National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for 100-51-6 benzyl alcohol

  1. Mild and selective vanadium-catalyzed oxidation of benzylic, allylic, and propargylic alcohols using air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, Susan Kloek; Silks, Louis A; Wu, Ruilian

    2013-08-27

    The invention concerns processes for oxidizing an alcohol to produce a carbonyl compound. The processes comprise contacting the alcohol with (i) a gaseous mixture comprising oxygen; and (ii) an amine compound in the presence of a catalyst, having the formula: ##STR00001## where each of R.sup.1-R.sup.12 are independently H, alkyl, aryl, CF.sub.3, halogen, OR.sup.13, SO.sub.3R.sup.14, C(O)R.sup.15, CONR.sup.16R.sup.17 or CO.sub.2R.sup.18; each of R.sup.13-R.sup.18 is independently alkyl or aryl; and Z is alkl or aryl.

  2. Multiple Pathways for Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation by RuV=O3+ and RuIV=O2+

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, Amit; Hull, Jonathan F.; Norris, Michael R.; Chen, Zuofeng; Ess, Daniel H.; Concepcion, Javier J.; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2011-01-20

    Significant rate enhancements are found for benzyl alcohol oxidation by the RuV=O3+ form of the water oxidation catalyst [Ru(Mebimpy)(bpy)(OH2)]2+ [Mebimpy = 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine] compared to RuIV=O2+ and for the RuIV=O2+ form with added bases due to a new pathway, concerted hydride proton transfer (HPT).

  3. Multiple Pathways for Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation by RuV=O3+ and RuIV=O2+

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, Amit; Hull, Jonathan F.; Norris, Michael R.; Chen, Zuofeng; Ess, Daniel H.; Concepcion, Javier J.; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2011-01-20

    Significant rate enhancements are found for benzyl alcohol oxidation by the RuV=O3+ form of the water oxidation catalyst [Ru(Mebimpy)(bpy)(OH2)]2+ [Mebimpy = 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine] compared to RuIV=O2+ and for the RuIV=O2+ form with added bases due to a new pathway involving concerted hydride proton transfer (HPT).

  4. Metal-free g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalyst by sulfuric acid activation for selective aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol under visible light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ligang; Liu, Di; Guan, Jing; Chen, Xiufang; Guo, Xingcui; Zhao, Fuhua; Hou, Tonggang; Mu, Xindong

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: A novel visible-light-driven acid-modified g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was prepared. The texture, electronic and surface property were tuned by acid modification. Acid-modified g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} shows much higher activity for photocatalytic activity. Acid sites on the surface of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} favor efficient charge separation. - Abstract: In this work, modification of graphitic carbon nitride photocatalyst with acid was accomplished with a facile method through reflux in different acidic substances. The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based material was found to be a metal-free photocatalyst useful for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol with dioxygen as the oxidant under visible light irradiation. Acid modification had a significant influence on the photocatalytic performance of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Among all acid tested, sulfuric acid-modified g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} showed the highest catalytic activity and gave benzaldehyde in 23% yield for 4 h under visible light irradiation, which was about 2.5 times higher than that of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The acid modification effectively improved surface area, reduced structural size, enlarged band gap, enhanced surface chemical state, and facilitated photoinduced charge separation, contributing to the enhanced photocatalytic activity. It is hoped that our work can open promising prospects for the utilization of metal free g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based semiconductor as visible-light photocatalyst for selective organic transformation.

  5. Alcohol conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  6. Selective aerobic alcohol oxidation method for conversion of lignin into simple aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahl, Shannon S; Rahimi, Alireza

    2015-03-03

    Described is a method to oxidize lignin or lignin sub-units. The method includes oxidation of secondary benzylic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit to a corresponding ketone in the presence of unprotected primarily aliphatic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit. The optimal catalyst system consists of HNO.sub.3 in combination with another Bronsted acid, in the absence of a metal-containing catalyst, thereby yielding a selectively oxidized lignin or lignin sub-unit. The method may be carried out in the presence or absence of additional reagents including TEMPO and TEMPO derivatives.

  7. Catalyst system and process for benzyl ether fragmentation and coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN)

    1998-04-28

    Dibenzyl ether can be readily cleaved to form primarily benzaldehyde and toluene as products, along with minor amounts of bibenzyl and benzyl benzoate, in the presence of a catalyst system comprising a Group 6 metal, preferably molybdenum, a salt, and an organic halide. Although useful synthetically for the cleavage of benzyl ethers, this cleavage also represents a key model reaction for the liquefaction of coal; thus this catalyst system and process should be useful in coal liquefaction with the advantage of operating at significantly lower temperatures and pressures.

  8. Organophosphorus compounds as coke inhibitors during naphtha pyrolysis. Effect of benzyl diethyl phosphite and triphenylphosphine sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, P.; Prasad, S.; Kunztu, D.

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports that significant reduction in the rate of coke formation during naphtha pyrolysis was achieved by adding benzyl diethyl phosphite or triphenylphosphine sulfide to the feed. Although the yield of carbon oxides was reduced, there was no effect of these additives on the hydrocarbon yields. Addition of these organophosphorus compounds significantly reduced the concentration of metals, such as iron, nickel, and chromium, incorporated in the coke. A previously proposed model for coke inhibition due to the formation of a passivating metal-phosphorus complex could satisfactorily correlate the data.

  9. Arylations of coal model systems. [Benzyl phenyl ether and l-naphthylmethyl phenyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, B.F.; Venier, C.G.; Squires, T.G.

    1984-01-01

    Currently, coal is converted to clean liquids or low melting solids by processes which utilize high temperature, high pressure, or both. These processes occur by thermal bond cleavages and involve the intermediacy of free radicals. In a search for chemistry which could liquefy coal under milder conditions, the authors have focussed on thermally less demanding ionic reactions. Of the functional groups which commonly occur in coals, ethers are the easiest to cleave under acid conditions. Depending on the density of these linkages and their importance as crosslinks in the macromolecular structure of coals, solubilization might be greatly enhanced solely by cleaving and capping either bonds. Benzylic ethers are particularly reactive and have been implicated in the initiation of coal pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis. Arylation, the use of acids to cleave bonds in coals in the presence of aromatic rings to trap the consequent incipient carbonium ions, has a long history. This paper discusses the use of benzyl phenyl ether and l-naphthylmethyl phenyl ether and polymers related to them as models to develop and evaluate the chemistry involved in the arylations. 9 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  10. Alcohol-fuel symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A symposium was conducted on the state-of-the-art of ethanol production and use. The following topics were discussed: ethanol as a fuel for internal combustion engines; ethanol production system design; the economics of producing fuel alcohol in form size plants; alternate feedstocks for ethanol stillage as a cattle feed; high energy sorghum, ethanol versus other alternative fuels; alcohol-fuel; legal and policy issues in ethanol production; and small scale fuel alcohol production. (DMC)

  11. Furfuryl alcohol cellular product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-05-26

    Self-extinguishing rigid foam products are formed by polymerization of furfuryl alcohol in the presence of a lightweight, particulate, filler, zinc chloride and selected catalysts.

  12. Extracting alcohols from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, Alicia L.; Googin, John M.; Griffith, William L.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrocarbon and surfactants are contacted with a solution of alcohol and water to extract the alcohol into the hydrocarbon-surfactant mixture.

  13. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  14. Fermentative alcohol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  15. ESE Alcohol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ESE Alcohol Jump to: navigation, search Name: ESE Alcohol Place: Leoti, Kansas Zip: 67861 Product: Owner of a 6.6m litre per year ethanol plant Coordinates: 38.481425,...

  16. Production of hydrogen from alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deluga, Gregg A.; Schmidt, Lanny D.

    2007-08-14

    A process for producing hydrogen from ethanol or other alcohols. The alcohol, optionally in combination with water, is contacted with a catalyst comprising rhodium. The overall process is preferably carried out under autothermal conditions.

  17. Alcoholes Biocarburantes de Extremadura Albiex | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Alcoholes Biocarburantes de Extremadura (Albiex) Place: Spain Product: Spanish bioethanol producer building a plant in Extremadura. References: Alcoholes...

  18. Fuel alcohol opportunities for Indiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenglass, Bert

    1980-08-01

    Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indiana which will impact or be impacted upon by the fuel alcohol industry. The study describes fuel alcohol technologies that could be pertinent to Indiana and also looks closely at how such a fuel alcohol industry may affect the economic and policy development of the State. Finally, the study presents options for Indiana, taking into account the national context of the developing fuel alcohol industry which, unlike many others, will be highly decentralized and more under the control of the lifeblood of our society - the agricultural community.

  19. Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride towards Technetium-99 Extraction - 13016

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paviet-Hartmann, Patricia; Horkley, Jared; Campbell, Keri; Roman, Audrey; Nunez, Ana; Espartero, Amparo

    2013-07-01

    A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning processes, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, the UREX process has been developed in the United States to co-extract hexavalent uranium (U) and hepta-valent technetium (Tc) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Tc-99 is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radio-toxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t{sub 1/2} = 2.13 x 10{sup 5} years), and as such, is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste-form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flowsheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for ultimate disposal. In addition, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste-forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macro-compounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, quaternary ammonium salts, and resorcin-arenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} by benzyl tributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand's matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e. diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using an external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed. (authors)

  20. Syngas Mixed Alcohol Cost Validation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1, 2013 DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office: Project Peer Review Syngas Mixed Alcohol Cost Validation Abhijit Dutta, NREL This presentation does not contain any proprietary, ...

  1. Farmstead production of fuel alcohol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badger, P.C.; Pile, R.S.; Waddell, E.L. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority Agricultural Energy Applications Section (Muscle Shoals, AL) has designed and constructed a small-scale fuel alcohol production facility which can produce 10 gph of 190-proof alcohol. Information presented includes some factors relative to facility design, layout, and construction, plus operation and performance experiences.

  2. Downregulation of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (CAD) Leads...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Alcohol Dehydrogenase (CAD) Leads to Improved Saccharification Efficiency in Switchgrass Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Downregulation of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase ...

  3. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  4. Alcohol fuel from Ohio farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    This booklet provides an introduction to technical, marketing, and regulatory issues involved in on-farm alcohol fuel production. Discussed are ethanol production provcesses, investment, potential returns, regulations and permits, and sources of financial and technical assistance. 2 figures. (DMC)

  5. Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.

    2007-09-03

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.

  6. Solvent Extraction of Sodium Hydroxide Using Alkylphenols and Fluorinated Alcohols: Understanding the Extraction Mechanism by Equilibrium Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Hyun-Ah; Engle, Nancy L.; Bonnesen Peter V.; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2004-03-29

    In the present work, it has been the aim to examine extraction efficiencies of nine proton-ionizable alcohols (HAs) in 1-octanol and to identify both the controlling equilibria and predominant species involved in the extraction process within a thermochemical model. Distribution ratios for sodium (DNa) extraction were measured as a function of organic-phase HA and aqueous-phase NaOH molarity at 25 C. Extraction efficiency follows the expected order of acidity of the HAs, 4-(tert-octyl) phenol (HA 1a) and 4-noctyl- a,a-bis-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl alcohol (HA 2a) being the most efficient extractants among the compounds tested. By use of the equilibrium-modeling program SXLSQI, a model for the extraction of NaOH has been advanced based on an ion-pair extraction by the diluent to give organic-phase Na+OH- and corresponding free ions and cation exchange by the weak acids to form monomeric organic-phase Na+A- and corresponding free organic-phase ions.

  7. Alcohol Fuels - Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alcohol Fuels Alcohol Fuels Goals Advance a multiscale approach to collaborative reaction kinetic model development and validation, by focusing team efforts on particular alcohol fuels. The team's initial focus has been on n-butanol. This has recently broadened to include detailed kinetic modeling of other isomeric butanols, plus some comparisons with smaller alcohols and the corresponding ketones, aldehydes, and enols. In the future we expect to use what we have learned from the butanol study

  8. Catalyst for producing lower alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, Jerome W.; Klingler, Robert J.; Heiberger, John J.

    1987-01-01

    A process and system for the production of the lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and propanol involves the reaction of carbon monoxide and water in the presence of a lead salt and an alkali metal formate catalyst combination. The lead salt is present as solid particles such as lead titanate, lead molybdate, lead vanadate, lead zirconate, lead tantalate and lead silicates coated or in slurry within molten alkali metal formate. The reactants, carbon monoxide and steam are provided in gas form at relatively low pressures below 100 atmospheres and at temperatures of 200-400.degree. C. The resulted lower alcohols can be separated into boiling point fractions and recovered from the excess reactants by distillation.

  9. Formation of alcohol conversion catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2001-01-01

    The method of the present invention involves a composition containing an intimate mixture of (a) metal oxide support particles and (b) a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, its method of manufacture, and its method of use for converting alcohols to aldehydes. During the conversion process, catalytically active metal oxide from the discrete catalytic metal oxide particles migrates to the oxide support particles and forms a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on the oxide support particle to form a catalyst composition having a higher specific activity than the admixed particle composition.

  10. Pressure dispensable gelled alcohol fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monick, J.A.

    1982-12-28

    A pressurized fuel gel composition particularly suitable for igniting wood and charcoal consisting essentially of, by weight, 42-90% of at least one c1-c6 monohydric alcohol, 0.5-6% of water-soluble gelling agent, up to about 24% water and a correlated amount of propellant from 0.5% to 30% characterized by a gel structure which forms a shape retaining mass upon contact with wood or charcoal that is maintained during the burning of said composition. Also within the scope of the invention is an aerosol product comprising said pressurized composition enclosed within a pressure-tight container having valve means for expelling the composition.

  11. Production of alcohol from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hang, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Woodams, E.E.; Cooley, H.J.

    1981-12-01

    Production of ethyl alcohol from apple pomace with a Montrachet strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. More than 43 grams of the ethyl alcohol could be produced per kg of apple pomace fermented at 30 degrees Celcius in 24 hours. The fermentation efficiency of this process was approximately 89%. (Refs. 9).

  12. Process for the synthesis of unsaturated alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maughon, Bob R.; Burdett, Kenneth A.; Lysenko, Zenon

    2007-02-13

    A process of preparing an unsaturated alcohol (olefin alcohol), such as, a homo-allylic mono-alcohol or homo-allylic polyol, involving protecting a hydroxy-substituted unsaturated fatty acid or fatty acid ester, such as methyl ricinoleate, derived from a seed oil, to form a hydroxy-protected unsaturated fatty acid or fatty acid ester; homo-metathesizing or cross-metathesizing the hydroxy-protected unsaturated fatty acid or fatty acid ester to produce a product mixture containing a hydroxy-protected unsaturated metathesis product; and deprotecting the hydroxy-protected unsaturated metathesis product under conditions sufficient to prepare the unsaturated alcohol. Preferably, methyl ricinoleate is converted by cross-metathesis or homo-metathesis into the homo-allylic mono-alcohol 1-decene-4-ol or the homo-allylic polyol 9-octadecene-7,12-diol, respectively.

  13. STEP 1: TO BE COMPLETED BY ALCOHOL TECHNICIAN

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Human Reliability Program (HRP) Alcohol Testing Form (Instructions for completing this form are attached.) STEP 1: TO BE COMPLETED BY ALCOHOL TECHNICIAN A. Employee Name ...

  14. Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via ...

  15. Jilin Fuel Alcohol Company Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alcohol Company Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Jilin Fuel Alcohol Company Ltd Place: Jilin, Jilin Province, China Zip: 132011 Product: One of the four Chinese government...

  16. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis ...

  17. Alcohol injection cuts diesel consumption on turbocharged tractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edson, D.V.

    1980-07-21

    M and W Gear Co. of Gibson City, IL, are marketing a new alcohol- injection system that permits turbocharged diesel engines to burn alcohol and claims to cut diesel consumption by 30% and more. The alcohol fuel, a blend of alcohol and water, does not meet the diesel fuel until the alcohol has been atomized and sprayed through the intake manifold into the cylinders. It permits farmers to use home- still-produced ethanol without the added expense of refining to anhydrous composition.

  18. Third international symposium on alcohol fuels technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-04-01

    At the opening of the Symposium, Dr. Sharrah, Senior Vice President of Continental Oil Company, addressed the attendees, and his remarks are included in this volume. The Symposium was concluded by workshops which addressed specific topics. The topical titles are as follows: alcohol uses; production; environment and safety; and socio-economic. The workshops reflected a growing confidence among the attendees that the alcohols from coal, remote natural gas and biomass do offer alternatives to petroleum fuels. Further, they may, in the long run, prove to be equal or superior to the petroleum fuels when the aspects of performance, environment, health and safety are combined with the renewable aspect of the biomass derived alcohols. Although considerable activity in the production and use of alcohols is now appearing in many parts of the world, the absence of strong, broad scale assessment and support for these fuels by the United States Federal Government was a noted point of concern by the attendees. The environmental consequence of using alcohols continues to be more benign in general than the petroleum based fuels. The exception is the family of aldehydes. Although the aldehydes are easily suppressed by catalysts, it is important to understand their production in the combustion process. Progress is being made in this regard. Of course, the goal is to burn the alcohols so cleanly that catalytic equipment can be eliminated. Separate abstracts are prepared for the Energy Data Base for individual presentations.

  19. Hydrogen bond dynamics in bulk alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinokita, Keisuke; Cunha, Ana V.; Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.

    2015-06-07

    Hydrogen-bonded liquids play a significant role in numerous chemical and biological phenomena. In the past decade, impressive developments in multidimensional vibrational spectroscopy and combined molecular dynamicsquantum mechanical simulation have established many intriguing features of hydrogen bond dynamics in one of the fundamental solvents in nature, water. The next class of a hydrogen-bonded liquidalcoholshas attracted much less attention. This is surprising given such important differences between water and alcohols as the imbalance between the number of hydrogen bonds, each molecule can accept (two) and donate (one) and the very presence of the hydrophobic group in alcohols. Here, we use polarization-resolved pump-probe and 2D infrared spectroscopy supported by extensive theoretical modeling to investigate hydrogen bond dynamics in methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol employing the OH stretching mode as a reporter. The sub-ps dynamics in alcohols are similar to those in water as they are determined by similar librational and hydrogen-bond stretch motions. However, lower density of hydrogen bond acceptors and donors in alcohols leads to the appearance of slow diffusion-controlled hydrogen bond exchange dynamics, which are essentially absent in water. We anticipate that the findings herein would have a potential impact on fundamental chemistry and biology as many processes in nature involve the interplay of hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups.

  20. Alcohol Fuels Program technical review, Spring 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    The alcohol fuels program consists of in-house and subcontracted research for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel alcohols via thermoconversion and bioconversion technologies. In the thermoconversion area, the SERI gasifier has been operated on a one-ton per day scale and produces a clean, medium-Btu gas that can be used to manufacture methanol with a relatively small gas-water shift reaction requirement. Recent research has produced catalysts that make methanol and a mixture of higher alcohols from the biomass-derived synthetic gas. Three hydrolysis processes have emerged as candidates for more focused research. They are: a high-temperature, dilute-acid, plug-flow approach based on the Dartmouth reactor; steam explosion pretreatment followed by hydrolysis using the RUT-C30 fungal organism; and direct microbial conversion of the cellulose to ethanol using bacteria in a single or mixed culture. Modeling studies, including parametric and sensitivity analyses, have recently been completed. The results of these studies will lead to a better definition of the present state-of-the-art for these processes and provide a framework for establishing the research and process engineering issues that still need resolution. In addition to these modeling studies, economic feasibility studies are being carried out by commercial engineering firms. Their results will supplement and add commercial validity to the program results. The feasibility contractors will provide input at two levels: Technical and economic assessment of the current state-of-the-art in alcohol production from lignocellulosic biomass via thermoconversion to produce methanol and higher alcohol mixtures and bioconversion to produce ethanol; and identification of research areas having the potential to significantly reduce the cost of production of alcohols.

  1. Fuel alcohol: the road to independence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stull, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the production of ethanol using an on-farm fuel alcohol still. Directions are given in lay-language, easily understandable to novices in the field of fermentation. Preparation of the mash, fermentation, and distillation are discussed along with some basic background information on these processes. The design and construction of the still is presented. Off-the-shelf equipment was used in the construction. Vats, pumps, and testing equipment used in the processing are described. Diagrams and a glossary are included. The alcohol produced is used for space heating of a house and greenhouse. (DMC)

  2. Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  3. Alcohols as hydrogen-donor solvents for treatment of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ross, David S.; Blessing, James E.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the hydroconversion of coal by solvent treatment at elevated temperatures and pressure wherein an alcohol having an .alpha.-hydrogen atom, particularly a secondary alcohol such as isopropanol, is utilized as a hydrogen donor solvent. In a particular embodiment, a base capable of providing a catalytically effective amount of the corresponding alcoholate anion under the solvent treatment conditions is added to catalyze the alcohol-coal reaction.

  4. Alcohol synthesis from CO or CO.sub.2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Dagle, Robert A [Richland, WA; Holladay, Jamelyn D [Kennewick, WA; Cao, Chunshe [Houston, TX; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; White, James F [Richland, WA; Elliott, Douglas C [Richland, WA; Stevens, Don J [Richland, WA

    2010-12-28

    Methods for producing alcohols from CO or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 utilizing a palladium-zinc on alumina catalyst are described. Methods of synthesizing alcohols over various catalysts in microchannels are also described. Ethanol, higher alcohols, and other C.sub.2+ oxygenates can produced utilizing Rh--Mn or a Fisher-Tropsch catalyst.

  5. Farm alcohol fuel project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demmel, D.

    1981-11-15

    The Small Energy Project is a research and demonstration effort designed to assist small farmers in the utilization of energy conservation techniques on their farms. The Farm Alcohol Project was designed to demonstrate the production of alcohol fuels on small farms in order to reduce purchased liquid fuel requirements. The Project considered the use of on-farm raw materials for process heat and the production of fuel grade, low prood ethanol in volumes up to 10,000 gallons per year. The fuel would be used entirely on the farm. The approach considered low-cost systems the farmer could build himself from local resources. Various crops were considered for ethanol production. The interest in farm alcohol production reached a peak in 1980 and then decreased substantially as farmers learned that the process of alcohol production on the farm was much more complicated than earlier anticipated. Details of Alcohol Project experiences in ethanol production, primarily from corn, are included in this report. A one-bushel distillation plant was constructed as a learning tool to demonstrate the production of ethanol. The report discusses the various options in starch conversion, fermentation and distillation that can be utilized. The advantages and disavantages of atmospheric and the more complicated process of vacuum distillation are evaluated. Larger farm plants are considered in the report, although no experience in operating such plants was gained through the Project. Various precautions and other considerations are included for farm plant designs. A larger community portable distillery is also evaluated. Such a plant was considered for servicing farms with limited plant equipment. The farms serviced would perform only fermentation tasks, with the portable device performing distillation and starch conversion.

  6. Comparing liquid fuel costs: grain alcohol versus sunflower oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reining, R.C.; Tyner, W.E.

    1983-08-01

    This paper compares the technical and economic feasibility of small-scale production of fuel grade grain alcohol with sunflower oil. Three scales of ethanol and sunflower oil production are modeled, and sensitivity analysis is conducted for various operating conditions and costs. The general conclusion is that sunflower oil costs less to produce than alcohol. Government subsidies for alcohol, but not sunflower oil, could cause adoption of more expensive alcohol in place of cheaper sunflower oil. However, neither sunflower oil nor alcohol are competitive with diesel fuel. 7 references.

