the plant efficiency are discussed. Combustor pressure is found to have only a minor impact beyond 16 bar. For fuels with moisture content greater than approx 30%, e.g. coal/water slurries, the amount of latent heat of condensation exceeds that which can be utilized in the steam cycle and plant efficiency is reduced significantly. An improved boiler design is presented that achieves a more uniform heat flux profile. In addition, a fundamental study of radiation in high-temperature, high-pressure, particle-laden flows is summarized which provides a more complete understanding of heat transfer in these unusual conditions and to allow for optimization. The results reveal that for the SPOC design, absorption and emission due to particles is the dominant factor for determining the wall heat flux. The mechanism of “radiative trapping” of energy within the high-temperature flame region and the approach to utilizing this mechanism to control wall heat flux are described. This control arises, by design, from the highly non-uniform (non-premixed) combustion characteristics within the SPOC boiler, and the resulting gradients in temperature and particle concentration. Finally, a simple method for estimating the wall heat flux in pressurized combustion systems is presented.

  9. Evidence for photo-induced monoclinic metallic VO{sub 2} under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin Mao, Wendy L.; Trigo, Mariano; Reis, David A.; Andrea Artioli, Gianluca; Malavasi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-13

    We combine ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy with a diamond-anvil cell to decouple the insulator-metal electronic transition from the lattice symmetry changing structural transition in the archetypal strongly correlated material vanadium dioxide. Coherent phonon spectroscopy enables tracking of the photo-excited phonon vibrational frequencies of the low temperature, monoclinic (M{sub 1})-insulating phase that transforms into the metallic, tetragonal rutile structured phase at high temperature or via non-thermal photo-excitations. We find that in contrast with ambient pressure experiments where strong photo-excitation promptly induces the electronic transition along with changes in the lattice symmetry, at high pressure, the coherent phonons of the monoclinic (M{sub 1}) phase are still clearly observed upon the photo-driven phase transition to a metallic state. These results demonstrate the possibility of synthesizing and studying transient phases under extreme conditions.

  10. The NEXT experiment: A high pressure xenon gas TPC for neutrinoless double beta decay searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Lorca; J. Martín-Albo; F. Monrabal; for the NEXT Collaboration

    2012-10-15

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a hypothetical, very slow nuclear transition in which two neutrons undergo beta decay simultaneously and without the emission of neutrinos. The importance of this process goes beyond its intrinsic interest: an unambiguous observation would establish a Majorana nature for the neutrino and prove the violation of lepton number. NEXT is a new experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay using a radiopure high-pressure xenon gas TPC, filled with 100 kg of Xe enriched in Xe-136. NEXT will be the first large high-pressure gas TPC to use electroluminescence readout with SOFT (Separated, Optimized FuncTions) technology. The design consists in asymmetric TPC, with photomultipliers behind a transparent cathode and position-sensitive light pixels behind the anode. The experiment is approved to start data taking at the Laboratorio Subterr\\'aneo de Canfranc (LSC), Spain, in 2014.

  11. Ground state properties and high pressure behavior of plutonium dioxide: Systematic density functional calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Xian-Geng

    2010-01-01

    Plutonium dioxide is of high technological importance in nuclear fuel cycle and is particularly crucial in long-term storage of Pu-based radioactive waste. Using first-principles density-functional theory, in this paper we systematically study the structural, electronic, mechanical, thermodynamic properties, and pressure induced structural transition of PuO$_{2}$. To properly describe the strong correlation in the Pu $5f$ electrons, the local density approximation$+U$ and the generalized gradient approximation$+U$ theoretical formalisms have been employed. We optimize the $U$ parameter in calculating the total energy, lattice parameters, and bulk modulus at the nonmagnetic, ferromagnetic, and antiferromagnetic configurations for both ground state fluorite structure and high pressure cotunnite structure. The best agreement with experiments is obtained by tuning the effective Hubbard parameter $U$ at around 4 eV within the LDA$+U$ approach. After carefully testing the validity of the ground state, we further in...

  12. Ion current detector for high pressure ion sources for monitoring separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, R.D.; Wahl, J.H.; Hofstadler, S.A.

    1996-08-13

    The present invention relates generally to any application involving the monitoring of signal arising from ions produced by electrospray or other high pressure (>100 torr) ion sources. The present invention relates specifically to an apparatus and method for the detection of ions emitted from a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system, liquid chromatography, or other small-scale separation methods. And further, the invention provides a very simple diagnostic as to the quality of the separation and the operation of an electrospray source. 7 figs.

  13. High-R Walls for New Construction Structural Performance: Wind Pressure Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeRenzis, A.; Kochkin, V.

    2013-01-01

    This technical report is focused primarily on laboratory testing that evaluates wind pressure performance characteristics for wall systems constructed with exterior insulating sheathing. This research and test activity will help to facilitate the ongoing use of non-structural sheathing options and provide a more in-depth understanding of how wall system layers perform in response to high wind perturbations normal to the surface.

  14. Engine having hydraulic and fan drive systems using a single high pressure pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2000-01-01

    An engine comprises a hydraulic system attached to an engine housing that includes a high pressure pump and a hydraulic fluid flowing through at least one passageway. A fan drive system is also attached to the engine housing and includes a hydraulic motor and a fan which can move air over the engine. The hydraulic motor includes an inlet fluidly connected to the at least one passageway.

  15. High-R Walls for New Construction Structural Performance. Wind Pressure Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeRenzis, A.; Kochkin, V.

    2013-01-01

    This technical report is focused primarily on laboratory testing that evaluates wind pressure performance characteristics for wall systems constructed with exterior insulating sheathing. This research and test activity will help to facilitate the ongoing use of non-structural sheathing options and provide a more in-depth understanding of how wall system layers perform in response to high wind perturbations normal to the surface.

  16. Phase transition and dielectric properties of nanograin BaTiO3 ceramic under high pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Wenwu

    Phase transition and dielectric properties of nanograin BaTiO3 ceramic under high pressure Jinlong Temperature dependence of the dielectric constant of nanograin BaTiO3 ceramic has been investigated under decreases with at a rate of dTC/d =-40.0 1.1 K/GPa for coarse-grain ceramic and -34.3 1.4 K/GPa for ceramic

  17. Modelling of noble anaesthetic gases and high hydrostatic pressure effects in lipid bilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moskovitz, Yevgeny [Middle Tennessee State Univ., Murfreesboro, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Univ. of Capetown (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry, Scientific Computing Research Unit; Yang, Hui [Middle Tennessee State Univ., Murfreesboro, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to study molecular processes that might be responsible for inert gas narcosis and high-pressure nervous syndrome. The classical molecular dynamics trajectories (200 ns-long) of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers simulated by the Berger force field were evaluated for water and the atomic distribution of noble gases around DOPC molecules at a pressure range of 1 - 1000 bar and temperature of 310 Kelvin. Xenon and argon have been tested as model gases for general anesthetics, and neon has been investigated for distortions that are potentially responsible for neurological tremor at hyperbaric conditions. The analysis of stacked radial pair distribution functions of DOPC headgroup atoms revealed the explicit solvation potential of gas molecules, which correlates with their dimensions. The orientational dynamics of water molecules at the biomolecular interface should be considered as an influential factor; while excessive solvation effects appearing in the lumen of membrane-embedded ion channels could be a possible cause of inert gas narcosis. All the noble gases tested exhibit similar patterns of the order parameter for both DOPC acyl chains, which is opposite to the patterns found for the order parameter curve at high hydrostatic pressures in intact bilayers. This finding supports the ‘critical volume’ hypothesis of anesthesia pressure reversal. The irregular lipid headgroup-water boundary observed in DOPC bilayers saturated with neon in the pressure range of 1 - 100 bar could be associated with the possible manifestation of neurological tremor at the atomic scale. The non-immobilizer neon also demonstrated the highest momentum impact on the normal component of the DOPC diffusion coefficient representing monolayers undulations rate, which indicates enhanced diffusivity, rather than atom size, as the key factor.

  18. Modelling of noble anaesthetic gases and high hydrostatic pressure effects in lipid bilayers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moskovitz, Yevgeny; Yang, Hui

    2015-01-08

    Our objective was to study molecular processes that might be responsible for inert gas narcosis and high-pressure nervous syndrome. The classical molecular dynamics trajectories (200 ns-long) of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers simulated by the Berger force field were evaluated for water and the atomic distribution of noble gases around DOPC molecules at a pressure range of 1 - 1000 bar and temperature of 310 Kelvin. Xenon and argon have been tested as model gases for general anesthetics, and neon has been investigated for distortions that are potentially responsible for neurological tremor at hyperbaric conditions. The analysis of stacked radial pair distributionmore »functions of DOPC headgroup atoms revealed the explicit solvation potential of gas molecules, which correlates with their dimensions. The orientational dynamics of water molecules at the biomolecular interface should be considered as an influential factor; while excessive solvation effects appearing in the lumen of membrane-embedded ion channels could be a possible cause of inert gas narcosis. All the noble gases tested exhibit similar patterns of the order parameter for both DOPC acyl chains, which is opposite to the patterns found for the order parameter curve at high hydrostatic pressures in intact bilayers. This finding supports the ‘critical volume’ hypothesis of anesthesia pressure reversal. The irregular lipid headgroup-water boundary observed in DOPC bilayers saturated with neon in the pressure range of 1 - 100 bar could be associated with the possible manifestation of neurological tremor at the atomic scale. The non-immobilizer neon also demonstrated the highest momentum impact on the normal component of the DOPC diffusion coefficient representing monolayers undulations rate, which indicates enhanced diffusivity, rather than atom size, as the key factor.« less

  19. Equilibrium separation in a high pressure helium plasma and its application to the determination of temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodero, A.; Garcia, M.C.; Gamero, A. [Universidad de Cordoba (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    The spectroscopy method based on the Boltzmann-plot of emission lines has been usually employed for measuring the excitation temperature (T{sub exc}) in high pressure plasmas. In the present work, it is shown that this method can produce great errors in the temperature determination when equilibrium separation exists. In this way, the suitability of this determination is tested comparing with other alternative methods in a high pressure helium plasma and also studying its separation from the equilibrium situation, via the absolute population measurements of atomic levels and the estimation of its atomic state distribution function (ASDF). We have made this study using a new excitation structure, the axial injection torch (Torche A Injection Axiale or T.I.A.), which produces a high power microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure. The measurements were carried out at the beginning of the flame (the highest line intensity zone) for a 300-900 W power range at 2.45 GHz and 71/min. of helium gas flow.

  20. High-pressure shock behavior of WC and Ta2O5 powders.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knudson, Marcus D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Reinhart, William Dodd (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Root, Seth (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-10-01

    Planar shock experiments were conducted on granular tungsten carbide (WC) and tantalum oxide (Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) using the Z machine and a 2-stage gas gun. Additional shock experiments were also conducted on a nearly fully dense form of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The experiments on WC yield some of the highest pressure results for granular materials obtained to date. Because of the high distention of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, the pressures obtained were significantly lower, but the very high temperatures generated led to large contributions of thermal energy to the material response. These experiments demonstrate that the Z machine can be used to obtain accurate shock data on granular materials. The data on Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} were utilized in making improvements to the P-{lambda} model for high pressures; the model is found to capture the results not only of the Z and gas gun experiments but also those from laser experiments on low density aerogels. The results are also used to illustrate an approach for generating an equation of state using only the limited data coming from nanoindentation. Although the EOS generated in this manner is rather simplistic, for this material it gives reasonably good results.

  1. Characterization and modeling of ferroelectric materials for high pressure, high temperature applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VALADEZ PEREZ, JUAN CARLOS

    2012-01-01

    Applications in the Aerospace and automotive industrytemperature, etc. In the automotive industry is a similarThe automotive and aerospace industries also require high

  2. High-pressure cells for in situ multi-anvil experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leinenweber, K.; Mosenfelder, J.; Diedrich, T.; Soignard, E.; Sharp, T.G.; Tyburczy, J.A.; Wang, Y.

    2008-10-14

    A new series of high-pressure cells for in situ multi-anvil experiments is described. The cells are based on the conventional COMPRES cells, but modifications are made to improve the passage of X-rays. The modifications include cutting slits in parts of the assemblies that have very high X-ray absorption, such as lanthanum chromite and rhenium, the use of low-Z thermal insulation, such as forsterite, in place of zirconia, and the partial replacement of zirconia by MgO equatorial windows combined with a mullite octahedron. Details of the designs, thermal characterizations, and examples of the application of these cells are described.

  3. High-pressure science gets super-sized | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energy neutronHigh-PressureLaboratory

  4. Very High Pressure Single Pulse Shock Tube Studies of Aromatic Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brezinsky, K.

    2006-11-28

    The principal focus of this research program is aimed at understanding the oxidation and pyrolysis chemistry of primary aromatic molecules and radicals with the goal of developing a comprehensive kinetic model at conditions that are relevant to practical combustion devices. A very high pressure single pulse shock tube is used to obtain experimental data over a wide pressure range in the high pressure regime, 5-1000 bars, at pre-flame temperatures for fuel pyrolysis and oxidation over a broad spectrum of equivalence ratios. Stable species sampled from the shock tube are analyzed using standard chromatographic techniques using GC/MS-PDD and GC/TCD-FID. Experimental data from the HPST (stable species profiles) and data from other laboratories (if available) are simulated using kinetic models (if available) to develop a comprehensive model that can describe aromatics oxidation and pyrolysis over a wide range of experimental conditions. The shock tube has been heated (1000C) recently to minimize effects due to condensation of aromatic, polycyclic and other heavy species. Work during this grant period has focused on 7 main areas summarized in the final technical report.

  5. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babij, Micha?; Kowalski, Zbigniew W. Nitsch, Karol; Gotszalk, Teodor; Silberring, Jerzy

    2014-05-15

    The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

  6. Spectrographic temperature measurement of a high power breakdown arc in a high pressure gas switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeckel, Christopher; Curry, Randy

    2011-09-15

    A procedure for obtaining an approximate temperature value of conducting plasma generated during self-break closure of a RIMFIRE gas switch is described. The plasma is in the form of a breakdown arc which conducts approximately 12 kJ of energy in 1 {mu}s. A spectrographic analysis of the trigger-section of the 6-MV RIMFIRE laser triggered gas switch used in Sandia National Laboratory's ''Z-Machine'' has been made. It is assumed that the breakdown plasma has sufficiently approached local thermodynamic equilibrium allowing a black-body temperature model to be applied. This model allows the plasma temperature and radiated power to be approximated. The gas dielectric used in these tests was pressurized SF{sub 6}. The electrode gap is set at 4.59 cm for each test. The electrode material is stainless steel and insulator material is poly(methyl methacrylate). A spectrum range from 220 to 550 nanometers has been observed and calibrated using two spectral irradiance lamps and three spectrograph gratings. The approximate plasma temperature is reported.

  7. Percolating porosity in ultrafine grained copper processed by High Pressure Torsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wegner, Matthias Leuthold, Jörn; Peterlechner, Martin; Divinski, Sergiy V. Wilde, Gerhard; Setman, Daria; Zehetbauer, Michael; Pippan, Reinhard

    2013-11-14

    Defect structures in copper of different purity (nominally 99.99 and 99.999?wt.?%) deformed via High Pressure Torsion (HPT) with varying processing parameters are investigated utilizing the radiotracer diffusion technique. While the degree of deformation is kept constant, the effects of applied quasi-hydrostatic pressure, processing temperature, post-deformation annealing treatments, and of the impurity concentration on the deformed samples are analyzed in terms of the formation of interconnected internal porosity. Furthermore, the anisotropy of the developing porosity network is examined. The porosity channels occurred to be interconnected along the direction parallel to the surface normal with a volume fraction of the order of a few ppm while no long-range penetration along the internal porosity could be detected when measured along the azimuthal or radial directions of a HPT processed sample.

  8. Dispersion of CNG following a high-pressure release. Final report, February 1995-March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaumer, R.L.; Raj, P.K.

    1996-05-01

    The research described in the report was designed to evaluate the adequacy of the current convention concerning safeguards against CNG-related fires in transit buildings where CNG powered buses are fueled, stored, or maintained. The convention embraces the belief that precautions need to be taken only at or near the ceiling of the buildings. It is based on the premise that, since CNG is primarily methane and methane is approximately one-half the density of air at ambient temperature and pressure, any natural gas released would immediately rise to the ceiling as a buoyant plume. The experiments described here tested theoretical predictions that challenge this premise. During the tests, infrared imaging was used to track the movement of CNG following release from a high-pressure source close to the floor.

  9. Theory of melting at high pressures: Amending density functional theory with quantum Monte Carlo

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shulenburger, L.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Mattsson, T. R.

    2014-10-01

    We present an improved first-principles description of melting under pressure based on thermodynamic integration comparing Density Functional Theory (DFT) and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) treatments of the system. The method is applied to address the longstanding discrepancy between density functional theory (DFT) calculations and diamond anvil cell (DAC) experiments on the melting curve of xenon, a noble gas solid where van der Waals binding is challenging for traditional DFT methods. The calculations show excellent agreement with data below 20 GPa and that the high-pressure melt curve is well described by a Lindemann behavior up to at least 80 GPa, amore »finding in stark contrast to DAC data.« less

  10. Pressure-induced valence change in YbAl3: a combined high pressure inelastic x-ray scattering and theoretical investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, E D; Kumar, R S; Svane, A; Vaitheeswaran, G; Nicol, M F; Kanchana, V; Hu, M; Cornelius, A L

    2008-01-01

    High resolution x-ray absorption (XAS) experiments in the partial fluorescence yield mode (PFY) and resonant inelastic x-ray emission (RXES) measurements under pressure were performed on the intermediate valence compound YbAl{sub 3} up to 38 GPa. The results of the Yb L{sub 3} PFY-XAS and RXES studies show a smooth valence increase in YbAl{sub 3} from 2.75 to 2.93 at ambient to 38 GPa. In-situ angle dispersive synchrotron high pressure x-ray diffraction experiments carried out using a diamond cell at room temperature to study the equation of state showed the ambient cubic phase stable up to 40 GPa. The results obtained from self-interaction corrected local spin density functional calculations to understand the pressure effect on the Yb valence and compressibility are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  11. Dark Matter Directionality Revisited with a High Pressure Xenon Gas Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopolang Mohlabeng; Kyoungchul Kong; Jin Li; Adam Para; Jonghee Yoo

    2015-11-19

    An observation of the anisotropy of dark matter interactions in a direction-sensitive detector would provide decisive evidence for the discovery of galactic dark matter. Directional information would also provide a crucial input to understanding its distribution in the local Universe. Most of the existing directional dark matter detectors utilize particle tracking methods in a low-pressure gas time projection chamber. These low pressure detectors require excessively large volumes in order to be competitive in the search for physics beyond the current limit. In order to avoid these volume limitations, we consider a novel proposal, which exploits a columnar recombination effect in a high-pressure gas time projection chamber. The ratio of scintillation to ionization signals observed in the detector carries the angular information of the particle interactions. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of a future directional detector focused on the proposed high-pressure Xenon gas time projection chamber. We study the prospect of detecting an anisotropy in the dark matter velocity distribution. We find that tens of events are needed to exclude an isotropic distribution of dark matter interactions at 95% confidence level in the most optimistic case with head-to-tail information. However, one needs at least 10-20 times more events without head-to-tail information for light dark matter below 50 GeV. For an intermediate mass range, we find it challenging to observe an anisotropy of the dark matter distribution. Our results also show that the directional information significantly improves precision measurements of dark matter mass and the elastic scattering cross section for a heavy dark matter.

  12. Dark matter directionality revisited with a high pressure xenon gas detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mohlabeng, Gopolang; Kong, Kyoungchul; Li, Jin; Para, Adam; Yoo, Jonghee

    2015-07-20

    An observation of the anisotropy of dark matter interactions in a direction-sensitive detector would provide decisive evidence for the discovery of galactic dark matter. Directional information would also provide a crucial input to understanding its distribution in the local Universe. Most of the existing directional dark matter detectors utilize particle tracking methods in a low-pressure gas time projection chamber. These low pressure detectors require excessively large volumes in order to be competitive in the search for physics beyond the current limit. In order to avoid these volume limitations, we consider a novel proposal, which exploits a columnar recombination effect inmore »a high-pressure gas time projection chamber. The ratio of scintillation to ionization signals observed in the detector carries the angular information of the particle interactions. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of a future directional detector focused on the proposed high-pressure Xenon gas time projection chamber. We study the prospect of detecting an anisotropy in the dark matter velocity distribution. We find that tens of events are needed to exclude an isotropic distribution of dark matter interactions at 95% confidence level in the most optimistic case with head-to-tail information. However, one needs at least 10-20 times more events without head-to-tail information for light dark matter below ~50 GeV. For an intermediate mass range, we find it challenging to observe an anisotropy of the dark matter distribution. Our results also show that the directional information significantly improves precision measurements of dark matter mass and the elastic scattering cross section for a heavy dark matter.« less

  13. Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butcher, Thomas A. (Port Jefferson, NY); Celebi, Yusuf (Middle Island, NY); Fisher, Leonard (Colrain, MA)

    2000-09-15

    The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

  14. Explosives under pressure - the crystal structure of gamma-RDX as determined by high-pressure X-ray and neutron diffraction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, A.J.; Oswald, Iain D H; Francis, A.R.; Pulham, Colin

    Using a combination of X-ray single crystal and neutron powder diffraction, the crystal structure of the high-pressure ?-form of RDX has been determined at 5.2 GPa and shows that the RDX molecules adopt different conformations ...

  15. Development of Cr-Mo-V-Cb-Ca steel for high pressure and high temperature hydrogenation reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, Masato; Sakai, Tadamiti; Nose, Shiro [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Takasago, Hyogo (Japan). Energy and Chemical Plant Group

    1995-12-31

    Cr-Mo-V-Cb-Ca steels have been developed as materials for high temperature and high pressure hydrogenation reactors. Cr-Mo-V-Cb-Ca steels have high strength at elevated temperature. The addition of vanadium and columbium also improve the resistance against hydrogen attack and hydrogen embrittlement. Calcium addition, which is a unique feature of this material, effectively reduces the possibility of stress relief cracking in the heat affected zone of the weldment of which susceptibility is otherwise impaired by the addition of vanadium. In 1993, 3Cr-1Mo-V-Cb-Ca steel was approved by ASME as ASME Code Case 2151 and the first hydrocracking reactors made of 3Cr-1Mo-V-Cb-Ca steel were manufactured in 1994 at Kobe Steel, Takasago Works.

  16. Control of the water fugacity at high pressures and temperatures: Applications to the incorporation mechanisms of water in olivine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Control of the water fugacity at high pressures and temperatures: Applications to the incorporation t A new method is developed to control water fugacity at a fixed pressure and temperature. We use two. The chemical environment of the olivine crystal was controlled by the water fugacity buffer, the Ni­NiO oxygen

  17. “Multi-temperature” method for high-pressure sorption measurements on moist shales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasparik, Matus; Ghanizadeh, Amin; Gensterblum, Yves; Krooss, Bernhard M.

    2013-08-15

    A simple and effective experimental approach has been developed and tested to study the temperature dependence of high-pressure methane sorption in moist organic-rich shales. This method, denoted as “multi-temperature” (short “multi-T”) method, enables measuring multiple isotherms at varying temperatures in a single run. The measurement of individual sorption isotherms at different temperatures takes place in a closed system ensuring that the moisture content remains constant. The multi-T method was successfully tested for methane sorption on an organic-rich shale sample. Excess sorption isotherms for methane were measured at pressures of up to 25 MPa and at temperatures of 318.1 K, 338.1 K, and 348.1 K on dry and moisture-equilibrated samples. The measured isotherms were parameterized with a 3-parameter Langmuir-based excess sorption function, from which thermodynamic sorption parameters (enthalpy and entropy of adsorption) were obtained. Using these, we show that by taking explicitly into account water vapor as molecular species in the gas phase with temperature-dependent water vapor pressure during the experiment, more meaningful results are obtained with respect to thermodynamical considerations. The proposed method can be applied to any adsorbent system (coals, shales, industrial adsorbents) and any supercritical gas (e.g., CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}) and is particularly suitable for sorption measurements using the manometric (volumetric) method.

  18. Backbone N{sub x}H compounds at high pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncharov, Alexander F.; Holtgrewe, Nicholas; Qian, Guangrui; Hu, Chaohao; Oganov, Artem R.; Somayazulu, Maddury; Stavrou, Elissaios; Pickard, Chris J.; and others

    2015-06-07

    Optical and synchrotron x-ray diffraction diamond anvil cell experiments have been combined with first-principles theoretical structure predictions to investigate mixtures of N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} up to 55 GPa. Our experiments show the formation of structurally complex van der Waals compounds [see also D. K. Spaulding et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5739 (2014)] above 10 GPa. However, we found that these N{sub x}H (0.5 < x < 1.5) compounds transform abruptly to new oligomeric materials through barochemistry above 47 GPa and photochemistry at pressures as low as 10 GPa. These oligomeric compounds can be recovered to ambient pressure at T < 130 K, whereas at room temperature, they can be metastable on pressure release down to 3.5 GPa. Extensive theoretical calculations show that such oligomeric materials become thermodynamically more stable in comparison to mixtures of N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and NH{sub 3} above approximately 40 GPa. Our results suggest new pathways for synthesis of environmentally benign high energy-density materials. These materials could also exist as alternative planetary ices.

  19. RADIATION DOSIMETRY OF THE PRESSURE VESSEL INTERNALS OF THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOLDEN,N.E.; RECINIELLO,R.N.; HU,J.P.; RORER,D.C.

    2002-08-18

    In preparation for the eventual decommissioning of the High Flux Beam Reactor after the permanent removal of its fuel elements from the Brookhaven National Laboratory, both measurements and calculations of the decay gamma-ray dose rate have been performed for the reactor pressure vessel and vessel internal structures which included the upper and lower thermal shields, the transition plate, and the control rod blades. The measurements were made using Red Perspex{trademark} polymethyl methacrylate high-level film dosimeters, a Radcal ''peanut'' ion chamber, and Eberline's high-range ion chamber. To compare with measured gamma-ray dose rate, the Monte Carlo MCNP code and geometric progressive Microshield code were used to model the gamma transport and dose buildup.

  20. A field-deployable gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, G.C.; Mahler, G.J.; Yu, B.; Salwen, C.; Kane, W.R.; Lemley, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    Prototype gamma-ray spectrometers utilizing xenon gas at high pressure, suitable for applications in the nuclear safeguards, arms control, and nonproliferation communities, have been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). These spectrometers function as ambient-temperature ionization chambers detecting gamma rays with good efficiency in the energy range 50 keV - 2 MeV, with an energy resolution intermediate between semiconductor (Ge) and scintillation (NaI) spectrometers. They are capable of prolonged, low-power operation without a requirement for cryogenic fluids or other cooling mechanisms, and with the addition of small quantities of {sup 3}He gas, can function simultaneously as efficient thermal neutron detectors.

  1. Residence time distribution studies in a multiphase reactor under high temperature and pressure conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalitham, R.V.; Davies, O.L.

    1987-06-01

    The residence time distribution of the slurry phase in a coal liquefaction reactor is determined experimentally under high temperature and pressure conditions using native radioactive tracers. The experimental data are fitted to several exit age distribution models, and a model is selected based on the best fit. The effect of process conditions such as recycle gas rate, coal feed rate, reactor temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on the degree of backmixing and mean residence time is studied. Gas holdup is estimated from the experimental mean residence time, the nominal residence time, and the total reactor holdup. The effect of gas superficial velocity on gas holdup is studied.

  2. Low loss hollow optical-waveguide connection from atmospheric pressure to ultra-high vacuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ermolov, A.; Mak, K. F.; Tani, F.; Hölzer, P.; Travers, J. C. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)] [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Russell, P. St. J. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany) [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-12-23

    A technique for optically accessing ultra-high vacuum environments, via a photonic-crystal fiber with a long small hollow core, is described. The small core and the long bore enable a pressure ratio of over 10{sup 8} to be maintained between two environments, while permitting efficient and unimpeded delivery of light, including ultrashort optical pulses. This delivery can be either passive or can encompass nonlinear optical processes such as optical pulse compression, deep UV generation, supercontinuum generation, or other useful phenomena.