  7. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, G.W.; Carter, R.D.; Hand, T.E.; Powers, M.T.

    1996-05-07

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene or terpineol cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  8. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfurly alcohol cleaning agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  9. Oil recovery by surfactant-alcohol waterflooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.S.; Luh, Y.

    1983-01-25

    Waterflooding process for the recovery of oil from a subterranean formation in which at least a portion of the injected water preferably comprises a preferentially oil-soluble alcohol, a sulfobetaine, a quaternary ammonium compound containing at least one long chain hydrocarbyl group and a quaternary ammonium compound with short chain hydrocarbyl groups. This formulation serves both as a surfactant and a mobility control agent.

  10. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, G.W.; Carter, R.D.; Hand, T.E.; Powers, M.T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  11. A model system for QTL analysis: Effects of alcohol dehydrogenase genotype on alcohol pharmacokinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, N.G.; Nightingale, B.; Whitfield, J.B.

    1994-09-01

    There is much interest in the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) - major genes which affect quantitative phenotypes. The relationship of polymorphism at known alcohol metabolizing enzyme loci to alcohol pharmacokinetics is a good model system. The three class I alcohol dehydrogenase genes are clustered on chromosome 4 and protein electrophoresis has revealed polymorphisms at the ADH2 and ADH3 loci. While different activities of the isozymes have been demonstrated in vitro, little work has been done in trying to relate ADH polymorphism to variation in ethanol metabolism in vivo. We previously measured ethanol metabolism and psychomotor reactivity in 206 twin pairs and demonstrated that most of the repeatable variation was genetic. We have now recontacted the twins to obtain DNA samples and used PCR with allele specific primers to type the ADH2 and ADH3 polymorphisms in 337 individual twins. FISHER has been used to estimate fixed effects of typed polymorphisms simultaneously with remaining linked and unlinked genetic variance. The ADH2*1-2 genotypes metabolize ethanol faster and attain a lower peak blood alcohol concentration than the more common ADH2*1-1 genotypes, although less than 3% of the variance is accounted for. There is no effect of ADH3 genotype. However, sib-pair linkage analysis suggests that there is a linked polymorphism which has a much greater effect on alcohol metabolism that those typed here.

  12. Catalyst Activity Comparison of Alcohols over Zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol transformation to transportation fuel range hydrocarbon on HZSM-5 (SiO2 / Al2O3 = 30) catalyst was studied at 360oC and 300psig. Product distributions and catalyst life were compared using methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol or 1-butanol as a feed. The catalyst life for 1-propanol and 1-butanol was more than double compared to that for methanol and ethanol. For all the alcohols studied, the product distributions (classified to paraffin, olefin, napthene, aromatic and naphthalene compounds) varied with time on stream (TOS). At 24 hours TOS, liquid product from 1-propanol and 1-butanol transformation primarily contains higher olefin compounds. The alcohol transformation process to higher hydrocarbon involves a complex set of reaction pathways such as dehydration, oligomerization, dehydrocyclization, and hydrogenation. Compared to ethylene generated from methanol and ethanol, oligomerization of propylene and butylene has a lower activation energy and can readily take place on weaker acidic sites. On the other hand, dehydrocyclization of propylene and butylene to form the cyclic compounds requires the sits with stronger acid strength. Combination of the above mentioned reasons are the primary reasons for olefin rich product generated in the later stage of the time on stream and for the extended catalyst life time for 1 propanol and 1 butanol compared to methanol and ethanol conversion over HZSM-5.

  13. Separation and concentration of lower alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Raymond H.; Eakin, David E.; Baker, Eddie G.; Hallen, Richard T.

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing, from a dilute aqueous solution of a lower (C.sub.1 -C.sub.5) alcohol, a concentrated liquid solution of the alcohol in an aromatic organic solvent is disclosed. Most of the water is removed from the dilute aqueous solution of alcohol by chilling sufficiently to form ice crystals. Simultaneously, the remaining liquid is extracted at substantially the same low temperature with a liquid organic solvent that is substantially immiscible in aqueous liquids and has an affinity for the alcohol at that temperature, causing the alcohol to transfer to the organic phase. After separating the organic liquid from the ice crystals, the organic liquid can be distilled to enrich the concentration of alcohol therein. Ethanol so separated from water and concentrated in an organic solvent such as toluene is useful as an anti-knock additive for gasoline.

  14. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-03-08

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  15. Autothermal Partial Oxidation of Ethanol and Alcohols - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Autothermal Partial Oxidation of Ethanol and Alcohols Syngas from Autothermal Reforming of Ethanol DOE Grant Recipients University of Minnesota Contact University of Minnesota About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Autothermal Reforming of Ethanol and Alcohols into Syngas Ethanol and alcohols can be converted into syngas using a robust autothermal reforming process. Syngas is a mixture of carbon

  16. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor ...

  17. Catalysts for Syngas-Derived Alcohol Synthesis - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search Catalysts for Syngas-Derived Alcohol Synthesis Improves the conversion of syngas from natural gas, coal, or biomass National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact ...

  18. Liver proteomics in progressive alcoholic steatosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernando, Harshica; Wiktorowicz, John E.; Soman, Kizhake V.; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Khan, M. Firoze; Shakeel Ansari, G.A.

    2013-02-01

    Fatty liver is an early stage of alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver disease (ALD and NALD) that progresses to steatohepatitis and other irreversible conditions. In this study, we identified proteins that were differentially expressed in the livers of rats fed 5% ethanol in a LieberDeCarli diet daily for 1 and 3 months by discovery proteomics (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry) and non-parametric modeling (Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines). Hepatic fatty infiltration was significantly higher in ethanol-fed animals as compared to controls, and more pronounced at 3 months of ethanol feeding. Discovery proteomics identified changes in the expression of proteins involved in alcohol, lipid, and amino acid metabolism after ethanol feeding. At 1 and 3 months, 12 and 15 different proteins were differentially expressed. Of the identified proteins, down regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase (? 1.6) at 1 month and up regulation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (2.1) at 3 months could be a protective/adaptive mechanism against ethanol toxicity. In addition, betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2 a protein responsible for methionine metabolism and previously implicated in fatty liver development was significantly up regulated (1.4) at ethanol-induced fatty liver stage (1 month) while peroxiredoxin-1 was down regulated (? 1.5) at late fatty liver stage (3 months). Nonparametric analysis of the protein spots yielded fewer proteins and narrowed the list of possible markers and identified D-dopachrome tautomerase (? 1.7, at 3 months) as a possible marker for ethanol-induced early steatohepatitis. The observed differential regulation of proteins have potential to serve as biomarker signature for the detection of steatosis and its progression to steatohepatitis once validated in plasma/serum. -- Graphical abstract: The figure shows the Hierarchial cluster analysis of differentially expressed protein spots obtained after ethanol feeding for 1 (13) and 3 (46) months. C and E represent pair-fed control and ethanol-fed rats, respectively. Highlights: ? Proteins related to ethanol-induced steatosis and mild steatohepatitis are identified. ? ADH1C and ALDH2 involved in alcohol metabolism are differentially expressed at 1 and 3 months. ? Discovery proteomics identified a group of proteins to serve as potential biomarkers. ? Using nonparametric analysis DDT is identified as a possible marker for liver damage.

  19. Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation in fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav R.; Marinkovic, Nebojsa S.

    2001-01-01

    Binary and ternary electrocatalysts are provided for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. The binary electrocatalyst includes 1) a substrate selected from the group consisting of NiWO.sub.4 or CoWO.sub.4 or a combination thereof, and 2) Group VIII noble metal catalyst supported on the substrate. The ternary electrocatalyst includes 1) a substrate as described above, and 2) a catalyst comprising Group VIII noble metal, and ruthenium oxide or molybdenum oxide or a combination thereof, said catalyst being supported on said substrate.

  20. Office of Alcohol Fuels Program plan, FY 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-10-01

    The goal of the Office of Alcohol Fuels is to promote the production, distribution, and use of alcohol fuels. The program objectives are defined and the strategy for implementation is described. An organizational model of the operation is included. The roles of the 3 program offices and various field offices are described. (DMC)

  1. Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tedder, Daniel W.

    1985-05-14

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

  2. Electro-autotrophic synthesis of higher alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liao, James C.; Cho, Kwang Myung

    2015-10-06

    The disclosure provides a process that converts CO.sub.2 to higher alcohols (e.g. isobutanol) using electricity as the energy source. This process stores electricity (e.g. from solar energy, nuclear energy, and the like) in liquid fuels that can be used as high octane number gasoline substitutes. Instead of deriving reducing power from photosynthesis, this process derives reducing power from electrically generated mediators, either H.sub.2 or formate. H.sub.2 can be derived from electrolysis of water. Formate can be generated by electrochemical reduction of CO.sub.2. After delivering the reducing power in the cell, formate becomes CO.sub.2 and recycles back. Therefore, the biological CO.sub.2 fixation process can occur in the dark.

  3. Extracting alcohols from aqueous solutions. [USDOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1981-12-02

    The objective is to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols in aqueous solutions into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. This is done by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5-18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is then mixed with one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers to extract the alcohol into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  4. Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Using Transient Hardware-In-Loop Test Meth Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels in an SIDI Engine Using Transient Hardware-In-Loop Test Meth ...

  5. Proceedings of the alcohol fuel production and utilization conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A conference was held to provide farmers, businesses, industries, and specialty groups with the best available information on current and projected activities related to the production and utilization of biomass for alcohol fuels. All aspects of the alcohol fuel production and utilization process were discussed. From biomass sources, through conversion processes to end-use products and applications were topics discussed by numerous experts. Other experts took this basic information and put it together into total systems. Speakers presented overviews on alcohol fuel related activities on state, regional, and national levels. Finally, commercialization incentives, funding sources, environmental considerations, research developments, safety considerations, and regulatory requirements were discussed as factors which must be addressed when considering the production and utilization of alcohol fuels. Separate abstracts have been prepared for items within the scope of the Energy Data Base.

  6. Method for producing hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1980-12-01

    It is an object of this invention to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols and ketones from an aqueous solution containing the same into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. Another object of the invention is to provide a mixture consisting of hydrocarbon, alcohols or ketones, polyoxyalkylene polymer and water which can be directly added to fuels or further purified. The above stated objects are achieved in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5 to 18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is mixed in the presence or one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers described in detail hereinafter; the fermentation alcohol being extracted into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  7. Electrogenerative oxidation of lower alcohols to useful products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meshbesher, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    In the disclosed electrogenerative process for converting alcohols such as ethanol to aldehydes such as acetaldehyde, the alcohol starting material is an aqueous solution containing more than the azeotropic amount of water. Good first-pass conversions (<40% and more typically <50%) are obtained at operating cell voltages in the range of about 80 to about 350 millivolts at ordinary temperatures and pressures by using very high flow rates of alcohol to the exposed anode surface (i.e. the "gas" side of an anode whose other surface is in contact with the electrolyte). High molar flow rates of vaporized aqueous alcohol also help to keep formation of undesired byproducts at a low level.

  8. Converting sugars to sugar alcohols by aqueous phase catalytic hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Werpy, Todd A.; Wang, Yong; Frye, Jr., John G.

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a method of converting sugars to their corresponding sugar alcohols by catalytic hydrogenation in the aqueous phase. It has been found that surprisingly superior results can be obtained by utilizing a relatively low temperature (less than 120.degree. C.), selected hydrogenation conditions, and a hydrothermally stable catalyst. These results include excellent sugar conversion to the desired sugar alcohol, in combination with long life under hydrothermal conditions.

  9. Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste via Gasification | Department of Energy Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification The Bioenergy Technologies Office develops design cases to understand the current state of conversion technologies and to determine where improvements need to take place in the future. This design case establishes cost targets for converting MSW to ethanol and

  10. Downregulation of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (CAD) Leads to Improved

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Saccharification Efficiency in Switchgrass (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Downregulation of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (CAD) Leads to Improved Saccharification Efficiency in Switchgrass Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Downregulation of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (CAD) Leads to Improved Saccharification Efficiency in Switchgrass Authors: Chunxiang,Fu ; Xirong,Xiao ; Yajun,Xi ; Yaxin,Ge ; Fang,Chen ; Joseph,Bouton ; Richard A.,Dixon ; Zeng-Yu,Wang ; , Publication Date:

  11. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass | Department of Energy Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass This process design and technoeconomic evaluation addresses the conversion of biomass to ethanol via thermochemical pathways that are expected to be demonstrated at the pilot level by 2012. PDF icon Thermochemical Ethanol via

  12. Hige Compression Ratio Turbo Gasoline Engine Operation Using Alcohol Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heywood, John; Jo, Young Suk; Lewis, Raymond; Bromberg, Leslie; Heywood, John

    2015-10-31

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the potential for improving the performance and efficiency of gasoline engine technology by use of alcohols to suppress knock. Knock-free operation is obtained by direct injection of a second “anti-knock” fuel such as ethanol, which suppresses knock when, with gasoline fuel, knock would occur. Suppressing knock enables increased turbocharging, engine downsizing, and use of higher compression ratios throughout the engine’s operating map. This project combined engine testing and simulation to define knock onset conditions, with different mixtures of gasoline and alcohol, and with this information quantify the potential for improving the efficiency of turbocharged gasoline spark-ignition engines, and the on-vehicle fuel consumption reductions that could then be realized. The more focused objectives of this project were therefore to: Determine engine efficiency with aggressive turbocharging and downsizing and high compression ratio (up to a compression ratio of 13.5:1) over the engine’s operating range; Determine the knock limits of a turbocharged and downsized engine as a function of engine speed and load; Determine the amount of the knock-suppressing alcohol fuel consumed, through the use of various alcohol-gasoline and alcohol-water gasoline blends, for different driving cycles, relative to the gasoline consumed; Determine implications of using alcohol-boosted engines, with their higher efficiency operation, in both light-duty and medium-duty vehicle sectors.

  13. Use of alcohol in farming applications: alternative fuels utilization program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borman, G.L.; Foster, D.E.; Uyehara, O.A.; McCallum, P.W.; Timbario, T.J.

    1980-11-01

    The use of alcohol with diesel fuel has been investigated as a means of extending diesel fuel supplies. The ability to use ethanol in diesel-powered farm equipment could provide the means for increasing the near-term fuels self-sufficiency of the American farmer. In the longer term, the potential availability of methanol (from coal) in large quantities could serve to further decrease the dependency on diesel fuel. This document gives two separate overviews of the use of alcohols in farm equipment. Part I of this document compares alcohol with No. 1 and No. 2 diesel fuels and describes several techniques for using alcohol in farm diesels. Part II of this document discusses the use of aqueous ethanol in diesel engines, spark ignition engines and provides some information on safety and fuel handling of both methanol and ethanol. This document is not intended as a guide for converting equipment to utilize alcohol, but rather to provide information such that the reader can gain insight on the advantages and disadvantages of using alcohol in existing engines currently used in farming applications.

  14. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Opilla, R.; Dale, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-05-01

    A variety of carbohydrate sources can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Section 1 is a review of technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. Section 2 is a review of the use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. Section 3 deals with the environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  15. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, L; Opilla, R; Surles, T

    1980-09-01

    Technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. The use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - is reviewed as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. The environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass are covered. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  16. Method of forming a dianhydrosugar alcohol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holladay, Johnathan E.; Hu, Jianli; Wang, Yong; Werpy, Todd A.; Zhang, Xinjie

    2010-01-19

    The invention includes methods of producing dianhydrosugars. A polyol is reacted in the presence of a first catalyst to form a monocyclic sugar. The monocyclic sugar is transferred to a second reactor where it is converted to a dianhydrosugar alcohol in the presence of a second catalyst. The invention includes a process of forming isosorbide. An initial reaction is conducted at a first temperature in the presence of a solid acid catalyst. The initial reaction involves reacting sorbitol to produce 1,4-sorbitan, 3,6-sorbitan, 2,5-mannitan and 2,5-iditan. Utilizing a second temperature, the 1,4-sorbitan and 3,6-sorbitan are converted to isosorbide. The invention includes a method of purifying isosorbide from a mixture containing isosorbide and at least one additional component. A first distillation removes a first portion of the isosorbide from the mixture. A second distillation is then conducted at a higher temperature to remove a second portion of isosorbide from the mixture.

  17. --No Title--

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by benzyl alcohol than conventional ZSM-5 and amorphous silica-alumina. Also Pt and Pd supported on mesoporous ZSM- 5 gave much higher hydrodesulfurization activities than Pt...

  18. Geothermal source potential and utilization for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of using a potential geothermal source to drive a fuel grade alcohol plant. Test data from the well at the site indicated that the water temperature at approximately 8500 feet should approach 275/sup 0/F. However, no flow data was available, and so the volume of hot water that can be expected from a well at this site is unknown. Using the available data, numerous fuel alcohol production processes and various heat utilization schemes were investigated to determine the most cost effective system for using the geothermal resource. The study found the direct application of hot water for alcohol production based on atmospheric processes using low pressure steam to be most cost effective. The geothermal flow rates were determined for various sizes of alcohol production facility using 275/sup 0/F water, 235/sup 0/F maximum processing temperature, 31,000 and 53,000 Btu per gallon energy requirements, and appropriate process approach temperatures. It was determined that a 3 million gpy alcohol plant is the largest facility that can practically be powered by the flow from one large geothermal well. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared, operating costs were calculated, the economic feasibility of the propsed project was examined, and a sensitivity analysis was performed.

  19. Design report: small-scale fuel alcohol plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of the report are to (a) provide potential alcohol producers with a reference design and (b) provide a complete, demonstrated design of a small-scale fuel alcohol plant. This report describes a small-scale fuel alcohol plant designed and constructed for the DOE by EG and G Idaho, Inc., an operating contractor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The plant is reasonably complete, having the capability for feedstock preparation, cooking, saccharification, fermentation, distillation, by-product dewatering, and process steam generation. An interesting feature is an instrumentation and control system designed to allow the plant to run 24 hours per day with only four hours of operator attention. Where possible, this document follows the design requirements established in the DOE publication Fuel From Farms, which was published in February 1980. For instance, critical requirements such as using corn as the primary feedstock, production of 25 gallons of 190 proof ethanol per hour, and using batch fermentation were taken from Fuel From Farms. One significant deviation is alcohol dehydration. Fuel From Farms recommends the use of a molecular sieve for dehydration, but a preliminary design raised significant questions about the cost effectiveness of this approach. A cost trade-off study is currently under way to establish the best alcohol dehydration method and will be the subject of a later report. Volume one contains background information and a general description of the plant and process.

  20. Economic analysis of small-scale fuel alcohol plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schafer, J.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    To plan Department of Energy support programs, it is essential to understand the fundamental economics of both the large industrial size plants and the small on-farm size alcohol plants. EG and G Idaho, Inc., has designed a 25 gallon per hour anhydrous ethanol plant for the Department of Energy's Alcohol Fuels Office. This is a state-of-the-art reference plant, which will demonstrate the cost and performance of currently available equipment. The objective of this report is to examine the economics of the EG and G small-scale alcohol plant design and to determine the conditions under which a farm plant is a financially sound investment. The reference EG and G Small-Scale Plant is estimated to cost $400,000. Given the baseline conditions defined in this report, it is calculated that this plant will provide an annual after-tax of return on equity of 15%, with alcohol selling at $1.62 per gallon. It is concluded that this plant is an excellent investment in today's market, where 200 proof ethanol sells for between $1.80 and $2.00 per gallon. The baseline conditions which have a significant effect on the economics include plant design parameters, cost estimates, financial assumptions and economic forecasts. Uncertainty associated with operational variables will be eliminated when EG and G's reference plant begins operation in the fall of 1980. Plant operation will verify alcohol yield per bushel of corn, labor costs, maintenance costs, plant availability and by-product value.

  1. Modeling and cold start in alcohol-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, A.J.; Bailey, B.K.

    1998-05-01

    Neat alcohol fuels offer several benefits over conventional gasoline in automotive applications. However, their low vapor pressure and high heat of vaporization make it difficult to produce a flammable vapor composition from a neat alcohol fuel during a start under cold ambient conditions. Various methods have been introduced to compensate for this deficiency. In this study, the authors applied computer modeling and simulation to evaluate the potential of four cold-start technologies for engines fueled by near-neat alcohol. The four technologies were a rich combustor device, a partial oxidation reactor, a catalytic reformer, and an enhanced ignition system. The authors ranked the competing technologies by their ability to meet two primary criteria for cold starting an engine at {minus}25 deg C and also by several secondary parameters related to commercialization. Their analysis results suggest that of the four technologies evaluated, the enhanced ignition system is the best option for further development.

  2. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of alcohols and protein solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melikechi, N.; Ding, H.; Marcano, O. A.; Rock, S.

    2008-04-15

    We report on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for the study of organic samples that exhibit similar elemental composition. We evaluate the method for its potential application for the measurement of small spectroscopic differences between samples such as alcohols and water solution of proteins. We measure differences in the relative amplitudes of the oxygen peaks for alcohols and find that these correlate with the relative amount of oxygen atoms within the molecule. We also show that the spectra of proteins reveal differences that can be used for their detection and identification.

  3. Ag-Al2O3 Catalyst HC-SCR: Performance with Light Alcohols and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ag-Al2O3 Catalyst HC-SCR: Performance with Light Alcohols and Other Reductants Ag-Al2O3 Catalyst HC-SCR: Performance with Light Alcohols and Other Reductants 2004 Diesel Engine ...

  4. Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Analysis showed that gasoline direct injection engine particulates from alcohol-blended fuels are significantly different in morphology and nanostructures

  5. Methods for sequestering carbon dioxide into alcohols via gasification fermentation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L; Ko, Ching-Whan; Phillips, J. Randy; Slape, M. Sean

    2013-11-26

    The present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for use with synthesis gas fermentation. Further, the present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for the production of alcohols from a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas containing at least one microorganism.

  6. Hydrogen Atom Reactivity toward Aqueous tert-Butyl Alcohol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lymar S. V.; Schwarz, H.A.

    2012-02-09

    Through a combination of pulse radiolysis, purification, and analysis techniques, the rate constant for the H + (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}COH {yields} H{sub 2} + {sm_bullet}CH{sub 2}C(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}OH reaction in aqueous solution is definitively determined to be (1.0 {+-} 0.15) x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, which is about half of the tabulated number and 10 times lower than the more recently suggested revision. Our value fits on the Polanyi-type, rate-enthalpy linear correlation ln(k/n) = (0.80 {+-} 0.05){Delta}H + (3.2 {+-} 0.8) that is found for the analogous reactions of other aqueous aliphatic alcohols with n equivalent abstractable H atoms. The existence of such a correlation and its large slope are interpreted as an indication of the mechanistic similarity of the H atom abstraction from {alpha}- and {beta}-carbon atoms in alcohols occurring through the late, product-like transition state. tert-Butyl alcohol is commonly contaminated by much more reactive secondary and primary alcohols (2-propanol, 2-butanol, ethanol, and methanol), whose content can be sufficient for nearly quantitative scavenging of the H atoms, skewing the H atom reactivity pattern, and explaining the disparity of the literature data on the H + (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}COH rate constant. The ubiquitous use of tert-butyl alcohol in pulse radiolysis for investigating H atom reactivity and the results of this work suggest that many other previously reported rate constants for the H atom, particularly the smaller ones, may be in jeopardy.