  3. Hydro-Pac Inc., A High Pressure Company | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingR Walls -Hydro-Pac Inc., A High Pressure Company Hydro-Pac

  4. Inside Ice Under High Pressure | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLosThe 26thIWalter H.4 » Inside Ice Under High Pressure Basic Energy

  5. The etching process of boron nitride by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides under high pressure and high temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, W., E-mail: guowei1982cry@163.com [College of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); National Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Ma, H.A.; Jia, X. [National Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Appropriate etch processes of hBN and cBN under HPHT are proposed. • The degree of the crystallization of hBN was decreased. • A special cBN growth mechanism with a triangular unit is proposed. • Plate-shape cBN crystals with large ratio of length to thickness were obtained. • A strategy provides useful guidance for controlling the cBN morphology. - Abstract: Some new etching processes of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and cubic boron nitride (cBN) under high pressure and high temperature in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth fluorides have been discussed. It is found that hBN is etched distinctly by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the morphology of hBN is significantly changed from plate-shape to spherical-shape. Based on the “graphitization index” values of hBN, the degree of the crystallization of hBN under high pressure and high temperature decreases in the sequence of LiF > CaF{sub 2} > MgF{sub 2}. This facilitates the formation of high-quality cBN single crystals. Different etch steps, pits, and islands are observed on cBN surface, showing the strong etching by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the tendency of layer-by-layer growth. A special layer growth mechanism of cBN with a triangular unit has been found. Furthermore, the morphologies of cBN crystals are apparently affected by a preferential surface etching of LiF, CaF{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2}. Respectively, the plate-shape and tetrahedral cBN crystals can be obtained in the presence of different alkali and alkaline earth fluorides.

  6. Sandia Energy - High-Pressure and High-Temperature Neutron Reflectometry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-Throughput Analysis ofSample SULIColinEnergy PolicyLeaksDETLCell for Solid-Fluid

  7. Development of the High-Pressure Direct-Injected, Ultra Low-NOx Natural Gas Engine: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duggal, V. K.; Lyford-Pike, E. J.; Wright, J. F.; Dunn, M.; Goudie, D.; Munshi, S.

    2004-05-01

    Subcontractor report details work done by Cummins and Westport Innovations to develop a heavy-duty, low-NOx, high-pressure direct-injection natural gas engine for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle activity.

  8. THE EFFECT OF VERY HIGH HYDRAULIC PRESSURE ON THE PERMEABILITY AND SALT REJECTION OF REVERSE OSMOSIS MEMBRANES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGovern, Ronan Killian

    We employ a stirred-cell reverse osmosis setup to demonstrate that a seawater reverse osmosis membrane can maintain excellent salt rejection at pressures as high as 172 bar. However, we also demonstrate a very significant ...

  9. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 91, 045116 (2015) Magnetic ordering at anomalously high temperatures in Dy at extreme pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schilling, James

    2015-01-01

    transports Dy into an unconventional magnetic state with an anomalously high magnetic ordering temperature, until finally only a structureless Thomas-Fermi gas remains [1]. Although such astronomic pressures

  10. High-capacity single-pressure SF/sub 6/ interrupters. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rostron, J R; Berkebile, L E; Spindle, H E

    1983-05-01

    The object of this project was to design and develop a high-voltage, single-pressure, SF/sub 6/ interrupter with an interrupting capability of 120 kA at 145 kV with a continuous current rating of 5000 A and an interrupting time of 1.5 cycles or less. A second objective of 100 kA at 242 kV was added during the project. Mathematical models were used to extrapolate design requirements from existing data for 63 and 80 kA. Two model puffers, one liquid and the other gas, were designed and tested to obtain data at 100 kA. An interrupter, optimized on the basis of total prospective breaker cost, was designed using the mathematical models. A study was made of the construction materials to operate under the high-stress conditions in this interrupter. Existing high-speed movies of high-current arcs under double-flow conditions were analyzed to obtain more information for modeling the interrupter. The optimized interrupter design was built and tested. The interrupting capability confirmed calculations of predicted performance near current zero; however, the dielectric strength after interrupting these high-current arcs was not adequate for the 145-kV or the 242-kV ratings. The dielectric strength was reduced by hot gases flowing out of the interrupter. Valuable data have been obtained for modeling the SF/sub 6/ puffer interrupter for high currents.

  11. Joule heat generation in thermionic cathodes of high-pressure arc discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benilov, M. S.; Cunha, M. D.

    2013-02-14

    The nonlinear surface heating model of plasma-cathode interaction in high-pressure arcs is extended to take into account the Joule effect inside the cathode body. Calculation results are given for different modes of current transfer to tungsten cathodes of different configurations in argon plasmas of atmospheric or higher pressures. Special attention is paid to analysis of energy balances of the cathode and the near-cathode plasma layer. In all the cases, the variation of potential inside the cathode is much smaller than the near-cathode voltage drop. However, this variation can be comparable to the volt equivalent of the energy flux from the plasma to the cathode and then the Joule effect is essential. Such is the case of the diffuse and mixed modes on rod cathodes at high currents, where the Joule heating causes a dramatic change of thermal and electrical regimes of the cathode. The Joule heating has virtually no effect over characteristics of spots on rod and infinite planar cathodes.

  12. Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Measurement for Square Channels with V-shape Ribs at High Reynolds Numbers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alkhamis, Nawaf Yahya

    2010-10-12

    for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2009 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering HEAT TRANSFER AND PRESSURE DROP MEASUREMENT FOR SQUARE CHANNELS WITH V-SHAPE RIBS AT HIGH REYNOLDS NUMBERS A Thesis by NAWAF YAHYA ALKHAMIS... of Department, Dennis O?Neal August 2009 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering iii ABSTRACT Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Measurement for Square Channels with V-shape Ribs at High Reynolds Numbers. (August 2009) Nawaf Yahya Alkhamis, B.Sc King...

  13. High pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating in ice condenser containments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilch, M.; Tarbell, W.W.; Carroll, D.E.; Tills, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    A response of a typical ice condenser containment to a high pressure melt dispersal accident has been studied. While ice beds may be effective in reducing the potential loading caused by direct heating of the containment atmosphere, analyses suggest two other modes of containment failure that have not been previously identified. Calculations with the CONTAIN code indicate that ejected core debris may interact with steam from the primary system, generating sufficient hydrogen to threaten containment integrity. Further, if the debris ejected into the cavity promptly fails the seal table, the dispersed material could enter the in-core instrument room and attack the containment liner. The timing of the failure of the seal table is highly dependent on the characteristics of the debris-to-steel energy transfer.

  14. Evolution of Nickel-Manganese-Silicon Dominated Phases in Highly Irradiated Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter B Wells; Yuan Wu; Tim Milot; G. Robert Odette; Takuya Yamamoto; Brandon Miller; James Cole

    2014-11-01

    Formation of a high density of Ni-Mn-Si nm-scale precipitates in irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels, both with and without Cu, could lead to severe embrittlement. Models long ago predicted that these precipitates, which are not treated in current embrittlement regulations, would emerge only at high fluence. However, the mechanisms and variables that control Ni-Mn- Si precipitate formation, and their detailed characteristics, have not been well understood. High flux irradiations of six steels with systematic variations in Cu and Ni were carried out at ˜ 295±5°C to high and very high neutron fluences of ˜ 1.3x1020 and 1.1x1021 n/cm2. Atom probe tomography (APT) shows that significant mole fractions of these precipitates form in the Cu bearing steels at ˜ 1.3x1020 n/cm2, while they are only beginning to develop in Cu-free steels. However, large mole fractions, far in excess of those found in previous studies, are observed at 1.1x1021 n/cm2 at all Cu levels. The precipitates diffract, and in one case are compositionally and structurally consistent with the Mn6Ni16Si7 G-phase. At the highest fluence, the large precipitate mole fractions primarily depend on the steel Ni content, rather than Cu, and lead to enormous strength increases up to about 700 MPa. The implications of these results to light water reactor life extension are discussed briefly.

  15. Statistical abstraction of high-fidelity CO2 pressure histories in 2-D, uniform, cylindrical domains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letellier, Bruce C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sanzo, Dean L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pawar, Rajesh J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Long-term, deep, geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is being evaluated as a world-wide strategy for limiting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. A key element of this evaluation is quantification of the ancillary risks associated with this fundamentally new linkage between the global energy economy and the subsurface ecosphere. Quantitative risk assessment methods traditionally enumerate operational scenarios and describe the multiple physical responses that may ensue from each scenario depending on the quality of information that is available to describe identified system dependencies. For example, multiplepoint injection of compressed CO{sub 2} into a geologic reservoir having a nominal stratigraphy will create a pressurized zone of liquid that migrates through the rock. Scenarios that postulate CO{sub 2} encountering previously undetected wells or natural fractures in the caprock that represent leakage paths to the surface must be treated in a probabilistic format that accommodates unknown details in the subsurface geology. Fluid pressure in the reservoir at the location of the potential transport path drives any potential leakage that might occur, so the spatial and temporal distribution of CO{sub 2} overpressure represents an important metric for numeric simulation. State-of-the-art geologic transport models like FEHM, TUFF, and ECLIPSE (Refs. 1, 2, 3) can accurately simulate multi phase gas migration in a fully characterized geologic domain. However, each simulation can require time periods ranging between minutes and hours to achieve acceptable numerical performance, so it is often impractical to link predictive physics models directly in a quantitative risk assessment that will require transport estimates for thousands of scenarios. When direct computation is not possible, a library of high-fidelity calculations can sometimes be distilled to a simplified statistical correlation that spans the variability in all relevant input parameters while retaining acceptable accuracy in the key predicted qu antities. Essentially, numerical calculations can be used as data for an exploratory trend analysis just as one might regress predictive equations against laboratory measurements to determine unknown parameter values. Statistical correlations are derived here to reproduce radial overpressure as a function of time and position for CO{sub 2} injected along the centerline of cylindrical geologic domains. FEHM was used to compute two-phase pressure histories in a suite of simulations that varied (1) initial pressure, (2) vertical reservoir thickness, (3) domain radius, (4) uniform permeability, and (5) mass injection rate. The simulations include both a 50-yr injection phase and a 50-yr relaxation phase. The correlations are based on a two-step fitting paradigm that first captures the shape of an entire radial pressure profile for a given time and input condition, and then correlates the shape parameters as generalized power products of 6 dimensionless parameters. Estimated overpressures are accurate within a factor of 1.25 compared to the suite of simulated values. The correlations can be used to evaluate rapidly local temporal overpressure for any continuous values within the defined space of input parameters. Inversion of the pressure correlation is also demonstrated to determine the maximum injection rate corresponding to an assumed limiting fracture pressure.

  16. X-ray-absorption study of CuBr at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tranquada, J.M.; Ingalls, R.

    1986-09-15

    The x-ray-absorption spectrum of cuprous bromide has been measured as a function of pressure. The x-ray-absorption near-edge structure proved to be an excellent indicator of high-pressure phase transitions in this material. The normalized ''white-line'' peak heights at both the Cu and Br K-italic edges decreased on entering the tetragonal phase and increased in going to the NaCl structure. The zinc-blende to tetragonal phase transition took place over a very narrow pressure range centered at 46 +- 5 kbar. The transformation from the tetragonal to the NaCl structure, on the other hand, showed a broad mixed-phase region, suggesting a nucleation-and-growth mechanism for the transition. The mixed-phase region was centered at 75 +- 6 kbar. No evidence of a phase between the zinc-blende and tetragonal phases was observed, presumably because it does not exist. Analysis of the extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) clearly showed that there is no change in coordination in going from the zinc-blende to the tetragonal phase although the nearest-neighbor distance increases slightly. A much larger increase in R-italic/sub 1/ occurs at the transition to the NaCl structure, where the coordination increases from 4 to 6. The mean-square deviation in the nearest-neighbor bond length, sigma/sub 1//sup 2/, appears to be a fairly smooth function of nearest-neighbor distance, decreasing (or increasing) as R-italic/sub 1/ decreases (or increases) more or less independent of structure. Evidence from the literature was presented to suggest that the zinc-blende to tetragonal transition in CuBr (and also CuCl) should occur by shear deformation.

  17. Laminar burning velocities at high pressure for primary reference fuels and gasoline: Experimental and numerical investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerzembeck, S.; Peters, N. [RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Pepiot-Desjardins, P.; Pitsch, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, CA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Spherical flames of n-heptane, iso-octane, PRF 87 and gasoline/air mixtures are experimentally investigated to determine laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths under engine-relevant conditions by using the constant volume bomb method. Data are obtained for an initial temperature of 373 K, equivalence ratios varying from {phi}=0.7 to {phi}=1.2, and initial pressures from 10 to 25 bar. To track the flame front in the vessel a dark field He-Ne laser Schlieren measurement technique and digital image processing were used. The propagating speed with respect to the burned gases and the stretch rate are determined from the rate of change of the flame radius. The laminar burning velocities are obtained through a linear extrapolation to zero stretch. The experimentally determined Markstein numbers are compared to theoretical predictions. A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for n-heptane and iso-octane was derived from the Lawrence Livermore comprehensive mechanisms. This mechanism was validated for ignition delay times and flame propagation at low and high pressures. In summary an overall good agreement with the various experimental data sets used in the validation was obtained. (author)

  18. Isobutane ignition delay time measurements at high pressure and detailed chemical kinetic simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Healy, D.; Curran, H.J.; Donato, N.S.; Aul, C.J.; Petersen, E.L.; Zinner, C.M.; Bourque, G.

    2010-08-15

    Rapid compression machine and shock-tube ignition experiments were performed for real fuel/air isobutane mixtures at equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 1, and 2. The wide range of experimental conditions included temperatures from 590 to 1567 K at pressures of approximately 1, 10, 20, and 30 atm. These data represent the most comprehensive set of experiments currently available for isobutane oxidation and further accentuate the complementary attributes of the two techniques toward high-pressure oxidation experiments over a wide range of temperatures. The experimental results were used to validate a detailed chemical kinetic model composed of 1328 reactions involving 230 species. This mechanism has been successfully used to simulate previously published ignition delay times as well. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed to gain further insight to the chemical processes occurring at various conditions. Additionally, useful ignition delay time correlations were developed for temperatures greater than 1025 K. Comparisons are also made with available isobutane data from the literature, as well as with 100% n-butane and 50-50% n-butane-isobutane mixtures in air that were presented by the authors in recent studies. In general, the kinetic model shows excellent agreement with the data over the wide range of conditions of the present study. (author)

  19. High-Pressure Turbulent Flame Speeds and Chemical Kinetics of Syngas Blends with and without Impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Eric; Mathieu, Olivier; Morones, Anibal; Ravi, Sankar; Keesee, Charles; Hargis, Joshua; Vivanco, Jose

    2014-12-01

    This Topical Report documents the first year of the project, from October 1, 2013 through September 30, 2014. Efforts for this project included experiments to characterize the atmospheric-pressure turbulent flame speed vessel over a range of operating conditions (fan speeds and turbulent length scales). To this end, a new LDV system was acquired and set up for the detailed characterization of the turbulence field. Much progress was made in the area of impurity kinetics, which included a numerical study of the effect of impurities such as NO2, NO, H2S, and NH3 on ignition delay times and laminar flame speeds of syngas blends at engine conditions. Experiments included a series of laminar flame speed measurements for syngas (CO/H2) blends with various levels of CH4 and C2H6 addition, and the results were compared to the chemical kinetics model of NUI Galway. Also, a final NOx kinetics mechanism including ammonia was assembled, and a journal paper was written and is now in press. Overall, three journal papers and six conference papers related to this project were published this year. Finally, much progress was made on the design of the new high-pressure turbulent flame speed facility. An overall design that includes a venting system was decided upon, and the detailed design is in progress.

  20. Diamond-anvil high-pressure cell with improved x-ray collimation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schiferl, D.; Olinger, B.W.; Livingston, R.W.

    1984-03-30

    An adjustable x-ray collimation system for a diamond-anvil high-pressure cell of the type including a cooperable piston and cylinder and a pair of opposing diamonds located between the head of the piston and the head of the cylinder. The x-ray collimation system includes a tubular insert which contains an x-ray collimator. The insert is engageable in the bore of the piston. The collimator is mounted within the insert by means of an elastomeric o-ring at the end closest the opposed diamonds, and by means of a set of adjustable set screws at the opposite end. By adjustment of the set screws the collimator can be pivoted about the o-ring and brought into alignment with the opposed diamonds and the sample contained therein. In the preferred embodiment there is further provided a set of plugs which are insertable in the bore of the collimator. The plugs have bores of different diameters. By successively inserting plugs of progressively smaller bore diameters and adjusting the alignment of the collimator with each plug, the collimator can be quickly brought into accurate alignment with the diamonds. The collimation system allows alignment of the collimator either before or after the cell has been loaded and pressurized.

  1. The deterioration in heat transfer to fluids at supercritical pressure and high heat fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiralkar, B. S.

    1968-01-01

    At slightly supercritical pressure and in the neighborhood of the pseudo-critical temperature (defined as the temperature corresponding to the peak in specific heat at the operating pressure), the heat transfer coefficient ...

  2. Mechanical behaviors and phase transition of Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystals under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Xiaozhi [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research (HPSTAR), 1690 Cailun Rd., Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China); Ren, Xiangting [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); He, Duanwei, E-mail: duanweihe@scu.edu.cn, E-mail: yangwg@hpstar.ac.cn [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Institute of Fluid Physics and National Key Laboratory of Shockwave and Detonation Physic, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Chen, Bin [Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research (HPSTAR), 1690 Cailun Rd., Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China); Yang, Wenge, E-mail: duanweihe@scu.edu.cn, E-mail: yangwg@hpstar.ac.cn [Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research (HPSTAR), 1690 Cailun Rd., Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China); High Pressure Synergetic Consortium (HPSynC), Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-07-21

    Mechanical properties and phase transition often show quite large crystal size dependent behavior, especially at nanoscale under high pressure. Here, we have investigated Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystals with in-situ x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy under high pressure up to 33.5?GPa. When compared to the structural transition routine cubic -> monoclinic -> hexagonal phase in bulk Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} under high pressure, the nano-sized Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows a much higher onset transition pressure from cubic to monoclinic structure and followed by a pressure-induced-amorphization under compression. The detailed analysis on the Q (Q?=?2?/d) dependent bulk moduli reveals the nanosized Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles consist of a clear higher compressible shell and a less compressible core. Insight into these phenomena shed lights on micro-mechanism studies of the mechanical behavior and phase evolution for nanomaterials under high pressure, in general.

  3. An assessment of the Tongonan geothermal reservoir, Philippines, at high-pressure operating conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarmiento, Z.F.; Aquino, B.G.; Aunzo, Z.P.; Rodis, N.O.; Saw, V.S.

    1993-10-01

    An evaluation of the Tongonan geothermal reservoir was conducted to improve the power recovery through reservoir and process optimization. The performance of the existing production wells was reviewed and the response of the field based on the anticipated production levels was simulated at various operating conditions. The results indicate that the Tongonan geothermal reservoir can be exploited at a high pressure operating condition with substantial improvement in the field capacity. The authors calculate that the Upper Mahiao and the Malitbog sectors of the Tongonan field are capable of generating 395 MWe at 1.0 MPa abs., on top of the existing 112.5 MWe plant, compared with 275 MWe if the field is operated at 0.6 MPa abs. The total capacity for the proposed Leyte A 640 MWe expansion can be generated from these sectors with the additional power to be tapped from Mahanagdong and Alto Peak sectors.

  4. Measurement and computation of heat transfer in high-pressure compressor drum geometries with axial throughflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, C.A.; Morse, A.P.; Tucker, P.G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper makes comparisons between CFD computations and experimental measurements of heat transfer for the axial throughflow of cooling air in a high-pressure compressor spool rig and a plane cavity rig. The heat transfer measurements are produced using fluxmeters and by the conduction solution method from surface temperature measurements. Numerical predictions are made by solving the Navier-Stokes equations in a full three-dimensional, time-dependent form using the finite-volume method. Convergence is accelerated using a multigrid algorithm and turbulence modeled using a simple mixing length formulation. Notwithstanding systematic differences between the measurements and the computations, the level of agreement can be regarded as promising in view of the acknowledged uncertainties in the experimental data, the limitations of the turbulence model and, perhaps more importantly, the modest grid densities used for the computations.

  5. Dynamics of multiple double layers in high pressure glow discharge in a simple torus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar Paul, Manash, E-mail: manashkr@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Tripura–799 046 (India); Sharma, P. K.; Thakur, A.; Kulkarni, S. V.; Bora, D. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat–382 428 (India)

    2014-06-15

    Parametric characterization of multiple double layers is done during high pressure glow discharge in a toroidal vessel of small aspect ratio. Although glow discharge (without magnetic field) is known to be independent of device geometry, but the toroidal boundary conditions are conducive to plasma growth and eventually the plasma occupy the toroidal volume partially. At higher anode potential, the visibly glowing spots on the body of spatially extended anode transform into multiple intensely luminous spherical plasma blob structures attached to the tip of the positive electrode. Dynamics of multiple double layers are observed in argon glow discharge plasma in presence of toroidal magnetic field. The radial profiles of plasma parameters measured at various toroidal locations show signatures of double layer formation in our system. Parametric dependence of double layer dynamics in presence of toroidal magnetic field is presented here.

  6. Catalyst specificities in high pressure hydroprocessing of pyrolysis and gasification tars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soltes, E.J.; Lin, S.C.K.; Sheu, Y.H.E.

    1987-04-01

    Over a period of several years, the Department of Forest Science at Texas A and M University has been conducting studies in the hydroprocessing (catalytic high pressure hydrotreating or hydrodeoxygenation accompanied by hydrocracking) of pyrolytic tars produced in biomass pyrolysis and gasification. Upgrading through hydroprocessing results in good yields of volatile hydrocarbon and phenolic products. This paper compares the performance of twenty different catalysts selected for hydroprocessing of a pine pyrolysis oil, describes the use of noble metal catalysts with tars produced from nine different biomass feedstocks (oil from pine pyrolysis and the tars from pine wood chip, pine plywood trim, pecan shell, peanut shell, sugarcane bagasse, corncob, rice hull, and cottonseed hull gasification), and compares the use of several catalysts in a trickle bed reactor for kinetic studies of the hyroprocessing reaction.

  7. Experimental observation of standing wave effect in low-pressure very-high-frequency capacitive discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yong-Xin; Gao, Fei; Liu, Jia; Wang, You-Nian

    2014-07-28

    Radial uniformity measurements of plasma density were carried out by using a floating double probe in a cylindrical (21?cm in electrode diameter) capacitive discharge reactor driven over a wide range of frequencies (27–220 MHz). At low rf power, a multiple-node structure of standing wave effect was observed at 130?MHz. The secondary density peak caused by the standing wave effect became pronounced and shifts toward the axis as the driving frequency further to increase, indicative of a much more shortened standing-wave wavelength. With increasing rf power, the secondary density peak shift toward the radial edge, namely, the standing-wave wavelength was increased, in good qualitative agreement with the previous theory and simulation results. At higher pressures and high frequencies, the rf power was primarily deposited at the periphery of the electrode, due to the fact that the waves were strongly damped as they propagated from the discharge edge into the center.

  8. An examination of possible reversible combustion at high temperatures and pressures for a reciprocating engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrawala, Kaushik Tanvir

    2009-05-15

    Pa compression pressure, ? = 1.0 and CR = 18................................................................................................................ 35 15 Variation of pressure as a function of relative volume for isooctane-air at 6000 K compression... temperature, 10000 kPa compression pressure, ? = 1.0 and CR = 18................................................................................................................ 37 16 Work as a function of compression temperature for isooctane-air at 10000 k...

  9. High-pressure X-ray diffraction and X-ray emission studies on iron-bearing silicate perovskite under high pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Speciale, Sergio; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Dera, Przemek; Lavina, Babara; Watson, Heather C.

    2010-06-22

    Iron-bearing silicate perovskite is believed to be the most abundant mineral of the Earth's lower mantle. Recent studies have shown that Fe{sup 2+} exists predominantly in the intermediate-spin state with a total spin number of 1 in silicate perovskite in the lower part of the lower mantle. Here we have measured the spin states of iron and the pressure-volume relation in silicate perovskite [(Mg{sub 0.6},Fe{sub 0.4})SiO{sub 3}] at pressure conditions relevant to the lowermost mantle using in situ X-ray emission and X-ray diffraction in a diamond cell. Our results showed that the intermediate-spin Fe{sup 2+} is stable in the silicate perovskite up to {approx} 125 GPa but starts to transition to the low-spin state at approximately 135 GPa. Concurrent X-ray diffraction measurements showed a decrease of approximately 1% in the unit cell volume in the silicate perovskite [(Mg{sub 0.6},Fe{sub 0.4})SiO{sub 3}], which is attributed to the intermediate-spin to the low-spin transition. The transition pressure coincides with the pressure conditions of the lowermost mantle, raising the possibility of the existence of the silicate perovskite phase with the low-spin Fe{sup 2+} across the transition from the post-perovskite to the perovskite phases in the bottom of the D{double_prime} layer.

  10. High pressure elastic properties of minerals from ab initio simulations: The case of pyrope, grossular and andradite silicate garnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erba, A., E-mail: alessandro.erba@unito.it; Mahmoud, A.; Dovesi, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica and Centre of Excellence NIS (Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces), Università di Torino, via Giuria 5, IT-10125 Torino (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Chimica and Centre of Excellence NIS (Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces), Università di Torino, via Giuria 5, IT-10125 Torino (Italy); Belmonte, D. [DISTAV, Università di Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genoa (Italy)] [DISTAV, Università di Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genoa (Italy)

    2014-03-28

    A computational strategy is devised for the accurate ab initio simulation of elastic properties of crystalline materials under pressure. The proposed scheme, based on the evaluation of the analytical stress tensor and on the automated computation of pressure-dependent elastic stiffness constants, is implemented in the CRYSTAL solid state quantum-chemical program. Elastic constants and related properties (bulk, shear and Young moduli, directional seismic wave velocities, elastic anisotropy index, Poisson's ratio, etc.) can be computed for crystals of any space group of symmetry. We apply such a technique to the study of high-pressure elastic properties of three silicate garnet end-members (namely, pyrope, grossular, and andradite) which are of great geophysical interest, being among the most important rock-forming minerals. The reliability of this theoretical approach is proved by comparing with available experimental measurements. The description of high-pressure properties provided by several equations of state is also critically discussed.

  11. Advanced Production Surface Preparation Technology Development for Ultra-High Pressure Diesel Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, Marion B.

    2012-04-30

    In 2007, An Ultra High Injection Pressure (UHIP) fueling method has been demonstrated by Caterpillar Fuel Systems - Product Development, demonstrating ability to deliver U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 4 Final diesel engine emission performance with greatly reduced emissions handling components on the engine, such as without NOx reduction after-treatment and with only a through-flow 50% effective diesel particulate trap (DPT). They have shown this capability using multiple multi-cylinder engine tests of an Ultra High Pressure Common Rail (UHPCR) fuel system with higher than traditional levels of CEGR and an advanced injector nozzle design. The system delivered better atomization of the fuel, for more complete burn, to greatly reduce diesel particulates, while CEGR or high efficiency NOx reduction after-treatment handles the NOx. With the reduced back pressure of a traditional DPT, and with the more complete fuel burn, the system reduced levels of fuel consumption by 2.4% for similar delivery of torque and horsepower over the best Tier 4 Interim levels of fuel consumption in the diesel power industry. The challenge is to manufacture the components in high-volume production that can withstand the required higher pressure injection. Production processes must be developed to increase the toughness of the injector steel to withstand the UHIP pulsations and generate near perfect form and finish in the sub-millimeter size geometries within the injector. This project resulted in two developments in 2011. The first development was a process and a machine specification by which a high target of compressive residual stress (CRS) can be consistently imparted to key surfaces of the fuel system to increase the toughness of the steel, and a demonstration of the feasibility of further refinement of the process for use in volume production. The second development was the demonstration of the feasibility of a process for imparting near perfect, durable geometry to these same feature surfaces to withstand the pulsating UHIP diesel injection without fatigue failure, through the expected life of the fuel system's components (10,000 hours for the pump and common rail, 5000 hours for the injector). The potential to Caterpillar of this fueling approach and the overall emissions reduction system is the cost savings of the fuel, the cost savings of not requiring a full emissions module and other emissions hardware, and the enabling of the use of biodiesel fuel due to the reduced dependency on after-treatment. A proprietary production CRS generating process was developed to treat the interior of the sac-type injector nozzle tip region (particularly for the sac region). Ninety-five tips passed ultra high pulsed pressure fatigue testing with no failures assignable to treated surfaces or materials. It was determined that the CRS impartation method does not weaken the tip internal seat area. Caterpillar Fuel Systems - Product Development accepts that the CRS method initial production technical readiness level has been established. A method to gage CRS levels in production was not yet accomplished, but it is believed that monitoring process parameters call be used to guarantee quality. A precision profiling process for injector seat and sac regions has been shown to be promising but not yet fully confirmed. It was demonstrated that this precision profiling process can achieve form and geometry to well under an aggressively small micron peak-to-valley and that there are no surface flaws that approach an even tighter micron peak-to-valley tolerance. It is planned to purchase machines to further develop and move the process towards production. The system is targeted towards the high-power diesel electric power generators and high-power diesel marine power generators, with displacement from 20 liters to 80 liters and with power from 800 brake horsepower (BHP) to 3200BHP (0.6 megawatts to 2.4 megawatts). However, with market adoption, this system has the potential to meet EPA exhaust standards for all diesel engines nine liters and up, or 300B

  12. Development of an all-composite NGV high pressure storage cylinder. Final report, October 1989-July 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, W.K.; Winegar, J.S.

    1991-08-01

    The development of an all-composite cylinder for high pressure storage of natural gas on a vehicle was aimed at eliminating the major barrier to widespread use of natural gas as a vehicle fuel--the limited capacity, excessive weight and high cost of presently available cylinders. The research project demonstrated: (1) the feasibility of structurally containing high pressure (3,000 psi) natural gas through the composite overwrap alone without the use of a metallic liner, (2) a potential approach to the pole piece design and pole piece to liner interface, and (3) the unsuitability of a welded plastic laminate for a liner.

  13. Advanced Models of LWR Pressure Vessel Embrittlement for Low Flux-HighFluence Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odette, G. Robert; Yamamoto, Takuya

    2013-06-17

    Neutron embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is an unresolved issue for light water reactor life extension, especially since transition temperature shifts (TTS) must be predicted for high 80-year fluence levels up to approximately 1,020 n/cm{sup 2}, far beyond the current surveillance database. Unfortunately, TTS may accelerate at high fluence, and may be further amplified by the formation of late blooming phases that result in severe embrittlement even in low-copper (Cu) steels. Embrittlement by this mechanism is a potentially significant degradation phenomenon that is not predicted by current regulatory models. This project will focus on accurately predicting transition temperature shifts at high fluence using advanced physically based, empirically validated and calibrated models. A major challenge is to develop models that can adjust test reactor data to account for flux effects. Since transition temperature shifts depend on synergistic combinations of many variables, flux-effects cannot be treated in isolation. The best current models systematically and significantly under-predict transition temperature at high fluence, although predominantly for irradiations at much higher flux than actual RPV service. This project will integrate surveillance, test reactor and mechanism data with advanced models to address a number of outstanding RPV embrittlement issues. The effort will include developing new databases and preliminary models of flux effects for irradiation conditions ranging from very low (e.g., boiling water reactor) to high (e.g., accelerated test reactor). The team will also develop a database and physical models to help predict the conditions for the formation of Mn-Ni-Si late blooming phases and to guide future efforts to fully resolve this issue. Researchers will carry out other tasks on a best-effort basis, including prediction of transition temperature shift attenuation through the vessel wall, remediation of embrittlement by annealing, and fracture toughness master curve issues.

  14. High pressure synthesis of late rare earth RFeAs(O,F) superconductors; R = Tb and Dy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attfield, J.P.; Huxley A.D.; Sokolov D.A.; Rodgers J.A.; Penny G.B.S.; Bos J.W.G.

    2008-01-01

    New TbFeAs(O,F) and DyFeAs(O,F) superconductors with critical temperatures T-c = 46 and 45 K and very high critical fields, >= 100 T, have been prepared at 1100-1150 degrees C and 10-12 GPa, demonstrating that high pressure may be used to synthesise...

  15. ACS Div of Fuel Chem Preprints 44:4, 1016-1019 (August, 1999) KINETICS OF HIGH PRESSURE CHAR OXIDATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Thomas H.

    ACS Div of Fuel Chem Preprints 44:4, 1016-1019 (August, 1999) KINETICS OF HIGH PRESSURE CHAR) by devolatilizing Pittsburgh #8 coal at #12;ACS Div of Fuel Chem Preprints 44:4, 1016-1019 (August, 1999) high

  16. High Temperature and Pressure Steam-H2 Interaction with Candidate Advanced LWR Fuel Claddings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pint, Bruce A

    2012-08-01

    This report summarizes the work completed to evaluate cladding materials that could serve as improvements to Zircaloy in terms of accident tolerance. This testing involved oxidation resistance to steam or H{sub 2}-50% steam environments at 800-1350 C at 1-20 bar for short times. A selection of conventional alloys, SiC-based ceramics and model alloys were used to explore a wide range of materials options and provide guidance for future materials development work. Typically, the SiC-based ceramic materials, alumina-forming alloys and Fe-Cr alloys with {ge}25% Cr showed the best potential for oxidation resistance at {ge}1200 C. At 1350 C, FeCrAl alloys and SiC remained oxidation resistant in steam. Conventional austenitic steels do not have sufficient oxidation resistance with only {approx}18Cr-10Ni. Higher alloyed type 310 stainless steel is protective but Ni is not a desirable alloy addition for this application and high Cr contents raise concern about {alpha}{prime} formation. Higher pressures (up to 20.7 bar) and H{sub 2} additions appeared to have a limited effect on the oxidation behavior of the most oxidation resistant alloys but higher pressures accelerated the maximum metal loss for less oxidation resistant steels and less metal loss was observed in a H{sub 2}-50%H{sub 2}O environment at 10.3 bar. As some of the results regarding low-alloyed FeCrAl and Fe-Cr alloys were unexpected, further work is needed to fundamentally understand the minimum Cr and Al alloy contents needed for protective behavior in these environments in order to assist in alloy selection and guide alloy development.

  17. High-Pressure Micellar Solutions of Symmetric and Asymmetric Styrene?Diene Diblocks in Compressible Near Critical Solvents: Micellization Pressures and Cloud Pressures Respond but Micellar Cloud Pressures Insensitive to Copolymer Molecular Weight, Concentration, and Block Ratio Changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winoto, Winoto; Tan, Sugata; Shen, Youqin; Radosz, Maciej; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    Micellar solutions of polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-polyisoprene in propane are found to exhibit significantly lower cloud pressures than the corresponding hypothetical nonmicellar solutions. Such a cloud-pressure reduction indicates the extent to which micelle formation enhances the apparent diblock solubility in near-critical and hence compressible propane. Concentration-dependent pressure-temperature points beyond which no micelles can be formed, referred to as the micellization end points, are found to depend on the block type, size, and ratio. The cloud-pressure reduction and the micellization end point measured for styrene-diene diblocks in propane should be characteristic of all amphiphilic diblock copolymer solutions that form micelles in compressible solvents.

  18. Magnetically applied pressure-shear : a new technique for direct strength measurement at high pressure (final report for LDRD project 117856).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamppa, Derek C.; Haill, Thomas A.; Alexander, C. Scott; Asay, James Russell

    2010-09-01

    A new experimental technique to measure material shear strength at high pressures has been developed for use on magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) drive pulsed power platforms. By applying an external static magnetic field to the sample region, the MHD drive directly induces a shear stress wave in addition to the usual longitudinal stress wave. Strength is probed by passing this shear wave through a sample material where the transmissible shear stress is limited to the sample strength. The magnitude of the transmitted shear wave is measured via a transverse VISAR system from which the sample strength is determined.

  19. High-pressure Storage Vessels for Hydrogen, Natural Gas and Hydrogen-Natural Gas Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These slides were presented at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27 – 29, 2010, in Beijing, China.

  20. Relationship Between Daily Exposure to Biomass Fuel Smoke and Blood Pressure in High-Altitude Peru

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Between Daily Exposure to Biomass Fuel Smoke and BloodHousehold air pollution from biomass fuel use affects 3relationship between biomass fuel use and blood pressure. We

  1. Rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) applied to thermometry in high-pressure hydrocarbon flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vestin, Fredrik; Sedarsky, David; Collin, Robert; Alden, Marcus; Linne, Mark; Bengtsson, Per-Erik

    2008-07-15

    Dual-broadband rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (DB-RCARS) has been investigated for thermometry under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions, in the product gas of fuel-lean hydrocarbon flames up to 1 MPa. Initial calibration measurements made in nitrogen, oxygen, and air, at pressures up to 1.55 MPa and temperatures up to 1800 K, showed good agreement between experimental and theoretical spectra. In the high-pressure flames, high-quality single-shot spectra were recorded in which nitrogen lines dominated, and peaks from CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} were also visible. A spectral model including the species N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and O{sub 2}, as well as the best available Raman linewidth models for flame thermometry, were used to evaluate the experimental spectra. Experimental problems as well as considerations related to the spectral evaluation are discussed. This work demonstrates the significant potential of DB-RCARS thermometry for applications in high-pressure and high-temperature environments. (author)

  2. The effect of high-pressure injection of gas on the reservoir volume factor of a crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honeycutt, Baxter Bewitt

    1957-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF HIGH-PRESSURE INJECTION OF GAS ON THE RESERVOIR VOLUME FACTOR OF A CRUDE OIL A Thesis By+ BAXTER DS'kONEYCUTT o Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, i957 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering THE EFFECT OF HIGH-PRESSURE INJECTION OF GAS ON THE RESERVOIR VOLUME FACTOR OF A CRUDE OIL A Thesis By BAXTER D. HONEYCUTT Appro d as to style...

  3. Benzene under high pressure: A story of molecular crystals transforming to saturated networks, with a possible intermediate metallic phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Xiao-Dong; Hoffmann, Roald; Ashcroft, N. W.

    2011-01-01

    In a theoretical study, benzene is compressed up to 300 GPa. The transformations found between molecular phases generally match the experimental findings in the moderate pressure regime (<20 GPa): phase I (Pbca) is found to be stable up to 4 GPa, while phase II (P43212) is preferred in a narrow pressure range of 4–7 GPa. Phase III (P21/c) is at lowest enthalpy at higher pressures. Above 50 GPa, phase V (P21 at 0 GPa; P21/c at high pressure) comes into play, slightly more stable than phase III in the range of 50–80 GP, but unstable to rearrangement to a saturated, four-coordinate (at C), one-dimensional polymer. Actually, throughout the entire pressure range, crystals of graphane possess lower enthalpy than molecular benzene structures; a simple thermochemical argument is given for why this is so. In several of the benzene phases there nevertheless are substantial barriers to rearranging the molecules to a saturated polymer, especially at low temperatures. Even at room temperature these barriers should allow one to study the effect of pressure on the metastable molecular phases. Molecular phase III (P21/c) is one such; it remains metastable to higher pressures up to ~200 GPa, at which point it too rearranges spontaneously to a saturated, tetracoordinate CH polymer. At 300 K the isomerization transition occurs at a lower pressure. Nevertheless, there may be a narrow region of pressure, between P = 180 and 200 GPa, where one could find a metallic, molecular benzene state. We explore several lower dimensional models for such a metallic benzene. We also probe the possible first steps in a localized, nucleated benzene polymerization by studying the dimerization of benzene molecules. Several new (C6H6)2 dimers are predicted.

  4. Design and Construction of a High Pressure System for Evaluating Multiphase Twin-Screw Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatch, Theodore Isaac

    2013-08-26

    -loop test facility supplies air and water to the inlet of an MR-200 twin-screw pump of which the performance characteristics are desired. The flow of air and water can be regulated to give the desired inlet pressure, outlet pressure, and gas volume fraction...

  5. Effects of Pore Distributions on Ductility of Thin-Walled High Pressure Die-Cast Magnesium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Kyoo Sil; Li, Dongsheng; Sun, Xin; Li, Mei; Allison, John

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, a microstructure-based three-dimensional (3D) finite element modeling method is adopted to investigate the effects of porosity in thin-walled high pressure die-cast (HPDC) Magnesium alloys on their ductility. For this purpose, the cross-sections of AM60 casting samples are first examined using optical microscope and X-ray tomography to obtain the general information on the pore distribution features. The experimentally observed pore distribution features are then used to generate a series of synthetic microstructure-based 3D finite element models with different pore volume fractions and pore distribution features. Shear and ductile damage models are adopted in the finite element analyses to induce the fracture by element removal, leading to the prediction of ductility. The results in this study show that the ductility monotonically decreases as the pore volume fraction increases and that the effect of ‘skin region’ on the ductility is noticeable under the condition of same local pore volume fraction in the center region of the sample and its existence can be beneficial for the improvement of ductility. The further synthetic microstructure-based 3D finite element analyses are planned to investigate the effects of pore size and pore size distribution.

  6. Precipitation in Al–Mg solid solution prepared by solidification under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jie, J.C., E-mail: jiejc@dlut.edu.cn [Laboratory of Special Processing of Raw Materials and School of Material Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, H.W.; Zou, C.M.; Wei, Z.J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, T.J. [Laboratory of Special Processing of Raw Materials and School of Material Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China)

    2014-01-15

    The precipitation in Al–Mg solid solution containing 21.6 at.% Mg prepared by solidification under 2 GPa was investigated. The results show that the ?-Al{sub 12}Mg{sub 17} phase is formed and the ?? phase cannot be observed in the solid solution during ageing process. The precipitation of ? and ? phases takes place in a non-uniform manner during heating process, i.e. the ? and ? phases are first formed in the interdendritic region, which is caused by the inhomogeneous distribution of Mg atoms in the solid solution solidified under high pressure. Peak splitting of X-ray diffraction patterns of Al(Mg) solid solution appears, and then disappears when the samples are aged at 423 K for different times, due to the non-uniform precipitation in Al–Mg solid solution. The direct transformation from the ? to ? phase is observed after ageing at 423 K for 24 h. It is considered that the ? phase is formed through a peritectoid reaction of ? + ? ? ? which needs the diffusion of Mg atoms across the interface of ?/? phases. - Highlights: • The ? phase is formed and the ?? phase is be observed in Al(Mg) solid solution. • Peak splitting of XRD pattern of Al(Mg) solid solution appears during aged at 150 °C. • The ? phase is formed through a peritectoid reaction of ? + ? ? ?.

  7. First proof of topological signature in high pressure xenon gas with electroluminescence amplification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrario, P; Lopez-March, N; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Alvarez, V; Azevedo, C D R; Borges, F I G; Carcel, S; Cebrian, S; Cervera, A; Conde, C A N; Dafni, T; Diaz, J; Diesburg, M; Esteve, R; Fernandes, L M P; Ferreira, A L; Freitas, E D C; Gehman, V M; Goldschmidt, A; Gonzalez-Diaz, D; Gutierrez, R M; Hauptman, J; Henriques, C A O; Morata, J A Hernando; Herrera, D C; Irastorza, I G; Labarga, L; Lebrun, P; Liubarsky, I; Lorca, D; Losada, M; Luzon, G; Mari, A; Martin-Albo, J; Martinez-Lema, G; Martinez, A; Miller, T; Monrabal, F; Monserrate, M; Monteiro, C M B; Mora, F J; Vidal, L M Moutinho J Munoz; Nebot-Guinot, M; Novella, P; Nygren, D; Para, A; Perez, J; Aparicio, J L Perez; Querol, M; Renner, J; Ripoll, L; Rodriiguez, J; Santos, F P; Santos, J M F dos; Segui, L; Serra, L; Shuman, D; Simon, A; Sofka, C; Sorel, M; Toledo, J F; Torrent, J; Tsamalaidze, Z; Veloso, J F C A; Villar, J A; Webb, R; White, J T; Yahlali, N; Yepes, H

    2015-01-01

    The NEXT experiment aims to observe the neutrinoless double beta decay of xenon in a high-pressure Xe136 gas TPC using electroluminescence (EL) to amplify the signal from ionization. One of the main advantages of this technology is the possibility to reconstruct the topology of events with energies close to Qbb. This paper presents the first demonstration that the topology provides extra handles to reject background events using data obtained with the NEXT-DEMO prototype. Single electrons resulting from the interactions of Na22 1275 keV gammas and electron-positron pairs produced by conversions of gammas from the Th228 decay chain were used to represent the background and the signal in a double beta decay. These data were used to develop algorithms for the reconstruction of tracks and the identification of the energy deposited at the end-points, providing an extra background rejection factor of 24.3 +- 1.4 (stat.)%, while maintaining an efficiency of 66.7 +- 0.6 (stat.)% for signal events.

  8. An improved measurement of electron-ion recombination in high-pressure xenon gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NEXT Collaboration; L. Serra; M. Sorel; V. Álvarez; F. I. G. Borges; M. Camargo; S. Cárcel; S. Cebrián; A. Cervera; C. A. N. Conde; T. Dafni; J. Díaz; R. Esteve; L. M. P. Fernandes; P. Ferrario; A. L. Ferreira; E. D. C. Freitas; V. M. Gehman; A. Goldschmidt; J. J. Gómez-Cadenas; D. González-Díaz; R. M. Gutiérrez; J. Hauptman; J. A. Hernando Morata; D. C. Herrera; I. G. Irastorza; L. Labarga; A. Laing; I. Liubarsky; N. Lopez-March; D. Lorca; M. Losada; G. Luzón; A. Marí; J. Martín-Albo; G. Martínez-Lema; A. Martínez; T. Miller; F. Monrabal; M. Monserrate; C. M. B. Monteiro; F. J. Mora; L. M. Moutinho; J. Muñoz Vidal; M. Nebot-Guinot; D. Nygren; C. A. B. Oliveira; J. Pérez; J. L. Pérez Aparicio; M. Querol; J. Renner; L. Ripoll; A. Rodríguez; J. Rodríguez; F. P. Santos; J. M. F. dos Santos; D. Shuman; A. Simón; C. Sofka; J. F. Toledo; J. Torrent; Z. Tsamalaidze; J. F. C. A. Veloso; J. A. Villar; R. Webb; J. T. White; N. Yahlali

    2015-02-03

    We report on results obtained with the NEXT-DEMO prototype of the NEXT-100 high-pressure xenon gas time projection chamber (TPC), exposed to an alpha decay calibration source. Compared to our previous measurements with alpha particles, an upgraded detector and improved analysis techniques have been used. We measure event-by-event correlated fluctuations between ionization and scintillation due to electron-ion recombination in the gas, with correlation coeffcients between -0.80 and -0.56 depending on the drift field conditions. By combining the two signals, we obtain a 2.8 % FWHM energy resolution for 5.49 MeV alpha particles and a measurement of the optical gain of the electroluminescent TPC. The improved energy resolution also allows us to measure the specific activity of the radon in the gas due to natural impurities. Finally, we measure the average ratio of excited to ionized atoms produced in the xenon gas by alpha particles to be $0.561\\pm 0.045$, translating into an average energy to produce a primary scintillation photon of $W_{\\rm ex}=(39.2\\pm 3.2)$ eV.

  9. Liquid film thickness inside the high pressure swirl injectors: Real scale measurement and evaluation of analytical equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, Seoksu; Bae, Choongsik; Abo-Serie, Essam

    2010-02-15

    Liquid film thickness inside two swirl injectors for direct injection (DI) gasoline engines was measured at different injection pressure conditions ranging from 2.0 to 7.0 MPa and then previous analytical and empirical equations were examined from the experimental results. Based on the evaluation, a new equation for the liquid film thickness inside the swirl injectors was introduced. A direct photography using two real scale transparent nozzles and a pulsed light source was employed to measure the liquid film thickness inside the swirl injectors. The error in the liquid film thickness measurement, generated from different refractive indices among transparent nozzle, fuel and air, was estimated and corrected based on the geometric optics. Two injectors which have different nozzle diameter and nozzle length were applied to introduce a more general empirical equation for the liquid film thickness inside the pressure swirl injectors. The results showed that the liquid film thickness remains constant at the injection pressures for direct injection gasoline engines while the ratio of nozzle length to nozzle diameter (L/D) shows significant effect on the liquid film thickness. The previously introduced analytical and empirical equations for relatively low injection pressure swirl injectors overestimated the effect of injection pressure at the operating range of high pressure swirl injectors and, in addition, the effect of L/D ratio and swirler geometry was rarely considered. A new empirical equation was suggested based on the experimental results by taking into account the effects of fuel properties, nozzle diameter, nozzle length and swirler geometry. (author)

  10. High-pressure behavior and thermoelastic properties of niobium studied by in situ x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, Yongtao E-mail: yongtaozou6@gmail.com; Li, Baosheng; Qi, Xintong; Wang, Xuebing; Chen, Ting; Li, Xuefei; Welch, David

    2014-07-07

    In situ synchrotron energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments on Nb have been conducted at pressures up to 6.4 GPa and temperatures up to 1073 K. From the pressure-volume-temperature measurements, thermoelastic parameters were derived for the first time for Nb based on the thermal pressure (?P{sub th}) equation of state (EOS), modified high-T Birch-Murnaghan EOS, and Mie-Grüneisen-Debye EOS. With the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus K{sub T}{sup ´} fixed at 4.0, we obtained the ambient isothermal bulk modulus K{sub T0}=174(5) GPa, the temperature derivative of bulk modulus at constant pressure (?K{sub T}/?T){sub P}=-0.060(8) GPa K?¹ and at constant volume (?K{sub T}/?T){sub V}=-0.046(8) GPa K?¹, the volumetric thermal expansivity ?{sub T}(T)=2.3(3)×10??+0.3(2)×10??T (K?¹), as well as the pressure dependence of thermal expansion (??/?P){sub T}=(?2.0±0.4)×10?? K?¹ GPa?¹. Fitting the present data to the Mie-Grüneisen-Debye EOS with Debye temperature ??=276.6 K gives ??=1.27(8) and K{sub T0}=171(3) GPa at a fixed value of q=3.0. The ambient isothermal bulk modulus and Grüneisen parameter derived from this work are comparable to previously reported values from both experimental and theoretical studies. An in situ high-resolution, angle dispersive XRD study on Nb did not indicate any anomalous behavior related to pressure-induced electronic topological transitions at ~5 GPa as has been reported previously.

  11. Design of a new reactor-like high temperature near ambient pressure scanning tunneling microscope for catalysis studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tao, Franklin Feng; Nguyen, Luan; Zhang, Shiran

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present the design of a new reactor-like high-temperature near ambient pressure scanning tunneling microscope (HT-NAP-STM) for catalysis studies. This HT-NAP-STM was designed for exploration of structures of catalyst surfaces at atomic...

  12. A setup for Ba-ion extraction from high pressure Xe gas for double-beta decay studies with EXO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gratta, Giorgio

    . Efficient extraction and detection of Ba ions, the decay product of 136 Xe, would allow for a background of the decay product 136 Ba++ allows dif- ferentiation between bb decays and natural background and henceA setup for Ba-ion extraction from high pressure Xe gas for double-beta decay studies with EXO T

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office 2013 Merit Review: A University Consortium on Efficient and Clean High-Pressure, Lean Burn (HPLB) Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A presentation given by the University of Michigan at the 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about a university consortium to research efficient and clean high-pressure lean burn engines.

  14. Geochronology and geochemistry of high-pressure granulites of the Arthur River Complex, Fiordland, New Zealand: Cretaceous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daczko, Nathan

    Geochronology and geochemistry of high-pressure granulites of the Arthur River Complex, Fiordland margin. Key words: Arthur River Complex; Fiordland; geochronology; Median Tectonic Zone; Western geochronological examinations of the rocks of the MTZ indicate two distinct phases of magmatic activity, at 345

  15. High pressure feeder and method of operating to feed granular or fine materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2014-10-07

    A coal feed system to feed pulverized low rank coals containing up to 25 wt % moisture to gasifiers operating up to 1000 psig pressure is described. The system includes gas distributor and collector gas permeable pipes imbedded in the lock vessel. Different methods of operation of the feed system are disclosed to minimize feed problems associated with bridging and packing of the pulverized coal. The method of maintaining the feed system and feeder device exit pressures using gas addition or extraction with the pressure control device is also described.

  16. Aerosol source term in high-pressure-melt ejection. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockmann, J.E.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    Pressurized ejection of melt from a reactor pressure vessel has been identified as an important element of a severe reactor accident. Copious aerosol production is observed when thermitically generated melts pressurized with nitrogen or carbon dioxide to 1.3 to 17 MPa are ejected into an air atmosphere. Aerosol particle size distributions measured in the tests have modes of about 0.5, 5, and > 10..mu..m. Mechanisms leading to formation of these multimodal size distributions are suggested. This aerosol is a potentially important fission product source term which has not been considered in previous severe accident analyses.

  17. Potential high fluence response of pressure vessel internals constructed from austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garner, F.A.; Greenwood, L.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Harrod, D.L. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pensacola, FL (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Many of the in-core components in pressurized water reactors are constructed of austenitic stainless steels. The potential behavior of these components can be predicted using data on similar steels irradiated at much higher displacement rates in liquid-metal reactors or water-cooled mixed-spectrum reactors. Consideration of the differences between the pressurized water environment and that of the other reactors leads to the conclusion that significant amounts of void swelling, irradiation creep, and embrittlement will occur in some components, and that the level of damage per atomic displacement may be larger in the pressurized water environment.

  18. High-pressure effect on dislocation density in nanosize diamond crystals C. Panteaa,*, J. Gubiczab,c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenõ

    materials are different from the coarse-grained materials. Diamond nanosize crystals attracted a lot manufacturing, high-pressure and high-tempera- ture treatment may affect structure and properties of crystalsD2 (3 GPa), nD3 (5.5 GPa), and nD4 (8.0 GPa) and the raw powder nD0. In the case of experiments

  19. THE STRUCTURE OF SURFACE H{sub 2}O LAYERS OF ICE-COVERED PLANETS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE ICE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueta, S.; Sasaki, T. E-mail: takanori@geo.titech.ac.jp

    2013-10-01

    Many extrasolar (bound) terrestrial planets and free-floating (unbound) planets have been discovered. While the existence of bound and unbound terrestrial planets with liquid water is an important question, of particular importance is the question of these planets' habitability. Even for a globally ice-covered planet, geothermal heat from the planetary interior may melt the interior ice, creating an internal ocean covered by an ice shell. In this paper, we discuss the conditions that terrestrial planets must satisfy for such an internal ocean to exist on the timescale of planetary evolution. The question is addressed in terms of planetary mass, distance from a central star, water abundance, and abundance of radiogenic heat sources. In addition, we investigate the structure of the surface H{sub 2}O layers of ice-covered planets by considering the effects of ice under high pressure (high-pressure ice). As a fiducial case, a 1 M{sub ?} planet at 1 AU from its central star and with 0.6-25 times the H{sub 2}O mass of the Earth could have an internal ocean. We find that high-pressure ice layers may appear between the internal ocean and the rock portion on a planet with an H{sub 2}O mass over 25 times that of the Earth. The planetary mass and abundance of surface water strongly restrict the conditions under which an extrasolar terrestrial planet may have an internal ocean with no high-pressure ice under the ocean. Such high-pressure ice layers underlying the internal ocean are likely to affect the habitability of the planet.

  20. High pressure specific heat spectroscopy reveals simple relaxation behavior of glass forming molecular liquid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisa Anita Roed; Kristine Niss; Bo Jakobsen

    2015-06-11

    The frequency dependent specific heat has been measured under pressure for the molecular glass forming liquid 5-polyphenyl-4-ether in the viscous regime close to the glass transition. The temperature and pressure dependence of the characteristic timescale associated with the specific heat is compared to the equivalent timescale from dielectric spectroscopy performed under identical conditions. It is shown that the ratio between the two timescales is independent of both temperature and pressure. This observation is non-trivial and demonstrates the existence of specially simple molecular liquids in which different physical relaxation processes are both as function of temperature and pressure/density governed by the same underlying "inner clock." Furthermore, the results are discussed in terms of the recent conjecture that van der Waals liquids, like the measured liquid, comply to the isomorph theory.

  1. Touring the Conformational Landscape of Proteins with High-Pressure SDSL EPR Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lerch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    197 5.3.4 Far-UV circular dichroism measurements of globalhigh- pressure UV-Vis absorbance measurements (50). The5.5. 5.3.4 Far-UV circular dichroism measurements of global

  2. Analytical and experimental evaluation of the leakage and stiffness characteristics of high pressure pocket damper seals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gamal Eldin, Ahmed Mohamed

    2004-09-30

    This thesis presents numerical predictions for the leakage and direct stiffness coefficients of pocket damper seals. Modifications made to earlier flow-prediction models are discussed. Leakage and static pressure measurements on straight...

  3. Vacuum ultra-violet emission of plasma discharges with high Xe partial pressure using a cathode protective layer with high secondary electron emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Di; Song, Le; Zhang, Xiong; Kajiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-02-14

    In this work, the mechanism of the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) emission of plasma discharges, with high Xe partial pressure and high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer, is studied by measuring the VUV light emission directly and comparing it with two-dimensional simulations. From the panel measurement, we find that the high intensity of excimer VUV mainly contributes to the high luminous efficacy of SrCaO-plasma display panels (PDP) at a low sustain voltage. The unchanged Xe excitation efficiency indicates that the electron temperature is not decreased by the high secondary electrons emission protective layer, even though the sustain voltage is much lower. From the two-dimensional simulations, we can find that the ratio of excimer VUV to resonant VUV, which is determined by the collision rate in the discharge, is only significantly affected by the Xe partial pressure, while it is independent of the sustain voltage and the secondary-electrons-emission capability of protective layer. The unchanged average electron energy at the moment when the electric field becomes maximum confirms that the improvement of the VUV production efficiency mainly is attributed to the increase in electron heating efficiency of a PDP with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer. Combining the experimental and the simulation results, we conclude about the mechanism by which the VUV production is improved for the plasma display panel with a high Xe partial pressure and a cold cathode with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission.