  7. Alcohol-free alkoxide process for containing nuclear waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pope, James M.; Lahoda, Edward J.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of containing nuclear waste. A composition is first prepared of about 25 to about 80%, calculated as SiO.sub.2, of a partially hydrolyzed silicon compound, up to about 30%, calculated as metal oxide, of a partially hydrolyzed aluminum or calcium compound, about 5 to about 20%, calculated as metal oxide, of a partially hydrolyzed boron or calcium compound, about 3 to about 25%, calculated as metal oxide, of a partially hydrolyzed sodium, potassium or lithium compound, an alcohol in a weight ratio to hydrolyzed alkoxide of about 1.5 to about 3% and sufficient water to remove at least 99% of the alcohol as an azeotrope. The azeotrope is boiled off and up to about 40%, based on solids in the product, of the nuclear waste, is mixed into the composition. The mixture is evaporated to about 25 to about 45% solids and is melted and cooled.

  8. Design for a small-scale fuel alcohol plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berglund, G.R.; Richardson, J.G.

    1982-08-01

    The paper describes the small-scale fuel alcohol plant (SSFAT) which was designed as a small-scale chemical processing plant. The DOE publication, Fuel from Farms, set forth the basic design requirements. To lower operating costs, it was important that all the processes required to produce alcohol were integrated. Automated control was also an important consideration in the design to reduce the number of operators and operator time, thus reducing operating costs. Automated control also provides better quality control of the final product. The plant is presently operating in a test mode to evaluate operating characteristics. The discussion covers the following topics - design requirements; plan operations; fermentation; distillation; microprocessor control; automatic control; operating experience. 1 ref.

  9. Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation at fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav; Kowal, Andrzej

    2011-11-02

    In some embodiments a ternary electrocatalyst is provided. The electrocatalyst can be used in an anode for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst may include a noble metal particle having a surface decorated with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh. The noble metal particles may include platinum, palladium, ruthenium, iridium, gold, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst includes SnO.sub.2 particles having a surface decorated with clusters of a noble metal and Rh. Some ternary electrocatalysts include noble metal particles with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh at their surfaces. In some embodiments the electrocatalyst particle cores are nanoparticles. Some embodiments of the invention provide a fuel cell including an anode incorporating the ternary electrocatalyst. In some aspects a method of using ternary electrocatalysts of Pt, Rh, and SnO.sub.2 to oxidize an alcohol in a fuel cell is described.

  10. Electrocatalyst for Alcohol Oxidation at Fuel Cell Anodes - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Alcohol Oxidation at Fuel Cell Anodes Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Ternary Pt/Rh/SnO2 electrocatalysts for oxidizing ethanol to CO2 (2,641 KB) <p> Scanning transmission electron micrograph showing uniform dispersion of the catalyst particles (bright spots) on the carbon support (dark background). The average particle size is about 1.5&nbsp;nm.</p> Scanning transmission electron

  11. Electrocatalysts for Alcohol Oxidation in Fuel Cells - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Electrocatalysts for Alcohol Oxidation in Fuel Cells Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology <p> Higher current indicates higher activity for catalyzing methanol oxidation in a fuel cell. Here the ternary electrocatalyst is comparable to the best commercially available catalyst for methanol oxidation.</p> Higher current indicates higher activity for catalyzing methanol oxidation in a fuel cell. Here the ternary electrocatalyst is comparable to the

  12. Improving Ethanol-Gasoline Blends by Addition of Higher Alcohols |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Mixtures of ethanol, gasoline, and higher alcohols were evaluated to determine if they offer superior performance to ethanol/gasoline blends in meeting the Renewal Fuels Standard II. PDF icon deer12_ickes.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency and emissions using steady-state and transient test procedures Drop In Fuels: Where the Road Leads

  13. Design for a small-scale fuel alcohol plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berglund, G.R.; Richardson, J.G.

    1982-08-01

    The fuel alcohol plant described in this article was designed, constructed and is being operated for the US DOE by EG and G Idaho. The plant can be operated by a single owner and produces 100 L of ethanol per hour and wet stillage for animal feed using corn as the primary feedstock. Existing technology and off-the-shelf equipment have been used whenever possible. The operation of the plant and microprocessor control of the process are described. (Refs. 1).

  14. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benkeser, R.A.; Laugal, J.A.; Rappa, A.

    1985-08-06

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about [minus]10 C to about 30 C or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  15. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benkeser, Robert A.; Laugal, James A.; Rappa, Angela

    1985-01-01

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about -10.degree. C. to about 30.degree. C. or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  16. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Bastian, R.D.; DeTavernier, S. . Dept. of Chemistry Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA . Zettlemoyer Center for Surface Studies)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers directly from coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and isobutanol. The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers. Commercial acid and superacid resin catalysts were obtained and tested under one set of conditions to compare the activities and selectivities for forming the unsymmetric methylisobutylether (MIBE) by coupling methanol with isobutanol. It was found that both Nafion-H microsaddles and Amberlyst-15 resins are active for this synthesis reaction. While and the Nafion-H catalyst does form the MIBE product fairly selectively under the reaction conditions utilized, the Amberlyst-15 catalyst formed dimethylether (DME) as the major product. In addition, significantly larger quantities of the C{sub 4} hydrocarbon products were observed over the Amberlyst-15 catalyst at 123{degree}C and 13.6 atm. It has been demonstrated that methyltertiarybutylether (MTBE) MIBE, DME and diisobutylether (DIBE) are separated and quantitatively determined by using the proper analytical conditions. In order to gain insight into the role of superacidity in promoting the selective coupling of the alcohols to form the unsymmetric ether, the strengths of the acid sites on the catalysts are being probed by thermometric titrations in non-aqueous solutions. 18 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Energy-efficient alcohol-fuel production. Technical final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The proposed utilization schedule for the alcohol fuel plant and methane generator is to produce 180 proof ethanol during the spring, summer, and fall (April to October). The ethanol will be used in the farm tractors and trucks during the planting, growing, and harvesting seasons. Some alcohol can be stored for use during the winter. The still will not be operated during the winter (November to March) when the methane from the digester will be used to replace fuel oil for heating a swine farrowing building. There are tentative plans to develop a larger methane generator, which will utilize all of the manure (dairy, beef, horses, and swine) produced on the ISU farm. If this project is completed, there will be enough methane to produce all of the alcohol fuel needed to operate all of the farm equipment, heat the buildings, and possibly generate electricity for the farm. The methane generating system developed is working so well that there is a great deal of interest in expanding the project to where it could utilize all of the livestock waste on the farm for methane production.

  18. On-farm anaerobic digester and fuel alcohol plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    An anaerobic digestion system was constructed and set up on a southern Illinois farm. The anaerobic digestion system was designed to be coupled with a fuel alcohol plant constructed by the farm family as part of an integrated farm energy system. The digester heating can be done using waste hot water from the alcohol plant and biogas from the digester can be used as fuel for the alcohol production. The anaerobic digestion system is made up of the following components. A hog finishing house, which already had a slotted floor and manure pit beneath it, was fitted with a system to scrape the manure into a feed slurry pit constructed at one end of the hog house. A solids handling pump feeds the manure from the feed slurry pit into the digester, a 13,000 gallon tank car body which has been insulated with styrofoam and buried underground. Another pump transfers effluent (digested manure) from the digester to a 150,000 gallon storage tank. The digested manure is then applied to cropland at appropriate times of the year. The digester temperature is maintained at the required level by automated hot water circulation through an internal heat exchanger. The biogas produced in the digester is pumped into a 32,000 gallon gas storage tank.

  19. Syngas Conversion to Hydrocarbon Fuels through Mixed Alcohol Intermediates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa M.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Li, Jinjing; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2013-05-13

    Synthesis gas (syngas) can be used to synthesize a variety of fuels and chemicals. Domestic transportation and military operational interests have driven continued focus on domestic syngas-based fuels production. Liquid transportation fuels may be made from syngas via four basic processes: 1) higher alcohols, 2) Fischer-Tropsch (FT), 3) methanol-to-gasoline (MTG), and 4) methanol-to-olefins (MTO) and olefins-to-gasoline/distillate (MOGD). Compared to FT and higher alcohols, MTG and MTO-MOGD have received less attention in recent years. Due to the high capital cost of these synthetic fuel plants, the production cost of the finished fuel cannot compete with petroleum-derived fuel. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has recently evaluated one way to potentially reduce capital cost and overall production cost for MTG by combining the methanol and MTG syntheses in a single reactor. The concept consists of mixing the conventional MTG catalyst (i.e. HZSM-5) with an alcohol synthesis catalyst. It was found that a methanol synthesis catalyst, stable at high temperature (i.e. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3) [1], when mixed with ZSM-5, was active for syngas conversion. Relatively high syngas conversion can be achieved as the equilibrium-driven conversion limitations for methanol and dimethyl ether are removed as they are intermediates to the final hydrocarbon product. However, selectivity control was difficult to achieve as formation of undesirable durene and light hydrocarbons was problematic [2]. The objective of the present study was thus to evaluate other potential composite catalyst systems and optimize the reactions conditions for the conversion of syngas to hydrocarbon fuels, through the use of mixed alcohol intermediates. Mixed alcohols are of interest as they have recently been reported to produce higher yields of gasoline compared to methanol [3]. 1. Lebarbier, V.M., Dagle, R.A., Kovarik, L., Lizarazo-Adarme, J.A., King, D.L., Palo, D.R., Catalyst Science & Technology, 2012, 2, 2116-2127. 2. Zhu, Y., Jones, S.B., Biddy, M.J., Dagle, R.A., Palo, D.P., Bioresource Technology, 2012, 117, 341-351. 3. Gujar, A.C., Guda, V.K., Nolan, M., Yan W., Toghiani, H., White, M.G., Applied Catalysis A: General, 2009, 363, 115-121.

  20. Electrolytic method to make alkali alcoholates using ion conducting alkali electrolyte/separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joshi, Ashok V.; Balagopal, Shekar; Pendelton, Justin

    2011-12-13

    Alkali alcoholates, also called alkali alkoxides, are produced from alkali metal salt solutions and alcohol using a three-compartment electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell includes an anolyte compartment configured with an anode, a buffer compartment, and a catholyte compartment configured with a cathode. An alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte configured to selectively transport alkali ions is positioned between the anolyte compartment and the buffer compartment. An alkali ion permeable separator is positioned between the buffer compartment and the catholyte compartment. The catholyte solution may include an alkali alcoholate and alcohol. The anolyte solution may include at least one alkali salt. The buffer compartment solution may include a soluble alkali salt and an alkali alcoholate in alcohol.

  1. Microsoft Word - benzyl-ms-Revisednoyellow.doc

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Reaction of bis(1,2,4-tri-t-butylcyclopentadienyl)ceriumbenzyl, Cp' 2 CeCH 2 Ph with Methylhalides: a Metathesis Reaction that does not proceed by a Metathesis Transition State. Evan L. Werkema, a Richard A. Andersen,* a Laurent Maron, *b and Odile Eisenstein *c a) Department of Chemistry and Chemical Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1460. b) LPCNO, Université de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, LPCNO, 135 avenue de

  2. Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks | Department of Energy Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks Breakout Session 2-B: New/Emerging Pathways Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend

  3. 01-12-1998 - Bench Top FIre Involving Use of Alcohol and Burner...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1998 - Bench Top FIre Involving Use of Alcohol and Burner Document Number: NA Effective Date: 011998 File (public): PDF icon 01-12-1998...

  4. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  5. Quick setting water-compatible furfuryl alcohol polymer concretes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Kukacka, Lawrence E.; Horn, William H.

    1982-11-30

    A novel quick setting polymer concrete composite comprising a furfuryl alcohol monomer, an aggregate containing a maximum of 8% by weight water, and about 1-10% trichlorotoluene initiator and about 20-80% powdered metal salt promoter, such as zinc chloride, based on the weight of said monomer, to initiate and promote polymerization of said monomer in the presence of said aggregate, within 1 hour after mixing at a temperature of -20.degree. C. to 40.degree. C., to produce a polymer concrete having a 1 hour compressive strength greater than 2000 psi.

  6. Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hui Zhang, Faya; Zhu, Zhaohui; Luong, Dung; Meadows, Gary G.

    2015-01-15

    Alcohol consumption exhibits diverse effects on different types of immune cells. NKT cells are a unique T cell population and play important immunoregulatory roles in different types of immune responses. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption on NKT cells remain to be elucidated. Using a mouse model of chronic alcohol consumption, we found that alcohol increases the percentage of NKT cells, especially iNKT cells in the thymus and liver, but not in the spleen or blood. Alcohol consumption decreases the percentage of NK1.1{sup −} iNKT cells in the total iNKT cell population in all of the tissues and organs examined. In the thymus, alcohol consumption increases the number of NK1.1{sup +}CD44{sup hi} mature iNKT cells but does not alter the number of NK1.1{sup −} immature iNKT cells. A BrdU incorporation assay shows that alcohol consumption increases the proliferation of thymic NK1.1{sup −} iNKT cells, especially the NK1.1{sup −}CD44{sup lo} Stage I iNKT cells. The percentage of NKG2A{sup +} iNKT cells increases in all of the tissues and organs examined; whereas CXCR3{sup +} iNKT cells only increases in the thymus of alcohol-consuming mice. Chronic alcohol consumption increases the percentage of IFN-γ-producing iNKT cells and increases the blood concentration of IFN-γ and IL-12 after in vivo α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) stimulation. Consistent with the increased cytokine production, the in vivo activation of iNKT cells also enhances the activation of dendritic cells (DC) and NK, B, and T cells in the alcohol-consuming mice. Taken together the data indicate that chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation, which favors the Th1 immune response. - Highlights: • Chronic alcohol consumption increases iNKT cells in the thymus and liver • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances thymic Stage I iNKT cell proliferation • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation in thymus and periphery • Chronic alcohol consumption induces Th1 immune response upon iNKT cell in vivo activation.

  7. Structure and thermodynamics of core-softened models for alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munaò, Gianmarco; Urbic, Tomaz

    2015-06-07

    The phase behavior and the fluid structure of coarse-grain models for alcohols are studied by means of reference interaction site model (RISM) theory and Monte Carlo simulations. Specifically, we model ethanol and 1-propanol as linear rigid chains constituted by three (trimers) and four (tetramers) partially fused spheres, respectively. Thermodynamic properties of these models are examined in the RISM context, by employing closed formulæ for the calculation of free energy and pressure. Gas-liquid coexistence curves for trimers and tetramers are reported and compared with already existing data for a dimer model of methanol. Critical temperatures slightly increase with the number of CH{sub 2} groups in the chain, while critical pressures and densities decrease. Such a behavior qualitatively reproduces the trend observed in experiments on methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol and suggests that our coarse-grain models, despite their simplicity, can reproduce the essential features of the phase behavior of such alcohols. The fluid structure of these models is investigated by computing radial distribution function g{sub ij}(r) and static structure factor S{sub ij}(k); the latter shows the presence of a low−k peak at intermediate-high packing fractions and low temperatures, suggesting the presence of aggregates for both trimers and tetramers.

  8. Addendum: Tenth International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels, The road to commercialization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Tenth International Symposium on ALCOHOL FUELS ``THE ROAD TO COMMERCIALIZATION`` was held at the Broadmoor Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA November 7--10, 1993. Twenty-seven papers on the production of alcohol fuels, specifications, their use in automobiles, buses and trucks, emission control, and government policies were presented. Individual papers have been processed separately for entry into the data base.

  9. Production of branched-chain alcohols by recombinant Ralstonia eutropha in fed-batch cultivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fei, Q; Brigham, CJ; Lu, JN; Fu, RZ; Sinskey, AJ

    2013-09-01

    Branched-chain alcohols are considered promising green energy sources due to their compatibility with existing infrastructure and their high energy density. We utilized a strain of Ralstonia eutropha capable of producing branched-chain alcohols and examined its production in flask cultures. In order to increase isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol) productivity in the engineered strain, batch, fed-batch, and two-stage fed-batch cultures were carried out in this work. The effects of nitrogen source concentration on branched-chain alcohol production were investigated under four different initial concentrations in fermenters. A maximum 380 g m(-3) of branched-chain alcohol production was observed with 2 kg m(-3) initial NH4Cl concentration in batch cultures. A pH-stat control strategy was utilized to investigate the optimum carbon source amount fed during fed-batch cultures for higher cell density. In cultures of R. eutropha strains that did not produce polyhydroxyalkanoate or branched-chain alcohols, a maximum cell dry weight of 36 kg m(-3) was observed using a fed-batch strategy, when 10 kg m(-3) carbon source was fed into culture medium. Finally, a total branched-chain alcohol titer of 790 g m(-3), the highest branched-chain alcohol yield of 0.03 g g(-1), and the maximum branched-chain alcohol productivity of 8.23 g m(-3) h(-1) were obtained from the engineered strain Re2410/pJL26 in a two-stage fed-batch culture system with pH-stat control. Isobutanol made up over 95% (mass fraction) of the total branched-chain alcohols titer produced in this study. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Catalysts and process for hydrogenolysis of sugar alcohols to polyols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chopade, Shubham P. [East Lansing, MI; Miller, Dennis J. [Okemos, MI; Jackson, James E. [Haslett, MI; Werpy, Todd A. [West Richland, WA; Frye, Jr., John G [Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H. [Richland, WA

    2001-09-18

    The present invention provides a process for preparation of low molecular weight polyols from high molecular weight polyols in a hydrogenolysis reaction under elevated temperature and hydrogen pressure. The process comprises providing in a reaction mixture the polyols, a base, and a metal catalyst prepared by depositing a transition metal salt on an inert support, reducing the metal salt to the metal with hydrogen, and passivating the metal with oxygen, and wherein the catalyst is reduced with hydrogen prior to the reaction. In particular, the process provides for the preparation of glycerol, propylene glycol, and ethylene glycol from sugar alcohols such as sorbitol or xylitol. In a preferred process, the metal catalyst comprises ruthenium which is deposited on an alumina, titania, or carbon support, and the dispersion of the ruthenium on the support increases during the hydrogenolysis reaction.

  11. Computational Studies of [Bmim][PF6]/n-Alcohol Interfaces with Many-Body Potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Tsun-Mei; Dang, Liem X.

    2014-09-04

    In this paper, we present the results from molecular-dynamics simulations of the equilibrium properties of liquid/liquid interfaces of room temperature ionic liquid [bmim][PF6] and simple alcohols (i.e., methanol, 1-butanol, and 1-hexanol) at room temperature. Polarizable potential models are employed to describe the interactions among species. Results from our simulations show stable interfaces between the ionic liquid and n-alcohols, and we found that the interfacial widths decrease from methanol to 1-butanol systems, and then increase for 1-hexanol interfaces. Angular distribution analysis reveals that the interface induces a strong orientational order of [bmim] and n-alcohol molecules near the interface, with [bmim] extending its butyl group into the alcohol phase while the alcohol has the OH group pointing into the ion liquid region, which is consistent with the recent sum-frequency-generation experiments. We found the interface to have a significant influence on the dynamics of ionic liquids and n-alcohols. The orientational autocorrelation functions illustrate that [bmim] rotate more freely near the interface than in the bulk, while the rotation of n-alcohol is hindered at the interface. Additionally, the time scale associated with the diffusion along the interfacial direction is found to be faster for [bmim] but slowed down for n-alcohols approaching the interface. We also calculate the dipole moment of n-alcohols as a function of the distance normal to the interface. We found that, even though methanol and 1-butanol have different dipole moments in bulk phase, they reach a similar value at the interface. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for the Department of Energy by Battelle. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  12. On-farm production of fuel-alcohol in Mid-America technical and economic potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohmann, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    Alcohol fuel production is suggested as an alternative to high energy costs for the Mid-American farmer. The steps involved in producing alcohol from biomass are reviewed. Fermentation equipment and procedures are readily available. The utilization of by-products for animal feeds is discussed. Combustion characteristics and chemical properties of ethanol are reviewed. Estimates are made of costs involved in alcohol production in the mid-west region. Regional agricultural consumption of gasoline is estimated and 3 scenarios are developed. Benefits of on-farm fuel production are outlined. (DMC)

  13. Overview of fuel alcohol from agricultural crops with emphasis on the Tennessee Valley. Bulletin Y-171

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roetheli, J.C.; Pile, R.S.; Young, H.C.

    1982-02-01

    An overview is presented of the factors and concerns associated with producing fuel alcohol from agricultural crops. Areas covered include: an assessment of energy used in agriculture; a categorization of grain crop production, land suitable for energy crop production, and livestock production in the 201-county TVA region; a summary of technical and economic information on fuel alcohol production; a discussion of acreages required to produce fuel for benchmark farms in the Tennessee Valley and possible erosion impacts; and a discussion of other pertinent advantages and disadvantages of fuel alcohol production from crops.

  14. 01-12-1998 - Bench Top FIre Involving Use of Alcohol and Burner | The Ames

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory 1998 - Bench Top FIre Involving Use of Alcohol and Burner Document Number: NA Effective Date: 01/1998 File (public): PDF icon 01-12-1998

  15. Cloning and sequencing of the alcohol dehydrogenase II gene from Zymomonas mobilis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Conway, Tyrrell

    1992-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase II gene from Zymomonas mobilis has been cloned and sequenced. This gene can be expressed at high levels in other organisms to produce acetaldehyde or to convert acetaldehyde to ethanol.

  16. Fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers and process for cesium solvent extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonnesen, Peter V.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.

    2003-05-20

    The invention relates to a class of phenoxy fluoro-alcohols, their preparation, and their use as phase modifiers and solvating agents in a solvent composition for the extraction of cesium from alkaline solutions. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohols comply with the formula: ##STR1## in which n=2 to 4; X represents a hydrogen or a fluorine atom, and R.sup.2 -R.sup.6 are hydrogen or alkyl substituents. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers are a necessary component to a robust solvent composition and process useful for the removal of radioactive cesium from alkaline nuclear waste streams. The fluoro-alcohols can also be used in solvents designed to extract other cesium from acidic or neutral solutions.

  17. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and silanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crabtree, Robert H. (Bethany, CT); Brown, Stephen H. (East Haven, CT)

    1988-01-01

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  18. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and silanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crabtree, R.H.; Brown, S.H.

    1988-02-16

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  19. Process for the conversion of alcohols and oxygenates to hydrocarbons in a turbulent fluid bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avidan, A. A.; Kam, A. Y.

    1985-04-23

    Improvements in converting C/sub 1/-C/sub 3/ monohydric alcohols, particularly methanol, related oxygenates of said alcohols and/or oxygenates produced by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to light olefins, gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons and/or distillate boiling range hydrocarbons are obtained in a fluidized bed of ZSM-5 type zeolite catalyst operating under conditions effective to provide fluidization in the turbulent regime.