  4. Experimental investigations at high temperatures and pressures on melting and mineral solubility in systems of feldspars with water, with special reference to the origin of granite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makhluf, Adam Rafiq

    2015-01-01

    mixing properties of albite-water melts. Transactions of themelting and activities of water at high pressures. Americanfor determining the solubility of water in silicate melts.

  5. FY07 LDRD Final Report Synthesis under High Pressure and Temperature of New Metal Nitrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowhurst, J C; Sadigh, B; Aberg, D; Zaug, J M; Goncharov, A F

    2008-09-23

    The original aim of this LDRD was to determine with unprecedented precision the melting curve of iron to geophysically relevant pressures. In the course of developing much of the technology and techniques required to obtain this information we have encountered and studied novel chemical reactions some of whose products are stable or metastable under ambient conditions. Specifically we have synthesized nitrides of the platinum group metals including platinum, iridium, and palladium. We have also carried out in depth first principles theoretical investigations into the nature of these materials. We believed that the scientific impact of continuing this work would be greater than that of the original goals of this project. Indeed the work has led to a number of high profile publications with additional publications in preparation. While nitrides of the transition metals are generally of tremendous technological importance, those of the noble metals in particular have enjoyed much experimental and theoretical attention in the very short time since they were first synthesized. The field was and clearly remains open for further study. While the scientific motivation for this research is different from that originally proposed, many of the associated methods in which we have now gained experience are similar or identical. These include use of the diamond anvil cell combined with technologies to generate high temperatures, the in-situ technique of Raman scattering using our purpose-built, state-of-the-art system, analytical techniques for determining the composition of recovered samples such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and finally synchrotron-based techniques such as x-ray diffraction for structural and equation of state determinations. Close interactions between theorists and experimentalists has and will continue to allow our group to rapidly and reliably interpret complicated results on the structure and dynamics of these compounds and also additional novel materials. Although the purely scientific dividends of this project have been substantial, there remains the possibility of a technological application--now that nitrides with likely desirable properties have been shown to exist, large-scale synthesis techniques can be considered.

  6. Uranium partitioning between liquid iron and silicate melt at high pressures: implications for uranium solubility in planetary cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xuezhao Bao; Richard A. Secco; Joel E. Gagnon; Brian J. Fryer

    2006-06-29

    We have investigated the partitioning of U between silicate melt and Fe liquid at pressures of 3.0 to14.5 GPa and temperatures of 1660 to 2500 oC. The solubility of U in liquid Fe is in the range of 0.6 to 800 ppm and increases with temperature (T) and pressure (P). When P = or > 7 GPa and T > Tmelt of the silicate phase (olivine), the U concentration in Fe is 3 to 5 times greater than for run products where T Tmelt of the silicate phase), then > 2.4 ppb U could have entered the core. Alternatively, if a core with same composition formed by percolation (T Uranium; partition coefficients; high pressure; dynamos; planetary cores; heat sources, LA-ICP-MS.

  7. Soot particle sizing during high-pressure Diesel spray combustion via time-resolved laser-induced incandescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryser, R.; Gerber, T.; Dreier, T. [Reaction Analysis Group, Department of General Energy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2009-01-15

    Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell for typical top dead center conditions during a Diesel engine cycle. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. [Combust. Flame 147 (20006) 79-92] ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.39 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 and 16 ms after start of injection irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

  8. Soot particle sizing during high-pressure Diesel spray combustion via time-resolved laser-induced incandescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryser, R.; Gerber, T.; Dreier, T. [Reaction Analysis Group, Department of General Energy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell for typical top dead center conditions during a Diesel engine cycle. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. [Combust. Flame 147 (2006) 79-92] ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.39 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 and 16 ms after start of injection irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

  9. Elastic properties, sp³ fraction, and Raman scattering in low and high pressure synthesized diamond-like boron rich carbides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinin, Pavel V.; Burgess, Katherine; Jia, Ruth; Sharma, Shiv; Ming, Li-Chung; Liu, Yongsheng; Ciston, Jim; Hong, Shiming

    2014-10-07

    Dense BC{sub x} phases with high boron concentration are predicted to be metastable, superhard, and conductors or superconductors depending on boron concentration. However, up to this point, diamond-like boron rich carbides BC{sub x} (dl-BC{sub x}) phases have been thought obtainable only through high pressure and high temperature treatment, necessitating small specimen volume. Here, we use electron energy loss spectroscopy combined with transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, surface Brillouin scattering, laser ultrasonics (LU) technique, and analysis of elastic properties to demonstrate that low pressure synthesis (chemical vapor deposition) of BC{sub x} phases may also lead to the creation of diamond-like boron rich carbides. The elastic properties of the dl-BC{sub x} phases depend on the carbon sp²versus sp³ content, which decreases with increasing boron concentration, while the boron bonds determine the shape of the Raman spectra of the dl-BC{sub x} after high pressure-high temperature treatment. Using the estimation of the density value based on the sp³ fraction, the shear modulus ? of dl-BC?, containing 10% carbon atoms with sp³ bonds, and dl-B?C?, containing 38% carbon atoms with sp³ bonds, were found to be ? = 19.3 GPa and ? = 170 GPa, respectively. The presented experimental data also imply that boron atoms lead to a creation of sp³ bonds during the deposition processes.

  10. Hydrogen Selective Inorganic membranes for Gas Separations under High Pressure Intermediate Temperature Hydrocarbonic Envrionment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich Ciora; Paul KT Liu

    2012-06-27

    In this project, we have successfully developed a full scale commercially ready carbon molecular sieve (CMS) based membrane for applications in H{sub 2} recovery from refinery waste and other aggressive gas streams. Field tests at a refinery pilot plant and a coal gasification facility have successfully demonstrated its ability to recovery hydrogen from hydrotreating and raw syngas respectively. High purity H{sub 2} and excellent stability of the membrane permeance and selectivity were obtained in testing conducted over >500 hours at each site. The results from these field tests as well as laboratory testing conclude that the membranes can be operated at high pressures (up to 1,000 psig) and temperatures (up to 300 C) in presence of aggressive contaminants, such as sulfur and nitrogen containing species (H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, etc), condensable hydrocarbons, tar-like species, heavy metals, etc. with no observable effect on membrane performance. By comparison, similar operating conditions and/or environments would rapidly destroy competing membranes, such as polymeric, palladium, zeolitic, etc. Significant cost savings can be achieved through recovering H{sub 2} from refinery waste gas using this newly developed CMS membrane. Annual savings of $2 to 4MM/year (per 20,000 scfd of waste gas) can be realized by recovering the H{sub 2} for reuse (versus fuel). Projecting these values over the entire US market, potential H{sub 2} savings from refinery waste gases on the order of 750 to 1,000MM scfd and $750 to $1,000MM per year are possible. In addition to the cost savings, potential energy savings are projected to be ca. 150 to 220 tBTU/yr and CO{sub 2} gas emission reductions are projected to be ca. 5,000 to 6,500MMtons/year. The full scale membrane bundle developed as part of this project, i.e., 85 x 30 inch ceramic membrane tubes packaged into a full ceramic potting, is an important accomplishment. No comparable commercial scale product exists in the inorganic membrane field. Further, this newly developed full scale bundle concept can be extended to other thin film inorganic membrane technology (Pd, zeolite, etc), providing a potential commercialization pathway for these membrane materials that demonstrate high potential in a variety of separation applications yet remain a laboratory 'novelty' for lack of a full scale support. Overall, the project has been highly successful and all of the project objectives have been met. We have developed the first of its kind commercial scale carbon molecular sieve membrane and demonstrated its performance in field testing under aggressive operating conditions and in the presence of chemical contaminants that would rapidly destroy alternative organic and inorganic membranes. This innovative membrane permits H{sub 2} recovery from gas streams that up until now have not been successfully treated with membrane or conventional technology. Our end user participant is currently pursuing the field demonstration of this membrane for hydrogen recovery at its refinery site.

  11. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies of phase transitions and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline materials at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prilliman, Gerald Stephen

    2003-09-01

    The behavior of nanocrystals under extreme pressure was investigated using synchrotron x-ray diffraction. A major part of this investigation was the testing of a prototype synchrotron endstation on a bend magnet beamline at the Advanced Light Source for high pressure work using a diamond anvil cell. The experiments conducted and documented here helped to determine issues of efficiency and accuracy that had to be resolved before the construction of a dedicated ''super-bend'' beamline and endstation. The major conclusions were the need for a cryo-cooled monochromator and a fully remote-controllable pressurization system which would decrease the time to change pressure and greatly reduce the error created by the re-placement of the diamond anvil cell after each pressure change. Two very different types of nanocrystal systems were studied, colloidal iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and thin film TiN/BN. Iron oxide nanocrystals were found to have a transition from the {gamma} to the {alpha} structure at a pressure strongly dependent on the size of the nanocrystals, ranging from 26 GPa for 7.2 nm nanocrystals to 37 GPa for 3.6 nm nanocrystals. All nanocrystals were found to remain in the {alpha} structure even after release of pressure. The transition pressure was also found, for a constant size (5.7 nm) to be strongly dependent on the degree of aggregation of the nanocrystals, increasing from 30 GPa for completely dissolved nanocrystals to 45 GPa for strongly aggregated nanocrystals. Furthermore, the x-ray diffraction pattern of the pressure induced {alpha} phase demonstrated a decrease in intensity for certain select peaks. Together, these observations were used to make a complete picture of the phase transition in nanocrystalline systems. The size dependence of the transition was interpreted as resulting from the extremely high surface energy of the {alpha} phase which would increase the thermodynamic offset and thereby increase the kinetic barrier to transition that must be overridden with pressure. The anomalous intensities in the x-ray diffraction patterns were interpreted as being the result of stacking faults, indicating that the mechanism of transition proceeds by the sliding of {gamma}(111) planes to form {alpha}(001) planes. The increasing transition pressure for more aggregated samples may be due to a positive activation volume, retarding the transition for nanocrystals with less excess (organic) volume available to them. The lack of a reverse transition upon decompression makes this interpretation more difficult because of the lack of an observable hysteresis, and it is therefore difficult to ascertain kinetic effects for certain. In the case TiN/BN nanocomposite systems, it was found that the bulk modulus (B{sub 0}) of the TiN nanoparticles was not correlated to the observed hardness or Young's modulus of the macroscopic thin film. This indicates that the origin of the observed super-hard nature of these materials is not due to any change in the Ti-N interatomic potential. Rather, the enhanced hardness must be due to nano-structural effects. It was also found that during pressurization the TiN nanoparticles developed a great deal of strain. This strain can be related to defects induced in individual nanoparticles which generates strain in adjacent particles due to the highly coupled nature of the system.

  12. Process for producing modified microorganisms for oil treatment at high temperatures, pressures and salinity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1996-02-20

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. The processes are comprised of steps which successively limit the carbon sources and increase the temperature, pressure and salinity of the media. This is done until microbial strains are obtained that are capable of growing in essentially crude oil as a carbon source and at a temperature range from about 70 C to 90 C, at a pressure range from about 2,000 to 2,500 psi and at a salinity range from about 1.3 to 35%. 68 figs.

  13. Process for producing modified microorganisms for oil treatment at high temperatures, pressures and salinity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow (Rocky Point, NY)

    1996-02-20

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. The processes are comprised of steps which successively limit the carbon sources and increase the temperature, pressure and salinity of the media. This is done until microbial strains are obtained that are capable of growing in essentially crude oil as a carbon source and at a temperature range from about 70.degree. C. to 90.degree. C., at a pressure range from about 2,000 to 2,500 psi and at a salinity range from about 1.3 to 35%.

  14. Analysis of a high pressure ATWS (anticipated transient without scram) with very low make-up flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, K.C.

    1988-10-01

    A series of calculations were performed to analyze the response of General Electric Company's (GE) advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) during an anticipated transient without scram (ATWS). This work investigated the early plant response with an assumed failure or manual inhibit of the high pressure core flooder (HPCF). Consequently, the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) and control rod drive (CRD) systems are the only sources of high pressure injection available to maintain core cooling. Steam leaving the reactor pressure vessel was diverted to the pressure suppression pool (PSP) via the steam line and the safety relief valves. The combination of an unscrammed core and the CRD and RCIC injection sources make this a particularly challenging transient. System energy balance calculations were performed to predict the core power and PSP heat-up rate. The amount of vessel vapor superheat and the PSP temperature were found to significantly affect the resultant core power. Consequently, detailed thermal-hydraulic calculations were performed to simulate the system response during the postulated transient. 15 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Evidence of the existence of the high-density and low-density phases in deeply-cooled confined heavy water under high pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhe; Chen, Sow-Hsin; Liu, Kao-Hsiang; Harriger, Leland; Leão, Juscelino B.

    2014-07-07

    The average density of D{sub 2}O confined in a nanoporous silica matrix (MCM-41-S) is studied with neutron scattering. We find that below ?210 K, the pressure-temperature plane of the system can be divided into two regions. The average density of the confined D{sub 2}O in the higher-pressure region is about 16% larger than that in the lower-pressure region. These two regions could represent the so-called “low-density liquid” and “high-density liquid” phases. The dividing line of these two regions, which could represent the associated 1st order liquid-liquid transition line, is also determined.

  16. Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy of High Performance Polymer Films under CO2 Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.A. Quarles; John R. Klaehn; Eric S. Peterson; Jagoda M. Urban-Klaehn

    2010-08-01

    Positron annihilation Lifetime and Doppler broadening measurements are reported for six polymer films as a function of carbon dioxide absolute pressure ranging from 0 to 45 psi. Since the polymer films were thin and did not absorb all positrons, corrections were made in the lifetime analysis for the absorption of positrons in the positron source and sample holder using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP. Different polymers are found to behave differently. Some polymers studied form positronium and some, such as the polyimide structures, do not. For those samples that form positronium an interpretation in terms of free volume is possible; for those that don’t form positronium, further work is needed to determine how best to describe the behavior in terms of the bulk positron annihilation parameters. Some polymers exhibit changes in positron lifetime and intensity under CO2 pressure which may be described by the Henry or Langmuir sorption models, while the positron response of other polymers is rather insensitive to the CO2 pressure. The results demonstrate the usefulness of positron annihilation spectroscopy in investigating the sorption of CO2 into various polymers at pressures up to about 3 atm.

  17. Surface Pressure Observations from Smartphones:3 A Potential Revolution for High-Resolution Weather Prediction?4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mass, Clifford F.

    numbers of surface observations39 to greatly improve our ability to describe and forecast the three of the observational problems that plague46 surface wind, temperature and humidity; unlike wind and temperature, and is not seriously impacted by48 downstream obstacles or urbanization. Surface pressure is not influenced

  18. National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology Material Test Systems in High Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siefert, Chris

    Pressure Hydrogen Gas at AIST Tsukuba Takashi Iijima, Bai An Hydrogen Industrial Use and Storage Group for Hydrogen Industrial Use and Storage) Collaborative Research Center between Kyusu University and AIST for Hydrogen Industrial Use and Storage (HYDROGENIUS) AIST Tsukuba Hydrogen Dynamics in Metals Research Team

  19. Transitions between strongly correlated and random steady-states for catalytic CO-oxidation on surfaces at high-pressure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Da -Jiang; Evans, James W.

    2015-04-02

    We explore simple lattice-gas reaction models for CO-oxidation on 1D and 2D periodic arrays of surface adsorption sites. The models are motivated by studies of CO-oxidation on RuO2(110) at high-pressures. Although adspecies interactions are neglected, the effective absence of adspecies diffusion results in kinetically-induced spatial correlations. A transition occurs from a random mainly CO-populated steady-state at high CO-partial pressure pCO, to a strongly-correlated near-O-covered steady-state for low pCO as noted. In addition, we identify a second transition to a random near-O-covered steady-state at very low pCO.

  20. Process for CO.sub.2 capture using zeolites from high pressure and moderate temperature gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV); Stevens, Robert W. (Morgantown, WV)

    2012-03-06

    A method for separating CO.sub.2 from a gas stream comprised of CO.sub.2 and other gaseous constituents using a zeolite sorbent in a swing-adsorption process, producing a high temperature CO.sub.2 stream at a higher CO.sub.2 pressure than the input gas stream. The method utilizes CO.sub.2 desorption in a CO.sub.2 atmosphere and effectively integrates heat transfers for optimizes overall efficiency. H.sub.2O adsorption does not preclude effective operation of the sorbent. The cycle may be incorporated in an IGCC for efficient pre-combustion CO.sub.2 capture. A particular application operates on shifted syngas at a temperature exceeding 200.degree. C. and produces a dry CO.sub.2 stream at low temperature and high CO.sub.2 pressure, greatly reducing any compression energy requirements which may be subsequently required.

  1. Coupled LuHf and SmNd geochronology constrains prograde and exhumation histories of high-and ultrahigh-pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Bradley R.

    Coupled Lu­Hf and Sm­Nd geochronology constrains prograde and exhumation histories of high; Geochronology; Norway 1. Introduction The Western Gneiss Region (WGR) of Norway exposes high-pressure (HP and the mantle, and generation of continental crust. Despite abundant structural, geochronologic and pressure

  2. Micro-Structured Sapphire Fiber Sensors for Simultaneous Measurements of High-T and Dynamic Gas Pressure in Harsh Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Hai; Tsai, Hai-Lung; Dong, Junhang

    2014-09-30

    This is the final report for the program “Micro-Structured Sapphire Fiber Sensors for Simultaneous Measurements of High Temperature and Dynamic Gas Pressure in Harsh Environments”, funded by NETL, and performed by Missouri University of Science and Technology, Clemson University and University of Cincinnati from October 1, 2009 to September 30, 2014. Securing a sustainable energy economy by developing affordable and clean energy from coal and other fossil fuels is a central element to the mission of The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). To further this mission, NETL funds research and development of novel sensor technologies that can function under the extreme operating conditions often found in advanced power systems. The main objective of this research program is to conduct fundamental and applied research that will lead to successful development and demonstration of robust, multiplexed, microstructured silica and single-crystal sapphire fiber sensors to be deployed into the hot zones of advanced power and fuel systems for simultaneous measurements of high temperature and gas pressure. The specific objectives of this research program include: 1) Design, fabrication and demonstration of multiplexed, robust silica and sapphire fiber temperature and dynamic gas pressure sensors that can survive and maintain fully operational in high-temperature harsh environments. 2) Development and demonstration of a novel method to demodulate the multiplexed interferograms for simultaneous measurements of temperature and gas pressure in harsh environments. 3) Development and demonstration of novel sapphire fiber cladding and low numerical aperture (NA) excitation techniques to assure high signal integrity and sensor robustness.

  3. Pressure Effect on the Structural Transition and Suppression of the High-Spin State in the Triple-Layer T'-La?Ni?O?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, J.-G.; Zhou, J.-S.; Goodenough, J. B.; Zhou, H. D.; Matsubayashi, K.; Uwatoko, Y.; Kong, P. P.; Jin, C. Q.; Yang, W. G.; Shen, G. Y.

    2012-06-08

    We report a comprehensive high-pressure study on the triple-layer T'-La?Ni?O? with a suite of experimental probes, including structure determination, magnetic, and transport properties up to 50 GPa. Consistent with a recent ab inito calculation, application of hydrostatic pressure suppresses an insulator-metal spin-state transition at Pc?6 GPa. However, a low-spin metallic phase does not emerge after the high-spin state is suppressed to the lowest temperature. For P>20 GPa, the ambient T' structure transforms gradually to a T†-type structure, which involves a structural reconstruction from fluorite La–O?–La blocks under low pressures to rock-salt LaO-LaO blocks under high pressures. Absence of the metallicmore »phase under pressure has been discussed in terms of local displacements of O²? ions in the fluorite block under pressure before a global T† phase is established.« less

  4. A BEAMLINE FOR HIGH PRESSURE STUDIES AT THE ADVANCED LIGHT SOURCE WITH A SUPERCONDUCTING BENDING MAGNET AS THE SOURCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunz, M; MacDowell, A A; Caldwell, W A; Cambie, D; Celestre, R S; Domning, E E; Duarte, R M; Gleason, A; Glossinger, J; Kelez, N; Plate, D W; Yu, T; Zaug, J M; Padmore, H A; Jeanloz, R; Alivisatos, A P; Clark, S M

    2005-04-19

    A new facility for high-pressure diffraction and spectroscopy using diamond anvil high-pressure cells has been built at the Advanced Light Source on Beamline 12.2.2. This beamline benefits from the hard X-radiation generated by a 6 Tesla superconducting bending magnet (superbend). Useful x-ray flux is available between 5 keV and 35 keV. The radiation is transferred from the superbend to the experimental enclosure by the brightness preserving optics of the beamline. These optics are comprised of: a plane parabola collimating mirror (M1), followed by a Kohzu monochromator vessel with a Si(111) crystals (E/{Delta}E {approx} 7000) and a W/B{sub 4}C multilayer (E/{Delta}E {approx} 100), and then a toroidal focusing mirror (M2) with variable focusing distance. The experimental enclosure contains an automated beam positioning system, a set of slits, ion chambers, the sample positioning goniometry and area detectors (CCD or image-plate detector). Future developments aim at the installation of a second end station dedicated for in situ laser-heating on one hand and a dedicated high-pressure single-crystal station, applying both monochromatic as well as polychromatic techniques.

  5. A Beamline for High-Pressure Studies at the Advanced Light Sourcewith a Superconducting Bending Magnet as the Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunz, Martin; MacDowell, Alastair A.; Caldwell, Wendel A.; Cambie, Daniella; Celestre, Richard S.; Domning, Edward E.; Duarte,Robert M.; Gleason, Arianna E.; Glossinger, James M.; Kelez, Nicholas; Plate, David W.; Yu, Tony; Zaug, Joeseph M.; Padmore, Howard A.; Jeanloz,Raymond; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Clark, Simon M.

    2005-06-30

    A new facility for high-pressure diffraction and spectroscopy using diamond anvil high-pressure cells has been built at the Advanced Light Source on Beamline 12.2.2. This beamline benefits from the hard X-radiation generated by a 6 Tesla superconducting bending magnet (superbend). Useful x-ray flux is available between 5 keV and 35 keV. The radiation is transferred from the superbend to the experimental enclosure by the brightness preserving optics of the beamline. These optics are comprised of: a plane parabola collimating mirror (M1), followed by a Kohzu monochromator vessel with a Si(111) crystals (E/DE {approx}7000) and a W/B4C multilayers (E/DE {approx} 100), and then a toroidal focusing mirror (M2) with variable focusing distance. The experimental enclosure contains an automated beam positioning system, a set of slits, ion chambers, the sample positioning goniometry and area detectors (CCD or image-plate detector). Future developments aim at the installation of a second end station dedicated for in situ laser-heating on one hand and a dedicated high-pressure single-crystal station, applying both monochromatic as well as polychromatic techniques.

  6. High-Pressure Micellar Solutions of Polystyrene-block-Polybutadiene and Polystyrene-block-Polyisoprene Solutions in Propane Exhibit Cloud-Pressure Reduction and Distinct Micellization End Points

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winoto, Winoto; Radosz, Maciej; Tan, Sugata; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    Micellar solutions of polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-polyisoprene in propane are found to exhibit significantly lower cloud pressures than the corresponding hypothetical non-micellar solutions. Such a cloud-pressure reduction indicates the extent to which micelle formation enhances the apparent diblock solubility in near-critical and hence compressible propane. Pressure-temperature points beyond which no micelles can be formed, referred to as the micellization end points, are found to depend on the block type, size and ratio, and on the polymer concentration. For a given pressure, the micellization end-point temperature corresponds to the "critical micelle temperature." The cloud-pressure reduction and the micellization end point measured for styrene-diene diblocks in propane should be characteristic of all amphiphilic diblock copolymer solutions that form micelles in compressible solvents.

  7. High-pressure dissociation of silver mercury iodide, Ag{sub 2}HgI{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parfitt, D.C. [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Hull, S. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: s.hull@rl.ac.uk; Keen, D.A. [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Crichton, W. [ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble CEDEX 9 (France)

    2004-10-01

    High-pressure X-ray diffraction has been used to probe the behavior of the superionic conductor silver mercury iodide (Ag{sub 2}HgI{sub 4}) at pressures up to 5GPa and at temperatures from 295 to 370K. Significant changes in the diffraction spectra, indicative of structural transitions, are observed around 0.7 and 1.3GPa across the range of temperatures studied. The change at 0.7GPa is shown to correspond to the dissociation of silver mercury iodide into silver iodide and mercury iodide, i.e., Ag{sub 2}HgI{sub 4}->2AgI+HgI{sub 2}. The second transition, at 1.3GPa, is due to a structural phase transition within HgI{sub 2}. Rietveld analysis of the diffraction data is used to confirm and refine all the known crystal structures.

  8. Dual shell pressure balanced vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fassbender, Alexander G. (West Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.

  9. Size dependence of cubic to trigonal structural distortion in silver micro- and nanocrystals under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Qixum [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhao, Yusheng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zin, Zhijun [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Zhongwu [CORNELL UNIV; Skrabalak, Sara E [INDIANA UNIV; Xia, Younan [WASHINGTON UNIV

    2008-01-01

    Silver micro- and nanocrystals with sizes of {approx}2--3.5 {mu}m and {approx}50--100 nm were uniaxially compressed under nonhydrostatic pressures (strong deviatoric stress) up to {approx}30 GPa at room temperature in a symmetric diamond-anvil cell and studied in situ using angle-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction. A cubic to trigonal structural distortion along a 3-fold rotational axis was discovered by careful and comprehensive analysis of the apparent lattice parameter and full width at half-maximum, which are strongly dependent upon the Miller index and crystal size.

  10. Synthesis of new Diamond-like B-C Phases under High Pressure and Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ming, L. C.; Zinin, P. V.; Sharma, S. K.

    2014-04-22

    A cubic BC3 (c-BC3) phase was synthesized by direct transformation from graphitic phases at a pressure of 39 GPa and temperature of 2200 K in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (DAC). A combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron diffraction (ED), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements lead us to conclude that the obtained phase is hetero-nano-diamond, c-BC3. The EELS measurements show that the atoms inside the cubic structure are bonded by sp3 bonds.

  11. MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTY PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL GRADE API PIPELINE STEELS IN HIGH PRESSURE GASEOUS HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stalheim, Mr. Douglas; Boggess, Todd; San Marchi, Chris; Jansto, Steven; Somerday, Dr. B; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Sofronis, Prof. Petros

    2010-01-01

    The continued growth of the world s developing countries has placed an ever increasing demand on traditional fossil fuel energy sources. This development has lead to increasing research and development of alternative energy sources. Hydrogen gas is one of the potential alternative energy sources under development. Currently the most economical method of transporting large quantities of hydrogen gas is through steel pipelines. It is well known that hydrogen embrittlement has the potential to degrade steel s mechanical properties when hydrogen migrates into the steel matrix. Consequently, the current pipeline infrastructure used in hydrogen transport is typically operated in a conservative fashion. This operational practice is not conducive to economical movement of significant volumes of hydrogen gas as an alternative to fossil fuels. The degradation of the mechanical properties of steels in hydrogen service is known to depend on the microstructure of the steel. Understanding the levels of mechanical property degradation of a given microstructure when exposed to hydrogen gas under pressure can be used to evaluate the suitability of the existing pipeline infrastructure for hydrogen service and guide alloy and microstructure design for new hydrogen pipeline infrastructure. To this end, the 2 Copyright 2010 by ASME microstructures of relevant steels and their mechanical properties in relevant gaseous hydrogen environments must be fully characterized to establish suitability for transporting hydrogen. A project to evaluate four commercially available pipeline steels alloy/microstructure performance in the presences of gaseous hydrogen has been funded by the US Department of Energy along with the private sector. The microstructures of four pipeline steels were characterized and then tensile testing was conducted in gaseous hydrogen and helium at pressures of 800, 1600 and 3000 psi. Based on measurements of reduction of area, two of the four steels that performed the best across the pressure range were selected for evaluation of fracture and fatigue performance in gaseous hydrogen at 800 and 3000 psi. This paper will describe the work performed on four commercially available pipeline steels in the presence of gaseous hydrogen at pressures relevant for transport in pipelines. Microstructures and mechanical property performances will be compared. In addition, recommendations for future work related to gaining a better understanding of steel pipeline performance in hydrogen service will be discussed.

  12. Generation of high pressure shocks relevant to the shock-ignition intensity regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batani, D.; Folpini, G.; Giuffrida, L.; Maheut, Y.; Malka, G.; Nicolai, Ph.; Ribeyre, X. [Université Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France)] [Université Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France); Antonelli, L. [Université Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France) [Université Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France); Università di Roma “Tor Vergata,” Roma (Italy); Atzeni, S.; Marocchino, A.; Schiavi, A. [Dipartimento SBAI, Université di Roma “La Sapienza” and CNISM, Roma (Italy)] [Dipartimento SBAI, Université di Roma “La Sapienza” and CNISM, Roma (Italy); Badziak, J.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Pisarczyk, T.; Rosinski, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland)] [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Baffigi, F.; Cristoforetti, G.; Gizzi, L. A.; Koester, P. [Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory, INO-CNR, Pisa (Italy)] [Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory, INO-CNR, Pisa (Italy); and others

    2014-03-15

    An experiment was performed using the PALS laser to study laser-target coupling and laser-plasma interaction in an intensity regime ?10{sup 16}?W/cm{sup 2}, relevant for the “shock ignition” approach to Inertial Confinement Fusion. A first beam at low intensity was used to create an extended preformed plasma, and a second one to create a strong shock. Pressures up to 90 Megabars were inferred. Our results show the importance of the details of energy transport in the overdense region.

  13. A high-temperature, ambient-pressure ultra-dry operando reactor cell for Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Köck, Eva-Maria; Kogler, Michaela; Pramsoler, Reinhold; Klötzer, Bernhard; Penner, Simon

    2014-08-15

    The construction of a newly designed high-temperature, high-pressure FT-IR reaction cell for ultra-dry in situ and operando operation is reported. The reaction cell itself as well as the sample holder is fully made of quartz glass, with no hot metal or ceramic parts in the vicinity of the high-temperature zone. Special emphasis was put on chemically absolute water-free and inert experimental conditions, which includes reaction cell and gas-feeding lines. Operation and spectroscopy up to 1273 K is possible, as well as pressures up to ambient conditions. The reaction cell exhibits a very easy and variable construction and can be adjusted to any available FT-IR spectrometer. Its particular strength lies in its possibility to access and study samples under very demanding experimental conditions. This includes studies at very high temperatures, e.g., for solid-oxide fuel cell research or studies where the water content of the reaction mixtures must be exactly adjusted. The latter includes all adsorption studies on oxide surfaces, where the hydroxylation degree is of paramount importance. The capability of the reaction cell will be demonstrated for two selected examples where information and in due course a correlation to other methods can only be achieved using the presented setup.

  14. n-Butane: Ignition delay measurements at high pressure and detailed chemical kinetic simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Healy, D.; Curran, H.J.; Donato, N.S.; Aul, C.J.; Petersen, E.L.; Zinner, C.M.; Bourque, G.

    2010-08-15

    Ignition delay time measurements were recorded at equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 1, and 2 for n-butane at pressures of approximately 1, 10, 20, 30 and 45 atm at temperatures from 690 to 1430 K in both a rapid compression machine and in a shock tube. A detailed chemical kinetic model consisting of 1328 reactions involving 230 species was constructed and used to validate the delay times. Moreover, this mechanism has been used to simulate previously published ignition delay times at atmospheric and higher pressure. Arrhenius-type ignition delay correlations were developed for temperatures greater than 1025 K which relate ignition delay time to temperature and concentration of the mixture. Furthermore, a detailed sensitivity analysis and a reaction pathway analysis were performed to give further insight to the chemistry at various conditions. When compared to existing data from the literature, the model performs quite well, and in several instances the conditions of earlier experiments were duplicated in the laboratory with overall good agreement. To the authors' knowledge, the present paper presents the most comprehensive set of ignition delay time experiments and kinetic model validation for n-butane oxidation in air. (author)

  15. Chemical interaction in the B-BN system at high pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solozhenko, Vladimir L.; Kurakevych, Oleksandr O.

    2009-06-15

    Chemical interaction and phase transformations in the B-BN system have been in situ studied by X-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation at pressures up to 5.3 GPa and temperatures up to 2800 K using multianvil press. New rhombohedral boron subnitride B{sub 13}N{sub 2} has been synthesized by crystallization from the B-BN melt at 5 GPa. The structure of B{sub 13}N{sub 2} belongs to the R-3m space group (a=5.4455(2) A, c=12.2649(9) A) and represents a new structural type. The subnitride is an individual compound and not a solid solution, in contrast to boron carbide. Besides, the formation of two other boron-rich B-N phases denoted as 'B{sub 6}N' and 'B{sub 50}N{sub 2}' has been observed. Their structures seem to be much more sophisticated and have not been even resolved to present time. - Graphical abstract: Chemical interaction and phase transformations in the B-BN system have been in situ studied by X-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation at pressures up to 5.3 GPa and temperatures up to 2800 K using multianvil press. Three boron subnitrides have been synthesized and characterized.

  16. IAEA-2006 FRX-L 1/26/06 LA-UR-06-0531 High pressure Field Reversed Configuration plasmas in FRX-L

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @lanl.gov We are developing a field reversed configuration (FRC) plasma for application as the target plasma deterioration of FRC's · increased ne, , & plasma pressure, including 0.7 mWb trapped flux duringIAEA-2006 FRX-L 1/26/06 LA-UR-06-0531 High pressure Field Reversed Configuration plasmas in FRX

  17. The influence of substrate polarity on the structural quality of InN layers grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietz, Nikolaus

    the growth temperatures to below 650 °C for low-pressure metal organic chemical vapor depo- sition MOCVDThe influence of substrate polarity on the structural quality of InN layers grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition N. Dietz,1,a M. Alevli,1 R. Atalay,1 G. Durkaya,1 R. Collazo,2 J. Tweedie,2 S

  18. Highly stable silicon dioxide films deposited by means of rapid thermal -low-pressure chemical vapor deposition onto InP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    grown by rapid thermal, low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (RT-LPCVD), using pure oxygen (0,) and 2Highly stable silicon dioxide films deposited by means of rapid thermal - low-pressure chemical vapor deposition onto InP A. Katz, A. Feingold, U. K. Chakrabarti, and S. J. Peat-ton AT&T Bell

  19. Auto-ignition during instationary jet evolution of dimethyl ether (DME) in a high-pressure atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, G.; Kuhn, D.; Class, A.G.; Maas, U.

    2009-01-15

    The auto-ignition process during transient injection of gaseous dimethyl ether (DME) in a constant high-pressure atmosphere is studied experimentally by laser-optical methods and compared with numerical calculations. With different non-intrusive measurement techniques jet properties and auto-ignition are investigated at high temporal and spatial resolution. The open jet penetrates a constant pressure oxidative atmosphere of up to 4 MPa. During the transient evolution, the fuel jet entrains air at up to 720 K. The subsequent auto-ignition of the ignitable part of the jet occurs simultaneously over a wide spatial extension. The ignition delay times are not affected by variation of the nozzle exit velocity. Thus, the low-temperature oxidation is slow compared with the shorter time scales of mixing, so that chemical kinetics is dominating the process. The typical two-stage ignition is resolved optically with high-speed shadowgraphy at a sampling rate of 10 kHz. The 2D fields of jet velocity and transient mixture fraction are measured phase-coupled with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Tracer Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) during the time-frame of ignition. The instationary Probability Density Functions (PDF) of mixture fraction are described very well by Beta functions within the complete area of the open jet. Additional 1D flamelet simulations of the auto-ignition process are computed with a detailed reaction mechanism for DME [S. Fischer, F. Dryer, H. Curran, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 713-740; H. Curran, S. Fischer, F. Dryer, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 741-759]. Calculated ignition delay times are in very good agreement with the measured mean ignition delay times of 3 ms. Supplemental flamelet simulations address the influence of DME and air temperature, pressure and strain. Underneath a critical strain rate the air temperature is identified to be the most sensitive factor on ignition delay time. (author)

  20. High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard T. Scalettar; Warren E. Pickett

    2005-08-02

    This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (i) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (ii) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (iii) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals.

  1. High-temperature geochronology constraints on the tectonic history and architecture of the ultrahigh-pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Bradley R.

    High-temperature geochronology constraints on the tectonic history and architecture, but at present, there is no geochronological evidence in the Dabie- Sulu area to support this. The subduction (2006), High-temperature geochronology constraints on the tectonic history and architecture

  2. Chemical Processing in High-Pressure Aqueous Environments. 9. Process Development for Catalytic Gasification of Algae Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2012-07-26

    Through the use of a metal catalyst, gasification of wet algae slurries can be accomplished with high levels of carbon conversion to gas at relatively low temperature (350 C). In a pressurized-water environment (20 MPa), near-total conversion of the organic structure of the algae to gases has been achieved in the presence of a supported ruthenium metal catalyst. The process is essentially steam reforming, as there is no added oxidizer or reagent other than water. In addition, the gas produced is a medium-heating value gas due to the synthesis of high levels of methane, as dictated by thermodynamic equilibrium. As opposed to earlier work, biomass trace components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties in the fixed catalyst bed tubular reactor system. As a result, the algae feedstocks, even those with high ash contents, were much more reliably processed. High conversions were obtained even with high slurry concentrations. Consistent catalyst operation in these short-term tests suggested good stability and minimal poisoning effects. High methane content in the product gas was noted with significant carbon dioxide captured in the aqueous byproduct in combination with alkali constituents and the ammonia byproduct derived from proteins in the algae. High conversion of algae to gas products was found with low levels of byproduct water contamination and low to moderate loss of carbon in the mineral separation step.

  3. Next Generation Pressurized Oxy-Coal Combustion: High Efficiency and No Flue Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rue, David

    2013-09-30

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has developed a pressurized oxy-coal fired molten bed boiler (MBB) concept, in which coal and oxygen are fired directly into a bed of molten coal slag through burners located on the bottom of the boiler and fired upward. Circulation of heat by the molten slag eliminates the need for a flue gas recirculation loop and provides excellent heat transfer to steam tubes in the boiler walls. Advantages of the MBB technology over other boilers include higher efficiency (from eliminating flue gas recirculation), a smaller and less expensive boiler, modular design leading to direct scalability, decreased fines carryover and handling costs, smaller exhaust duct size, and smaller emissions control equipment sizes. The objective of this project was to conduct techno-economic analyses and an engineering design of the MBB project and to support this work with thermodynamic analyses and oxy-coal burner testing. Techno-economic analyses of GTI’s pressurized oxy-coal fired MBB technology found that the overall plant with compressed CO2 has an efficiency of 31.6%. This is a significant increase over calculated 29.2% efficiency of first generation oxy-coal plants. Cost of electricity (COE) for the pressurized MBB supercritical steam power plant with CO2 capture and compression was calculated to be 134% of the COE for an air-coal supercritical steam power plant with no CO2 capture. This compares positively with a calculated COE for first generation oxy-coal supercritical steam power plants with CO2 capture and compression of 164%. The COE for the MBB power plant is found to meet the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target of 135%, before any plant optimization. The MBB power plant was also determined to be simpler than other oxy-coal power plants with a 17% lower capital cost. No other known combustion technology can produce higher efficiencies or lower COE when CO2 capture and compression are included. A thermodynamic enthalpy and exergy analysis found a number of modifications and adjustments that could provide higher efficiency and better use of available work. Conclusions from this analysis will help guide the analyses and CFD modeling in future process development. The MBB technology has the potential to be a disruptive technology that will enable coal combustion power plants to be built and operated in a cost effective way, cleanly with no carbon dioxide emissions. A large amount of work is needed to quantify and confirm the great promise of the MBB technology. A Phase 2 proposal was submitted to DOE and other sponsors to address the most critical MBB process technical gaps. The Phase 2 proposal was not accepted for current DOE support.

  4. Petrological and geochronological constraints on the metamorphic evolution of high-pressure granulites and eclogites of the Snowbird tectonic zone, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Julia A. (Julia Ann), 1974-

    2003-01-01

    This thesis examines the petrology and geochronology of high-pressure granulites and eclogites within the Snowbird tectonic zone of the western Canadian Shield. The focus of this study is the East Athabasca mylonite triangle ...

  5. Transient high-pressure stress relaxation of prestressing tendons in unbonded construction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gales, John; Bisby, Luke; MacDougall, Colin; MacLean, Kevin

    of construction. One concern for these structures in fire is that high temperature stress relaxation of the unbonded prestressed reinforcement may cause considerable and irrecoverable prestress loss, with subsequent structural consequences. This paper uses a...

  6. Ultrafast high-pressure AC electro-osmotic pumps for portable biomedical microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    integrated into microfluidic devices6 and applied to portable fuel cells,7 but the need for high voltage (>10 have also been predicted at lower voltages (without Faradaic reactions) for optimized three

  7. The significance of specimen end restraint in high pressure triaxial testing of cohesive soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casey, Brendan (Brendan Anthony)

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the mechanical behaviour of cohesive soil at relatively high stresses with a particular emphasis on the significance of specimen end restraint on the interpretation of triaxial test results. Undrained ...

  8. Pressure-driven, resistive magnetohydrodynamic interchange instabilities in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Chikang

    Recent experiments using proton backlighting of laser-foil interactions provide unique opportunities for studying magnetized plasma instabilities in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas. Time-gated proton radiograph ...

  9. Detection of melting by X-ray imaging at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Li; Weidner, Donald J.

    2014-06-15

    The occurrence of partial melting at elevated pressure and temperature is documented in real time through measurement of volume strain induced by a fixed temperature change. Here we present the methodology for measuring volume strains to one part in 10{sup ?4} for mm{sup 3} sized samples in situ as a function of time during a step in temperature. By calibrating the system for sample thermal expansion at temperatures lower than the solidus, the onset of melting can be detected when the melting volume increase is of comparable size to the thermal expansion induced volume change. We illustrate this technique with a peridotite sample at 1.5 GPa during partial melting. The Re capsule is imaged with a CCD camera at 20 frames/s. Temperature steps of 100 K induce volume strains that triple with melting. The analysis relies on image comparison for strain determination and the thermal inertia of the sample is clearly seen in the time history of the volume strain. Coupled with a thermodynamic model of the melting, we infer that we identify melting with 2 vol.% melting.

  10. Improved background rejection in neutrinoless double beta decay experiments using a magnetic field in a high pressure xenon TPC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renner, J; Hernando, J A; Imzaylov, A; Monrabal, F; Muñoz, J; Nygren, D; Gomez-Cadenas, J J

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the application of an external magnetic field could lead to an improved background rejection in neutrinoless double-beta (0nbb) decay experiments using a high pressure xenon (HPXe) TPC. HPXe chambers are capable of imaging electron tracks, a feature that enhances the separation between signal events (the two electrons emitted in the 0nbb decay of 136Xe) and background events, arising chiefly from single electrons of kinetic energy compatible with the end-point of the 0nbb decay (Qbb ). Applying an external magnetic field of sufficiently high intensity (in the range of 0.5-1 Tesla for operating pressures in the range of 5-15 atmospheres) causes the electrons to produce helical tracks. Assuming the tracks can be properly reconstructed, the sign (direction) of curvature can be determined at several points along these tracks, and such information can be used to separate signal (0nbb) events containing two electrons producing a track with two different directions of curvature from background (s...

  11. Chemical Processing in High-Pressure Aqueous Environments. 7. Process Development for Catalytic Gasification of Wet Biomass Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Butner, Scott S.; Zacher, Alan H.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Young, James S.; McCready, David E.

    2004-07-01

    Through the use of a metal catalyst, gasification of wet biomass can be accomplished with high levels of carbon conversion to gas at relatively low temperature (350 C). In the pressurized-water environment (20 MPa) near-total conversion of the organic structure of biomass to gases has been accomplished in the presence of a ruthenium metal catalyst. The process is essentially steam reforming as there is no added oxidizer or reagent other than water. In addition, the gas produced is a medium-heating value gas due to the synthesis of high-levels of methane, as dictated by thermodynamic equilibrium. Biomass trace components cause processing difficulties using the fixed catalyst bed tubular reactor system. Results are described for both bench-scale and scaled-up reactor systems.

  12. High pressure synthesis of a new phase of YbAg2. Structure, valence of Yb and properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tsvyashchenko, A. V.; Menushenkov, A. P.; Sidorov, V. A.; Petrova, A. E.; Fomicheva, L. N.; Chernysheva, O. V.; Lebed, Yu. B.; Axenov, S. N.; Bud’ko, S. L.; Sun, Liling; et al

    2015-11-25

    The new phase of YbAg2 was obtained using high-pressure and high-temperature reaction. YbAg2 crystallizes in the MgZn2 structure (the space group P63/mmc space group, No 194) with a = 5.68153(3) Å and c = 9.31995(7) Å and the unit cell volumeV = 260.54(3) Å3. The XANES analysis showed that the valence state of Yb is +2.8. The low-temperature dependences of the electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility can be adequately described by a T2 term that supports the Fermi-liquid picture. Furthermore, the Kadowaki–Woods relation gives a low value of the degeneracy (N = 2).

  13. Access to a New Plasma Edge State with High Density and Pressures using Quiescent H-mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, Wayne M.; Snyder, P. B.; Burrell, K. H.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Garofalo, A. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Loarte, A.; McKee, G. R.; Nazikian, R; Osborne, T. H.

    2014-07-01

    A path to a new high performance regime has been discovered in tokamaks that could improve the attractiveness of a fusion reactor. Experiments on DIII-D using a quiescent H-mode edge have navigated a valley of improved edge peeling-ballooning stability that opens up with strong plasma shaping at high density, leading to a doubling of the edge pressure over standard edge localized mode (ELM)ing H-mode at these parameters. The thermal energy confinement time increases both as a result of the increased pedestal height and improvements in the core transport and reduced low-k turbulence. Calculations of the pedestal height and width as a function of density using constraints imposed by peeling-ballooning and kinetic-ballooning theory are in quantitative agreement with the measurements.

  14. High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡High HIGH PERFORMANCE and1 DOE0

  15. Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Pressure Hydrogen Production. A comprehensive project report (FY2010 - FY2012)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klaehn, John; Peterson, Eric; Orme, Christopher; Bhandari, Dhaval; Miller, Scott; Ku, Anthony; Polishchuk, Kimberly; Narang, Kristi; Singh, Surinder; Wei, Wei; Shisler, Roger; Wickersham, Paul; McEvoy, Kevin; Alberts, William; Howson, Paul; Barton, Thomas; Sethi, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL), GE Global Research (GEGR), and Western Research Institute (WRI) have successfully produced hydrogen-selective membranes for water-gas-shift (WGS) modules that enable high-pressure hydrogen product streams. Several high performance (HP) polymer membranes were investigated for their gas separation performance under simulated (mixed gas) and actual syngas conditions. To enable optimal module performance, membranes with high hydrogen (H2) selectivity, permeance, and stability under WGS conditions are required. The team determined that the VTEC PI 80-051 and VTEC PI 1388 (polyimide from Richard Blaine International, Inc.) are prime candidates for the H2 gas separations at operating temperatures (~200°C). VTEC PI 80-051 was thoroughly analyzed for its H2 separations under syngas processing conditions using more-complex membrane configurations, such as tube modules and hollow fibers. These membrane formats have demonstrated that the selected VTEC membrane is capable of providing highly selective H2/CO2 separation (? = 7-9) and H2/CO separation (? = 40-80) in humidified syngas streams. In addition, the VTEC polymer membranes are resilient within the syngas environment (WRI coal gasification) at 200°C for over 1000 hours. The information within this report conveys current developments of VTEC PI 80-051 as an effective H2 gas separations membrane for high-temperature syngas streams.

  16. High Pressure Research, 2002, Vol. 22, pp. 501506 PHONON SPECTROSCOPY OF ORIENTED HCP IRON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfè, Dario

    of compound refractive lenses and a bent crystal the and crystallizes in the cubic (bcc) structure (a-Fe). Around 13 GPa, a-Fe transforms to the nonmagnetic e-Fe. High DOI: 10.1080=08957950290011437 #12;scattering, where single crystals are needed to measure

  17. RUI: Structure and Behavior of RF-Driven Plasma Filaments in High-Pressure Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burin, Michael

    2014-11-18

    The filamentary discharge seen within commercial plasma globes is commonly enjoyed, yet not well understood. We investigate filament properties in a plasma globe using a variable high voltage amplifier. Results from the 3-year grant period and their physics are discussed.

  18. Stress reduction in sputter deposited films using nanostructured compliant layers by high working-gas pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    Stress reduction in sputter deposited films using nanostructured compliant layers by high working October 2004; accepted 13 December 2004; published 27 June 2005 We present a strategy of stress reduction as a compliant layer to reduce the stress of the subsequently deposited continuous film grown under low gas

  19. HIGH-REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND BARYON FRACTION, TURBULENT PRESSURE EFFECTS, AND THE ORIGIN OF TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkert, A.; Naab, T. [University Observatory Munich (USM), Scheinerstrasse 1, 81679 Munich (Germany); Genzel, R.; Bouche, N.; Cresci, G.; Khochfar, S.; Schreiber, N. Foerster; Tacconi, L.; Hicks, E.; Lutz, D.; Davies, R.; Buschkamp, P.; Genel, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Sommer-Larsen, J. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Marie Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Sternberg, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Shapiro, K., E-mail: burkert@usm.uni-muenchen.d, E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.d [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-12-20

    The structure of a sample of high-redshift (z {approx} 2), rotating galaxies with high star formation rates and turbulent gas velocities of {sigma} {approx} 40-80 km s{sup -1} is investigated. Fitting the observed disk rotational velocities and radii with a Mo et al. (MMW) model requires unusually large disk spin parameters {lambda}{sub d}>0.1 and disk-to-dark halo mass fractions of m{sub d} {approx} 0.2, close to the cosmic baryon fraction. The galaxies segregate into dispersion-dominated systems with 1 {<=} v{sub max}/{sigma} {<=} 3, maximum rotational velocities v{sub max{<=}} 200 km s{sup -1}, and disk half-light radii r{sub 1/2{approx}} 1-3 kpc, and rotation-dominated systems with v{sub max}> 200 km s{sup -1}, v{sub max}/{sigma}>3, and r{sub 1/2{approx}} 4-8 kpc. For the dispersion-dominated sample, radial pressure gradients partly compensate the gravitational force, reducing the rotational velocities. Including this pressure effect in the MMW model, dispersion-dominated galaxies can be fitted well with spin parameters of {lambda}{sub d} = 0.03-0.05 for high disk mass fractions of m{sub d} {approx} 0.2 and with {lambda}{sub d} = 0.01-0.03 for m{sub d} {approx} 0.05. These values are in good agreement with cosmological expectations. For the rotation-dominated sample, however, pressure effects are small and better agreement with theoretically expected disk spin parameters can only be achieved if the dark halo mass contribution in the visible disk regime (2-3 x r{sub 1/2}) is smaller than predicted by the MMW model. We argue that these galaxies can still be embedded in standard cold dark matter halos if the halos do not contract adiabatically in response to disk formation. In this case, the data favor models with small disk mass fractions of m{sub d} = 0.05 and disk spin parameters of {lambda}{sub d} {approx} 0.035. It is shown that the observed high turbulent gas motions of the galaxies are consistent with a Toomre instability parameter Q = 1 which is equal to the critical value, expected for gravitational disk instability to be the major driver of turbulence. The dominant energy source of turbulence is then the potential energy of the gas in the disk.

  20. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-5-2014_High-Temperature, High-Pressure Equation of State.20141003.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGE OF PAGESpersonalFrederiksenReliabilityHigh-Temperature,

  1. The influence of selected containment structures on debris dispersal and transport following high pressure melt ejection from the reactor vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilch, M.; Tarbell, W.W.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1988-09-01

    High pressure expulsion of molten core debris from the reactor pressure vessel may result in dispersal of the debris from the reactor cavity. In most plants, the cavity exits into the containment such that the debris impinges on structures. Retention of the debris on the structures may affect the further transport of the debris throughout the containment. Two tests were done with scaled structural shapes placed at the exit of 1:10 linear scale models of the Zion cavity. The results show that the debris does not adhere significantly to structures. The lack of retention is attributed to splashing from the surface and reentrainment in the gas flowing over the surface. These processes are shown to be applicable to reactor scale. A third experiment was done to simulate the annular gap between the reactor vessel and cavity wall. Debris collection showed that the fraction of debris exiting through the gap was greater than the gap-to-total flow area ratio. Film records indicate that dispersal was primarily by entrainment of the molten debris in the cavity. 29 refs., 36 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Development of NGV high pressure storage technologies. Final report, September 1992-September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Z.R.

    1995-05-01

    Successful commercialization of natural gas fueled vehicles requires the development of lightweight, low-cost fuel containment vessels. In an effort to reduce vessel weight and cost, composite overwrapped vessels were developed using plastic instead of conventional metal liners. A number of liner materials and composite laminates were evaluated. High performance vessels were fabricated and tested with some success, but failed to meet qualification requirements. The concept and process were validated but modifications to the design would be needed to reliably meet specification requirements.

  3. Study of high pressure gas filled RF cavities for muon collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yonehara, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Muon collider is a considerable candidate of the next-generation high-energy lepton collider machine. Operating an RF cavity in a multi-Tesla magnet is a critical requirement in a muon accelerator and a cooling channel. However, the maximum RF gradient in a vacuum RF cavity is strongly limited by an external magnetic field. Dense hydrogen gas filled RF cavity has been proposed since it is functional of generating a high RF accelerating gradient in a strong magnetic field and making an ionization cooling process at the same time. A critical issue of the cavity is a beam- induced plasma that consumes a considerable amount of RF power. The gas filled RF test cell was made and measured the RF loading due to a beam-induced plasma by using an intense proton beam at Fermilab. By doping an electronegative gas in dense hydrogen, the plasma loading effect is significantly mitigated. The result shows that the cavity is functional with a muon collider beam. Recent progress is shown in this presentation.

  4. Nanoscale coherent intergrowths in a crystal of La?.?Ca?.?Cu?O??? made superconducting by high-pressure oxygen annealing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hu, Hefei [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhu, Yimei [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Shi, Xiaoya [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Li, Qiang [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhong, Ruidan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schneeloch, John A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gu, Genda [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tranquada, John M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Billinge, Simon J. L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Superconductivity with Tc = 53.5 K has been induced in a large La?.?Ca?.?Cu?O? (La-2126) single crystal by annealing in a high partial-pressure of oxygen at 1200°C. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, we show that a secondary Ca-doped La?CuO? (La-214) phase, not present in the as-grown crystal, appears as a coherent “intergrowth” as a consequence of the annealing. A corresponding secondary superconducting transition near 13 K is evident in the magnetization measurement. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) reveals a pre-edge peak at the O K edge in the superconducting La-2126 phase, which is absent in the as-grown crystal, confirming the hole-doping by interstitial oxygen.

  5. Nanoscale coherent intergrowths in a crystal of La?.?Ca?.?Cu?O??? made superconducting by high-pressure oxygen annealing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hu, Hefei; Zhu, Yimei; Shi, Xiaoya; Li, Qiang; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John A.; Gu, Genda; Tranquada, John M.; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2014-10-28

    Superconductivity with Tc = 53.5 K has been induced in a large La?.?Ca?.?Cu?O? (La-2126) single crystal by annealing in a high partial-pressure of oxygen at 1200°C. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, we show that a secondary Ca-doped La?CuO? (La-214) phase, not present in the as-grown crystal, appears as a coherent “intergrowth” as a consequence of the annealing. A corresponding secondary superconducting transition near 13 K is evident in the magnetization measurement. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) reveals a pre-edge peak at the O K edge in the superconducting La-2126 phase, which is absent in the as-grown crystal, confirming themore »hole-doping by interstitial oxygen.« less

  6. Controlling interactions in supported bilayers from weak electrostatic repulsion to high osmotic pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hemmerle, Arnaud; Charitat, Thierry; Lecuyer, Sigolène; Fragneto, Giovanna; Daillant, Jean; 10.1073/pnas.1211669109

    2013-01-01

    Understanding interactions between membranes requires measurements on well-controlled systems close to natural conditions, in which fluctuations play an important role. We have determined, by grazing incidence X-ray scattering, the interaction potential between two lipid bilayers, one adsorbed on a solid surface and the other floating close by. We find that interactions in this highly hydrated model system are two orders of magnitude softer than in previously reported work on multilayer stacks. This is attributed to the weak electrostatic repulsion due to the small fraction of ionized lipids in supported bilayers with a lower number of defects. Our data are consistent with the Poisson-Boltzmann theory, in the regime where repulsion is dominated by the entropy of counter ions. We also have unique access to very weak entropic repulsion potentials, which allowed us to discriminate between the various models proposed in the literature. We further demonstrate that the interaction potential between supported bilaye...