  20. 5-Carbon Alcohols for Drop-in Gasoline Replacement - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search 5-Carbon Alcohols for Drop-in Gasoline Replacement Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryJay Keasling and Howard Chou of Berkeley Lab and the Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) have invented a fermentation process to produce 5-carbon alcohols from genetically modified E. coli host cells regardless of the

  1. Microbial Reduction of Furfurals to Furan Alcohols by a Microbial Species -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Microbial Reduction of Furfurals to Furan Alcohols by a Microbial Species Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryAn ORNL researcher developed a method for producing furfuryl alcohol (FA) through bioprocessing using a thermophilic microorganism. This organism has been shown to be highly resistant to the toxic effects of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and can propagate in the presence of over 48 g/L (500

  2. Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greene, Marvin I.; Gelbein, Abraham P.

    1984-01-01

    A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200.degree. to 450.degree. C. and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  3. Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greene, M.I.; Gelbein, A.P.

    1984-10-16

    A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200 to 450 C and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  4. Geothermal source potential and utilization for methane generation and alcohol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of integrating a geothermally heated anaerobic digester with a fuel alcohol plant and cattle feedlot. Thin stillage produced from the alcohol production process and manure collected from the cattle feedlot would be digested in anaerobic digesters to produce biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, and residue. The energy requirements to maintain proper digester temperatures would be provided by geothermal water. The biogas produced in the digesters would be burned in a boiler to produce low-pressure steam which would be used in the alcohol production process. The alcohol plant would be sized so that the distiller's grains byproduct resulting from the alcohol production would be adequate to supply the daily cattle feed requirements. A portion of the digester residue would substitute for alfalfa hay in the cattle feedlot ration. The major design criterion for the integrated facilty was the production of adequate distiller's grain to supply the daily requirements of 1700 head of cattle. It was determined that, for a ration of 7 pounds of distiller's grain per head per day, a 1 million gpy alcohol facility would be required. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared for the proposed project, operating costs were calculated for a facility based on a corn feedstock, the economic feasibility of the proposed project was examined by calculating its simple payback, and an analysis was performed to examine the sensitivity of the project's economic viability to variations in feedstock costs and alcohol and distiller's grain prices.

  5. Design report small-scale fuel alcohol plant. Volume II. Detailed construction information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The objectives of the report are to (a) provide potential alcohol producers with a reference design and (b) provide a complete, demonstrated design of a small-scale fuel alcohol plant. This report describes a small-scale fuel alcohol plant designed and constructed for the DOE by EG and G Idaho, Inc., an operating contractor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The plant is reasonably complete, having the capability for feedstock preparation, cooking, saccharification, fermentation, distillation, by-product dewatering, and process steam generation. An interesting feature is an instrumentation and control system designed to allow the plant to run 24 hours per day with only four hours of operator attention. Where possible, this document follows the design requirements established in the DOE publication Fuel From Farms, which was published in February 1980. For instance, critical requirements such as using corn as the primary feedstock, production of 25 gallons of 190 proof ethanol per hour, and using batch fermentation were taken from Fuel From Farms. One significant deviation is alcohol dehydration. Fuel From Farms recommends the use of a molecular sieve for dehydration, but a preliminary design raised significant questions about the cost effectiveness of this approach. A cost trade-off study is currently under way to establish the best alcohol dehydration method and will be the subject of a later report. Volume two includes equipment and instrumentation data sheets, instrument loop wiring diagrams, and vendor lists.

  6. Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, James P.; Scahill, John W.; Chum, Helena L.; Evans, Robert J.; Rejai, Bahman; Bain, Richard L.; Overend, Ralph P.

    1996-01-01

    A process for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols.

  7. Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.; Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.; Rejai, B.; Bain, R.L.; Overend, R.P.

    1996-04-02

    A process is described for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols. 35 figs.

  8. Small-scale production of alcohol fuel: not feasible for the farmer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, J.D.

    1980-10-01

    On-farm alcohol fuel production is not too promising at this time because of the present state of small-scale technology and marketing and some problems with utilization. Small-scale production shows a significant decrease in yield and unacceptable water levels, which makes the cost uncompetitive with large producers. The advantages of on-farm production are that farmers can produce homegrown feedstocks and provide a reliable source of fuel for their own needs as well as an alternative market for surplus grain. Engine modifications must be made, however, in order to use either straight alcohol or combinations of alcohol with gasoline or diesel fuel. Production problems include the need for constant monitoring and temperature control, the high cost of intermittent operation, variations in grain prices, and the difficulty for many farmers of selecting appropriate equipment and complying with regulations. Cooperatives may be the answer to some of these problems. 2 tables. (DCK)

  9. On-farm anaerobic digester and fuel-alcohol plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bengtson, H.H.

    1985-12-01

    An anaerobic-digestion system, coupled with a fuel-alcohol plant, was constructed and set up on a southern Illinois farm as part of an integrated farm-energy system. The digester heating can be done using waste hot water from the alcohol plant and biogas from the digester can be used as fuel for the alcohol production. The anaerobic digestion system is made up of the following components; a hog finishing house with a manure pit; a solids handling pump to feed the manure; and a 13,000-gallon railroad tank car as the main digester vessel and pump to transfer effluent from the digester to a 150,000 gallon storage tank. The digester was operated for sufficient time to demonstrate the use of hot water in an automated digester temperature control system. Sufficient biogas was produced to demonstrate the use of biogas in a converted propane boiler.

  10. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and silanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crabtree, Robert H. (Bethany, CT); Brown, Stephen H. (East Haven, CT)

    1989-01-01

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and primary, secondary and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  11. Process for the conversion of lower alcohols to higher branched oxygenates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barger, Paul T. (Arlington Heights, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A process is provided for the production of branched C.sub.4+ oxygenates from lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol and mixtures thereof. The process comprises contacting the lower alcohols with a solid catalyst comprising a mixed metal oxide support having components selected from the group consisting of oxides of zinc, magnesium, zirconia, titanium, manganese, chromium, and lanthanides, and an activation metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIII metal, Group IB metals, and mixtures thereof. The advantage of the process is improved yields and selectivity to isobutanol which can subsequently be employed in the production of high octane motor gasoline.

  12. Process for the conversion of lower alcohols to higher branched oxygenates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barger, P.T.

    1996-09-24

    A process is provided for the production of branched C{sub x} oxygenates from lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol and mixtures thereof. The process comprises contacting the lower alcohols with a solid catalyst comprising a mixed metal oxide support having components selected from the group consisting of oxides of zinc, magnesium, zirconia, titanium, manganese, chromium, and lanthanides, and an activation metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIII metal, Group IB metals, and mixtures thereof. The advantage of the process is improved yields and selectivity to isobutanol which can subsequently be employed in the production of high octane motor gasoline.

  13. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and silanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crabtree, R.H.; Brown, S.H.

    1989-10-17

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and primary, secondary and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  14. Catalytic conversion of alcohols having at least three carbon atoms to hydrocarbon blendstock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.

    2015-11-13

    A method for producing a hydrocarbon blendstock, the method comprising contacting at least one saturated acyclic alcohol having at least three and up to ten carbon atoms with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100°C and up to 550°C, wherein the metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and the metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting the alcohol to the hydrocarbon blendstock, wherein the method directly produces a hydrocarbon blendstock having less than 1 vol % ethylene and at least 35 vol % of hydrocarbon compounds containing at least eight carbon atoms.

  15. Design Case Summary. Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valkenburg, C.; Zhu, Y.; Walton, C. W.; Thompson, B. L.; Gerber, M. A.; Jones, S. B.; Stevens, D. J.

    2010-03-01

    The Biomass Program develops design cases to understand the current state of conversion technologies and to determine where improvements need to take place in the future. This design case establishes cost targets for converting MSW to ethanol and other mixed alcohols via gasification.

  16. Design report small-scale fuel alcohol palnt. Volume III. Drawings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The objectives of the report are to (a) provide potential alcohol producers with a reference design and (b) provide a complete, demonstrated design of small-scale fuel alcohol plant. This report describes a small-scale fuel alcohol plant designed and constructed for the DOE by EG and G Idaho, Inc., an operating contractor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The plant is reasonably complete, having the capability for feedstock preparation, cooking, saccharification, fermentation, distillation, by-product dewatering, and process steam generation. An interesting feature is an instrumentation and control system designed to allow the plant to run 24 hours per day with only four hours of operator attention. Where possible, this document follows the design requirements established in the DOE publication Fuel From Farms, which was published in February 1980. For instance, critical requirements such as using corn as the primary feedstock, production of 25 gallons of 190 proof ethanol per hour, and using batch fermentation were taken from Fuel From Farms. One significant deviation is alcohol dehydration. Fuel From Farms recommends the use of a molecular sieve for dehydration, but a preliminary design raised significant questions about the cost effectiveness of this approach. A cost trade-off study is currently under way to establish the best alcohol dehydration method and will be the subject of a later report. This volume contains the equipment and construction drawings used to build the small-scale ethanol plant. The design in this volume represents the design at completion of construction and before continuous production began.

  17. Nickel Phosphine Catalysts with Pendant Amines for Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Charles J.; Wiedner, Eric S.; Roberts, John A.; Appel, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel phosphine complexes with pendant amines have been found to be electrocatalysts for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols, with turnover frequencies as high as 3.3 s-1. These complexes are the first electrocatalysts for alcohol oxidation based on non-precious metals, which will be critical for use in fuel cells. The research by CJW, ESW, and AMA was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. The research by JASR was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  18. Controlled etching of hexagonal ZnO architectures in an alcohol thermal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Junshu [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Xue, Dongfeng, E-mail: dfxue@chem.dlut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2010-03-15

    An alcohol thermal technique was applied to the controlled growth of hexagonal ZnO architectures via selective chemical etching. ZnO microdisks were produced first under mild alcohol thermal conditions in presence of formamide. Due to a higher surface energy/atomic density of Zn{sup 2+} {l_brace}0 0 0 1{r_brace} than that of the other faces, hexagonal ZnO microring was obtained by selectively etching positive polar surface of disk-like precursor with a high density of planar defects at the center. The selective etching of ZnO is related to its crystallographic characteristics of surface polarity and chemical activities, which opens a new opportunity for the shape-controlled synthesis of wurtzite-structured materials.

  19. Catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons and alcohols by carbon dioxide on oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krylov, O.V. . N.N. Semenov Inst. of Chemical Physics); Mamedov, A.Kh.; Mirzabekova, S.R. . Yu.G. Mamedaliev Inst. of Petrochemical Processes)

    1995-02-01

    The great interest displayed lately in heterogeneous catalytic reactions of carbon dioxide is caused by two reasons: (1) the necessity to fight the greenhouse effect and (2) the exhaust of carbon raw material sources. Reactions of oxidative transformation of organic compounds of different classes (alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols) with a nontraditional oxidant, carbon dioxide, were studied on oxide catalysts Fe-O, Cr-O, Mn-O and on multicomponent systems based on manganese oxide. The supported manganese oxide catalysts are active, selective, and stable in conversion of the CH[sub 4] + CO[sub 2] mixture into synthesis gas and in oxidative dehydrogenation of C[sub 2] [minus] C[sub 7] hydrocarbons and the lower alcohols. Unlike metal catalysts manganese oxide based catalysts do not form a carbon layer during the reaction.

  20. miR-339-5p inhibits alcohol-induced brain inflammation through regulating NF-κB pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yu; Wei, Guangkuan; Di, Zhiyong; Zhao, Qingjie

    2014-09-26

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Alcohol upregulates miR-339-5p expression. • miR-339-5p inhibits the NF-kB pathway. • miR-339-5p interacts with and blocks activity of IKK-beat and IKK-epsilon. • miR-339-5p modulates IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. - Abstract: Alcohol-induced neuroinflammation is mediated by the innate immunesystem. Pro-inflammatory responses to alcohol are modulated by miRNAs. The miRNA miR-339-5p has previously been found to be upregulated in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. However, little has been elucidated on the regulatory functions of this miRNA in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. We investigated the function of miR-339-5p in alcohol exposed brain tissue and isolated microglial cells using ex vivo and in vitro techniques. Our results show that alcohol induces transcription of miR 339-5p, IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α in mouse brain tissue and isolated microglial cells by activating NF-κB. Alcohol activation of NF-κB allows for nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunit p65 and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators. miR-339-5p inhibited expression of these pro-inflammatory factors through the NF-κB pathway by abolishing IKK-β and IKK-ε activity.

  1. Correlation between speciated hydrocarbon emissions and flame ionization detector response for gasoline/alcohol blends .

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallner, T.

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. renewable fuel standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion by 2022. Ethanol will be capped at 15 billion, which leaves 21 billion to come from other sources such as butanol. Butanol has a higher energy density and lower affinity for water than ethanol. Moreover, alcohol fueled engines in general have been shown to positively affect engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide compared with their gasoline fueled counterparts. In light of these developments, the variety and blend levels of oxygenated constituents is likely to increase in the foreseeable future. The effect on engine-out emissions for total hydrocarbons is less clear due to the relative insensitivity of the flame ionization detector (FID) toward alcohols and aldehydes. It is well documented that hydrocarbon (HC) measurement using a conventional FID in the presence of oxygenates in the engine exhaust stream can lead to a misinterpretation of HC emissions trends for alcohol fuel blends. Characterization of the exhaust stream for all expected hydrocarbon constituents is required to accurately determine the actual concentration of unburned fuel components in the exhaust. In addition to a conventional exhaust emissions bench, this characterization requires supplementary instrumentation capable of hydrocarbon speciation and response factor independent quantification. Although required for certification testing, this sort of instrumentation is not yet widely available in engine development facilities. Therefore, an attempt is made to empirically determine FID correction factors for oxygenate fuels. Exhaust emissions of an engine fueled with several blends of gasoline and ethanol, n-butanol and iso-Butanol were characterized using both a conventional FID and a Fourier transform infrared. Based on these results, a response factor predicting the actual hydrocarbon emissions based solely on FID results as a function of alcohol type and content is presented. Finally, the correlation derived from data presented in this study is compared with equations and results found in the literature.

  2. Hydrogenolysis of 5-carbon sugars, sugar alcohols, and other methods and compositions for reactions involving hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

    2002-11-12

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  3. Hydrogenolysis of 5-carbon sugars, sugar alcohols, and methods of making propylene glycol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

    2006-05-02

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  4. Hydrogenolysis Of 5-Carbon Sugars, Sugar Alcohols And Compositions For Reactions Involving Hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Miller, Dennis J.

    2004-01-13

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  5. Activation of farnesoid X receptor attenuates hepatic injury in a murine model of alcoholic liver disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Weibin; Institutes of Biomedical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 ; Zhu, Bo; Peng, Xiaomin; Zhou, Meiling; Jia, Dongwei; Gu, Jianxin; Institutes of Biomedical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. Activation of FXR attenuated alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis. Activation of FXR attenuated cholestasis and oxidative stress in mouse liver. -- Abstract: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a common cause of advanced liver disease, and considered as a major risk factor of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic cholestasis is a pathophysiological feature observed in all stages of ALD. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, and plays an essential role in the regulation of bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis. However, the role of FXR in the pathogenesis and progression of ALD remains largely unknown. Mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet or an isocaloric control diet. We used a specific agonist of FXR WAY-362450 to study the effect of pharmacological activation of FXR in alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we demonstrated that FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. Activation of FXR by specific agonist WAY-362450 protected mice from the development of ALD. We also found that WAY-362450 treatment rescued FXR activity, suppressed ethanol-induced Cyp2e1 up-regulation and attenuated oxidative stress in liver. Our results highlight a key role of FXR in the modulation of ALD development, and propose specific FXR agonists for the treatment of ALD patients.

  6. Oxidation, Reduction, and Condensation of Alcohols over (MO3)3 (M=Mo, W) Nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Zongtang; Li, Zhenjun; Kelley, Matthew S.; Kay, Bruce D.; Li, Shenggang; Hennigan, Jamie M.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Dixon, David A.

    2014-10-02

    The reactions of deuterated methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-propanol, 2-butanol and t-butanol over cyclic (MO3)3 (M = Mo, W) clusters were studied experimentally with temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and theoretically with coupled cluster CCSD(T) theory and density functional theory. The reactions of two alcohols per M3O9 cluster are required to provide agreement with experiment for D2O release, dehydrogenation and dehydration. The reaction begins with the elimination of water by proton transfers and forms an intermediate dialkoxy species which can undergo further reaction. Dehydration proceeds by a ? hydrogen transfer to a terminal M=O. Dehydrogenation takes place via an ? hydrogen transfer to an adjacent MoVI = O atom or a WVI metal center with redox involved for M = Mo and no redox for M = W. The two channels have comparable activation energies. H/D exchange to produce alcohols can take place after olefin is released or via the dialkoxy species depending on the alcohol and the cluster. The Lewis acidity of the metal center with WVI being larger than MoVI results in the increased reactivity of W3O9 over Mo3O9 for dehydrogenation and dehydration.

  7. Method and system for producing lower alcohols. [Heteropolyatomic lead salt coated with alkali metal formate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.; Heiberger, J.J.

    1983-09-26

    It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved catalyst for the reaction of carbon monoxide with water to produce methanol and other lower alcohols. It is a further object to provide a process for the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and water in which a relatively inexpensive catalyst permits the reaction at low pressures. It is also an object to provide a process for the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and water in which a relatively inexpensive catalyst permits the reaction at low pressures. It is also an object to provide a process for the production of methanol in which ethanol is also directly produced. It is another object to provide a process for the production of mixtures of methanol with ethanol and propanol from the reaction of carbon monoxide and water at moderate pressure with inexpensive catalysts. It is likewise an object to provide a system for the catalytic production of lower alcohols from the reaction of carbon monoxide and water at moderate pressure with inexpensive catalysts. In accordance with the present invention, a catalyst is provided for the reaction of carbon monoxide and water to produce lower alcohols. The catalyst includes a lead heteropolyatomic salt in mixture with a metal formate or a precursor to a metal formate.

  8. TVA application of integrated onfarm fuel alcohol production system. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badger, P C; Pile, R S

    1980-01-01

    This contract has provided for the documentation of the feasibility of fuel alcohol production with small onfarm facilities, and for the design and construction of an efficient and easily constructed production facility. A feasibility study and a preliminary design report have been prepared. A prototype facility has been designed and constructed with a design production rate of 10 gallons per hour of 190-proof ethanol. The components of the facility are readily available through normal equipment supply channels or can be primarily owner-constructed. Energy efficiency was also of prime consideration in the design, and heat recovery equipment is included where practical. A renewable fuel boiler is used for process heat. Applicable safety standards and environmental requirements were also incorporated into the design. Other project activities included modification of a pickup truck to use the hydrous alcohol produced, evaluation of vacuum distillation for onfarm units, and development of a computer program to allow detailed economic analyses of fuel alcohol production. Efforts were also initiated to evaluate nongrain feedstocks, develop a preliminary design for a low-cost wood-fired boiler, and evaluate packed distillation columns constructed of plastic pipe.

  9. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A; Szybist, James P

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  10. Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels in an SIDI Engine Using Transient Hardware-In-Loop Test Meth

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses results of cold- and hot-start transient tests using gasoline and 3 alcohol-gasoline blends (50% and 85% ethanol, and 83% iso-butanol)

  11. The role of acetate in alcohol-induced alterations of uterine glucose metabolism in the mouse during pregnancy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simm, B. ); Murdoch, R.N. )

    1990-01-01

    The acute exposure of mice to ethanol during post-implantation pregnancy has been reported to cause alterations in the levels of several glycolytic intermediates in the uterus, suggesting a possible indirect mechanism of alcohol embryo-toxicity. The present study was undertaken to assess whether the ethanol metabolite, acetate is implicated in this phenomenon. Blood and uterine alcohol concentrations in day 9 - pregnant Quackenbush Swiss mice were maximal 15 minutes after the intraperitoneal injection of ethanol, and fell to almost negligible levels 6 hours later. In response to this treatment, the levels of blood and uterine acetate increased, liver glycogen decreased, plasma glucose increased, and uterine glucose, glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P), fructose-6-phosphate (F-6-P), and citrate increased. When acetate was administered to pregnant mice in amounts approximating those generated by exposure to alcohol, the levels of uterine F-6-P and citrate increased while other metabolic parameters remained unaffected. The administration of 4-methylpyrazole to mice subsequently treated with alcohol produced conditions of alcohol exposure in the absence of ethanol-derived acetate and depressed the ethanol-induced rise in uterine G-6-P and citrate.

  12. Coupling of alcohols to ethers: The dominance of the surface S{sub N}2 reaction pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Feeley, O.C.; Johansson, M.; Herman, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    Coupling of alcohols to ethers, important high value oxygenates, proceeds on acid catalysts via general pathways that uniquely control product composition, oxygen retention, chirality inversion, and kinetics. The dominant pathway is the S{sub N}2 reaction with competition of the alcohols for the surface acid sites. This is exemplified by formation of methyl(ethyl) isobutylether (M(E)IBE) from methanol(ethanol)/isobutanol mixtures, retention of oxygen ({sup 18}O) of the heavier alcohol, and optimum rate as a function of concentration of either reactant alcohol. The S{sub N}2 pathway in the confinement of zeolite pores exhibits additional features of a near-100% selectivity to dimethylether (DME) in H-mordenite and a near-100% selectivity to chiral inversion in 2-pentanol/ethanol coupling to 2-ethoxypentane in HZSM-5. A minor reaction pathway entails olefin or carbenium intermediates, as exemplified by the formation of methyl tertiarybutyl ether (MTBE) from methanol/isobutanol mixtures with oxygen retention of the lighter alcohol. Calculations of transition state and molecular modeling of the oxonium-involving pathways dramatically demonstrate how the reaction path selects the products.

  13. In cellulo serial crystallography of alcohol oxidase crystals inside yeast cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jakobi, Arjen J.; Passon, Daniel M.; Knoops, Kevin; Stellato, Francesco; Liang, Mengning; White, Thomas A.; Seine, Thomas; Messerschmidt, Marc; Chapman, Henry N.; Wilmanns, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    The possibility of using femtosecond pulses from an X-ray free-electron laser to collect diffraction data from protein crystals formed in their native cellular organelle has been explored. X-ray diffraction of submicrometre-sized alcohol oxidase crystals formed in peroxisomes within cells of genetically modified variants of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha is reported and characterized. Furthermore, the observations are supported by synchrotron radiation-based powder diffraction data and electron microscopy. Based on these findings, the concept of in cellulo serial crystallography on protein targets imported into yeast peroxisomes without the need for protein purification as a requirement for subsequent crystallization is outlined.

  14. Global warming impact of gasoline and alcohol use in light-duty highway vehicles in Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uria, L.A.B.; Schaeffer, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper examines the direct and indirect global warming impact of gasoline and alcohol use in light-duty highway vehicles in Brazil. In order to do that, it quantifies emissions of CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} HC and NO{sub x} in terms of CO{sub 2}-equivalent units for time spans of 20, 100 and 500 years. It shows that the consideration of CO{sub 2} HC and NO{sub x} emissions in addition to CO{sub 2} provides an important contribution for better understanding the total warming impact of transportation fuels in Brazil.

  15. Alcohol homologation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wegman, R.W.; Moloy, K.G.

    1988-02-23

    A process is described for the homologation of an alkanol by reaction with synthesis gas in contact with a system containing rhodium atom, ruthenium atom, iodine atom and a bis(diorganophosphino) alkane to selectivity produce the next higher homologue.

  16. Alcohol homologation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wegman, Richard W.; Moloy, Kenneth G.

    1988-01-01

    A process for the homologation of an alkanol by reaction with synthesis gas in contact with a system containing rhodium atom, ruthenium atom, iodine atom and a bis(diorganophosphino) alkane to selectivity produce the next higher homologue.

  17. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Menszak, J.; Johansson, M.A.; Feeley, O.C.; Kim, D.

    1993-07-01

    The results shown in Figures 10 and 11 demonstrate that the formation of butenes was very sensitive to the alcohol partial pressure. A small elevation of the alcohol pressure suppressed the formation of butenes rather drastically at both 90 and 117{degree}C. The synthesis rates of DME, MIBE, and MTBE ethers were not significantly affected at 90{degree}C, although there was a trend to increase the space time yield of DME as the alcohol pressure was increased. At the reaction temperature of 117{degree}C, all of the ethers showed increasing productivities as the pressure of the reactants was increased (Figure 11). An isotope labelling experiment was carried out to provide mechanistic insight into the manner in which methanol and isobutanol react together to form DME, MIBE, and MTBE ethers and to determine if MTBE were derived from MIBE.

  18. Polymer Growth Rate in a Wire Chamber with Oxygen,Water, or Alcohol Gas Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyarski, Adam; /SLAC

    2008-07-02

    The rate of polymer growth on wires was measured in a wire chamber while the chamber was aged initially with helium-isobutane (80:20) gas, and then with either oxygen, water, or alcohol added to the gas. At the completion of the aging process for each gas mixture, the carbon content on the wires was measured in a SEM/EDX instrument. The same physical wires were used in all the gas mixtures, allowing measurement of polymer build up or polymer depletion by each gas additive. It is found that the rate of polymer growth is not changed by the presence of oxygen, water or alcohol. Conjecture that oxygen reduces breakdown by removing polymer deposits on field wires is negated by these measurements. Instead, it appears that the reduced breakdown is due to lower resistance in the polymer from oxygen ions being transported into the polymer. It is also observed that field wires bombarded by the electrons in the SEM and then placed back into the chamber show an abundance of single electrons being emitted, indicating that electron charge is stored in the polymer layer and that a high electric field is necessary to remove the charge.

  19. The potential for alcohols and related ethers to displace conventional gasoline components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; McNutt, B.D.

    1996-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy is required by law to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace 30 percent of the projected United States consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including alcohols, natural gas and certain other components. A linear program has been used to study refinery impacts for production of ``low petroleum`` gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and major contributors to cost increase can include investment in processes to produce olefins for etherification with alcohols. High oxygenation can increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon, with substantial decreases in greenhouse gas emissions in some cases. Cost estimates are sensitive to assumptions about extrapolation of a national model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues. Reduction in crude oil use, a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program, is 10 to 17 percent in the analysis.

  20. Structural and phase transition changes of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solution in alcohols probed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman; Patriati, Arum

    2015-04-16

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on 0.3M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solutions have been performed in the presence of n-alcohols, from ethanol to decanol at different alcohol concentrations, 2–10 wt%. The ellipsoid micellar structure which occurred in the 0.3M SDS in aqueous solution with the size range of 30–50 Å has different behavior at various hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. At low concentration and short chain-length of alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol, and butanol, the size of micelles reduced and had a spherical-like structure. The opposite effect occurred as medium to long chain alcohols, such as hexanol, octanol and decanol was added into the 0.3M SDS micellar solutions. The micelles structure changed to be more elongated in major axis and then crossed the critical phase transition from micellar solution into liquid crystal phase as lamellar structure emerged by further addition of alcohols. The inter-lamellar distances were also depending on the hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. In the meantime, the persistent micellar structures occurred in addition of medium chain of n-alcohol, pentanol at all concentrations.

  1. Techno-Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhijit Dutta; Michael Talmadge; Jesse Hensley; Matt Worley; Doug Dudgeon; David Barton; Peter Groenendijk; Daniela Ferrari; Brien Stears; Erin Searcy; Christopher Wright; J. Richard Hess

    2012-07-01

    This techno-economic study investigates the production of ethanol and a higher alcohols coproduct by conversion of lignocelluosic biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas-to-liquids synthesis over a precommercial heterogeneous catalyst. The design specifies a processing capacity of 2,205 dry U.S. tons (2,000 dry metric tonnes) of woody biomass per day and incorporates 2012 research targets from NREL and other sources for technologies that will facilitate the future commercial production of cost-competitive ethanol. Major processes include indirect steam gasification, syngas cleanup, and catalytic synthesis of mixed alcohols, and ancillary processes include feed handling and drying, alcohol separation, steam and power generation, cooling water, and other operations support utilities. The design and analysis is based on research at NREL, other national laboratories, and The Dow Chemical Company, and it incorporates commercial technologies, process modeling using Aspen Plus software, equipment cost estimation, and discounted cash flow analysis. The design considers the economics of ethanol production assuming successful achievement of internal research targets and nth-plant costs and financing. The design yields 83.8 gallons of ethanol and 10.1 gallons of higher-molecular-weight alcohols per U.S. ton of biomass feedstock. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance.

  2. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis -- 2011 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Rummel, Becky L.

    2011-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). In recent years, this research has primarily involved the further development of catalysts containing rhodium and manganese based on the results of earlier catalyst screening tests. Research during FY 2011 continued to examine the performance of RhMn catalysts on alternative supports including selected zeolite, silica, and carbon supports. Catalyst optimization continued using both the Davisil 645 and Merck Grade 7734 silica supports. Research also was initiated in FY 2011, using the both Davisil 645 silica and Hyperion CS-02C-063 carbon supports, to evaluate the potential for further improving catalyst performance, through the addition of one or two additional metals as promoters to the catalysts containing Rh, Mn, and Ir.

  3. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis -- 2010 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; White, J. F.; Rummel, Becky L.; Stevens, Don J.

    2010-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research for the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy, Biomass Program to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas. In recent years this research has primarily involved the further development of a silica-supported catalyst containing rhodium and manganese that was selected from earlier catalyst screening tests. A major effort during 2010 was to examine alternative catalyst supports to determine whether other supports, besides the Davisil 645 silica, would improve performance. Optimization of the Davisil 645 silica-supported catalyst also was continued with respect to candidate promoters iridium, platinum, and gallium, and examination of selected catalyst preparation and activation alternatives for the baseline RhMn/SiO2 catalyst.

  4. Synergistic interaction between oxides of copper and iron for production of fatty alcohols from fatty acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandel, Kapil; Chaudhary, Umesh; Nelson, Nicholas C.; Slowing, Igor I.

    2015-10-08

    In this study, the selective hydrogenation of fatty acids to fatty alcohols can be achieved under moderate conditions (180 °C, 30 bar H2) by simultaneously supporting copper and iron oxides on mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The activity of the cosupported oxides is significantly higher than that of each supported metal oxide and of a physical mixture of both individually supported metal oxides. A strong interaction between both metal oxides is evident from dispersion, XRD, TPR, and acetic acid TPD measurements, which is likely responsible for the synergistic behavior of the catalyst. Copper oxide is reduced in situ to its metallic form and thereby activates hydrogen.

  5. Adsorption of various alcohols on Illinois No. 6 coal in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, K.C.; Rigby, R.R.

    1993-07-01

    Hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity and aromacity of Illinois {number_sign}6 coal in water are relatively determined by evaluating equilibrium physical/chemical adsorption of probe compounds on the coal. Experiments on equilibrium adsorption loadings of various additives on 60--200 mesh Illinois {number_sign}6 coal (DECS-2; Randolph county) were performed to investigate relatively surface properties of the coal at 25{degree}C. The additives include various alcohols, alkanes and aromatic compounds. The main objectives of this research are to evaluate relatively surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals with the inverse liquid chromatography technique, using various probe compounds, to analyze flotation recoveries of coals with a micro-flotation apparatus in order to relate coal floatability to evaluated coal surface properties, and to delineate roles of coal-cleaning/handling additives with the inverse liquid chromatography technique.

  6. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis – 2012 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Thompson, Becky L.

    2012-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). In recent years, this research has primarily involved the further development of catalysts containing rhodium and manganese based on the results of earlier catalyst screening tests. Testing continued in FY 2012 to further improve the Ir-promoted RhMn catalysts on both silica and carbon supports for producing mixed oxygenates from synthesis gas. This testing re-examined selected alternative silica and carbon supports to follow up on some uncertainties in the results with previous test results. Additional tests were conducted to further optimize the total and relative concentrations of Rh, Mn, and Ir, and to examine selected promoters and promoter combinations based on earlier results. To establish optimum operating conditions, the effects of the process pressure and the feed gas composition also were evaluated.

  7. Synergistic interaction between oxides of copper and iron for production of fatty alcohols from fatty acids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kandel, Kapil; Chaudhary, Umesh; Nelson, Nicholas C.; Slowing, Igor I.

    2015-10-08

    In this study, the selective hydrogenation of fatty acids to fatty alcohols can be achieved under moderate conditions (180 °C, 30 bar H2) by simultaneously supporting copper and iron oxides on mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The activity of the cosupported oxides is significantly higher than that of each supported metal oxide and of a physical mixture of both individually supported metal oxides. A strong interaction between both metal oxides is evident from dispersion, XRD, TPR, and acetic acid TPD measurements, which is likely responsible for the synergistic behavior of the catalyst. Copper oxide is reduced in situ to its metallic formmore » and thereby activates hydrogen.« less

  8. Mutant alcohol dehydrogenase leads to improved ethanol tolerance in Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Steven D; Guss, Adam M; Karpinets, Tatiana V; Parks, Jerry M; Smolin, Nikolai; Yang, Shihui; Land, Miriam L; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Bhandiwad, Ashwini; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Raman, Babu; Shao, Xiongjun; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Smith, Jeremy C; Keller, Martin; Lynd, Lee R

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic, obligately anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a candidate microorganism for converting cellulosic biomass into ethanol through consolidated bioprocessing. Ethanol intolerance is an important metric in terms of process economics, and tolerance has often been described as a complex and likely multigenic trait for which complex gene interactions come into play. Here, we resequence the genome of an ethanol-tolerant mutant, show that the tolerant phenotype is primarily due to a mutated bifunctional acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase gene (adhE), hypothesize based on structural analysis that cofactor specificity may be affected, and confirm this hypothesis using enzyme assays. Biochemical assays confirm a complete loss of NADH-dependent activity with concomitant acquisition of NADPH-dependent activity, which likely affects electron flow in the mutant. The simplicity of the genetic basis for the ethanol-tolerant phenotype observed here informs rational engineering of mutant microbial strains for cellulosic ethanol production.

  9. Liquid Fuel From Renewable Electricity and Bacteria: Electro-Autotrophic Synthesis of Higher Alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: UCLA is utilizing renewable electricity to power direct liquid fuel production in genetically engineered Ralstonia eutropha bacteria. UCLA is using renewable electricity to convert carbon dioxide into formic acid, a liquid soluble compound that delivers both carbon and energy to the bacteria. The bacteriaare genetically engineered to convert the formic acid into liquid fuelin this case alcohols such as butanol. The electricity required for the process can be generated from sunlight, wind, or other renewable energy sources. In fact, UCLAs electricity-to-fuel system could be a more efficient way to utilize these renewable energy sources considering the energy density of liquid fuel is much higher than the energy density of other renewable energy storage options, such as batteries.

  10. Feasibility study of fuel grade ethanol plant for Alcohol Fuels of Mississippi, Inc. , Vicksburg, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-01-01

    The results are presented of a feasibility study performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing an alcohol plant utilizing the N.Y.U. continuous acid hydrolysis process to convert wood wastes to fuel grade alcohol. The following is a summary of the results: (1) The proposed site in the Vicksburg Industrial Foundation Corporation Industrial Park is adequate from all standpoints, for all plant capacities envisioned. (2) Local hardwood sawmills can provide adequate feedstock for the facility. The price per dry ton varies between $5 and $15. (3) Sale of fuel ethanol would be made primarily through local distributors and an adequate market exists for the plant output. (4) With minor modifications to the preparation facilities, other waste cellulose materials can also be utilized. (5) There are no anticipated major environmental, health, safety or socioeconomic risks related to the construction and operation of the proposed facility. (6) The discounted cash flow and rate of return analysis indicated that the smallest capacity unit which should be built is the 16 million gallon per year plant, utilizing cogeneration. This facility has a 3.24 year payback. (7) The 25 million gallon per year plant utilizing cogeneration is an extremely attractive venture, with a zero interest break-even point of 1.87 years, and with a discounted rate of return of 73.6%. (8) While the smaller plant capacities are unattractive from a budgetary viewpoint, a prudent policy would dictate that a one million gallon per year plant be built first, as a demonstration facility. This volume contains process flowsheets and maps of the proposed site.

  11. Effect of hydrotropic salts on phase relationships involving hydrocarbons, water, and alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, P.C.; Kraus, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrotropic salts, which can increase the solubility of organic materials in aqueous solutions, are useful to tertiary oil recovery. We have examined effects on solubility of hydrocarbons in water (with and without alcohols) through addition of inorganic hydrotropic salts, such as perchlorates, thiocyanates, and iodides - high in the usual Hofmeister series - and of organic salts such as short chain alkyl benzene sulfonates and other salts based on substituted benzene derivatives. Although the inorganic salts are relatively ineffective in increasing solubility of hydrocarbons in water, many of the organic salts are excellent hydrotropic agents for hydrocarbons. We have examined the phase relationships for several series of aromatic salts such as sulfonates, carboxylates and hydroxycarboxylates, as a function of alkyl-carbon substitution in three-component (hydrocarbon, salt, water) and in four-component (hydrocarbon, salt, alcohol, water) systems. We have also examined miscibility relationships for a given hydrotropic salt as the chain length of alkanes and alkyl benzenes is systematically varied. While miscibilities decrease with increase in chain length of the hydrocarbon, the hydrotropic properties in these systems increase rapidly with the number of alkyl carbons on the benzene ring of the salts and they are relatively insensitive to the type of charged group (sulfonate vs carboxylate) attached to the benzene ring. However, there were significant increases in hydrotropy as one goes from equally substituted sulfonates or carboxylates to salicylates. A number of salts have been identified which have much greater hydrotropic properties for hydrocarbons than such well-known hydrotropic materials as toluene and xylene sulfonates.

  12. Evaluation of Promoters for Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Gray, Michel J.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-08

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially-available catalysts or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially-available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. A total of 28 tests were conducted to evaluate 22 different promoters as well as an unpromoted catalyst. The following general trends were observed for the test results: The highest carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates occurred at the lowest reaction temperatures and accompanying lowest space time yields (STYs). The lowest carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates occurred at the highest reaction temperatures because of high carbon conversion to hydrocarbons. The highest C2+-oxygenate STYs occurred between 300C and 325C, with the gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) adjusted when necessary to maintain carbon conversion ranges between ~ 30 and 40 percent. Higher carbon selectivity to hydrocarbons at higher temperatures resulted in lower C2+-oxygenate STYs. When catalysts were heated to between 300C and 325C the catalysts showed evidence of some deactivation with respect to C2+ oxygenate productivity, accompanied by reduced chain growth for the hydrocarbon products. The degree of deactivation and the temperature at which it occurred varied between the different catalysts tested. Of all of the catalysts evaluated, the Li-promoted catalysts had the highest carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates (47 percent) under the conditions at which the maximum C2+-oxygenate STYs were obtained.

  13. H.R. 5299: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to phase out the tax subsidies for alcohol fuels involving alcohol produced from feedstocks eligible to receive Federal agricultural subsidies. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session, November 29, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The report H.R. 5299 is a bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to phase out the tax subsidies of alcohol fuels involving alcohol produced from feedstocks eligible to receive Federal agriculture subsidies. The proposed legislative text is included.

  14. Direct Conversion of Syngas-to-Hydrocarbons over Higher Alcohols Synthesis Catalysts Mixed with HZSM-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebarbier Dagel, Vanessa M.; Dagle, Robert A.; Li, Jinjing; Deshmane, Chinmay A.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2014-09-10

    The synthesis of hydrocarbon fuels directly from synthesis gas (i.e. one step process) was investigated with a catalytic system comprised of HZSM-5 physically mixed with either a methanol synthesis catalyst or a higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) catalyst. The metal sites of the methanol or HAS synthesis catalyst enable the conversion of syngas to alcohols, whereas HZSM-5 provides acid sites required for methanol dehydration, and dimethyl ether-to-hydrocarbons reactions. Catalytic performance for HZSM-5 when mixed with either a 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 methanol synthesis catalyst or a HAS catalyst was evaluated at 300C, 70 bars, GHSV=700 h-1 and H2/CO=1 using a HZSM-5: alcohols synthesis catalyst weight ratio of 3:1. The major difference observed between the methanol synthesis and HAS catalyst mixtures was found in the production of durene which is an undesirable byproduct. While durene formation is negligible with any of the HAS catalysts mixed with the HZSM-5 evaluated in this study, it represents almost 50% of the C5+ fraction for the methanol synthesis catalyst (5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 ) mixed with HZSM-5. This presents an advantage for using HAS catalysts over the methanol synthesis catalyst to minimize the durene by-product. The yield toward the desired C5+ hydrocarbons is thus twice higher with selected HAS catalysts as compared to when HZSM-5 is mixed with 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3. Among all the HAS catalysts evaluated in this study, a catalyst with 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst was found the most promising due to higher production of C5+ hydrocarbons and low durene formation. The efficiency of the one-step process was thus further evaluated using the HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst mixture under a number of process conditions to maximize liquid hydrocarbons product yield. At 300oC, 70 bars, GHSV = 700 h-1 and HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu = 3:1 (wt.), the C5+ fraction represents 48.5% of the hydrocarbons. Unfortunately, it is more difficult to achieve higher selectivity to desired C5+ hydrocarbons as the formation of CO2, CH4, and other light hydrocarbons is challenging to suppress in the presence of mixed metal and acid sites. When the 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu and HZSM-5 are operated sequentially by way of a two-step process the C5+ hydrocarbons fraction is lower and represents 30.4% of the hydrocarbons under comparable conditions. The yield toward the C5+ hydrocarbons is twice higher for the one-step process due to an improved CO conversion and higher C5+ hydrocarbons fraction. The main advantage of the one-step process is that higher syngas conversion can be achieved as the equilibrium-driven conversion limitations for methanol and dimethyl ether are removed since they are intermediates to the final hydrocarbons product.

  15. Gel electrophoretic analysis of Zymomonas mobilis glycolytic and fermentative enzymes: Identification of alcohol dehydrogenase II as a stress protein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haejung An; Keshav, K.F.; Ingram, L.O. ); Scopes, R.K.; Rodriguez, M. )

    1991-10-01

    The 13 major enzymes which compose the glycolytic and fermentative pathways in Zymomonas mobilis are particularly abundant and represent one-half of the soluble protein in exponential-phase cells. One- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis maps were developed for 12 of these enzymes. Assignments were made by comigration with purified proteins, comparison with overexpressed genes in recombinant strains, and Western blots (immunoblots). Although most glycolytic enzymes appeared resistant to turnover and accumulated in stationary-phase cells, the protein levels of pyruvate kinase, alcohol dehydrogenase I, and glucokinase declined. Alcohol dehydrogenase II was identified as a major stress protein and was induced both by exposure to ethanol and by elevated temperature (45C). This enzyme, encoded by the adhB gene, is expressed from tandem promoters which share partial sequence identity with Escherichia coli consensus sequence for heat shock proteins.

  16. Alcohol decreases baseline brain glucose metabolism more in heavy drinkers than controls but has no effect on stimulation-induced metabolic increases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volkow, Nora D.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Kojori, Eshan Shokri; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-02-18

    During alcohol intoxication the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75g/kg alcohol versus placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video-stimulation (VS) versus when given with no-stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HD) and 23 healthy controls each of whom underwent four PET-?FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p=0.04); that alcohol (compared to placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (2013%) than controls (911%, p=0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r=0.36, p=0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (1012%) compared to NS in both groups (1513%, p=0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e. acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in heavy drinkers, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal.

  17. Alcohol decreases baseline brain glucose metabolism more in heavy drinkers than controls but has no effect on stimulation-induced metabolic increases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volkow, Nora D.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Kojori, Eshan Shokri; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-02-18

    During alcohol intoxication the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75g/kg alcohol versus placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video-stimulation (VS) versus when given with no-stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HD) and 23 healthy controls each of whom underwent four PET-¹⁸FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p=0.04); that alcohol (compared to placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (20±13%) than controls (9±11%, p=0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r=0.36, p=0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (10±12%) compared to NS in both groups (15±13%, p=0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e. acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in heavy drinkers, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal.

  18. Alcohol decreases baseline brain glucose metabolism more in heavy drinkers than controls but has no effect on stimulation-induced metabolic increases

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Volkow, Nora D.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Kojori, Eshan Shokri; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-02-18

    During alcohol intoxication the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75g/kg alcohol versus placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video-stimulation (VS) versus when given with no-stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HD) and 23 healthy controls each of whom underwent four PET-¹⁸FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p=0.04); that alcohol (compared tomore » placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (20±13%) than controls (9±11%, p=0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r=0.36, p=0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (10±12%) compared to NS in both groups (15±13%, p=0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e. acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in heavy drinkers, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal.« less

  19. Identifying the Role of N-Heteroatom Location in the Activity of Metal Catalysts for Alcohol Oxidation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chan-Thaw, Carine E.; Veith, Gabriel M; Villa, Alberto; Prati, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on understanding how the bonding of nitrogen heteroatoms contained on/in a activated carbon support influence the stability and reactivity of a supported Pd catalyst for the oxidation of alcohols in solution. The results show that simply adding N groups via solution chemistry is insufficient to improve catalytic properties. Instead a strongly bound N moiety is required to activate the catalyst and stabilize the metal particles.

  20. Molecular control of the induction of alcohol dehydrogenase by ethanol in Drosophila melanogaster larvae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapoun, A.M.; Geer, B.W.; Heinstra, P.W.H. ); Corbin, V. ); McKechnie, S.W. )

    1990-04-01

    The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase, the initial enzyme in the major pathway for ethanol degradation, is induced in Drosophila melanogaster larvae by low concentrations of dietary ethanol. Two lines of evidence indicate that the metabolic products of the ADH pathway for ethanol degradation are not directly involved in the induction of Adh. First, the accumulation of the proximal transcript in Adh{sup n2} larvae was increased when the intracellular level of ethanol was elevated. In addition, the ADH activity, the proximal Adh mRNA, and the intracellular concentration of ethanol were elevated coordinately in wild-type larvae fed hexadeuterated-ethanol, which is metabolized more slowly than normal ethanol.l An examination of P element transformant lines with specific deletions in the 5{prime} regulatory DNA of the Adh gene showed that the DNA sequence between +604 and +634 of the start site of transcription from the distal promoter was essential for this induction. The DNA sequence between {minus}660 and about {minus}5,000 of the distal transcript start site was important for the down-regulation of the induction response.

  1. Oxidative Mineralization and Characterization of Polyvinyl Alcohol Solutions for Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.N.