  7. Improved background rejection in neutrinoless double beta decay experiments using a magnetic field in a high pressure xenon TPC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Renner; A. Cervera; J. A. Hernando; A. Imzaylov; F. Monrabal; J. Muñoz; D. Nygren; J. J. Gomez-Cadenas

    2015-09-06

    We demonstrate that the application of an external magnetic field could lead to an improved background rejection in neutrinoless double-beta (0nbb) decay experiments using a high pressure xenon (HPXe) TPC. HPXe chambers are capable of imaging electron tracks, a feature that enhances the separation between signal events (the two electrons emitted in the 0nbb decay of 136Xe) and background events, arising chiefly from single electrons of kinetic energy compatible with the end-point of the 0nbb decay (Qbb ). Applying an external magnetic field of sufficiently high intensity (in the range of 0.5-1 Tesla for operating pressures in the range of 5-15 atmospheres) causes the electrons to produce helical tracks. Assuming the tracks can be properly reconstructed, the sign (direction) of curvature can be determined at several points along these tracks, and such information can be used to separate signal (0nbb) events containing two electrons producing a track with two different directions of curvature from background (single-electron) events producing a track that should spiral in a single direction. Due to electron multiple scattering, this strategy is not perfectly efficient on an event-by-event basis, but a statistical estimator can be constructed which can be used to reject background events by one order of magnitude at a moderate cost (approx. 30%) in signal efficiency. Combining this estimator with the excellent energy resolution and topological signature identification characteristic of the HPXe TPC, it is possible to reach a background rate of less than one count per ton-year of exposure. Such a low background rate is an essential feature of the next generation of 0nbb experiments, aiming to fully explore the inverse hierarchy of neutrino masses.

  8. Z .Fluid Phase Equilibria 155 1999 139154 Osmotic pressures of aqueous bovine serum albumin solutions at high

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jianzhong

    Z .Fluid Phase Equilibria 155 1999 139­154 Osmotic pressures of aqueous bovine serum albumin­2753 , osmotic pressures of aqueous bovine serum albumin BSA solutions were Z . Z .measured at three pH 4.5, 5 of state represents the contribution of the hard-sphere repulsion to the osmotic pressure. Van der Waals

  9. Assessment of Computer Simulation Software and Process Data for High Pressure Die Casting of Magnesium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Hatfield, Edward C; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Kuwana, Kazunori; Viti, Valerio; Hassan, Mohamed I; Saito, Kozo

    2007-09-01

    Computer software for the numerical simulation of solidification and mold filling is an effective design tool for cast structural automotive magnesium components. A review of commercial software capabilities and their validation procedures was conducted. Aside form the software assessment, the program addressed five main areas: lubricant degradation, lubricant application, gate atomization, and heat transfer at metal mold interfaces. A test stand for lubricant application was designed. A sensor was used for the direct measurement of heat fluxes during lubricant application and casting solidification in graphite molds. Spray experiments were conducted using pure deionized water and commercial die lubricants. The results show that the sensor can be used with confidence for measuring heat fluxes under conditions specific to the die lube application. The data on heat flux was presented in forms suitable for use in HPDC simulation software. Severe jet breakup and atomization phenomena are likely to occur due to high gate velocities in HPDC. As a result of gate atomization, droplet flow affects the mold filling pattern, air entrapment, skin formation, and ensuing defects. Warm water analogue dies were designed for obtaining experimental data on mold filling phenomena. Data on break-up jet length, break-up pattern, velocities, and droplet size distribution were obtained experimentally and was used to develop correlations for jet break-up phenomena specific to die casting gate configurations.

  10. Pressure Effect on the Structural Transition and Suppression of the High-Spin State in the Triple-Layer T'-La?Ni?O?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, J.-G.; Zhou, J.-S.; Goodenough, J. B.; Zhou, H. D.; Matsubayashi, K.; Uwatoko, Y.; Kong, P. P.; Jin, C. Q.; Yang, W. G.; Shen, G. Y.

    2012-06-08

    We report a comprehensive high-pressure study on the triple-layer T'-La?Ni?O? with a suite of experimental probes, including structure determination, magnetic, and transport properties up to 50 GPa. Consistent with a recent ab inito calculation, application of hydrostatic pressure suppresses an insulator-metal spin-state transition at Pc?6 GPa. However, a low-spin metallic phase does not emerge after the high-spin state is suppressed to the lowest temperature. For P>20 GPa, the ambient T' structure transforms gradually to a T-type structure, which involves a structural reconstruction from fluorite La–O?–La blocks under low pressures to rock-salt LaO-LaO blocks under high pressures. Absence of the metallic phase under pressure has been discussed in terms of local displacements of O²? ions in the fluorite block under pressure before a global T† phase is established.

  11. Investigation on the effects of ultra-high pressure and temperature on the rheological properties of oil-based drilling fluids 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ibeh, Chijioke Stanley

    2009-05-15

    Designing a fit-for-purpose drilling fluid for high-pressure, high-temperature (HP/HT) operations is one of the greatest technological challenges facing the oil and gas industry today. Typically, a drilling fluid is subjected to increasing...

  12. Gradual crossover in molecular organization of stable liquid H{sub 2}O at moderately high pressure and temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koga, Yoshikata; Westh, Peter; Yoshida, Koh; Inaba, Akira; Nakazawa, Yasuhiro

    2014-09-15

    Using the literature raw data of the speed of sound and the specific volume, the isothermal compressibility, ?{sub T}, a second derivative thermodynamic quantity of G, was evaluated for liquid H{sub 2}O in the pressure range up to 350 MPa and the temperature to 50 ºC. We then obtained its pressure derivative, d?{sub T}/dp, a third derivative numerically without using a fitting function to the ?{sub T} data. On taking yet another p-derivative at a fixed T graphically without resorting to any fitting function, the resulting d{sup 2}?{sub T}/dp{sup 2}, a fourth derivative, showed a weak but clear step anomaly, with the onset of the step named point X and its end point Y. In analogy with another third and fourth derivative pair in binary aqueous solutions of glycerol, d?{sub p}/dx{sub Gly} and d{sup 2}?{sub p}/dx{sub Gly}{sup 2}, at 0.1 MPa (?{sub p} is the thermal expansivity and x{sub Gly} the mole fraction of solute glycerol) in our recent publication [J. Solution Chem. 43, 663-674 (2014); DOI:10.1007/s10953-013-0122-7], we argue that there is a gradual crossover in the molecular organization of pure H{sub 2}O from a low to a high p-regions starting at point X and ending at Y at a fixed T. The crossover takes place gradually spanning for about 100 MPa at a fixed temperature. The extrapolated temperature to zero p seems to be about 70 – 80 °C for points X and 90 – 110 °C for Y. Furthermore, the mid-points of X and Y seem to extrapolate to the triple point of liquid, ice Ih and ice III. Recalling that the zero x{sub Gly} extrapolation of point X and Y for binary aqueous glycerol at 0.1 MPa gives about the same T values respectively, we suggest that at zero pressure the region below about 70 °C the hydrogen bond network is bond-percolated, while above about 90 ºC there is no hydrogen bond network. Implication of these findings is discussed.

  13. Pressure transducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Thomas T. (Downers Grove, IL); Roop, Conard J. (Lockport, IL); Schmidt, Kenneth J. (Midlothian, IL); Gunchin, Elmer R. (Lockport, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A pressure transducer suitable for use in high temperature environments includes two pairs of induction coils, each pair being bifilarly wound together, and each pair of coils connected as opposite arms of a four arm circuit; an electrically conductive target moveably positioned between the coil pairs and connected to a diaphragm such that deflection of the diaphragm causes axial movement of the target and an unbalance in the bridge output.

  14. On the Accuracy of van der Waals Inclusive Density-Functional Theory Exchange-Correlation Functionals for Ice at Ambient and High Pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biswajit Santra; Ji?í Klimeš; Alexandre Tkatchenko; Dario Alfè; Ben Slater; Angelos Michaelides; Roberto Car; Matthias Scheffler

    2014-08-14

    Density-functional theory (DFT) has been widely used to study water and ice for at least 20 years. However, the reliability of different DFT exchange-correlation (xc) functionals for water remains a matter of considerable debate. This is particularly true in light of the recent development of DFT based methods that account for van der Waals (vdW) dispersion forces. Here, we report a detailed study with several xc functionals (semi-local, hybrid, and vdW inclusive approaches) on ice Ih and six proton ordered phases of ice. Consistent with our previous study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 185701 (2011)] which showed that vdW forces become increasingly important at high pressures, we find here that all vdW inclusive methods considered improve the relative energies and transition pressures of the high-pressure ice phases compared to those obtained with semi-local or hybrid xc functionals. However, we also find that significant discrepancies between experiment and the vdW inclusive approaches remain in the cohesive properties of the various phases, causing certain phases to be absent from the phase diagram. Therefore, room for improvement in the description of water at ambient and high pressures remains and we suggest that because of the stern test the high pressure ice phases pose they should be used in future benchmark studies of simulation methods for water.

  15. Development of Larger Diameter High Pressure CNG Cylinder Manufactured by Piercing and Drawing for Natural Gas Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    These slides were presented at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27 – 29, 2010, in Beijing, China.

  16. Ultraviolet (UV) Raman Spectroscopy Study of the Soret Effect in High-Pressure CO2-Water Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, Charles F.; Maupin, Gary D.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2012-07-01

    Spatially resolved deep-UV Raman spectroscopy was applied to solutions of CO2 and H2O or D2O subject to a temperature gradient in a thermally regulated high-pressure concentric-tube Raman cell in an attempt to measure a Soret effect in the vicinity of the critical point of CO2. Although Raman spectra of solutions of CO2 dissolved in D2O, at 10 MPa and temperatures near the critical point of CO2, had adequate signal-to-noise and spatial resolution to observe a Soret effect with a Soret coefficient with magnitude |ST| > 0.03, no evidence for an effect of this size was obtained for applied temperature gradients up to 19 C. In contrast, the concentration of CO2 dissolved in H2O was shown to vary significantly across the temperature gradient when excess CO2 was present, but the results could be explained simply by the variation in CO2 solubility over the temperature range and not to kinetic factors. For mixtures of D2O dissolved in scCO2 at 10 MPa and temperatures close to the critical point of CO2, the Raman peaks for D2O were too weak to measure with confidence even at the limit of D2O solubility.

  17. Analysis of CZT crystals and detectors grown in Russia and the Ukraine by high-pressure Bridgman methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Hermon; M. Schieber; R. B. James; E. Y. Lee; N. Yang; A. J. Antolak; D. H. Morse; C. Hackett; E. Tarver; N. N. P. Kolesnikov; Yu N. Ivanov; V. Komar; M. S. Goorsky; H. Yoon

    2000-01-10

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is leading an effort to evaluate vertical high pressure Bridgman (VHPB) Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te (CZT) crystals grown in the former Soviet Union (FSU) (Ukraine and Russia), in order to study the parameters limiting the crystal quality and the radiation detector performance. The stoichiometry of the CZT crystals, with 0.04 < x < 0.25, has been determined by methods such as proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), X-ray diffraction (XRD), microprobe analysis and laser ablation ICP mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP/MS). Other methods such as triaxial double crystal x-ray diffraction (TADXRD), infrared transmission spectroscopy (IR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermoelectric emission spectroscopy (TEES) and laser induced transient charge technique (TCT) were also used to evaluate the material properties. The authors have measured the zinc distribution in a CZT ingot along the axial direction and also its homogeneity. The (Cd+Zn)/Te average ratio measured on the Ukraine crystals was 1.2, compared to the ratio of 0.9-1.06 on the Russian ingots. The IR transmission showed highly decorated grain boundaries with precipitates and hollow bubbles. Microprobe elemental analysis and LA-ICP/MS showed carbon precipitates in the CZT bulk and carbon deposits along grain boundaries. The higher concentration of impurities and the imperfect crystallinity lead to shorter electron and hole lifetimes in the range of 0.5--2 {micro}s and 0.1 {micro}s respectively, compared to 3--20 {micro}s and 1--7 {micro}s measured on US spectrometer grade CZT detectors. These results are consistent with the lower resistivity and worse crystalline perfection of these crystals, compared to US grown CZT. However, recently grown CZT from FSU exhibited better detector performance and good response to alpha particles.

  18. Analysis of CZT crystals and detectors grown in Russia and the Ukraine by high-pressure Bridgman methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hermon, H.; Schieber, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)]|[Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel); James, R.B. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)] [and others

    1999-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is leading an effort to evaluate vertical high pressure Bridgman (VHPB) Cd{sub 1{minus}x}Zn{sub x}Te (CZT) crystals grown in the former Soviet Union (FSU) (Ukraine and Russia), in order to study the parameters limiting the crystal quality and the radiation detector performance. The stoichiometry of the CZT crystals, with 0.04 < x < 0.25, has been determined by methods such as proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE), x-ray diffraction (XRD), microprobe analysis and laser ablation ICP mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP/MS). Other methods such as triaxial double crystal x-ray diffraction (TADXRD), infrared transmission spectroscopy (IR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermoelectric emission spectroscopy (TEES) and laser induced transient charge technique (TCT) were also used to evaluate the material properties. The authors have measured the zinc distribution in a CZT ingot along the axial direction and also its homogeneity. The (Cd+Zn)/Te average ratio measured on the Ukraine crystals was 1.2, compared to the ratio of 0.9--1.06 on the Russian ingots. The IR transmission showed highly decorated grain boundaries with precipitates and hollow bubbles. Microprobe elemental analysis and LA-ICP/MS showed carbon precipitates in the CZT bulk and carbon deposits along grain boundaries. The higher concentration of impurities and the imperfect crystallinity lead to shorter electron and hole lifetimes in the range of 0.5--2 and 0.1 {micro}s, respectively, compared to 3--20 and 1--7 {micro}s measured on US spectrometer grade CZT detectors. These results are consistent with the lower resistivity and worse crystalline perfection of these crystals, compared to US-grown CZT. However, recently grown CZT from FSU exhibited better detector performance and good response to alpha particles.

  19. High-Pressure Synchtron Radiation X-Ray Diffraction Studies of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate C(CH[subscript 2]ONO[subscript 2 ])[subscript 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipinska-Kalita, K.E.; Pravica, M.; Nicol, M.

    2006-02-02

    A high-pressure x-ray diffraction study of nanocrystalline pentaerythritol tetranitrate, C(CH{sub 2}ONO{sub 2}){sub 4}, (PETN), has been performed in a diamond-anvil cell at ambient temperature using synchrotron radiation. Pressure-induced alterations in the profiles of the diffraction lines, including their positions, widths and intensities were followed up to 30 GPa in a compressino cycle. The spectral changes in the diffraction patterns at low pressures indicated continuous densification of the tetragonal structure (space group P{bar 4}2{sub 1}c). The diffraction patterns confirmed that PETN compressed from ambient pressure to 7.4 GPa by 17%. At 8.2 GPa and above, several new diffraction lines appeared in the patterns. These lines suggest that the lattice undergoes an incomplete stress-induced structural transformation from the tetragonal to an orthorhombic structure (most probably space group P2{sub 1}22{sub 1}). The mixture of both structures appeared to persist to 30 GPa. The progressive broadening of the diffraction lines as the pressure increased beyond 10 GPa is attributed to the combined diffraction lines of a mixture of two coexisting PETN phases and inhomogeneous pressure distribution within the sample.

  20. Performance and characteristics of a high pressure, high temperature capillary cell with facile construction for operando x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansode, Atul; Urakawa, Atsushi, E-mail: aurakawa@iciq.es [Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ), Av. Països Catalans 16, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Guilera, Gemma; Simonelli, Laura; Avila, Marta [ALBA Synchrotron Light Source, Crta. BP 1413, Km. 3.3, 08290 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); Cuartero, Vera [ALBA Synchrotron Light Source, Crta. BP 1413, Km. 3.3, 08290 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), CS40220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2014-08-15

    We demonstrate the use of commercially available fused silica capillary and fittings to construct a cell for operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) for the study of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions under high pressure (up to 200 bars) and high temperature (up to 280?°C) conditions. As the first demonstration, the cell was used for CO{sub 2} hydrogenation reaction to examine the state of copper in a conventional Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} methanol synthesis catalyst. The active copper component of the catalyst was shown to remain in the metallic state under supercritical reaction conditions, at 200 bars and up to 260?°C. With the coiled heating system around the capillary, one can easily change the length of the capillary and control the amount of catalyst under investigation. With precise control of reactant(s) flow, the cell can mimic and serve as a conventional fixed-bed micro-reactor system to obtain reliable catalytic data. This high comparability of the reaction performance of the cell and laboratory reactors is crucial to gain insights into the nature of actual active sites under technologically relevant reaction conditions. The large length of the capillary can cause its bending upon heating when it is only fixed at both ends because of the thermal expansion. The degree of the bending can vary depending on the heating mode, and solutions to this problem are also presented. Furthermore, the cell is suitable for Raman studies, nowadays available at several beamlines for combined measurements. A concise study of CO{sub 2} phase behavior by Raman spectroscopy is presented to demonstrate a potential of the cell for combined XAS-Raman studies.

  1. ccsd-00005161,version1-6Jun2005 Metastability Exchange Optical Pumping of Helium-3 at High Pressures and 1.5 T

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ccsd-00005161,version1-6Jun2005 Metastability Exchange Optical Pumping of Helium-3 at High Pressures and 1.5 T: Comparison of two Optical Pumping Transitions M. Abboud, A. Sinatra, G. Tastevin, and P, France Abstract: At low magnetic field, metastability exchange optical pumping of helium-3 is known

  2. Phase Behaviour of Carbon Dioxide + Benzene + Water Ternary Mixtures at High Pressures and Temperatures up to 300 MPa and 600 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Phase Behaviour of Carbon Dioxide + Benzene + Water Ternary Mixtures at High Pressures for the phase coexistence of carbon dioxide + benzene + water ternary mixtures. Phase coexistence was observed exceptions are the systematic studies6-9 of ternary mixtures containing carbon dioxide with large alkanes

  3. High-pressure sound velocities and elasticity of aluminous MgSiO3 perovskite to 45 GPa: Implications for lateral heterogeneity in Earth's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Jennifer M.

    High-pressure sound velocities and elasticity of aluminous MgSiO3 perovskite to 45 GPa magnesium silicate perovskite, arguably the most abundant phase in Earth, have been performed to 45 GPa media. The experiments were performed on a polycrystalline sample of aluminous MgSiO3 perovskite

  4. Phase stability and shear softening in CaSiO3 perovskite at high pressure Lars Stixrude and C. Lithgow-Bertelloni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stixrude, Lars

    Phase stability and shear softening in CaSiO3 perovskite at high pressure Lars Stixrude and CSiO3 perovskite, finding the tetragonal I4/mcm structure transforming to cubic Pm3¯m with increasing for the ground state over all perovskite structures derivable from octahedral rotations within the context

  5. Large volume high-pressure cell for inelastic neutron scattering W. Wang, D. A. Sokolov, A. D. Huxley, and K. V. Kamenev

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Christopher

    Large volume high-pressure cell for inelastic neutron scattering W. Wang, D. A. Sokolov, A. D for inelastic neutron scattering measurements of quantum fluids and solids Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 015101 (2013) TOF-SEMSANS--Time-of-flight spin-echo modulated small-angle neutron scattering J. Appl. Phys. 112

  6. Zircon solubility and zirconium complexation in H2ONa2OSiO27Al2O3 fluids at high pressure and temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, Craig

    Letters Zircon solubility and zirconium complexation in H2OþNa2OþSiO27Al2O3 fluids at high pressure-ray fluorescence analysis using hydrothermal diamond- anvil cells. Zirconium complexation in fluids in equilibrium

  7. Evaluation of select heat and pressure measurement gauges for potential use in the NRC/OECD High Energy Arc Fault (HEAF) test program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, Carlos; Wente, William Baker; Figueroa, Victor G.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve the current state of the art in fire probabilistic risk assessment methodology, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Regulatory Research, contracted Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to conduct a series of scoping tests to identify thermal and mechanical probes that could be used to characterize the zone of influence (ZOI) during high energy arc fault (HEAF) testing. For the thermal evaluation, passive and active probes were exposed to HEAF-like heat fluxes for a period of 2 seconds at the SNLs National Solar Thermal Test Facility to determine their ability to survive and measure such an extreme environment. Thermal probes tested included temperature lacquers (passive), NANMAC thermocouples, directional flame thermometers, modified plate thermometers, infrared temperature sensors, and a Gardon heat flux gauge. Similarly, passive and active pressure probes were evaluated by exposing them to pressures resulting from various high-explosive detonations at the Sandia Terminal Ballistic Facility. Pressure probes included bikini pressure gauges (passive) and pressure transducers. Results from these tests provided good insight to determine which probes should be considered for use during future HEAF testing.

  8. Pressure induced valence change of Eu in EuFe2As2 at low temperature and high pressures probed by resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svane, Axel Torstein

    and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark 4 Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Pradesh, India 6 HPCAT, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Advanced Photon Source:Fe:As:Sn in the ratio 1:2:2:19. The Sn was removed by centrifugal method. The grown crystals were characterized

  9. Infrared absorption of solid nitrogen at high pressures M. D. McCluskey, L. Hsu, L. Wang, and E. E. Haller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCluskey, Matthew

    as high as 7 GPa at liquid-helium temperatures. The shift in the AlSb:12 CSb local vibrational mode mode of CO2 impurities. For pressures greater than 1.9 GPa, a peak appears which we attribute to a N on the properties of high-density molecular solids.1 N2 is in many respects a model molecular system because its

  10. Infrared spectroscopic and modeling studies of H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} microwave plasma gas phase from low to high pressure and power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rond, C. Lombardi, G.; Gicquel, A.; Hamann, S.; Röpcke, J.; Wartel, M.

    2014-09-07

    InfraRed Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy technique has been implemented in a H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} Micro-Wave (MW frequency f?=?2.45 GHz) plasma reactor dedicated to diamond deposition under high pressure and high power conditions. Parametric studies such as a function of MW power, pressure, and admixtures of methane have been carried out on a wide range of experimental conditions: the pressure up to 270 mbar and the MW power up to 4?kW. These conditions allow high purity Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond deposition at high growth rates. Line integrated absorption measurements have been performed in order to monitor hydrocarbon species, i.e., CH{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. The densities of the stable detected species were found to vary in the range of 10{sup 12}–10{sup 17} molecules cm{sup ?3}, while the methyl radical CH{sub 3} (precursor of diamond growth under these conditions) measured into the plasma bulk was found up to 10{sup 14} molecules cm{sup ?3}. The experimental densities have been compared to those provided by 1D-radial thermochemical model for low power and low pressure conditions (up to 100 mbar/2?kW). These densities have been axially integrated. Experimental measurements under high pressure and power conditions confirm a strong increase of the degree of dissociation of the precursor, CH{sub 4}, associated to an increase of the C{sub 2}H{sub 2} density, the most abundant reaction product in the plasma.

  11. High spin polarization at room temperature in Ge-substituted Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} epitaxial thin film grown under high oxygen pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seki, Munetoshi, E-mail: m-seki@ee.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Takahashi, Masanao; Ohshima, Toshiyuki; Yamahara, Hiroyasu; Tabata, Hitoshi [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2013-11-18

    Epitaxial thin films of room-temperature ferrimagnetic (Fe,Ge){sub 3}O{sub 4} were fabricated using pulsed laser deposition. Films with a single-phase spinel structure were grown under high oxygen pressures (0.01–0.6?Pa). The carrier transport across (Fe,Ge){sub 3}O{sub 4}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} interface was studied to estimate the spin polarization of (Fe, Ge){sub 3}O{sub 4}. Current–voltage curves of Fe{sub 2.8}Ge{sub 0.2}O{sub 4}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} junction showed rectifying behavior even at 300?K whereas Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} junction showed ohmic behavior. Calculations based on a model for a Schottky contact with a ferromagnetic component yielded a spin polarization of 0.50 at 300?K for Fe{sub 2.8}Ge{sub 0.2}O{sub 4}, indicating its potential as a promising spin injector.

  12. Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel; Dembla Dhiraj; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jeff Kane; Jon Olson; John A. Jackson; Katherine G. Jackson

    2006-09-30

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the United States contain vast volumes of remaining oil that is not being effectively recovered. This oil resource constitutes a huge target for the development and application of modern, cost-effective technologies for producing oil. Chief among the barriers to the recovery of this oil are the high costs of designing and implementing conventional advanced recovery technologies in these mature, in many cases pressure-depleted, reservoirs. An additional, increasingly significant barrier is the lack of vital technical expertise necessary for the application of these technologies. This lack of expertise is especially notable among the small operators and independents that operate many of these mature, yet oil-rich, reservoirs. We addressed these barriers to more effective oil recovery by developing, testing, applying, and documenting an innovative technology that can be used by even the smallest operator to significantly increase the flow of oil from mature U.S. reservoirs. The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The Permian Basin, the largest oil-bearing basin in North America, contains more than 70 billion barrels of remaining oil in place and is an ideal venue to validate this technology. We have demonstrated the potential of HPAI for oil-recovery improvement in preliminary laboratory tests and a reservoir pilot project. To more completely test the technology, this project emphasized detailed characterization of reservoir properties, which were integrated to access the effectiveness and economics of HPAI. The characterization phase of the project utilized geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. The successful development of HPAI technology has tremendous potential for increasing the flow of oil from deep carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin, a target resource that can be conservatively estimated at more than 1.5 billion barrels. Successful implementation in the field chosen for demonstration, for example, could result in the recovery of more than 34 million barrels of oil that will not otherwise be produced. Geological and petrophysical analysis of available data at Barnhart field reveals the following important observations: (1) the Barnhart Ellenburger reservoir is similar to most other Ellenburger reservoirs in terms of depositional facies, diagenesis, and petrophysical attributes; (2) the reservoir is characterized by low to moderate matrix porosity much like most other Ellenburger reservoirs in the Permian Basin; (3) karst processes (cave formation, infill, and collapse) have substantially altered stratigraphic architecture and reservoir properties; (4) porosity and permeability increase with depth and may be associated with the degree of karst-related diagenesis; (5) tectonic fractures overprint the reservoir, improving overall connectivity; (6) oil-saturation profiles show that the oil-water contact (OWC) is as much as 125 ft lower than previous estimations; (7) production history and trends suggest that this reservoir is very similar to other solution-gas-drive reservoirs in the Permian Basin; and (8) reservoir simulation study showed that the Barnhart reservoir is a good candidate for HPAI and that application of horizontal-well technology can improve ultimate resource recovery from the reservoir.

  13. Predicting the Influence of Pore Characteristics on Ductility of Thin-Walled High Pressure Die Casting Magnesium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Li, Dongsheng

    2013-06-10

    In this paper, a two-dimensional microstructure-based finite element modeling method is adopted to investigate the effects of porosity in thin-walled high pressure die casting Mg materials on their ductility. For this purpose, the cross-sections of AM50 and AM60 casting samples are first examined using optical microscope to obtain the overall information on the pore characteristics. The experimentally quantified pore characteristics are then used to generate a series of synthetic microstructures with different pore sizes, pore volume fractions and pore size distributions. Pores are explicitly represented in the synthetic microstructures and meshed out for the subsequent finite element analysis. In the finite element analysis, an intrinsic critical strain value is used for the Mg matrix material, beyond which work-hardening is no longer permissible. With no artificial failure criterion prescribed, ductility levels are predicted for the various microstructures in the form of strain localization. Mesh size effect study is also conducted, from which a mesh size dependent critical strain curve is determined. A concept of scalability of pore size effects is then presented and examined with the use of the mesh size dependent critical strain curve. The results in this study show that, for the regions with lower pore size and lower volume fraction, the ductility generally decreases as the pore size and pore volume fraction increase whereas, for the regions with larger pore size and larger pore volume fraction, other factors such as the mean distance between the pores begin to have some substantial influence on the ductility. The results also indicate that the pore size effects may be scalable for the models with good-representative pore shape and distribution with the use of the mesh size dependent critical strain curve.

  14. Experimental results of direct containment heating by high-pressure melt ejection into the Surtsey vessel: The DCH-3 and DCH-4 tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, M.D.; Pilch, M.; Brockmann, J.E.; Tarbell, W.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Nichols, R.T. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Sweet, D.W. (AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom))

    1991-08-01

    Two experiments, DCH-3 and DCH-4, were performed at the Surtsey test facility to investigate phenomena associated with a high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) reactor accident sequence resulting in direct containment heating (DCH). These experiments were performed using the same experimental apparatus with identical initial conditions, except that the Surtsey test vessel contained air in DCH-3 and argon in DCH-4. Inerting the vessel with argon eliminated chemical reactions between metallic debris and oxygen. Thus, a comparison of the pressure response in DCH-3 and DCH-4 gave an indication of the DCH contribution due to metal/oxygen reactions. 44 refs., 110 figs., 43 tabs.

  15. TECHNICAL BASIS AND APPLICATION OF NEW RULES ON FRACTURE CONTROL OF HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN VESSEL IN ASME SECTION VIII, DIVISION 3 CODE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawls, G

    2007-04-30

    As a part of an ongoing activity to develop ASME Code rules for the hydrogen infrastructure, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Committee approved new fracture control rules for Section VIII, Division 3 vessels in 2006. These rules have been incorporated into new Article KD-10 in Division 3. The new rules require determining fatigue crack growth rate and fracture resistance properties of materials in high pressure hydrogen gas. Test methods have been specified to measure these fracture properties, which are required to be used in establishing the vessel fatigue life. An example has been given to demonstrate the application of these new rules.