    2003-08-07

    Photochemical and ultrasonic treatment of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), derived from PVA fabric material, with hydrogen peroxide was evaluated as a primary method for PVA mineralization into simpler organic molecules. PVA-based waste streams have been found to be compatible with nuclear process wastewater treatment facilities only when solubilized PVA is more than 90 percent mineralized with hydrogen peroxide. No undesirable solid particles are formed with other nuclear process liquid waste when they are mixed, pH adjusted, evaporated and blended with this type of oxidized PVA waste streams. The presence of oxidized PVA in a typical nuclear process wastewater has been found to have no detrimental effect on the efficiency of ion exchange resins, inorganic, and precipitation agents used for the removal of radionuclides from nuclear waste streams. The disappearance of PVA solution in hydrogen peroxide with ultrasonic/ ultraviolet irradiation treatment was characterized by pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. Radioactive waste contaminated PVA fabric can be solubilized and mineralized to produce processible liquid waste, hence, no bulky solid waste disposal cost can be incurred and the radionuclides can be effectively recovered. Therefore, PVA fabric materials can be considered as an effective substitute for cellulose fabrics that are currently used in radioactive waste decontamination processes.

  2. Transsinusoidal Portal Vein Embolization with Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx): A Feasibility Study in Pigs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smits, Maarten L. J.; Vanlangenhove, Peter Sturm, Emiel J. C.; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den; Hav, Monirath Praet, Marleen; Vente, Maarten A. D.; Snaps, Frederic R.; Defreyne, Luc

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Portal vein embolization is performed to increase the future liver remnant before liver surgery in patients with liver malignancies. This study assesses the feasibility of a transsinusoidal approach for portal vein embolization (PVE) with the ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, Onyx. Methods: Indirect portography through contrast injection in the cranial mesenteric artery was performed in eight healthy pigs. Onyx was slowly injected through a microcatheter from a wedged position in the hepatic vein and advanced through the liver lobules into the portal system. The progression of Onyx was followed under fluoroscopy, and the extent of embolization was monitored by indirect portography. The pigs were euthanized immediately (n = 2), at 7 days (n = 4), or at 21 days postprocedure (n = 2). All pigs underwent necropsy and the ex vivo livers were grossly and histopathologically analyzed. Results: Transsinusoidal PVE was successfully performed in five of eight pigs (63%). In 14 of 21 injections (67%), a segmental portal vein could be filled completely. A mean of 1.6 liver lobes per pig was embolized (range 1-2 lobes). There were no periprocedural adverse events. Focal capsular scarring was visible on the surface of two resected livers, yet the capsules remained intact. Histopathological examination showed no signs of recanalization or abscess formation. Mild inflammatory reaction to Onyx was observed in the perivascular parenchyma. Conclusions: The porcine portal vein can be embolized through injection of Onyx from a wedged position in the hepatic vein. Possible complications of transsinusoidal PVE and the effect on contralateral hypertrophy need further study.

  3. Synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activity of Rh-based lanthanum zirconate pyrochlores for higher alcohol synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelsayed, Victor; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Poston, James A., Jr.; Spivey, James J.

    2013-05-01

    Two lanthanum zirconate pyrochlores (La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}; LZ) were prepared by Pechini method and tested for higher alcohols selectivity. In one, Rh was substituted into the pyrochlore lattice (LRZ, 1.7 wt%) while for the second, Rh was supported on an unsubstituted La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (R/LZ, 1.8 wt%). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR) results show that the surface reducibility depends on whether the Rh is in (or supported on) the LZ pyrochlore. Rhodium in the LRZ is more reducible than rhodium supported on the R/LZ pyrochlore, likely due to the presence of a perovskite phase (LaRhO{sub 3}; identified by XRD), in which rhodium is more reducible. The formation of the perovskite accompanies that of the pyrochlore. CO hydrogenation results show higher ethanol selectivity for R/LZ than LRZ, possibly due to the strong interaction between Rh and LZ on the R/LZ, forming atomically close Rh{sup +}/Rh{sup 0} sites, which have been suggested to favor ethanol production.

  4. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotube array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Bhattacharyya, P.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.

    2014-08-25

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, having diameters of 5070?nm and lengths of 200250?nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH{sub 4}F and ethylene glycol with selective H{sub 2}O content. The structural evolution of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF PHASE AND EMULSION BEHAVIOR, SURFACTANT RETENTION, AND OIL RECOVERY FOR NOVEL ALCOHOL ETHOXYCARBOXYLATE SURFACTANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LEBONE MOETI; RAMANATHAN SAMPATH

    1998-11-01

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Clark Atlanta University under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-97FT97278 during the period April 01, 1998 to October 01, 1998 which covers the second six months of the project. Presently work is in progress at the EOR Laboratory, Clark Atlanta University (CAU), to characterize phase and emulsion behavior for a novel, hybrid (ionic/non-ionic), alcohol ethoxycarboxylate surfactant (NEODOX 23-4 from Shell Chemical Company). During this reporting period, salinity scans were completed for 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, and 6000 mM salt concentrations at 20, 25, and 30 C to identify optimal salinity intervals in which all three phases coexist for this surfactant. Temperature scans were also performed at 20 mM salt concentration for various surfactant concentrations ranging from 0 to 60 weight percent at temperatures ranging from 5 to 50 C to identify optimal surfactant concentration and temperature intervals in which all three phases coexist. This resulted in an "alpha" curve with an interval of temperature in which all three phases coexisted. Presently, temperature scans are being repeated at 100, 250, 500, 1000, and 5000 mM salt concentrations to see whether increase in salt concentration has any effect on the temperature interval. This will provide us better understanding and experimental control of the many variables involved in this research in the future. Following completion of the temperature scans, phase studies will be conducted at CAU, and coreflooding experiments at the facility of our industrial partner, Surtek, Golden, CO.

  6. Pregnancy Following Uterine Artery Embolization with Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles for Patients with Uterine Fibroid or Adenomyosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Man Deuk Kim, Nahk Keun; Kim, Hee Jin; Lee, Mee Hwa

    2005-06-15

    Purpose:To determine whether uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles affects fertility in women desiring future pregnancy.Methods:Of 288 patients managed with UFE with PVA particles for uterine myoma or adenomyosis between 1998 and 2001, 94 patients were enrolled in this study. The age range of participants was 20-40 years. The data were collected through review of medical records and telephone interviews. Mean duration of follow-up duration was 35 months (range 22-60 months). Patients using contraception and single women were excluded, and the chance of infertility caused by possible spousal infertility or other factors was disregarded. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all patients before and after UFE, and the size of PVA particles used was 255-700 {mu}m.Results:Among 94 patients who underwent UFE with PVA, 74 were on contraceptives, 6 had been single until the point of interview, and 8 were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 6 patients who desired future pregnancy, 5 (83%) succeeded in becoming pregnant (1 patient became pregnant twice). Of a total of 8 pregnancies, 6 were planned pregnancies and 2 occurred after contraception failed. Five deliveries were vaginal, and 2 were by elective cesarean. Artificial abortion was performed in 1 case of unplanned pregnancy. There was 1 case of premature rupture of membrane (PROM) followed by preterm labor and delivery of an infant who was small-for-gestational-age. After UFE, mean volume reduction rates of the uterus and fibroid were 36.6% (range 0 to 62.6%) and 69.3% (range 36.3% to 93.3%), respectively.Conclusion:Although the absolute number of cases was small, UFE with PVA particles ultimately did not affect fertility in the women who underwent the procedure.

  7. Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Szybist, James P; Thomas, John F; Barone, Teresa L; Eibl, Mary A; Nafziger, Eric J; Kaul, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF PHASE AND EMULSION BEHAVIOR, SURFACTANT RETENTION, AND OIL RECOVERY FOR NOVEL ALCOHOL ETHOXYCARBOXYLATE SURFACTANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebone T. Moeti; Ramanathan Sampath

    2001-09-28

    This final technical report describes work performed under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-97FT97278 during the period October 01, 1997 to August 31, 2001 which covers the total performance period of the project. During this period, detailed information on optimal salinity, temperature, emulsion morphologies, effectiveness for surfactant retention and oil recovery was obtained for an Alcohol Ethoxycarboxylate (AEC) surfactant to evaluate its performance in flooding processes. Tests were conducted on several AEC surfactants and NEODOX (23-4) was identified as the most suitable hybrid surfactant that yielded the best proportion in volume for top, middle, and bottom phases when mixed with oil and water. Following the selection of this surfactant, temperature and salinity scans were performed to identify the optimal salinity and temperature, and the temperature and salinity intervals in which all three phases coexisted. NEODOX 23-4 formed three phases between 4 and 52.5 C. It formed an aqueous rich microemulsion phase at high temperatures and an oleic rich microemulsion phase at low temperatures--a characteristic of the ionic part of the surfactant. The morphology measurement system was set-up successfully at CAU. The best oil/water/surfactant system defined by the above phase work was then studied for emulsion morphologies. Electrical conductivities were measured for middle and bottom phases of the NEODOX 23-4/dodecane/10mM water system and by mixing measured volumes of the middle phase into a fixed volume of the bottom phase and vice versa at room temperature. Electrical conductivity of the mixture decreased as the fraction of volume of the middle phase was increased and vice versa. Also inversion phenomena was observed. These experiments were then repeated for bottom/middle (B/M) and middle/bottom (M/B) conjugate pair phases at 10, 15, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 C. Electrical conductivity measurements were then compared with the predictions of the conductivity model developed in this project. The M/B and B/M morphologies and their inversion hysteresis lines conformed to the previously postulated dispersion morphology diagram; that is, within experimental uncertainties, the two emulsion inversion lines in phase volume-temperature space met at a critical point that coincided with the upper critical end point for the phases. Coreflooding measurements were performed by our industrial partner in this project, Surtek, Golden, CO which showed poor hydrocarbon recovery (38.1%) for NEODOX 23-4. It was also found that NEODOX 23-4 surfactant adsorbed too much to the rock (97.1% surfactant loss to the core), a characteristic of the non-ionic part of the surfactant.

  9. Chlorine atom-initiated low-temperature oxidation of prenol and isoprenol: The effect of C=C double bonds on the peroxy radical chemistry in alcohol oxidation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Welz, Oliver; Savee, John D.; Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.

    2014-07-04

    The chlorine atom-initiated oxidation of two unsaturated primary C5 alcohols, prenol (3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, (CH3)2CCHCH2OH) and isoprenol (3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, CH2C(CH3)CH2CH2OH), is studied at 550 K and low pressure (8 Torr). The time- and isomer-resolved formation of products is probed with multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS) using tunable vacuum ultraviolet ionizing synchrotron radiation. The peroxy radical chemistry of the unsaturated alcohols appears much less rich than that of saturated C4 and C5 alcohols. The main products observed are the corresponding unsaturated aldehydes – prenal (3-methyl-2-butenal) from prenol oxidation and isoprenal (3-methyl-3-butenal) from isoprenol oxidation. No significant products arising from QOOH chemistry are observed. Thesemore » results can be qualitatively explained by the formation of resonance stabilized allylic radicals via H-abstraction in the Cl + prenol and Cl + isoprenol initiation reactions. The loss of resonance stabilization upon O2 addition causes the energies of the intermediate wells, saddle points, and products to increase relative to the energy of the initial radicals and O2. These energetic shifts make most product channels observed in the peroxy radical chemistry of saturated alcohols inaccessible for these unsaturated alcohols. The experimental findings are underpinned by quantum-chemical calculations for stationary points on the potential energy surfaces for the reactions of the initial radicals with O2. Under our conditions, the dominant channels in prenol and isoprenol oxidation are the chain-terminating HO2-forming channels arising from radicals, in which the unpaired electron and the –OH group are on the same carbon atom, with stable prenal and isoprenal co-products, respectively. These results suggest that the presence of C=C double bonds in alcohols will reduce low-temperature reactivity during autoignition.« less

  10. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

  11. Rh-Based Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts: Characterization and Computational Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albrecht, Karl O.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Rousseau, Roger J.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Varga, Tamas; Colby, Robert J.; Jaffe, John E.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Mei, Donghai; Windisch, Charles F.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Gray, Michel J.; Hart, Todd R.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting a program focused on developing a process for the conversion of biomass to bio-based fuels and co-products. Biomass-derived syngas is converted thermochemically within a temperature range of 240 to 330C and at elevated pressure (e.g., 1200 psig) over a catalyst. Ethanol is the desired reaction product, although other side compounds are produced, including C3 to C5 alcohols; higher (i.e., greater than C1) oxygenates such as methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, acetic acid and acetaldehyde; and higher hydrocarbon gases such as methane, ethane/ethene, propane/propene, etc. Saturated hydrocarbon gases (especially methane) are undesirable because they represent a diminished yield of carbon to the desired ethanol product and represent compounds that must be steam reformed at high energy cost to reproduce CO and H2. Ethanol produced by the thermochemical reaction of syngas could be separated and blended directly with gasoline to produce a liquid transportation fuel. Additionally, higher oxygenates and unsaturated hydrocarbon side products such as olefins also could be further processed to liquid fuels. The goal of the current project is the development of a Rh-based catalyst with high activity and selectivity to C2+ oxygenates. This report chronicles an effort to characterize numerous supports and catalysts to identify particular traits that could be correlated with the most active and/or selective catalysts. Carbon and silica supports and catalysts were analyzed. Generally, analyses provided guidance in the selection of acceptable catalyst supports. For example, supports with high surface areas due to a high number of micropores were generally found to be poor at producing oxygenates, possibly because of mass transfer limitations of the products formed out of the micropores. To probe fundamental aspects of the complicated reaction network of CO with H2, a computational/ theoretical investigation using quantum mechanical and ab initio molecular dynamics calculations was initiated in 2009. Computational investigations were performed first to elucidate understanding of the nature of the catalytically active site. Thermodynamic calculations revealed that Mn likely exists as a metallic alloy with Rh in Rh-rich environments under reducing conditions at the temperatures of interest. After determining that reduced Rh-Mn alloy metal clusters were in a reduced state, the activation energy barriers of numerous transition state species on the catalytically active metal particles were calculated to compute the activation barriers of several reaction pathways that are possible on the catalyst surface. Comparison of calculations with a Rh nanoparticle versus a Rh-Mn nanoparticle revealed that the presence of Mn enabled the reaction pathway of CH with CO to form an adsorbed CHCO species, which was a precursor to C2+ oxygenates. The presence of Mn did not have a significant effect on the rate of CH4 production. Ir was observed during empirical catalyst screening experiments to improve the activity and selectivity of Rh-Mn catalysts. Thus, the addition of Ir to the Rh-Mn nanoparticles also was probed computationally. Simulations of Rh-Mn-Ir nanoparticles revealed that, with sufficient Ir concentrations, the Rh, Mn and Ir presumably would be well mixed within a nanoparticle. Activation barriers were calculated for Rh-Mn-Ir nanoparticles for several C-, H-, and O-containing transitional species on the nanoparticle surface. It was found that the presence of Ir opened yet another reactive pathway whereby HCO is formed and may undergo insertion with CHx surface moieties. The reaction pathway opened by the presence of Ir is in addition to the CO + CH pathway opened by the presence of Mn. Similar to Mn, the presence of Ir was not found to not affect the rate of CH4 production.

  12. THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS. Includes quarterly technical progress report No.25 from 10/01/1997-12/31/1997, and quarterly technical progress report No.26 from 01/01/1998-03/31/1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-03-01

    This project was divided into two parts. One part evaluated possible catalysts for producing higher-alcohols (C{sub 2} to C{sub 5+}) as fuel additives. The other part provided guidance by looking both at the economics of mixed-alcohol production from coal-derived syngas and the effect of higher alcohol addition on gasoline octane and engine performance. The catalysts studied for higher-alcohol synthesis were molybdenum sulfides promoted with potassium. The best catalysts produced alcohols at a rate of 200 g/kg of catalyst/h. Higher-alcohol selectivity was over 40%. The hydrocarbon by-product was less than 20%. These catalysts met established success criteria. The economics for mixed alcohols produced from coal were poor compared to mixed alcohols produced from natural gas. Syngas from natural gas was always less expensive than syngas from coal. Engine tests showed that mixed alcohols added to gasoline significantly improved fuel quality. Mixed-alcohols as produced by our catalysts enhanced gasoline octane and decreased engine emissions. Mixed-alcohol addition gave better results than adding individual alcohols as had been done in the 1980's when some refiners added methanol or ethanol to gasoline.

  13. Energy balances in the production and end use of alcohols derived from biomass. A fuels-specific comparative analysis of alternate ethanol production cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Considerable public interest and debate have been focused on the so-called energy balance issue involved in the conversion of biomass materials into ethanol for fuel use. This report addresses questions of net gains in premium fuels that can be derived from the production and use of ethanol from biomass, and shows that for the US alcohol fuel program, energy balance need not be a concern. Three categories of fuel gain are discussed in the report: (1) Net petroleum gain; (2) Net premium fuel gain (petroleum and natural gas); and (3) Net energy gain (for all fuels). In this study the investment of energy (in the form of premium fuels) in alcohol production includes all investment from cultivating, harvesting, or gathering the feedstock and raw materials, through conversion of the feedstock to alcohol, to the delivery to the end-user. To determine the fuel gains in ethanol production, six cases, encompassing three feedstocks, five process fuels, and three process variations, have been examined. For each case, two end-uses (automotive fuel use and replacement of petrochemical feedstocks) were scrutinized. The end-uses were further divided into three variations in fuel economy and two different routes for production of ethanol from petrochemicals. Energy requirements calculated for the six process cycles accounted for fuels used directly and indirectly in all stages of alcohol production, from agriculture through distribution of product to the end-user. Energy credits were computed for byproducts according to the most appropriate current use.

  14. Expression of a heat-stable NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii results in furan aldehyde detoxification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Daehwan; Verbeke, Tobin J.; Cross, Karissa L.; Westpheling, Janet; Elkins, James G.

    2015-07-22

    Compounds such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) are generated through the dehydration of xylose and glucose, respectively, during dilute-acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and are also potent microbial growth and fermentation inhibitors. The enzymatic reduction of these furan aldehydes to their corresponding, and less toxic, alcohols is an engineering approach that has been successfully implemented in both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ethanologenicEscherichia coli, but has not yet been investigated in thermophiles relevant to biofuel production through consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). Developing CBP-relevant biocatalysts that are either naturally resistant to such inhibitors, or are amenable to engineered resistance, is therefore, an important component in making biofuels production from lignocellulosic biomass feasible.

  15. Expression of a heat-stable NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii results in furan aldehyde detoxification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chung, Daehwan; Verbeke, Tobin J.; Cross, Karissa L.; Westpheling, Janet; Elkins, James G.

    2015-07-22

    Compounds such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) are generated through the dehydration of xylose and glucose, respectively, during dilute-acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and are also potent microbial growth and fermentation inhibitors. The enzymatic reduction of these furan aldehydes to their corresponding, and less toxic, alcohols is an engineering approach that has been successfully implemented in both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ethanologenicEscherichia coli, but has not yet been investigated in thermophiles relevant to biofuel production through consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). Developing CBP-relevant biocatalysts that are either naturally resistant to such inhibitors, or are amenable to engineered resistance, is therefore, an important componentmore » in making biofuels production from lignocellulosic biomass feasible.« less

  16. High-throughput behavioral phenotyping of drug and alcohol susceptibility traits in the expanded panel of BXD recombinant inbred strains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip, Vivek M [ORNL; Ansah, T [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Blaha, C, [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Cook, Melloni N. [University of Memphis; Hamre, Kristin M. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Lariviere, William R [University of Pittsburgh; Matthews, Douglas B [Baylor University; Goldowitz, Daniel [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Genetic reference populations, particularly the BXD recombinant inbred strains, are a valuable resource for the discovery of the bio-molecular substrates and genetic drivers responsible for trait variation and co- ariation. This approach can be profitably applied in the analysis of susceptibility and mechanisms of drug and alcohol use disorders for which many predisposing behaviors may predict occurrence and manifestation of increased preference for these substances. Many of these traits are modeled by common mouse behavioral assays, facilitating the detection of patterns and sources of genetic co-regulation of predisposing phenotypes and substance consumption. Members of the Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium have obtained behavioral phenotype data from 260 measures related to multiple behavioral assays across several domains: self-administration, response to, and withdrawal from cocaine, MDMA, morphine and alcohol; novelty seeking; behavioral despair and related neurological phenomena; pain sensitivity; stress sensitivity; anxiety; hyperactivity; and sleep/wake cycles. All traits have been measured in both sexes and the recently expanded panel of 69 additional BXD recombinant inbred strains (N=69). Sex differences and heritability estimates were obtained for each trait, and a comparison of early (N = 32) and recent BXD RI lines was performed. Primary data is publicly available for heritability, sex difference and genetic analyses using www.GeneNetwork.org. These analyses include QTL detection and genetic analysis of gene expression. Stored results from these analyses are available at http://ontologicaldiscovery.org for comparison to other genomic analysis results. Together with the results of related studies, these data form a public resource for integrative systems genetic analysis of neurobehavioral traits.

  17. Ascorbic acid suppresses endotoxemia and NF-κB signaling cascade in alcoholic liver fibrosis in guinea pigs: A mechanistic approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhilash, P.A.; Harikrishnan, R.; Indira, M.

    2014-01-15

    Alcohol consumption increases the small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and intestinal permeability of endotoxin. The endotoxin mediated inflammatory signaling plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. We evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), silymarin and alcohol abstention on the alcohol induced endotoxemia and NF-κB activation cascade pathway in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Guinea pigs were administered ethanol at a daily dose of 4 g/kg b.wt for 90 days. After 90 days, ethanol administration was stopped. The ethanol treated animals were divided into abstention, silymarin (250 mg/kg b.wt) and AA (250 mg/kg b.wt) supplemented groups and maintained for 30 days. The SIBO, intestinal permeability and endotoxin were significantly increased in the ethanol group. The mRNA expressions of intestinal proteins claudin, occludin and zona occludens-1 were significantly decreased in ethanol group. The mRNA levels of inflammatory receptors, activity of IKKβ and the protein expressions of phospho-IκBα, NF-κB, TNF-α, TGF-β{sub 1} and IL-6 were also altered in ethanol group. The expressions of fibrosis markers α-SMA, α{sub 1} (I) collagen and sirius red staining in the liver revealed the induction of fibrosis. But the supplementation of AA could induce greater reduction of ethanol induced SIBO, intestinal barrier defects, NF-κB activation and liver fibrosis than silymarin. The possible mechanism may be the inhibitory effect of AA on SIBO, intestinal barrier defect and IKKβ, which decreased the activation of NF-κB and synthesis of cytokines. This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Alcohol increases intestinal bacterial overgrowth and permeability of endotoxin. • Endotoxin mediated inflammation plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. • Ascorbic acid reduces endotoxemia, NF-κB activation and proinflammatory cytokines. • AA's action is by inhibition of SIBO, IKKβ and alteration of intestinal permeability. • This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis.

  18. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Seventh quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    An analysis of the current base cases has been undertaken to determine if the economic status of the proposed alcohol fuels may benefit from economies of scale. This analysis was based on a literature review which suggested that plants of capacities substantially below 5000 metric tons/day are unlikely to be competitive for the bulk production of alcohols for fuel consumption or chemicals manufacture. The preliminary results of this scale up procedure would indicate that the capacity of the current base cases be increased by a factor of eight. This would yield annual production of 4.1 million metric tons and essentially reduce the plant gate cost by approximately 41 percent in both cases. A facility of this size would be the equivalent of a medium sized oil refinery and would be capable of sustaining local market demands for fuel oxygenates. The actual competitiveness of this product with current oxygenates such as MTBE remains to be determined. The alcohol synthesis loop is being used to evaluate optimization procedures which will eventually be used to optimize the entire process. A more detailed design of the synthesis reactor is required, and a preliminary design of this reactor has been completed.

  19. Catalysis for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis from Biomass Derived Syngas: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-292

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hensley, J.

    2013-04-01

    The Dow Chemical Company (Dow) developed and tested catalysts for production of mixed alcohols from synthesis gas (syngas), under research and development (R&D) projects that were discontinued a number of years ago. Dow possesses detailed laboratory notebooks, catalyst samples, and technical expertise related to this past work. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is conducting R&D in support of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to develop methods for economically producing ethanol from gasified biomass. NREL is currently conducting biomass gasification research at an existing 1/2 ton/day thermochemical test platform. Both Dow and NREL believe that the ability to economically produce ethanol from biomass-derived syngas can be enhanced through collaborative testing, refinement, and development of Dow's mixed-alcohol catalysts at NREL's and/or Dow's bench- and pilot-scale facilities. Dow and NREL further agree that collaboration on improvements in catalysts as well as gasifier operating conditions (e.g., time, temperature, upstream gas treatment) will be necessary to achieve technical and economic goals for production of ethanol and other alcohols.

  20. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaphalia, Lata; Boroumand, Nahal; Hyunsu, Ju; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Calhoun, William J.

    2014-06-01

    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal canonical metabolic pathway of ethanol oxidation. We therefore modeled this situation using hepatic ADH-deficient deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol daily for 3 months. Blood ethanol concentration was 180 mg% in ethanol fed mice, compared to < 1.0% in the controls. Acetaldehyde (oxidative metabolite of ethanol) was minimally, but significantly increased in ethanol-fed vs. pair-fed control mice. Total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) were 47.6 μg/g in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to 1.5 μg/g in pair-fed controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluation showed perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, and significant oxidative injury, in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed controls. Several fold increases for cytochrome P450 2E1, caspase 8 and caspase 3 found in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to pair-fed controls suggest role of oxidative stress in ethanol-induced lung injury. ER stress and unfolded protein response signaling were also significantly increased in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice. Surprisingly, no significant activation of inositol-requiring enzyme-1α and spliced XBP1 was observed indicating a lack of activation of corrective mechanisms to reinstate ER homeostasis. The data suggest that oxidative stress and prolonged ER stress, coupled with formation and accumulation of cytotoxic FAEEs may contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic lung disease. - Highlights: • Chronic ethanol feeding causes oxidative stress, ER stress and inflammation in lungs of ADH– deer mice. • Chronic ethanol feeding generates FAEEs (nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) in lungs of ADH– deer mice. • Chronic ethanol feeding induces CYP2E1 in the lungs of ADH– deer mice. • Lack of ER homeostasis due to a prolonged ethanol feeding could trigger inflammation.

  1. Bile acids override steatosis in farnesoid X receptor deficient mice in a model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Weibin; Liu, Xijun; Peng, Xiaomin; Xue, Ruyi; Ji, Lingling; Shen, Xizhong; Chen, She; Gu, Jianxin; Zhang, Si

    2014-05-23

    Highlights: FXR deficiency enhanced MCD diet-induced hepatic fibrosis. FXR deficiency attenuated MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis. FXR deficiency repressed genes involved in fatty acid uptake and triglyceride accumulation. - Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases, and the pathogenesis is still not well known. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and plays an essential role in maintaining bile acid and lipid homeostasis. In this study, we study the role of FXR in the pathogenesis of NFALD. We found that FXR deficient (FXR{sup ?/?}) mice fed methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet had higher serum ALT and AST activities and lower hepatic triglyceride levels than wild-type (WT) mice fed MCD diet. Expression of genes involved in inflammation (VCAM-1) and fibrosis (?-SMA) was increased in FXR{sup ?/?} mice fed MCD diet (FXR{sup ?/?}/MCD) compared to WT mice fed MCD diet (WT/MCD). Although MCD diet significantly induced hepatic fibrosis in terms of liver histology, FXR{sup ?/?}/MCD mice showed less degree of hepatic steatosis than WT/MCD mice. Moreover, FXR deficiency synergistically potentiated the elevation effects of MCD diet on serum and hepatic bile acids levels. The super-physiological concentrations of hepatic bile acids in FXR{sup ?/?}/MCD mice inhibited the expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake and triglyceride accumulation, which may be an explanation for less steatosis in FXR{sup ?/?}/MCD mice in contrast to WT/MCD mice. These results suggest that hepatic bile acids accumulation could override simple steatosis in hepatic injury during the progression of NAFLD and further emphasize the role of FXR in maintaining hepatic bile acid homeostasis in liver disorders and in hepatic protection.

  2. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause the adaptive change of glucocorticoid-IGF1 axis.

  3. Investigation of the mode of binding of a novel series ofN-benzyl...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of the hepatitis C viral polymerase are described herein. These compounds bind to the hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 5B (NS5B), and co-crystal structures of select...

  4. Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride Towards Technetium-99 Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jared Horkley; Audrey Roman; Keri Campbell; Ana Nunez; Amparo Espartero

    2013-02-01

    A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning process, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, low nitric acid concentration in the aqueous phase of a UREX based process will co-extract U(VI) and Tc(VII) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Technetium (Tc-99) is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radiotoxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t1/2 = 2.13 × 105 years), and as such, it is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flow sheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for ultimate disposal. Furthermore, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macrocompounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, and resorcinarenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO4- by benzyltributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand’s matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e., diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed.

  5. Ethanol-induced impairment of polyamine homeostasis – A potential cause of neural tube defect and intrauterine growth restriction in fetal alcohol syndrome

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haghighi Poodeh, Saeid; Alhonen, Leena; Salonurmi, Tuire; Savolainen, Markku J.

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. • Alcohol administration perturbs polyamine levels in the tissues with various patterns. • Total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc is critical for development. • The deficiency is associated with reduction in endothelial cell sprouting in the head. • Retarded migration of neural crest cells may cause development of neural tube defect. - Abstract: Introduction: Polyamines play a fundamental role during embryogenesis by regulating cell growth and proliferation and by interacting with RNA, DNA and protein. The polyamine pools are regulated by metabolism and uptake from exogenous sources. The use of certain inhibitors of polyamine synthesis causes similar defects to those seen in alcohol exposure e.g. retarded embryo growth and endothelial cell sprouting. Methods: CD-1 mice received two intraperitoneal injections of 3 g/kg ethanol at 4 h intervals 8.75 days post coitum (dpc). The fetal head, trunk, yolk sac and placenta were collected at 9.5 and 12.5 dpc and polyamine concentrations were determined. Results: No measurable quantity of polyamines could be detected in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc, 12 h after ethanol exposure. Putrescine was not detectable in the trunk of the embryo at that time, whereas polyamines in yolk sac and placenta were at control level. Polyamine deficiency was associated with slow cell growth, reduction in endothelial cell sprouting, an altered pattern of blood vessel network formation and consequently retarded migration of neural crest cells and growth restriction. Discussion: Our results indicate that the polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. Alcohol administration, at the critical stage, perturbs polyamine levels with various patterns, depending on the tissue and its developmental stage. The total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc may explain why this stage is so vulnerable to the development of neural tube defect, and growth restriction, the findings previously observed in fetal alcohol syndrome.

  6. Tandem catalysis by palladium nanoclusters encapsulated in metal–organic frameworks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Xinle; Guo, Zhiyong; Xiao, Chaoxian; Goh, Tian Wei; Tesfagaber, Daniel; Huang, Wenyu

    2014-08-25

    A bifunctional Zr-MOF catalyst containing palladium nanoclusters (NCs) has been developed. The formation of Pd NCs was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). Combining the oxidation activity of Pd NCs and the acetalization activity of the Lewis acid sites in UiO-66-NH2, this catalyst (Pd@UiO-66-NH2) exhibits excellent catalytic activity and selectivity in a one-pot tandem oxidation-acetalization reaction. This catalyst shows 99.9% selectivity to benzaldehyde ethylene acetal in the tandem reaction of benzyl alcohol and ethylene glycol at 99.9% conversion of benzyl alcohol. We also examined various substituted benzyl alcohols and found that alcohols withmore » electron-donating groups showed better conversion and selectivity compared to those with electron-withdrawing groups. As a result, we further proved that there was no leaching of active catalytic species during the reaction and the catalyst can be recycled at least five times without significant deactivation.« less

  7. Tandem catalysis by palladium nanoclusters encapsulated in metal–organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xinle; Guo, Zhiyong; Xiao, Chaoxian; Goh, Tian Wei; Tesfagaber, Daniel; Huang, Wenyu

    2014-08-25

    A bifunctional Zr-MOF catalyst containing palladium nanoclusters (NCs) has been developed. The formation of Pd NCs was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). Combining the oxidation activity of Pd NCs and the acetalization activity of the Lewis acid sites in UiO-66-NH2, this catalyst (Pd@UiO-66-NH2) exhibits excellent catalytic activity and selectivity in a one-pot tandem oxidation-acetalization reaction. This catalyst shows 99.9% selectivity to benzaldehyde ethylene acetal in the tandem reaction of benzyl alcohol and ethylene glycol at 99.9% conversion of benzyl alcohol. We also examined various substituted benzyl alcohols and found that alcohols with electron-donating groups showed better conversion and selectivity compared to those with electron-withdrawing groups. As a result, we further proved that there was no leaching of active catalytic species during the reaction and the catalyst can be recycled at least five times without significant deactivation.

  8. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburt, Corinne

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

  9. Novel approaches to the production of higher alcohols from synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 18, January 1, 1995-- March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-05

    A set of stirrer speed experiments using the Cu/ZnO methanol synthesis catalyst showed that introducing the gas feed into the reactor through an extended dip tube eliminated the dependency of catalyst performance on stirrer speed. The methanol productivity data from the reactor gas feed configuration tests conducted in December, 1994 and January, 1995, were correlated with stirrer speed. The influence on mass transfer on catalyst performance was clearly illustrated for each gas feed location. The ``high pressure, high temperature` zinc chromite methanol synthesis catalyst showed surprising activity at temperatures as low as 300{degree}C during the first successful stirred autoclave run with this catalyst. No C{sub 2{sup {plus}}} alcohols were detected, but significant levels of C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} olefins and dimethyl ether (DME) were produced. The presence of olefins suggests that higher alcohols might have formed and subsequently dehydrated. The slurry liquid, decahydronaphthalene, showed no evidence of decomposition during 15 days of continuous operation. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Biogas and alcohol fuels production. Proceedings of the Seminar on Biomass, Energy for City, Farm, and Industry, Chicago, IL, October 25, 26, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, J.

    1980-01-01

    Basic principles of anaerobic digestion are considered along with the status of the Imperial Valley Biogas Project, the Department of Energy program for the recovery of energy and materials from urban waste, the principles of alcohol production from wastes, the mechanical recovery of a refuse-derived cellulosic feedstock for ethanol production, and the production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. Attention is given to on-farm alcohol fuel production, the current status and future role of gasohol production, methane generation from small scale farms, farmsite installations of energy harvester anaerobic digesters, biogas/composting and landfill recovery, farm-scale composting as an option to anaerobic digestion, designing a high-quality biogas system, and methane as fuel of the future. A description is presented of subjects which are related to landfill gas recovery, biogas purification with permselective membranes, and anaerobic digestion of marine biomass. Other topics studied include the application of biogas technology in India, biogas production in China, biogasification of organic wastes in the Republic of the Philippines, and economics and operational experience of full-scale anaerobic dairy manure digester.

  11. Liquid scintillators for optical fiber applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Franks, Larry A.; Lutz, Stephen S.

    1982-01-01

    A multicomponent liquid scintillator solution for use as a radiation-to-light converter in conjunction with a fiber optic transmission system. The scintillator includes a quantity of 1, 2, 4, 5, 3H, 6H, 1 OH, tetrahydro-8-trifluoromethyl (1) benzopyrano (9, 9a, 1-gh) quinolizin-10-one (Coumarin) as a solute in a fluor solvent such as benzyl alcohol or pseudo-cumene. The use of BIBUQ as an additional or primary solute is also disclosed.

  12. Ternary liquid scintillator for optical fiber applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Franks, Larry A.; Lutz, Stephen S.

    1982-01-01

    A multicomponent liquid scintillator solution for use as a radiation-to-light converter in conjunction with a fiber optic transmission system. The scintillator includes a quantity of 5-amino-9-diethylaminobenz (a) phenoxazonium nitrate (Nile Blue Nitrate) as a solute in a fluor solvent such as benzyl alcohol. The use of PPD as an additional solute is also disclosed. The system is controllable by addition of a suitable quenching agent, such as phenol.

  13. SU-E-T-58: Calculation of Dose Distribution of Accuboost Brachytherapy in Deformable Polyvinil Alcohol Breast Phantom Using Biomechanical Modeling and Monte Carlo Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammadyari, P; Faghihi, R; Shirazi, M Mosleh; Lotfi, M; Meigooni, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: the accuboost is the most modern method of breast brachytherapy that is a boost method in compressed tissue by a mammography unit. the dose distribution in uncompressed tissue, as compressed tissue is important that should be characterized. Methods: In this study, the mechanical behavior of breast in mammography loading, the displacement of breast tissue and the dose distribution in compressed and uncompressed tissue, are investigated. Dosimetry was performed by two dosimeter methods of Monte Carlo simulations using MCNP5 code and thermoluminescence dosimeters. For Monte Carlo simulations, the dose values in cubical lattice were calculated using tally F6. The displacement of the breast elements was simulated by Finite element model and calculated using ABAQUS software, from which the 3D dose distribution in uncompressed tissue was determined. The geometry of the model is constructed from MR images of 6 volunteers. Experimental dosimetery was performed by placing the thermoluminescence dosimeters into the polyvinyl alcohol breast equivalent phantom and on the proximal edge of compression plates to the chest. Results: The results indicate that using the cone applicators would deliver more than 95% of dose to the depth of 5 to 17mm, while round applicator will increase the skin dose. Nodal displacement, in presence of gravity and 60N forces, i.e. in mammography compression, was determined with 43% contraction in the loading direction and 37% expansion in orthogonal orientation. Finally, in comparison of the acquired from thermoluminescence dosimeters with MCNP5, they are consistent with each other in breast phantom and in chest's skin with average different percentage of 13.7±5.7 and 7.7±2.3, respectively. Conclusion: The major advantage of this kind of dosimetry is the ability of 3D dose calculation by FE Modeling. Finally, polyvinyl alcohol is a reliable material as a breast tissue equivalent dosimetric phantom that provides the ability of TLD dosimetry for validation.

  14. Transition metal complexes of oxazolinylboranes and cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borates: Catalysts for asymmetric olefin hydroamination and acceptorless alcohol decarbonylation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manna, Kuntal [Ames Laboratory

    2012-12-17

    The research presented and discussed in this dissertation involves the synthesis of transition metal complexes of oxazolinylboranes and cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borates, and their application in catalytic enantioselective olefin hydroamination and acceptorless alcohol decarbonylation. Neutral oxazolinylboranes are excellent synthetic intermediates for preparing new borate ligands and also developing organometallic complexes. Achiral and optically active bis(oxazolinyl)phenylboranes are synthesized by reaction of 2-lithio-2-oxazolide and 0.50 equiv of dichlorophenylborane. These bis(oxazolinyl)phenylboranes are oligomeric species in solid state resulting from the coordination of an oxazoline to the boron center of another borane monomer. The treatment of chiral bis(oxazolinyl)phenylboranes with sodium cyclopentadienide provide optically active cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borates H[PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 5})(Ox{sup R}){sub 2}] [Ox{sup R} = Ox{sup 4S-iPr,Me2}, Ox{sup 4R-iPr,Me2}, Ox{sup 4S-tBu]}. These optically active proligands react with an equivalent of M(NMe{sub 2}){sub 4} (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) to afford corresponding cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borato group 4 complexes {PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 4})(Ox{sup R}){sub 2}}M(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} in high yields. These group 4 compounds catalyze cyclization of aminoalkenes at room temperature or below, providing pyrrolidine, piperidine, and azepane with enantiomeric excesses up to 99%. Our mechanistic investigations suggest a non-insertive mechanism involving concerted C?N/C?H bond formation in the turnover limiting step of the catalytic cycle. Among cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borato group 4 catalysts, the zirconium complex {PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 4})(Ox{sup 4S-iPr,Me2}){sub 2}}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} ({S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2}) displays highest activity and enantioselectivity. Interestingly, {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} also desymmetrizes olefin moieties of achiral non-conjugated aminodienes and aminodiynes during cyclization. The cyclization of aminodienes catalyzed by {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} affords diastereomeric mixture of cis and trans cylic amines with high diasteromeric ratios and excellent enantiomeric excesses. Similarly, the desymmetrization of alkyne moieties in {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2}-catalyzed cyclization of aminodiynes provides corresponding cyclic imines bearing quaternary stereocenters with enantiomeric excesses up to 93%. These stereoselective desymmetrization reactions are significantly affected by concentration of the substrate, temperature, and the presence of a noncyclizable primary amine. In addition, both the diastereomeric ratios and enantiomeric excesses of the products are markedly enhanced by N-deuteration of the substrates. Notably, the cationic zirconium-monoamide complex [{S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2})][B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 4}] obtained from neutral {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} cyclizes primary aminopentenes providing pyrrolidines with S-configuration; whereas {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} provides R-configured pyrrolidines. The yttrium complex {S-2}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3} also affords S-configured pyrrolidines by cyclization of aminopentenes, however the enantiomeric excesses of products are low. An alternative optically active yttrium complex {PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 4})(Ox{sup 4S-tBu}){sub 2}}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3} ({S-3}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3}) is synthesized, which displays highly enantioselective in the cyclization of aminoalkenes at room temperature affording S-configured cyclic amines with enantiomeric excesses up to 96%. A noninsertive mechanism involving a six-membered transition state by a concerted C?N bond formation and N?H bond cleavage is proposed for {S-3}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3} system based on the kinetic, spectroscopic, and stereochemical features. In the end, a series of bis- and tris(oxazolinyl)borato iridium and rhodium complexes are synthesized with bis(oxazolinyl)phenylborane [PhB(Ox{sup Me2}){sub 2}]{sub n}, tris(oxazolinyl)borane [B(Ox{sup Me2}){sub 3}]n, and tris(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate [To{sup M}]{sup ?}. All these new an

  15. Characterizing HfXZr1-XO2 by EXAFS: Relationship Between Bulk and Surface Composition, and Impact on Catalytic Selectivity for Alcohol Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, G.; Milling, M; Ji, Y; Patterson, P; Sparks, D; Davis, B

    2009-01-01

    A series of mixed Hf{sub X}Zr{sub 1-X}O{sub 2} oxide catalysts was prepared according to a recipe that yields the monoclinic structure. The samples were examined by EXAFS spectroscopy at the Zr K and Hf L{sub III} edges. A fitting model was used that simultaneously fits data from both edges, and makes use of an interdependent mixing parameter X mix to take into account substitution of the complementary atom in the nearest metal-metal shell. For XPS analysis, Scofield factors were applied to estimate the relative atomic surface concentrations of Zr and Hf. EXAFS results suggested that a solid bulk solution was formed over a wide range of X for Hf{sub X}Zr{sub 1-X}O{sub 2} binary oxides, and that the relative ratio was retained in the surface shell (i.e., including some subsurface layers by XPS) and the surface (e.g., by ISS). The increase in selectivity for the 1-alkene from dehydration of alcohols at high Zr content does not correlate smoothly with the tuned relative atomic concentration of Hf to Zr. The step change at high Zr content appears to be due to other indirect factors (e.g., surface defects, oxygen vacancies).

  16. Portal Vein Embolization with Radiolabeled Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles in a Swine Model: Hepatic Distribution and Implications for Pancreatic Islet Cell Transplantation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owen, Richard J.; Mercer, John R.; Al-Saif, Faisal; Molinari, Michele; Ashforth, Robert A.; Rajotte, Ray V.; Conner-Spady, Barbara; Shapiro, A. M. James

    2009-05-15

    The distribution of radiolabeled polyvinyl alcohol microspheres (PVAMs) when infused into the portal vein of domestic swine was investigated, with the purpose of assessing implications for pancreatic islet cell transplantation. PVAMs measuring 100-300 {mu}m (Contour SE) and labeled with {sup 99m}Tc were infused into the main portal vein of 12 swine, with intermittent portal venous pressure measurements. The infusion catheter was introduced antegradely via direct or indirect cannulation of the portal vein. The liver was subsequently divided into anatomical segments. Radioactivity (decay corrected) was measured for {sup 99m}Tc microsphere synthesis, dose preparation, gross organ activities, tissue samples, and blood. Particulate labeling, catheter positioning, and infusion were successful in all cases. The number of particles used was (185,000 {+-} 24,000) with a volume of 1 ml. Mean portal pressure at 5 min was significantly higher than baseline, but without a significant difference at 15 min. Extrahepatic tissue and serum radioactivity was negligible. A significant difference in number of radioactive particles per gram was detected between segments 6/7 and segments 5/8. Intrasegmental activity was analyzed, and for segments 2/3 a significant difference in the percentage dose per gram across samples was demonstrated (P = 0.001). Effective and stable radiolabeling of PVAMs with {sup 99m}Tc-sulfur colloid was demonstrated. Portal venous infusion of 100- to 300-{mu}m particles showed entrapment in the sinusoidal hepatic system with transient portal pressure elevation. Preferential embolization into the right lateral and posterior segments occurs, suggesting that flow dynamics/catheter tip position plays a role in particle distribution.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION AND TRIBOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 1-BENZYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM BIS(TRIFLUOROMETHYLSULFONYL)IMIDE AS NEAT LUBRICANT AND OIL ADDITIVE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Dinesh G; Qu, Jun; Yu, Bo; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Bunting, Bruce G; Blau, Peter Julian; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Selected physical and chemical properties and tribological data for a newly-developed, imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) are presented. The IL is soluble in the SAE 5W-30 oil up to a certain weight percentage, and is as a promising candidate for use in lubrication applications, either in its neat version or as an oil additive. Characterization of the IL included dynamic viscosity at different temperatures, corrosion effects on cast iron cylinder liners, and thermal stability analysis. The tribological performance was evaluated using a reciprocating ring-on-liner test arrangement. When used in neat version this IL demonstrated friction coefficient comparable to a fully formulated engine oil, and when used as an oil additive it produced less wear.

  18. Evaluation of Aroclor 1260 exposure in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahlang, Banrida; Song, Ming; Beier, Juliane I.; Cameron Falkner, K.; Al-Eryani, Laila; Clair, Heather B.; Prough, Russell A.; Osborne, Tanasa S.; Malarkey, David E.; Christopher States, J.; Cave, Matthew C.