  16. Accident source terms for pressurized water reactors with high-burnup cores calculated using MELCOR 1.8.5.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Powers, Dana Auburn; Ashbaugh, Scott G.; Leonard, Mark Thomas; Longmire, Pamela

    2010-04-01

    In this study, risk-significant pressurized-water reactor severe accident sequences are examined using MELCOR 1.8.5 to explore the range of fission product releases to the reactor containment building. Advances in the understanding of fission product release and transport behavior and severe accident progression are used to render best estimate analyses of selected accident sequences. Particular emphasis is placed on estimating the effects of high fuel burnup in contrast with low burnup on fission product releases to the containment. Supporting this emphasis, recent data available on fission product release from high-burnup (HBU) fuel from the French VERCOR project are used in this study. The results of these analyses are treated as samples from a population of accident sequences in order to employ approximate order statistics characterization of the results. These trends and tendencies are then compared to the NUREG-1465 alternative source term prescription used today for regulatory applications. In general, greater differences are observed between the state-of-the-art calculations for either HBU or low-burnup (LBU) fuel and the NUREG-1465 containment release fractions than exist between HBU and LBU release fractions. Current analyses suggest that retention of fission products within the vessel and the reactor coolant system (RCS) are greater than contemplated in the NUREG-1465 prescription, and that, overall, release fractions to the containment are therefore lower across the board in the present analyses than suggested in NUREG-1465. The decreased volatility of Cs2MoO4 compared to CsI or CsOH increases the predicted RCS retention of cesium, and as a result, cesium and iodine do not follow identical behaviors with respect to distribution among vessel, RCS, and containment. With respect to the regulatory alternative source term, greater differences are observed between the NUREG-1465 prescription and both HBU and LBU predictions than exist between HBU and LBU analyses. Additionally, current analyses suggest that the NUREG-1465 release fractions are conservative by about a factor of 2 in terms of release fractions and that release durations for in-vessel and late in-vessel release periods are in fact longer than the NUREG-1465 durations. It is currently planned that a subsequent report will further characterize these results using more refined statistical methods, permitting a more precise reformulation of the NUREG-1465 alternative source term for both LBU and HBU fuels, with the most important finding being that the NUREG-1465 formula appears to embody significant conservatism compared to current best-estimate analyses.

  17. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2002-01-01

    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  18. Steam-water two-phase flow in large diameter vertical piping at high pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasanein, H.A.; Kawaji, Masahiro [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chan, A.M.C. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Yoshioka, Yuzuru [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    No information on steam/water two-phase flow behavior in large diameter pipes (10 inch or larger) at elevated pressures is available in the open literature. However, there are many applications, in the nuclear, chemical and petroleum industries among others where two-phase flows in large diameter pipes at elevated pressures and temperatures are encountered routinely or under accident scenarios. Experimental data on steam-water two-phase flow in a large diameter (20 inch, 50.08 cm I.D.) vertical pipe at elevated pressures and temperatures (2.8 MPa/230 C--6.4 MPa/280 C) have been obtained. Void fraction, two-phase mass flux, phase and velocity distributions as well as pressure drop along the test pipe have been measured using the Ontario Hydro Technologies (OHT) Pump Test Loop. The void fraction distributions were found to be axially symmetric and nearly flat over a wide range of two-phase flow conditions. The two-phase flow regime could be inferred from the dynamic void fluctuations data. For the 280 C tests, the flow was found to be relatively stable with bubbly flow at low average void fractions and churn turbulent or wispy-annular flow at higher void fractions. At 230 C, the flow became rather oscillatory and slugging was suspected at relatively low voids. It has also been found that the average void fractions in the test section can be determined reasonably accurately using the axial pressure drop data.

  19. Structural characterization of Green River oil-shale at high-pressure using pair distribution function analysis and small angle x-ray scattering.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Locke, D. R.; Chupas, P. J.; Chapman, K. W.; Pugmire, R. J.; Winans, R. E.; Univ. of Utah

    2008-01-01

    The compression behavior of a silicate-rich oil shale from the Green River formation in the pressure range 0.0-2.4 GPa was studied using in situ high pressure X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) measurements for the sample contained within a Paris-Edinburgh cell. The real-space local structural information in the PDF, G(r), was used to evaluate the compressibility of the oil shale. Specifically, the pressure-induced reduction in the medium- to long-range atom distances (6-20 {angstrom}) yielded an average sample compressibility corresponding to a bulk modulus of ca. 61-67 GPa. A structural model consisting of a three phase mixture of the principal crystalline oil shale components (quartz, albite and Illite) provided a good fit to the ambient pressure PDF data (R 30.7%). Indeed the features in the PDF beyond 6 {angstrom}, were similarly well fit by a single phase model of the highest symmetry, highly crystalline quartz component.

  20. High-pressure single-crystal elasticity study of CO{sub 2} across phase I-III transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jin S. Bass, Jay D.; Shieh, Sean R.; Dera, Przemyslaw; Prakapenka, Vitali

    2014-04-07

    Sound velocities and elastic moduli of solid single-crystal CO{sub 2} were measured at pressures up to 11.7(3) GPa by Brillouin spectroscopy. The aggregate adiabatic bulk modulus (K{sub S}), shear modulus (G), and their pressure derivatives for CO{sub 2} Phase I are K{sub S0}?=?3.4(6) GPa, G{sub 0}?=?1.8(2) GPa, (dK{sub S}/dP){sub 0}?=?7.8(3), (dG/dP){sub 0}?=?2.5(1), (d{sup 2}K{sub S}/dP{sup 2}){sub 0}?=??0.23(3) GPa{sup ?1}, and (d{sup 2}G/dP{sup 2}){sub 0}?=??0.10(1) GPa{sup ?1}. A small increase of elastic properties was observed between 9.8(1) and 10.5(3) GPa, in agreement with the CO{sub 2} I-III transition pressure determined from previous x-ray diffraction experiments. Above the transition pressure P{sub T}, we observed a mixture dominated by CO{sub 2}-I, with minor CO{sub 2}-III. The CO{sub 2}-I + III mixture shows slightly increased sound velocities compared to pure CO{sub 2}-I. Elastic anisotropy calculated from the single-crystal elasticity tensor exhibits a decrease with pressure beginning at 7.9(1) GPa, which is lower than P{sub T}. Our results coincide with recent X-ray Raman observations, suggesting that a pressure-induced electronic transition is related to local structural and optical changes.

  1. 26 JUNE 2015 VOL 348 ISSUE 6242 1429SCIENCE sciencemag.org nder high pressure, electrons can be

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Napp, Nils

    of hydrogen is much lower than they had guessed, and to reach the needed density, a pressure of 350 GPa would- cal energy is applied, hydrogen would transi- tion from a molecular insulator to an atomic metal be squeezed out of the covalent bond that holds the hydrogen molecule together. Under these conditions

  2. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA); Dilgard, Lemoyne W. (Willits, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes.

  3. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, J.C.; Dilgard, L.W.

    1995-10-10

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure is disclosed. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes. 10 figs.

  4. High-Pressure Behavior of Perovskite: FeTiO3 Dissociation into Fe1; TiO and Fe1Ti2O5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinle-Neumann, Gerd

    High-Pressure Behavior of Perovskite: FeTiO3 Dissociation into ðFe1À; TiÞO and Fe1þTi2ÀO5 X. Wu,1 G, Australia (Received 22 January 2009; published 7 August 2009) The stability of perovskite structure, we observe in situ the breakdown of FeTiO3 perovskite into a ðFe1À; TiÞO þ Fe1þTi2ÀO5 assemblage

  5. Multiferroic CuCrO? under high pressure: In situ X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, Alka B. Mishra, A. K.; Pandey, K. K.; Sharma, Surinder M.

    2014-10-07

    The compression behavior of delafossite compound CuCrO? has been investigated by in situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopic measurements up to 23.2 and 34 GPa, respectively. X-ray diffraction data show the stability of ambient rhombohedral structure up to ~23 GPa. Material shows large anisotropy in axial compression with c-axis compressibility, ?{sub c} = 1.26 × 10?³(1) GPa?¹ and a-axis compressibility, ?{sub a} = 8.90 × 10?³(6) GPa?¹. Our XRD data show an irreversible broadening of diffraction peaks. Pressure volume data when fitted to 3rd order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state give the value of bulk modulus, B? = 156.7(2.8) GPa with its pressure derivative, B?{sup ’} as 5.3(0.5). All the observed vibrational modes in Raman measurements show hardening with pressure. Appearance of a new mode at ~24 GPa indicates the structural phase transition in the compound. Our XRD and Raman results indicate that CuCrO{sub 2} may be transforming to an ordered rocksalt type structure under compression.

  6. A flexible pressure monitoring system for pressure ulcer prevention

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yip, Marcus

    Pressure ulcers are painful sores that arise from prolonged exposure to high pressure points, which restricts blood flow and leads to tissue necrosis. This is a common occurrence among patients with impaired mobility, ...

  7. On the Accuracy of van der Waals Inclusive Density-Functional Theory Exchange-Correlation Functionals for Ice at Ambient and High Pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santra, Biswajit; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Alfè, Dario; Slater, Ben; Michaelides, Angelos; Car, Roberto; Scheffler, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Density-functional theory (DFT) has been widely used to study water and ice for at least 20 years. However, the reliability of different DFT exchange-correlation (xc) functionals for water remains a matter of considerable debate. This is particularly true in light of the recent development of DFT based methods that account for van der Waals (vdW) dispersion forces. Here, we report a detailed study with several xc functionals (semi-local, hybrid, and vdW inclusive approaches) on ice Ih and six proton ordered phases of ice. Consistent with our previous study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 185701 (2011)] which showed that vdW forces become increasingly important at high pressures, we find here that all vdW inclusive methods considered improve the relative energies and transition pressures of the high-pressure ice phases compared to those obtained with semi-local or hybrid xc functionals. However, we also find that significant discrepancies between experiment and the vdW inclusive approaches remain in the cohesive proper...

  8. Sapphire tube pressure vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Outwater, John O. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01

    A pressure vessel is provided for observing corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures. A transparent Teflon bag contains the corrosive fluid and provides an inert barrier. The Teflon bag is placed within a sapphire tube, which forms a pressure boundary. The tube is received within a pipe including a viewing window. The combination of the Teflon bag, sapphire tube and pipe provides a strong and inert pressure vessel. In an alternative embodiment, tie rods connect together compression fittings at opposite ends of the sapphire tube.

  9. CARS study of linewidths of the Q-branch of hydrogen molecules at high temperatures in a pulsed high-pressure H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vereschagin, Konstantin A; Vereschagin, Alexey K; Smirnov, Valery V; Stelmakh, O M; Fabelinskii, V I; Clauss, W; Klimenko, D N; Oschwald, M

    2005-03-31

    The results of measurements of individual line widths of the Q-branch of a hydrogen molecule and the corresponding coefficients of broadening caused by collisions with water molecules at T = 2700 K in a repetitively pulsed high-pressure (50-200 atm) hydrogen-oxygen combustion chamber are presented. CARS spectra of individual Q{sub 1}-Q{sub 7} hydrogen lines, pressure pulses, and the broadband CARS spectra of the entire Q-branch of hydrogen are recorded simultaneously during a single laser pulse. The shape of line profiles was analysed using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The temperature in the volume being probed was determined from the 'broadband' CARS spectra. The entire body of the experimental results gives information on the spectral linewidths, temperature and pressure in the combustion chamber during CARS probing. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  10. Equation of state in the generalized density scaling regime studied from ambient to ultra-high pressure conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrzej Grzybowski; Kajetan Koperwas; Marian Paluch

    2013-11-15

    In this paper, based on the effective intermolecular potential with well separated density and configuration contributions and the definition of the isothermal bulk modulus, we derive two similar equations of state dedicated to describe volumetric data of supercooled liquids studied in the extremely wide pressure range related to the extremely wide density range. Both the equations comply with the generalized density scaling law of molecular dynamics versus $h(\\rho ) / T$ at different densities $\\rho $ and temperatures $T$, where the scaling exponent can be in general only a density function $\\gamma(\\rho ) = \\it{d} \\rm{ln} \\it{h / d} \\rm{ln}\\rho $ as recently argued by the theory of isomorphs. We successfully verify these equations of state by using data obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of the Kob-Andersen binary Lennard-Jones liquid. As a very important result, we find that the one-parameter density function $h(\\rho )$ analytically formulated in the case of this prototypical model of supercooled liquid, which implies the one-parameter density function $\\gamma(\\rho )$, is able to scale the structural relaxation times with the value of this function parameter determined by fitting the volumetric simulation data to the equations of state. We also show that these equations of state properly describe the pressure dependences of the isothermal bulk modulus and the configurational isothermal bulk modulus in the extremely wide pressure range investigated by the computer simulations. Moreover, we discuss the possible forms of the density functions $h(\\rho )$ and $\\gamma(\\rho )$ for real glass formers, which are suggested to be different from those valid for the model of supercooled liquid based on the Lennard-Jones intermolecular potential.

  11. Comparison of CO2 trapping in highly heterogeneous reservoirs with Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten type capillary pressure curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gershenzon, Naum I; Dominic, David F; Mehnert, Edward; Okwen, Roland T

    2015-01-01

    Geological heterogeneities essentially affect the dynamics of a CO2 plume in subsurface environments. Previously we showed how the dynamics of a CO2 plume is influenced by the multi-scale stratal architecture in deep saline reservoirs. The results strongly suggest that representing small-scale features is critical to understanding capillary trapping processes. Here we present the result of simulation of CO2 trapping using two different conventional approaches, i.e. Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten, for the capillary pressure curves. We showed that capillary trapping and dissolution rates are very different for the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten approaches when heterogeneity and hysteresis are both represented.

  12. High Pressure Field Reversed Configuration with Anomalous Resistivity T. Intrator1, G.A. Wurden1, R. Renneke1, W.J. Waganaar1, C. Grabowski2, E.Ruden2,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A high pressure field reversed configuration (FRC) will be the target plasma to demonstrate the physicsV, density n > 5 ×1022m-3, with plasma pressures exceeding 20-30 atmospheres. This FRC could benefit from the FRX-L ex- periment is used to study the physics of a suitable FRC plasma target [1] [2

  13. Development of NGV high pressure storage technologies. Brunswick Composites Project No. 19072. Final report, November 1992-December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiller, D.; Schimenti, J.; Connolly, M.P.; Glaesemann, W.

    1994-12-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate All-Composite cylinders relative to their damage toughness and to determine if acoustic emission (AE) testing might be a viable nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique for evaluating performance. Damage testing included drop test, pendulum impact, and machined flaws. A total of nine cylinders were intentionally damaged, and the cycle and burst test performance of these cylinders was compared to the performance of nine undamaged cylinders. The test results revealed that, with one exception, the damage on these units did not significantly affect cycle life or burst pressure performance. A total of thirty-five cylinders were subjected to AE testing. This testing indicated that AE was not a useful technique for predicting cylinder stress-rupture life; however, AE did show promise as a means of detecting localized cylinder damage.

  14. X-ray-induced dissociation of H.sub.2O and formation of an O.sub.2-H.sub.2 alloy at high pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mao, Ho-kwang (Washington, DC); Mao, Wendy L. (Washington, DC)

    2011-11-29

    A novel molecular alloy of O.sub.2 and H.sub.2 and a method of producing such a molecular alloy are provided. When subjected to high pressure and extensive x-radiation, H.sub.2O molecules cleaved, forming O--O and H--H bonds. In the method of the present invention, the O and H framework in ice VII was converted into a molecular alloy of O.sub.2 and H.sub.2. X-ray diffraction, x-ray Raman scattering, and optical Raman spectroscopy demonstrate that this crystalline solid differs from previously known phases.

  15. Spray bottle apparatus with pressure multiplying pistons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moss, Owen R. (Kennewick, WA); Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); DeFord, Henry S. (Kennewick, WA)

    1990-01-01

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is acted upon the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  16. Characterization of Nuclear Recoils in High Pressure Xenon Gas: Towards a Simultaneous Search for WIMP Dark Matter and Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Renner, J.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Oliveira, C. A.B.; Nygren, D.

    2015-03-24

    Xenon has recently been the medium of choice in several large scale detectors searching for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. Though present-day large scale experiments use liquid xenon, the gas phase offers advantages favorable to both types of searches such as improved intrinsic energy resolution and fewer fluctuations in the partition of deposited energy between scintillation and ionization channels. We recently constructed a high pressure xenon gas TPC as a prototype for the NEXT (Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC) neutrinoless double beta decay experiment and have demonstrated the feasibility of 0.5% FWHM energy resolution at themore »136Xe double beta Q-value with 3-D tracking capabilities. We now present results from this prototype on the simultaneous observation of scintillation and ionization produced by nuclear recoils at approximately 14 bar pressure. The recoils were produced by neutrons of approximately 2-6 MeV emitted from a radioisotope plutonium-beryllium source, and primary scintillation (S1) and electroluminescent photons produced by ionization (S2) were observed. We discuss the potential of gaseous xenon to distinguish between electron and nuclear recoils through the ratio of these two signals S2/S1. From these results combined with the possibility of using columnar recombination to sense nuclear recoil directionality at high pressures we envision a dual-purpose, ton-scale gaseous xenon detector capable of a combined search for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. This work has been performed within the context of the NEXT collaboration.« less

  17. Characterization of Nuclear Recoils in High Pressure Xenon Gas: Towards a Simultaneous Search for WIMP Dark Matter and Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renner, J.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Oliveira, C. A.B.; Nygren, D.

    2015-03-24

    Xenon has recently been the medium of choice in several large scale detectors searching for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. Though present-day large scale experiments use liquid xenon, the gas phase offers advantages favorable to both types of searches such as improved intrinsic energy resolution and fewer fluctuations in the partition of deposited energy between scintillation and ionization channels. We recently constructed a high pressure xenon gas TPC as a prototype for the NEXT (Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC) neutrinoless double beta decay experiment and have demonstrated the feasibility of 0.5% FWHM energy resolution at the 136Xe double beta Q-value with 3-D tracking capabilities. We now present results from this prototype on the simultaneous observation of scintillation and ionization produced by nuclear recoils at approximately 14 bar pressure. The recoils were produced by neutrons of approximately 2-6 MeV emitted from a radioisotope plutonium-beryllium source, and primary scintillation (S1) and electroluminescent photons produced by ionization (S2) were observed. We discuss the potential of gaseous xenon to distinguish between electron and nuclear recoils through the ratio of these two signals S2/S1. From these results combined with the possibility of using columnar recombination to sense nuclear recoil directionality at high pressures we envision a dual-purpose, ton-scale gaseous xenon detector capable of a combined search for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. This work has been performed within the context of the NEXT collaboration.

  18. Multiscalar line measurements in nonisobaric high-pressure underexpanded supersonic jets using rotational-vibrational raman spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Benjamin Nathan

    2009-05-15

    This work describes the development of a Raman spectroscopy system for measuring aerothermochemistry in high-speed jets and flames. A transmissive grating spectrometer was newly developed for capturing pure rotational Raman and rotationalvibrational...

  19. The El Tremedal underground coal gasification field test in Spain. First trial at great depth and high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chappell, R. [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Mostade, M. [Institution pour le Developpement de la Gazeification, Liege (Belgium)

    1998-12-31

    The El Tremedal Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) trial sponsored by Belgian, Spanish and United Kingdom government organizations and the European Community has conducted two gasification phases during the summer-autumn of 1997, of nine and five days duration respectively. A gas of good quality has been obtained on both occasions. During the active gasification phases, which lasted in total 12.1 days, an estimated 237.2 tonnes of coal moisture-ash-free were affected and an average power of 2.64 MW based on the lower calorific value of the product gas was developed underground. The test utilized oxygen and nitrogen as the injection reactants (no steam injection). Access to the 2--3 meters sub-bituminous coal seam situated at an average depth of 560 meters was provided by an in-seam deviated well drilled close to the bottom of the 29 degrees dipping seam. A vertical well was used for the exhaust of the gasification products and the production counter-pressure was maintained in near equilibrium with the underground hydrostatic head (50--54 bars). Three Controlled Retraction Ignition Point (CRIP) maneuvers were achieved. Analysis of the raw process data was conducted to calculate mass and energy balances, and to determine influences of process conditions on gas composition, shift and methanation equilibrium, water influx and oxygen/coal conversion efficiencies.

  20. Enhancing Magnesite Formation at Low Temperature and High CO2 Pressure: The Impact of Seed Crystals and Minor Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Qafoku, Odeta; Arey, Bruce W.; Kovarik, Libor; Liu, Jia; Perea, Daniel E.; Ilton, Eugene S.

    2015-02-24

    The formation of magnesite was followed in aqueous solution containing initially added Mg(OH)2 equilibrated with supercritical carbon dioxide (90 atm pressure, 50°C) in the presence of introduced magnesite particles and minor components, Co(II). As expected, the introduction of magnesite particles accelerated the formation of magnesite from solution. However, the formation rate of magnesite was even greater when small concentrations of Co(II) were introduced, indicating that the increased rate of magnesite formation in the presence of Co(II) was not solely due to the addition of a growth promoting surface. Detailed analysis of the magnesite particles by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and atom probe tomography (APT) revealed that the originally added Co(II) was concentrated in the center but also present throughout the growing magnesite particles. Addition of the Co(II) in different chemical forms (i.e. as solid phase CoCO3 or Co(OH)2) could alter the growth rate of magnesite depending upon the addition of bicarbonate to the starting solution. Geochemical modeling calculations indicate that this difference is related to the thermodynamic stability of these different phases in the initial solutions. More broadly, these results indicate that the presence of even small concentrations of foreign ions that form carbonate compounds with a similar structure as magnesite can be incorporated into the magnesite lattice, accelerating the formation of anhydrous carbonates in natural environments.

  1. Physico-chemical fracturing and cleaning of coal. [Treatment with CO/sub 2/ in water at high pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.R.

    1983-09-30

    This invention relates to a method of producing a crushable coal and reducing the metallic values in coal represented by Si, Al, Ca, Na, K, and Mg, which comprises contacting a coal/water mix in a weight ratio of from about 4:1 to 1:6 in the presence of CO/sub 2/ at pressures of about 100 to 1400 psi and a minimum temperature of about 15/sup 0/C for a period of about one or more hours to produce a treated coal/water mix. In the process the treated coal/water mix has reduced values for Ca and Mg of up to 78% over the starting mix and the advantageous CO/sub 2/ concentration is in the range of about 3 to 30 g/L. Below 5 g/L CO/sub 2/ only small effects are observed and above 30 g/L no further special advantages are achieved. The coal/water ratios in the range 1:2 to 2:1 are particularly desirable and such ratios are compatible with coal water slurry applications.

  2. CC Pressure Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K.; /Fermilab

    1990-07-12

    The inner vessel heads including bypass and beam tubes had just been welded into place and dye penetrant checked. The vacuum heads were not on at this time but the vacuum shell was on covering the piping penetrating into the inner vessel. Signal boxes with all feed through boards, the instrumentation box, and high voltage boxes were all installed with their pump outs capped. All 1/4-inch instrumentation lines were terminated at their respective shutoff valves. All vacuum piping used for pumping down the inner vessel was isolated using o-ring sealed blind flanges. PV215A (VAT Series 12), the 4-inch VRC gate valve isolating the cyropump, and the rupture disk had to be removed and replaced with blind flanges before pressurizing due to their pressure limitations. Stresses in plates used as blind flanges were checked using Code calcualtions. Before the CC test, vacuum style blanks and clamps were hydrostatically pressure tested to 150% of the maximum test pressure, 60 psig. The Code inspector and Research Division Safety had all given their approval to the test pressure and procedure prior to filling the vessel with argon. The test was a major success. Based on the lack of any distinguishable pressure drop indicated on the pressure gages, the vessel appeared to be structurally sound throughout the duration of the test (approx. 3 hrs.). A major leak in the instrumentation tubing was discovered at half of the maximum test pressure and was quickly isolated by crimping and capping with a compression fitting. There were some slight deviations in the actual procedure used. The 44 psig relief valve located just outside the cleanroom had to be capped until the pressure in the vessel indicated 38 psi. This was to allow higher supply pressures and hence, higher flows through the pressurizing line. Also, in order to get pressure readings at the cryostat without exposing any personnel to the potentially dangerous stored energy near the maximum test pressure, a camera was installed at the top of the vessel to view the indicator mounted there. The monitor was viewed at the ante room adjacent to the cleanroom. The holding pressure of 32 psig (4/5 of the maximum test pressure) was only maintained for about 20 minutes instead of the half hour recommendation in the procedure. We felt that this was sufficient time to Snoop test and perform the pressure drop test. After the test was completed, the inspector for CBI Na-Con and the Research Divison Safety Officer signed all of required documentation.

  3. CARS diagnostics of the burning of H{sub 2} - O{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} - O{sub 2} mixtures at high temperatures and pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vereshchagin, K A; Smirnov, Valery V; Stel'makh, O M; Fabelinskii, V I

    2012-01-31

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy is used to determine the parameters of gaseous combustion products of hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels with oxygen at high temperatures and pressures. The methodical aspects of CARS thermometry, which are related to the optimal choice of molecules (diagnostic references) and specific features of their spectra, dependent on temperature and pressure, are analysed. Burning is modelled under the conditions similar to those of real spacecraft propulsion systems using a specially designed laboratory combustion chamber, operating in the pulse-periodic regime at high temperatures (to 3500 K) and pressures (to 20 MPa) of combustion products. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  4. Harmonic content and time variation of electron energy distributions in high-plasma-density, low-pressure inductively coupled discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    Harmonic content and time variation of electron energy distributions in high-plasma-density, low-the-fly'' OTF Monte Carlo method. The OTF method directly computes the harmonic content of the EEDs using was incorporated into a two-dimensional plasma equipment model to investigate the harmonic content of the EEDs

  5. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 85, 184201 (2012) Electrical and thermal conductivity of Al liquid at high pressures and temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinle-Neumann, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    perturbation theory to phase trajectories generated using first-principles molecular dynamics. Our results time-invariant electrical field and thermal gradient. First-principles calculations provide a directPHYSICAL REVIEW B 85, 184201 (2012) Electrical and thermal conductivity of Al liquid at high

  6. In Situ Measurement of Magnesium Carbonate Formation from CO2 Using Static High-Pressure and -Temperature 13

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skemer, Philip

    method that possesses the ability to monitor the chemical evolution of supercritical CO2 in relevant(OH)2, with supercritical CO2 (88 bar) in aqueous conditions at 80 °C. The in situ conversion of CO2In Situ Measurement of Magnesium Carbonate Formation from CO2 Using Static High

  7. Chemical Processing in High-Pressure Aqueous Environments. 7. Process Development for Catalytic Gasification of Wet Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasification of Wet Biomass Feedstocks Douglas C. Elliott,* Gary G. Neuenschwander, Todd R. Hart, R. Scott catalyst, gasification of wet biomass can be accomplished with high levels of carbon conversion to gas of the organic structure of biomass to gases has been achieved in the presence of a ruthenium metal catalyst

  8. An experimental investigation of ethylene/O{sub 2}/diluent mixtures: Laminar flame speeds with preheat and ignition delays at high pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Kamal; Mittal, Gaurav; Sung, Chih-Jen [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Law, Chung K. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    The atmospheric pressure laminar flame speeds of premixed ethylene/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixtures were experimentally measured over equivalence ratios ranging from 0.5 to 1.4 and mixture preheat temperatures varying from 298 to 470 K in a counterflow configuration. Ignition delay measurements were also conducted for ethylene/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}/Ar mixtures using a rapid compression machine at compressed pressures from 15 to 50 bar and in the compressed temperature range from 850 to 1050 K. The experimental laminar flame speeds and ignition delays were then compared to the computed values using two existing chemical kinetic mechanisms. Results show that while the laminar flame speeds are reasonably predicted at room temperature conditions, the discrepancy becomes larger with increasing preheat temperature. A comparison of experimental and computational ignition delay times was also conducted and discussed. Sensitivity analysis further shows that the ignition delay is highly sensitive to the reactions of the vinyl radical with molecular oxygen. The reaction of ethylene with the HO{sub 2} radical was also found to be important for autoignition under the current experimental conditions. (author)

  9. Radio frequency emission from high-pressure xenon arcs: A systematic experimental analysis of the underlying near-anode plasma instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hechtfischer, Ulrich

    2011-10-01

    High-pressure Xe discharge lamps at DC operation can show unwanted strong RF (radio-frequency) emission to beyond 1 GHz, correlated to a sharp periodic lamp-voltage instability in the near-anode plasma with a pulse repetition rate {epsilon} of 1-10 MHz. The physical origin of the instability is unclear. Here, its existence and pulse rate have been measured as a function of arc current I = 0.2-1.2 A and anode temperature T{sub a} = 1700-3400 K independently, in experimental lamps with pure-tungsten electrodes and a Xe operating pressure around p = 10 MPa. Surprisingly, the instability is not affected by I or current density j but exists if T{sub a} is lower than a threshold value around 2800-2900 K. The pulse rate {epsilon} is simply a rising linear function of the inverse anode temperature 1/T{sub a}, with only a small I-dependent correction. The average anode heat load is slightly lower in the unstable regime and possibly depends on {epsilon}. The results allow a consistent re-interpretation of earlier and present experimental observations and should be both a valuable help in practical lamp engineering and a tight constraint for future theories of this effect.

  10. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 955 2007 Materials Research Society 0955-I08-04 Properties of InN grown by High Pressure CVD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietz, Nikolaus

    " (HPCVD) system is employed, which enables the control of the partial pressures of the InN constituents termination of indium-rich InGaN layers and secondly the large thermal decomposition pressures in InN which

  11. Ballistic Imaging of High-Pressure Fuel Sprays using Incoherent, Ultra- short Pulsed Illumination with an Ultrafast OKE-based Time Gating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purwar, Harsh; Rozé, Claude; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard

    2015-01-01

    We present an optical Kerr effect based time-gate with the collinear incidence of the pump and probe beams at the Kerr medium, liquid carbon disulfide, for ballistic imaging of the high-pressure fuel sprays. The probe pulse used to illuminate the object under study is extracted from the supercontinuum generated by tightly focusing intense femtosecond laser pulses inside water, thereby destroying their coherence. The optical imaging spatial resolution and gate timings are investigated and compared with a similar setup without supercontinuum generation, where the probe is still coherent. And finally, a few ballistic images of the fuel sprays using coherent and incoherent illumination with the proposed time-gate are presented and compared qualitatively.

  12. Nanoscale coherent intergrowths in a crystal of La?.?Ca?.?Cu?O??? made superconducting by high-pressure oxygen annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Hefei; Zhu, Yimei; Shi, Xiaoya; Li, Qiang; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John A.; Gu, Genda; Tranquada, John M.; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2014-10-28

    Superconductivity with Tc = 53.5 K has been induced in a large La?.?Ca?.?Cu?O? (La-2126) single crystal by annealing in a high partial-pressure of oxygen at 1200°C. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, we show that a secondary Ca-doped La?CuO? (La-214) phase, not present in the as-grown crystal, appears as a coherent “intergrowth” as a consequence of the annealing. A corresponding secondary superconducting transition near 13 K is evident in the magnetization measurement. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) reveals a pre-edge peak at the O K edge in the superconducting La-2126 phase, which is absent in the as-grown crystal, confirming the hole-doping by interstitial oxygen.

  13. Nanoscale coherent intergrowthlike defects in a crystal of La1.9Ca1.1Cu2O6+? made superconducting by high-pressure oxygen annealing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hu, Hefei; Zhu, Yimei; Shi, Xiaoya; Li, Qiang; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John A.; Gu, Genda; Tranquada, John M.; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2014-10-28

    Superconductivity with Tc = 53.5 K has been induced in a large La?.?Ca?.?Cu?O? (La-2126) single crystal by annealing in a high partial-pressure of oxygen at 1200°C. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, we show that a secondary Ca-doped La?CuO? (La-214) phase, not present in the as-grown crystal, appears as a coherent “intergrowth” as a consequence of the annealing. A corresponding secondary superconducting transition near 13 K is evident in the magnetization measurement. In this study, electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) reveals a pre-edge peak at the O K edge in the superconducting La-2126 phase, which is absent in the as-grownmore »crystal, confirming the hole-doping by interstitial oxygen.« less

  14. Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of High Silica SiO2-TiO2 Antireflective Thin Films for Glass Based Solar Panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klobukowski, Erik R; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E; McCamy, James; Harris, Caroline; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of SiO2-TiO2 thin films employing [[(tBuO)3Si]2O-Ti(OiPr)2], which can be prepared from commercially available materials, results in antireflective thin films on float glass under industrially relevant manufacturing conditions. It was found that while the deposition temperature had an effect on the SiO2:TiO2 ratio, the thickness was dependent on the time of deposition. This study shows that it is possible to use APCVD employing a single source precursor containing titanium and silicon to produce thin films on float glass with high SiO2:TiO2 ratios.

  15. Polymeric hydrogen diffusion barrier, high-pressure storage tank so equipped, method of fabricating a storage tank and method of preventing hydrogen diffusion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2008-07-22

    An electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier which comprises an anode layer, a cathode layer, and an intermediate electrolyte layer, which is conductive to protons and substantially impermeable to hydrogen. A catalytic metal present in or adjacent to the anode layer catalyzes an electrochemical reaction that converts any hydrogen that diffuses through the electrolyte layer to protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are transported to the cathode layer and reacted to form hydrogen. The hydrogen diffusion barrier is applied to a polymeric substrate used in a storage tank to store hydrogen under high pressure. A storage tank equipped with the electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier, a method of fabricating the storage tank, and a method of preventing hydrogen from diffusing out of a storage tank are also disclosed.

  16. Polymeric hydrogen diffusion barrier, high-pressure storage tank so equipped, method of fabricating a storage tank and method of preventing hydrogen diffusion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lessing, Paul A.

    2004-09-07

    An electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier which comprises an anode layer, a cathode layer, and an intermediate electrolyte layer, which is conductive to protons and substantially impermeable to hydrogen. A catalytic metal present in or adjacent to the anode layer catalyzes an electrochemical reaction that converts any hydrogen that diffuses through the electrolyte layer to protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are transported to the cathode layer and reacted to form hydrogen. The hydrogen diffusion barrier is applied to a polymeric substrate used in a storage tank to store hydrogen under high pressure. A storage tank equipped with the electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier, a method of fabricating the storage tank, and a method of preventing hydrogen from diffusing out of a storage tank are also disclosed.

  17. Analysis of high-pressure boiloff situation during an MSIV closure ATWS in a typical BWR/4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neymotin, L.Y.; Slovik, G.C.; Saha, P.

    1986-01-01

    An anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) is recognized as one of the boiling water reactor (BWR) accident sequences potentially leading to core damage. Of all the various ATWS initiating events, the main steam isolation valve (MSIV) closure ATWS is the most severe, because of its relatively high frequency of occurrence and its challenge to the residual heat removal and containment integrity systems. Although under investigation for quite a long period of time, different aspects of this type of transient are still being analyzed. The final outcome of these studies should be a well-defined set of recommendations for the plant operator to mitigate an ATWS accident. The objective of this paper is to provide a best estimate analysis of the MSIV closure ATWS in the Browns Ferry Unit 1 BWR with Mark-1 containment. The calculations have been performed using the RAMONA-3B code which as a three-dimensional neutron kinetics model coupled with one-dimensional four-equation, nonhomogeneous, nonequilibrium thermal hydraulics. The code also allows for one-dimensional neutronic core representation. The one-dimensional capability of the code has been employed in this calculation since a thorough sensitivity study showed that for a full ATWS, a one-dimensional neutron kinetics adequately describes the core behavior. The calculation described in the paper was started from a steady-state fuel condition corresponding to the end of cycle 5 of the Browns Ferry reactor.

  18. High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Standards - DOT FMVSS 304 (Mandatory requirement for on-board fuel tanks) - NGV - 2007 (Established industry standard for on-board fuel tanks, over 40,000 Type IV...

  19. Sandia Energy - High Pressure Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)Geothermal Energy & Drilling TechnologyHeavy Duty

  20. Pulse Pressure Forming of Lightweight Materials, Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials, Development of High Strength Superplastic Al Sheet, Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels Pulse Pressure Forming of Lightweight Materials,...

  1. Collapse pressure of coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.S.

    1996-09-01

    The collapse pressure is a measure of an external force required to collapse a tube in the absence of internal pressure. It is defined as the minimum pressure required to yield the tube in the absence of internal pressure. Coiled tubing is sometimes used in high-pressure wells. If the external pressure becomes too high, the coiled tubing will collapse. This could not only lead to serious well-control problems, but may result in extensive fishing operations. A reliable safety criterion of collapse pressure for the coiled tubing is needed by the coiled tubing operators. Theoretical models of collapse pressure are well developed for perfectly round coiled tubing but not for oval coiled tubing. Coiled tubing is initially manufactured with nearly perfect roundness, sometimes having a small ovality (typically {le} 0.5%). Perfectly round CT becomes oval owing to the plastic mechanical deformation of the coiled tubing as it spooled on and off the reel and over the gooseneck. As the cycling continues, the ovality usually increases. This ovality significantly decreases the collapse failure pressure as compared to perfectly round tubing. In this paper, an analytical model of collapse pressure for oval tubing under axial tension or compression is developed based on elastic instability theory and the von Mises criterion. The theoretical model shows satisfactory agreement with experimental data.

  2. High-pressure stability relations, crystal structures, and physical properties of perovskite and post-perovskite of NaNiF{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirako, Y.; Shi, Y.G.; Aimi, A.; Mori, D.; Kojitani, H.; Yamaura, K.; Inaguma, Y.; Akaogi, M.

    2012-07-15

    NaNiF{sub 3} perovskite was found to transform to post-perovskite at 16-18 GPa and 1273-1473 K. The equilibrium transition boundary is expressed as P (GPa)=-2.0+0.014 Multiplication-Sign T (K). Structure refinements indicated that NaNiF{sub 3} perovskite and post-perovskite have almost regular NiF{sub 6} octahedra consistent with absence of the first-order Jahn-Teller active ions. Both NaNiF{sub 3} perovskite and post-perovskite are insulators. The perovskite underwent a canted antiferromagnetic transition at 156 K, and the post-perovskite antiferromagnetic transition at 22 K. Magnetic exchange interaction of NaNiF{sub 3} post-perovskite is smaller than that of perovskite, reflecting larger distortion of Ni-F-Ni network and lower dimension of octahedral arrangement in post-perovskite than those in perovskite. - Graphical abstract: Perovskite-post-perovskite transition in NaNiF{sub 3} at high pressure Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NaNiF{sub 3} perovskite (Pv) transforms to post-perovskite (pPv) at 16 GPa and 1300 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The equilibrium transition boundary is expressed as P (GPa)=-2.0+0.014 T (K). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antiferromagnetic transition occurs at 156 K in Pv and 22 K in pPv.

  3. Soret Effect Study on High-Pressure CO2-Water Solutions Using UV-Raman Spectroscopy and a Concentric-Tube Optical Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, Charles F.; McGrail, B. Peter; Maupin, Gary D.

    2012-01-01

    Spatially resolved deep-UV Raman spectroscopy was applied to solutions of CO2 and H2O (or D2O), which were subject to a temperature gradient in a thermally regulated high-pressure concentric-tube Raman cell in an attempt to measure a Soret effect in the vicinity of the critical point of CO2. Although Raman spectra of solutions of CO2 dissolved in D2O at 10 MPa and temperatures near the critical point of CO2 had adequate signal-to-noise and spatial resolution to observe a Soret effect with a Soret coefficient with magnitude of |ST| > 0.03, no evidence for an effect of this size was obtained for applied temperature gradients up to 19oC. The presence of 1 M NaCl did not make a difference. In contrast, the concentration of CO2 dissolved in H2O was shown to vary significantly across the temperature gradient when excess CO2 was present, but the results could be explained simply by the variation in CO2 solubility over the temperature range and not to kinetic factors. For mixtures of D2O dissolved in scCO2 at 10 MPa and temperatures close to the critical point of CO2, the Raman peaks for H2O were too weak to measure with confidence even at the limit of D2O solubility.

  4. An Overview of Project Planning for Hot-Isostatic Pressure Treatment of High-Level Waste Calcine for the Idaho Cleanup Project - 12289

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nenni, Joseph A.; Thompson, Theron J.

    2012-07-01

    The Calcine Disposition Project is responsible for retrieval, treatment by hot-isostatic pressure, packaging, and disposal of highly radioactive calcine stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in southeast Idaho. In the 2009 Amended Record of Decision: Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement the Department of Energy documented the selection of hot-isostatic pressure as the technology to treat the calcine. The Record of Decision specifies that the treatment results in a volume-reduced, monolithic waste form suitable for transport outside of Idaho by a target date of December 31, 2035. That target date is specified in the 1995 Idaho Settlement Agreement to treat and prepare the calcine for transport out of Idaho in exchange for allowing storage of Navy spent nuclear fuel at the INL Site. The project is completing the design of the calcine-treatment process and facility to comply with Record of Decision, Settlement Agreement, Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, and Department of Energy requirements. A systems engineering approach is being used to define the project mission and requirements, manage risks, and establish the safety basis for decision making in compliance with DOE O 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets'. The approach draws heavily on 'design-for-quality' tools to systematically add quality, predict design reliability, and manage variation in the earliest possible stages of design when it is most efficient. Use of these tools provides a standardized basis for interfacing systems to interact across system boundaries and promotes system integration on a facility-wide basis. A mass and energy model was developed to assist in the design of process equipment, determine material-flow parameters, and estimate process emissions. Data generated from failure modes and effects analysis and reliability, availability, maintainability, and inspectability analysis were incorporated into a time and motion model to validate and verify the capability to complete treatment of the calcine within the required schedule. The Calcine Disposition Project systems engineering approach, including use of industry-proven design-for-quality tools and quantitative assessment techniques, has strengthened the project's design capability to meet its intended mission in a safe, cost-effective, and timely manner. Use of these tools has been particularly helpful to the project in early design planning to manage variation; improve requirements and high-consequence risk management; and more effectively apply alternative, interface, failure mode, RAMI, and time and motion analyses at the earliest possible stages of design when their application is most efficient and cost effective. The project is using these tools to design and develop HIP treatment of highly radioactive calcine to produce a volume-reduced, monolithic waste form with immobilization of hazardous and radioactive constituents. (authors)

  5. Possible Pressure Effect for Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Kwang-Hua Chu

    2005-08-30

    We make an estimate of the possible range of $\\Delta T_c$ induced by high-pressure effects in post-metallic superconductors by using the theory of {\\it extended irreversible/reversible thermodynamics} and Pippard's length scale. The relationship between the increment of the superconducting temperature and the increase of the pressure is parabolic.

  6. New high pressure rare earth tantalates RE{sub x}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5+1.5x} (RE=La, Eu, Yb)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zibrov, Igor P.; Filonenko, Vladimir P.; Zakharov, Nikolai D.; Nikishina, Elena E.; Lebedeva, Elena N.

    2013-07-15

    Rare earth tantalates La{sub 0.075}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.113}, Eu{sub 0.089}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.134} and Yb{sub 0.051}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.077} have been prepared by solid state reaction at P=7.0 GPa and T=1050–1100 °C and studied by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and electron microscopy. Low hydrated amorphous tantalum, lanthanum, europium and ytterbium hydroxides were used as starting materials. Aqueous as well as anhydrous compounds were obtained. Title tantalates are crystallized in the structure type of F–Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} [Zibrov et al. Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 48 (2003) 464–471] [5]. The structure was refined by the Rietveld method from X-ray powder diffractometer data: La{sub 0.075}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.113}, a=10.5099(2), b=7.2679(1), c=6.9765(1) Å, V=532.90(1) Å{sup 3}, Z=6, space group Ibam; Eu{sub 0.089}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.134}, a=10.4182(3), b=7.2685(1), c=6.9832(1) Å, V=528.80(2) Å{sup 3}, Z=6, space group Ibam; Yb{sub 0.051}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.077}, a=10.4557(2), b=7.3853(1), c=6.8923(1) Å, V=532.21(1) Å{sup 3}, Z=6, space group Ibam. RE atoms do not replace the tantalum in its positions but the only water in the channels of the structure. Highly charged cations RE{sup +3} compress the unit cell so that its volume becomes less than that of F–Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Significant decrease of the unit cell volume after water removal from the structure is possible due to the puckering of pentagonal bipyramid layers and change of the corrugation angle in the layer. - Graphical abstract: The structure of RE{sub x}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5+1.5x} and its HRTEM image (“A” arrows show empty channel, “B” arrows show filled channel). - Highlights: • We synthesized new tantalates of RE under high pressure high temperature conditions. • RE atoms replace water molecules in the channels of the structure. • Aqueous as well as anhydrous tantalates were obtained. • Highly charged cations RE{sup +3} compress the unit cell decreasing RE–O distances.

  7. APS / DPP November 15-19, 2004 Savannah, Georgia Slow formation of high beta plasmas, such as FRCs, is difficult due to the need to build up plasma pressure rapidly enough to balance the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    to charge with negative flux. Fire outer coil at same time as initiate plasma to keep FRC off walls. tf = 0APS / DPP November 15-19, 2004 Savannah, Georgia Slow formation of high beta plasmas, such as FRCs, is difficult due to the need to build up plasma pressure rapidly enough to balance the dominant poloidal field

  8. Field application of an interpretation method of downhole temperature and pressure data for detecting water entry in horizontal/highly inclined gas wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Achinivu, Ochi I.

    2009-05-15

    and temperature gauges and fiber optic sensors. The monitoring instruments are increasingly incorporated as part of the intelligent completion in oil wells where they provide bottomhole temperature, pressure and sometimes volumetric flow rate along the wellbore...

  9. High-Pressure Catalytic Reactions of C6 Hydrocarbons on Platinum Single-Crystals and nanoparticles: A Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopic and Kinetic Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bratlie, Kaitlin

    2007-01-01

    of the gas in Torr, N A is Avogadro's number, R is the gas= y/2KMRT where N A is Avogadro's number, P is the pressure,of the heat bath, N is Avogadro's number, h is Planck's

  10. Low pressure carbonylation of heterocycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Geoffrey W. (Lansing, NY); Kramer, John W. (Mt. Pleasant, MI); Schmidt, Joseph A. R. (Sylvania, OH)

    2011-01-25

    Heterocycles, e.g., epoxides, are carbonylated at low pressure with high percentage conversion to cyclic, ring expanded products using the catalyst ##STR00001## where L is tetrahydrofuran (THF).

  11. Measurements of charge and light in pure high pressure Xe towards the study of Xe+TMA mixtures with dark matter directionality sensitivity and supra-intrinsic energy resolution for 0??? decay searches

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Oliveira, C. A.B.; Gehman, V.; Goldschmidt, A.; Nygren, D.; Renner, J.

    2015-03-24

    Trimethylamine (TMA) may improve the energy resolution of gaseous xenon based detectors for 0??? decay searches through the reduction of the Fano factor by the Penning effect. This molecule may also be the key for sensing directionality of nuclear recoils induced by Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) in monolithic massive (ton-scale) detectors, without the need of track imaging, by making use of columnar recombination. Nuclear recoil directionality may be the path for a definite discovery of the WIMP nature of Dark Matter. An ionization chamber has been constructed and operated to explore the properties of high pressure gaseous Xe +more »TMA mixtures for particle detection in rare-event experiments. The ionization, scintillation and electroluminescence (EL) signals are measured as function of pressure and electric field. We present results for pure xenon at pressures up to 8 bar. This work has been carried out within the context of the NEXT collaboration.« less

  12. Saltstone Osmotic Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, Ralph L.; Dixon, Kenneth L.

    2013-09-23

    Recent research into the moisture retention properties of saltstone suggest that osmotic pressure may play a potentially significant role in contaminant transport (Dixon et al., 2009 and Dixon, 2011). The Savannah River Remediation Closure and Disposal Assessments Group requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a literature search on osmotic potential as it relates to contaminant transport and to develop a conceptual model of saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. This report presents the findings of the literature review and presents a conceptual model for saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. The task was requested through Task Technical Request HLW-SSF-TTR-2013-0004. Simulated saltstone typically has very low permeability (Dixon et al. 2008) and pore water that contains a large concentration of dissolved salts (Flach and Smith 2013). Pore water in simulated saltstone has a high salt concentration relative to pore water in concrete and groundwater. This contrast in salt concentration can generate high osmotic pressures if simulated saltstone has the properties of a semipermeable membrane. Estimates of osmotic pressure using results from the analysis of pore water collected from simulated saltstone show that an osmotic pressure up to 2790 psig could be generated within the saltstone. Most semi-permeable materials are non-ideal and have an osmotic efficiency <1 and as a result actual osmotic pressures are less than theoretical pressures. Observations from laboratory tests of simulated saltstone indicate that it may exhibit the behavior of a semi-permeable membrane. After several weeks of back pressure saturation in a flexible wall permeameter (FWP) the membrane containing a simulated saltstone sample appeared to have bubbles underneath it. Upon removal from the FWP the specimen was examined and it was determined that the bubbles were due to liquid that had accumulated between the membrane and the sample. One possible explanation for the accumulation of solution between the membrane and sample is the development of osmotic pressure within the sample. Osmotic pressure will affect fluid flow and contaminant transport and may result in the changes to the internal structure of the semi-permeable material. B?nard et al. 2008 reported swelling of wet cured Portland cement mortars containing salts of NaNO{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}x12H {sub 2}O, and K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} when exposed to a dilute solution. Typically hydraulic head is considered the only driving force for groundwater in groundwater models. If a low permeability material containing a concentrated salt solution is present in the hydrogeologic sequence large osmotic pressures may develop and lead to misinterpretation of groundwater flow and solute transport. The osmotic pressure in the semi-permeable material can significantly impact groundwater flow in the vicinity of the semi-permeable material. One possible outcome is that groundwater will flow into the semi-permeable material resulting in hydrologic containment within the membrane. Additionally, hyperfiltration can occur within semi-permeable materials when water moves through a membrane into the more concentrated solution and dissolved constituents are retained in the lower concentration solution. Groundwater flow and transport equations that incorporate chemical gradients (osmosis) have been developed. These equations are referred to as coupled flow equations. Currently groundwater modeling to assess the performance of saltstone waste forms is conducted using the PORFLOW groundwater flow and transport model. PORFLOW does not include coupled flow from chemico-osmotic gradients and therefore numerical simulation of the effect of coupled flow on contaminant transport in and around saltstone cannot be assessed. Most natural semi-permeable membranes are non-ideal membranes and do not restrict all movement of solutes and as a result theoretical osmotic potential is not realized. Osmotic efficiency is a parameter in the coupled flow equation that accounts for the

  13. Design of an overmoded W-Band coupled cavity TWT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Comfoltey, Edward Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    We present the design and cold test validation of a novel, overmoded Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) capable of producing power levels in excess of 100 Watts at frequencies of 100 GHz and above. High power sources at frequencies ...

  14. Balanced pressure gerotor fuel pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raney, Michael Raymond; Maier, Eugen

    2004-08-03

    A gerotor pump for pressurizing gasoline fuel is capable of developing pressures up to 2.0 MPa with good mechanical and volumetric efficiency and satisfying the durability requirements for an automotive fuel pump. The pump has been designed with optimized clearances and by including features that promote the formation of lubricating films of pressurized fuel. Features of the improved pump include the use of a shadow port in the side plate opposite the outlet port to promote balancing of high fuel pressures on the opposite sides of the rotors. Inner and outer rotors have predetermined side clearances with the clearances of the outer rotor being greater than those of the inner rotor in order to promote fuel pressure balance on the sides of the outer rotor. Support of the inner rotor and a drive shaft on a single bushing with bearing sleeves maintains concentricity. Additional features are disclosed.

  15. X-ray diffraction study on the microstructure of a MgZnY alloy consolidated by high-pressure torsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenõ

    effect. Ó 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Mg alloys are important raw materials-pressure torsion Péter Jenei a , Jen}o Gubicza a, , Eun Yoo Yoon b , Hyoung Seop Kim b a Department of Materials Physics, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, P.O.B. 32, H-1518, Hungary b Department of Materials Science

  16. Final Report - Development of New Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) Technology to Recover High Valued Products from Chemical Plant and Refinery Waste Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith Ludwig

    2004-06-14

    Project Objective was to extend pressure swing adsorption (PSA) technology into previously under-exploited applications such as polyolefin production vent gas recovery and H2 recovery from refinery waste gases containing significant amounts of heavy hydrocarbons, aromatics, or H2S.

  17. Collapse of ferromagnetism in itinerant-electron system: A magnetic, transport properties, and high pressure study of (Hf,Ta)Fe{sub 2} compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diop, L. V. B. Isnard, O.; Kastil, J.; Arnold, Z.; Kamarad, J.

    2014-10-28

    The magnetism and transport properties were studied for Laves (Hf,Ta)Fe{sub 2} itinerant-electron compounds, which exhibit a temperature-induced first-order transition from the ferromagnetic (FM) to the antiferromagnetic (AFM) state upon heating. At finite temperatures, the field-induced metamagnetic phase transition between the AFM and FM has considerable effects on the transport properties of these model metamagnetic compounds. A large negative magnetoresistance of about 14% is observed in accordance with the metamagnetic transition. The magnetic phase diagram is determined for the Laves Hf{sub 1?x}Ta{sub x}Fe{sub 2} series and its Ta concentration dependence discussed. An unusual behavior is revealed in the paramagnetic state of intermediate compositions, it gives rise to the rapid increase and saturation of the local spin fluctuations of the 3d electrons. This new result is analysed in the frame of the theory of Moriya. For a chosen composition Hf{sub 0.825}Ta{sub 0.175}Fe{sub 2}, exhibiting such remarkable features, a detailed investigation is carried out under hydrostatic pressure up to 1?GPa in order to investigate the volume effect on the magnetic properties. With increasing pressure, the magnetic transition temperature T{sub FM-AFM} from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic order decreases strongly non-linearly and disappears at a critical pressure of 0.75?GPa. In the pressure-induced AFM state, the field-induced first-order AFM-FM transition appears and the complex temperature dependence of the AFM-FM transition field is explained by the contribution from both the magnetic and elastic energies caused by the significant temperature variation of the amplitude of the local Fe magnetic moment. The application of an external pressure leads also to the progressive decrease of the Néel temperature T{sub N}. In addition, a large pressure effect on the spontaneous magnetization M{sub S} for pressures below 0.45?GPa, dln(M{sub s})/dP?=??6.3?×?10{sup ?2?}GPa{sup ?1} was discovered. The presented results are consistent with Moriya's theoretical predictions and can significantly help to better understand the underlying physics of itinerant electron magnetic systems nowadays widely investigated for both fundamental and applications purposes.

  18. Furnace Pressure Controllers; Industrial Technologies Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 * September 2005 Industrial Technologies Program Furnace Pressure Controllers Furnace draft, or negative pres- sure, is created in fuel-fired furnaces when high temperature gases...

  19. Mixing Water and Oil Under Static High Pressure H.K. Ploeg1, M.D. McCluskey2,3, G.J. Hanna2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Mixing Water and Oil Under Static High Pressure H.K. Ploeg1, M.D. McCluskey2,3, G.J. Hanna2,3 1The and O. Grasset, Journal of Chemical Physics 127, 124506 (2007) Citations: Water in Oil: Procedure: ·The initial experiment was to see a drop of water freeze to ice VI while surrounded by mineral oil

  20. An Efficient, Semi-implicit Pressure-based Scheme Employing a High-resolution Finitie Element Method for Simulating Transient and Steady, Inviscid and Viscous, Compressible Flows on Unstructured Grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard C. Martineau; Ray A. Berry

    2003-04-01

    A new semi-implicit pressure-based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) scheme for simulating a wide range of transient and steady, inviscid and viscous compressible flow on unstructured finite elements is presented here. This new CFD scheme, termed the PCICEFEM (Pressure-Corrected ICE-Finite Element Method) scheme, is composed of three computational phases, an explicit predictor, an elliptic pressure Poisson solution, and a semiimplicit pressure-correction of the flow variables. The PCICE-FEM scheme is capable of second-order temporal accuracy by incorporating a combination of a time-weighted form of the two-step Taylor-Galerkin Finite Element Method scheme as an explicit predictor for the balance of momentum equations and the finite element form of a time-weighted trapezoid rule method for the semi-implicit form of the governing hydrodynamic equations. Second-order spatial accuracy is accomplished by linear unstructured finite element discretization. The PCICE-FEM scheme employs Flux-Corrected Transport as a high-resolution filter for shock capturing. The scheme is capable of simulating flows from the nearly incompressible to the high supersonic flow regimes. The PCICE-FEM scheme represents an advancement in mass-momentum coupled, pressurebased schemes. The governing hydrodynamic equations for this scheme are the conservative form of the balance of momentum equations (Navier-Stokes), mass conservation equation, and total energy equation. An operator splitting process is performed along explicit and implicit operators of the semi-implicit governing equations to render the PCICE-FEM scheme in the class of predictor-corrector schemes. The complete set of semi-implicit governing equations in the PCICE-FEM scheme are cast in this form, an explicit predictor phase and a semi-implicit pressure-correction phase with the elliptic pressure Poisson solution coupling the predictor-corrector phases. The result of this predictor-corrector formulation is that the pressure Poisson equation in the PCICE-FEM scheme is provided with sufficient internal energy information to avoid iteration. The ability of the PCICE-FEM scheme to accurately and efficiently simulate a wide variety of inviscid and viscous compressible flows is demonstrated here.