    2014-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in epidemiologic studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatic effects of a PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260, whose composition mimics human bioaccumulation patterns, in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed control diet or 42% high fat diet (HFD) and exposed to Aroclor 1260 (20 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg in corn oil) for 12 weeks. A glucose tolerance test was performed; plasma/tissues were obtained at necropsy for measurements of adipocytokine levels, histology, and gene expression. Aroclor 1260 exposure was associated with decreased body fat in HFD-fed mice but had no effect on blood glucose/lipid levels. Paradoxically, Aroclor 1260 + HFD co-exposed mice demonstrated increased hepatic inflammatory foci at both doses while the degree of steatosis did not change. Serum cytokines, ALT levels and hepatic expression of IL-6 and TNFα were increased only at 20 mg/kg, suggesting an inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production at the 200 mg/kg exposure. Aroclor 1260 induced hepatic expression of cytochrome P450s including Cyp3a11 (Pregnane-Xenobiotic Receptor target) and Cyp2b10 (constitutive androstane receptor target) but Cyp2b10 inducibility was diminished with HFD-feeding. Cyp1a2 (aryl hydrocarbon Receptor target) was induced only at 200 mg/kg. In summary, Aroclor 1260 worsened hepatic and systemic inflammation in DIO. The results indicated a bimodal response of PCB-diet interactions in the context of inflammation which could potentially be explained by xenobiotic receptor activation. Thus, PCB exposure may be a relevant “second hit” in the transformation of steatosis to steatohepatitis. - Highlights: • Aroclor 1260 exposure decreased adiposity in mice fed with high fat diet • Aroclor 1260 exposure induced steatohepatitis in diet-induced obese mice • Aroclor 1260 (20 and 200 mg/kg) induced Cyp2b10 and Cyp3a11 (CAR/PXR target genes) • Aroclor 1260 at 200 mg/kg induced Cyp1a2 (AhR target gene)

  19. Homologation process making higher alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Tak W.; Dombek, Bernard D.

    1990-01-01

    A liquid phase process for the manufacture of C.sub.2+ alkanols by the reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalyst containing ruthenium, cobalt, a halide-containing compound, and an aromatic compound substituted in adjacent ring positions by nitrogen atoms. The process embraces the use of rhodium as an additive to the catalyst system.

  20. Alcohol fuel from Ohio farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Brief descriptions of on-farm ethanol production methods including feedstock preparation, cooking, fermentation, and distillation are presented. Safety conditions are described. Investment in on-farm ethanol production facilities and their potential returns are addressed. The market for ethanol and ethanol blends as well as for by-products is encouraging. Legal aspects for permitting and environmental regulations both for Ohio and federal agencies are discussed. (DMC)

  1. Production of long chain alcohols and alkanes upon coexpression of an acyl-ACP reductase and aldehyde-deformylating oxgenase with a bacterial type-I fatty acid synthase in E. coli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coursolle, Dan; Shanklin, John; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-06-23

    Microbial long chain alcohols and alkanes are renewable biofuels that could one day replace petroleum-derived fuels. Here we report a novel pathway for high efficiency production of these products in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). We first identified the acyl-ACP reductase/aldehyde deformylase combinations with the highest activity in this strain. Next, we used catalase coexpression to remove toxic byproducts and increase the overall titer. Finally, by introducing the type-I fatty acid synthase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, we were able to bypass host regulatory mechanisms of fatty acid synthesis that have thus far hampered efforts to optimize the yield of acyl-ACP-derived products in BL21(DE3). When all these engineering strategies were combined with subsequent optimization of fermentation conditions, we were able to achieve a final titer around 100 mg/L long chain alcohol/alkane products including a 57 mg/L titer of pentadecane, the highest titer reported in E. coli BL21(DE3) to date. The expression of prokaryotic type-I fatty acid synthases offer a unique strategy to produce fatty acid-derived products in E. coli that does not rely exclusively on the endogenous type-II fatty acid synthase system.

  2. Production of long chain alcohols and alkanes upon coexpression of an acyl-ACP reductase and aldehyde-deformylating oxgenase with a bacterial type-I fatty acid synthase in E. coli

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Coursolle, Dan; Shanklin, John; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-06-23

    Microbial long chain alcohols and alkanes are renewable biofuels that could one day replace petroleum-derived fuels. Here we report a novel pathway for high efficiency production of these products in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). We first identified the acyl-ACP reductase/aldehyde deformylase combinations with the highest activity in this strain. Next, we used catalase coexpression to remove toxic byproducts and increase the overall titer. Finally, by introducing the type-I fatty acid synthase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, we were able to bypass host regulatory mechanisms of fatty acid synthesis that have thus far hampered efforts to optimize the yield of acyl-ACP-derived products inmore » BL21(DE3). When all these engineering strategies were combined with subsequent optimization of fermentation conditions, we were able to achieve a final titer around 100 mg/L long chain alcohol/alkane products including a 57 mg/L titer of pentadecane, the highest titer reported in E. coli BL21(DE3) to date. The expression of prokaryotic type-I fatty acid synthases offer a unique strategy to produce fatty acid-derived products in E. coli that does not rely exclusively on the endogenous type-II fatty acid synthase system.« less

  3. Potential Additives to Promote Seal Swell in Synthetic Fuels and Their Effect on Thermal Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Link, Dirk D.; Gormley, Robert J.; Baltrus, John P.; Anderson, Richard R.; Zandhuis, Paul H.

    2008-03-01

    Synthetic, fuels derived from the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process using natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas as feedstocks can be used for powering ground vehicles, aircraft, and ships. Because of their chemical and physical properties, F-T fuels will probably require additives in order to meet specifications with respect to lubricity and seal swell capability for use in ground and air vehicles. Using both experimental and computational studies, the propensity of certain species to enhance the seal swell characteristics of synthetic fuels and surrogates has been determined, and promising additives have been identified. Important structural characteristics for potential additives, namely an aromatic ring along with a polar constituent, are described. The thermal stability of synthetic and surrogate fuels containing the single-component additive benzyl alcohol, which is representative of this structural class, has been determined by batch stressing of the mixtures at 350º C for up to 12 h. Synthetic fuels spiked with benzyl alcohol at concentrations (vol%) of 1.0, 0.75, and 0.5 have demonstrated the ability to swell nitrile rubber o-rings to a comparable degree as petroleum jet fuel. Further, batch reactor studies have shown that addition of benzyl alcohol does not degrade the thermal oxidative stability of the fuel based on gravimetric analysis of the solid deposits after stressing. GC-MS was used to characterize the products from thermal stressing of neat and additized surrogate jet fuel, and their compositions were compared with respect to the creation of certain species and their potential effect on deposition.

  4. Potential Additives to Promote Seal Swell in Synthetic Fuels and Their Effect on Thermal Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Link, D.D.; Gormley, R.J.; Baltrus, J.P.; Anderson, R.R.; Zandhuis, P.H.

    2008-03-01

    Synthetic fuels derived from the Fischer–Tropsch (F-T) process using natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas as feedstocks can be used for powering ground vehicles, aircraft, and ships. Because of their chemical and physical properties, F-T fuels will probably require additives in order to meet specifications with respect to lubricity and seal swell capability for use in ground and air vehicles. Using both experimental and computational studies, the propensity of certain species to enhance the seal swell characteristics of synthetic fuels and surrogates has been determined, and promising additives have been identified. Important structural characteristics for potential additives, namely an aromatic ring along with a polar constituent, are described. The thermal stability of synthetic and surrogate fuels containing the single-component additive benzyl alcohol, which is representative of this structural class, has been determined by batch stressing of the mixtures at 350 °C for up to 12 h. Synthetic fuels spiked with benzyl alcohol at concentrations (vol %) of 1.0, 0.75, and 0.5 have demonstrated the ability to swell nitrile rubber o-rings to a comparable degree as petroleum jet fuel. Further, batch reactor studies have shown that addition of benzyl alcohol does not degrade the thermal oxidative stability of the fuel based on gravimetric analysis of the solid deposits after stressing. GC-MS was used to characterize the products from thermal stressing of neat and additized surrogate jet fuel, and their compositions were compared with respect to the creation of certain species and their potential effect on deposition.

  5. Solvent for urethane adhesives and coatings and method of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Brown, John D.; Holt, Jerrid S.

    2010-08-03

    A solvent for urethane adhesives and coatings, the solvent having a carbaldehyde and a cyclic amide as constituents. In some embodiments the solvent consists only of miscible constituents. In some embodiments the carbaldehyde is benzaldehyde and in some embodiments the cyclic amide is N-methylpyrrolidone (M-pyrole). An extender may be added to the solvent. In some embodiments the extender is miscible with the other ingredients, and in some embodiments the extender is non-aqueous. For example, the extender may include isopropanol, ethanol, tetrahydro furfuryl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, Gamma-butyrolactone or a caprolactone. In some embodiments a carbaldehyde and a cyclic amide are heated and used to separate a urethane bonded to a component.

  6. Synthesis, spectral characterization, and single crystal structure studies of (2-nitro-ethene-1,1-diyl)-bis-((4-isopropyl-benzyl)sulfane)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakthikumar, L.; Mahalakshmy, R.; Bhargavi, G.; Srinivasan, N.

    2015-12-15

    The title compound (2-nitro-ethene-1,1-diyl)-bis-(4-isopropylbenzyl)sulfane) (5), was synthesised using a two step process. The structure of the product (5) was established by UV, FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, C,H,N analysis, LC-MS and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The single crystal of the title compound (5) was crystallized in Monoclinic with the space group of P21/c. The crystal exhibit the following unit cell parameters a = 12.8165(18), b = 6.1878(6), c = 27.082(4) Å, β = 90.705(17)°, V = 2147.6(5) A{sup 3}, Z = 4, D{sub x} = 1.242 Mg/m{sup 3} and the molecular formula of C{sub 22}H{sub 27}N{sub 1}O{sub 2}S{sub 2} was found. The final R value was 0.0776. The crystal structure is stabilized by an interesting intramolecular push and pull five membered electrocyclic interaction between the O1–N1–C2–C1–S1- and via the intermolecular H-bonding interaction between C2–H2···O2.

  7. Fuel alcohol production from agricultural lignocellulosic feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farina, G.E.; Barrier, J.W.; Forsythe, M.L. )

    1988-01-01

    A two-stage, low-temperature, ambient pressure, acid hydrolysis process that utilizes separate unit operations to convert hemicellulose and cellulose in agricultural residues and crops to fermentable sugars is being developed and tested. Based on the results of the bench-scale tests, an acid hydrolysis experimental plant to demonstrate the concepts of low-temperature acid hydrolysis on a much larger scale was built. Plant tests using corn stover have been conducted for more that a year and conversion efficiences have equaled those achieved in the laboratory. Laboratory tests to determine the potential for low-temperature acid hydrolysis of other feedstocks - including red clover, alfalfa, kobe lespedeza, winter rape, and rye grass - are being conducted. Where applicable, process modifications to include extraction before or after hydrolysis also are being studied. This paper describes the experimental plant and process, results obtained in the plant, results of alternative feedstocks testing in the laboratory, and a plan for an integrated system that will produce other fuels, feed, and food from crops grown on marginal land.

  8. Demonstration of alcohol as an aviation fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    A recently funded Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program (SERBEP) project with Baylor University will demonstrate the effectiveness of ethanols as an aviation fuel while providing several environmental and economic benefits. Part of this concern is caused by the petroleum industry. The basis for the petroleum industry to find an alternative aviation fuel will be dictated mainly by economic considerations. Three other facts compound the problem. First is the disposal of oil used in engines burning leaded fuel. This oil will contain too much lead to be burned in incinerators and will have to be treated as a toxic waste with relatively high disposal fees. Second, as a result of a greater demand for alkalites to be used in the automotive reformulated fuel, the costs of these components are likely to increase. Third, the Montreal Protocol will ban in 1998 the use of Ethyl-Di-Bromide, a lead scavenger used in leaded aviation fuel. Without a lead scavenger, leaded fuels cannot be used. The search for alternatives to leaded aviation fuels has been underway by different organizations for some time. As part of the search for alternatives, the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, has received a grant from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to improve the efficiencies of ethanol powered aircraft engines and to test other non-petroleum alternatives to aviation fuel.

  9. DOE small scale fuel alcohol plant design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaRue, D.M.; Richardson, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy, in an effort to facilitate the deployment of rural-based ethanol production capability, has undertaken this effort to develop a basic small-scale plant design capable of producing anhydrous ethanol. The design, when completed, will contain all necessary specifications and diagrams sufficient for the construction of a plant. The design concept is modular; that is, sections of the plant can stand alone or be integrated into other designs with comparable throughput rates. The plant design will be easily scaled up or down from the designed flow rate of 25 gallons of ethanol per hour. Conversion factors will be provided with the final design package to explain scale-up and scale-down procedures. The intent of this program is to provide potential small-scale producers with sound information about the size, engineering requirements, costs and level of effort in building such a system.

  10. Alcohol fuels bibliography, 1901-March 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    This annotated bibliography is subdivided by subjects, as follows: general; feedstocks-general; feedstocks-sugar; feedstocks-starch; feedstocks-cellulose crops and residues; production; coproducts; economics; use as vehicle fuel; government policies; and environmental effects and safety. (MHR)

  11. Nonaqueous sol-gel synthesis and growth mechanism of single crystalline TiO{sub 2} nanorods with high photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia Huimin; Zheng Zhi; Zhao Hongxiao; Zhang Lizhi; Zou Zhigang

    2009-06-03

    In this paper, we report on a nonaqueous synthesis of single crystalline anatase TiO{sub 2} nanorods by reaction between TiCl{sub 4} and benzyl alcohol at a low temperature of 80 deg. C. The resulting samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. We proposed that the TiO{sub 2} nanorods were formed through an oriented attachment mechanism. More importantly, these single crystalline anatase TiO{sub 2} nanorods exhibited significantly higher photocatalytic activities than commercial photocatalyst P25. This study provides an environmentally friendly and economic approach to produce highly active TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst.

  12. Iron(II) catalysis in oxidation of hydrocarbons with ozone in acetonitrile

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bataineh, Hajem; Pestovsky, Oleg; Bakac, Andreja

    2015-02-11

    Oxidation of alcohols, ethers, and sulfoxides by ozone in acetonitrile is catalyzed by submillimolar concentrations of Fe(CH3CN)62+. The catalyst provides both rate acceleration and greater selectivity toward the less oxidized products. For example, Fe(CH3CN)62+-catalyzed oxidation of benzyl alcohol yields benzaldehyde almost exclusively (>95%), whereas the uncatalyzed reaction generates a 1:1 mixture of benzaldehyde and benzoic acid. Similarly, aliphatic alcohols are oxidized to aldehydes/ketones, cyclobutanol to cyclobutanone, and diethyl ether to a 1:1 mixture of ethanol and acetaldehyde. The kinetics of oxidation of alcohols and diethyl ether are first-order in [Fe(CH3CN)62+] and [O3] and independent of [substrate] at concentrations greater thanmore » ~5 mM. In this regime, the rate constant for all of the alcohols is approximately the same, kcat = (8 ± 1) × 104 M–1 s–1, and that for (C2H5)2O is (5 ± 0.5) × 104 M–1 s–1. In the absence of substrate, Fe(CH3CN)62+ reacts with O3 with kFe = (9.3 ± 0.3) × 104 M–1 s–1. The similarity between the rate constants kFe and kcat strongly argues for Fe(CH3CN)62+/O3 reaction as rate-determining in catalytic oxidation. The active oxidant produced in Fe(CH3CN)62+/O3 reaction is suggested to be an Fe(IV) species in analogy with a related intermediate in aqueous solutions. As a result, this assignment is supported by the similarity in kinetic isotope effects and relative reactivities of the two species toward substrates.« less

  13. Interactions between silver nanoparticles and polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, H. L.; Wu, C. M.; Lin, F. D.; Rick, J.

    2014-08-15

    The interaction of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) nanofibers with silver (Ag) nanoparticles (mean diameter 8nm) has been modeled using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The physical adsorption of PVA through the hydroxyl group, to the Ag, and its corresponding molecular orientation was compared with experimental results obtained from surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies of the same material. A good agreement was found between the computational model of the vibrational spectrum of the adsorbate and the experimentally observed SERS. In general, aliphatic capping molecules are used to passivate the surface of Ag{sub 55} nanocrystals (55 = atomic number of Ag). In this study, a DFT simulation was employed to show binding energies and electron contour map analyses of Ag{sub 55} with PVA. Here we show that the PVA interacts with the Ag nanoparticle's surface, through the OH group, thereby contributing significantly to the increase in SERS activity.

  14. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... and policies to change the way we fuel our ... 25 3.7. Steam System and Power Generation - ... 14. 3 The second general class, steam gasifiers ...

  15. Microbes Produce High Yields of Fatty Alcohols From Glucose ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    glucose using genetically engineered microorganisms. The organism, e.g., a modified E. coli strain, overexpresses several genes (including FadDand a recombinant thioesterase gene,...

  16. Use of alcohol fuel: engine-conversion demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, W.K.

    1982-01-01

    The use of ethanol as a fuel extender when mixed with gasoline, and the use of both hydrated and anhydrous ethanol as a fuel in gasoline and diesel engines are discussed. Required engine modifications for efficient use of ethanol are described, and include engine compression alterations, carburetor adjustments, and arrangement for fuel preheating. In 1981 and 1982 a demonstration of ethanol use in spark ignition engines was conducted at a major public park in South Carolina. The demonstration included a controlled road test with a pick-up truck and a demonstration of ethanol use in small, air cooled gasoline engines. One problem that was identified was that of contaminated fuel that clogged the fuel system after a few days' operation. (LEW)

  17. Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The organic portion of MSW is composed of yard wastes, food scraps, and other biomass ... with detailed process fow and engineering models to identify technical barriers ...

  18. Renewable Hydrogen Production Using Sugars and Sugar Alcohols...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon 10virentaqeousphasereforming.pdf More Documents & Publications Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Carbohydrates via Aqueous-Phase Reforming Bio-Derived Liquids ...

  19. Separation of Alcohols from Solution by Lignin Gels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, William {Bill} L; Compere, A L

    2008-01-01

    Partition relationships of radioisotope labeled ethanol and 1-butanol between aqueous solutions and a hydrated commercial Kraft softwood lignin gel are presented. These initial evaluations indicate that lignin hydrogels preferentially concentrate 1-butanol and, to a lesser extent, ethanol. The process implications and potential use of lignin as an inexpensive extractant are discussed.

  20. Heavy Alcohols as a Fuel Blending Agent for Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Avoidance Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Hydrated Ethanol and Diesel Fuel BiodieselFuelManagementBestPracticesReport.pdf

  1. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  2. Effect of alcohols on aqueous lysozyme-lysozyme interactions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Journal Name: Biophysical Chemistry; Journal Volume: 107; Journal Issue: 2004; Other Information: Journal Publication Date: 2004; PBD: 22 Sep 2003 Research Org: ...

  3. Direct Catalytic Upgrading of Current Dilute Alcohol Fermentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... blendstock with a modified mixed zeolite catalyst - Previously showed novel ... Mechanism * Low-cost metal-exchanged zeolite catalyst: V-ZSM-5 or VIn-ZSM-5 * C 2 H 5 ...

  4. Solar energy assisted alcohol fuel system for farm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eyrich, F.H.

    1984-02-01

    A project is briefly described which would produce ethanol on a farm using LP gas as a heat source and heat recovered from the fermenter to preheat water. (DMC)

  5. Alcohol as a fuel for farm and construction equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borman, G L; Foster, D E; Meyers, P S; Uyehara, O A

    1982-06-01

    Work in three areas dealing with the utilization of ethanol as fuel for farm and construction diesels is summarized. The first part is a review of what is known about the retrofitting of diesels for use of ethanol and the combustion problems involved. The second part is a discussion of the work that has been done under the contract on the performance of a single-cylinder, open-chamber diesel using solutions and emulsions of diesel fuel with ethanol. Data taken include performance, emissions and cylinder pressure-time for diesel fuel with zero to forty percent ethanol by volume. Analysis of the data includes calculation of heat release rates using a single zone model. The third part is a discussion of work done retrofitting a multicylinder turbocharged farm tractor diesel to use ethanol by fumigation. Three methods of ethanol introduction are discussed; spraying ethanol upstream and downstream of the compressor and prevaporization of the ethanol. Data on performance and emissions are given for the last two methods. A three zone heat release model is described and results from the model are given. A correlation of the ignition delay using prevaporized ethanol fumigation data is also given. Comparisons are made between fumigation in DI and IDI engines.

  6. Small-scale fuel alcohol production. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This report describes in substantial detail technical and economic aspects of small-scale ethanol production from on-farm units producing up to 360,000 gallons per year and community plants producing up to 2 million gallons per year. The description of feedstock materials is limited to those containing starches and sugars, not cellulosic materials. Factors influencing the introduction of small-scale ethanol production are evaluated, including the availability and technical capabilities of production equipment. Also discussed are the types and sizes of farms and community operations for which ethanol production is appropriate. The report describes the characteristics of ethanol and its use as a motor fuel, the production and use of co-products, and problems typically encountered by small-scale producers. Information on investment, operation, maintenance and feedstock costs is estimated and analyzed. A sensitivity analysis describes changes in the cost of ethanol production resulting from changes in the major cost elements.

  7. HD Applications of Significantly Downsized SI Engines Using Alcohol...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Direct injection of a second fuel (ethanol or methanol) is explored as a means of avoiding knock in turbocharged, high-compression ratio spark-ignited engines that could replace ...

  8. Renewable Hydrogen Production Using Sugars and Sugar Alcohols (Presentation)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland.

  9. Iron(II) catalysis in oxidation of hydrocarbons with ozone in acetonitrile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bataineh, Hajem; Pestovsky, Oleg; Bakac, Andreja

    2015-02-11

    Oxidation of alcohols, ethers, and sulfoxides by ozone in acetonitrile is catalyzed by submillimolar concentrations of Fe(CH3CN)62+. The catalyst provides both rate acceleration and greater selectivity toward the less oxidized products. For example, Fe(CH3CN)62+-catalyzed oxidation of benzyl alcohol yields benzaldehyde almost exclusively (>95%), whereas the uncatalyzed reaction generates a 1:1 mixture of benzaldehyde and benzoic acid. Similarly, aliphatic alcohols are oxidized to aldehydes/ketones, cyclobutanol to cyclobutanone, and diethyl ether to a 1:1 mixture of ethanol and acetaldehyde. The kinetics of oxidation of alcohols and diethyl ether are first-order in [Fe(CH3CN)62+] and [O3] and independent of [substrate] at concentrations greater than ~5 mM. In this regime, the rate constant for all of the alcohols is approximately the same, kcat = (8 ± 1) × 104 M–1 s–1, and that for (C2H5)2O is (5 ± 0.5) × 104 M–1 s–1. In the absence of substrate, Fe(CH3CN)62+ reacts with O3 with kFe = (9.3 ± 0.3) × 104 M–1 s–1. The similarity between the rate constants kFe and kcat strongly argues for Fe(CH3CN)62+/O3 reaction as rate-determining in catalytic oxidation. The active oxidant produced in Fe(CH3CN)62+/O3 reaction is suggested to be an Fe(IV) species in analogy with a related intermediate in aqueous solutions. As a result, this assignment is supported by the similarity in kinetic isotope effects and relative reactivities of the two species toward substrates.

  10. Development of candidate chemical simulant list: the evaluation of candidate chemical simulants which may be used in chemically hazardous operations. Final report 15 Jun-15 Dec 82

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The objectives of this task were threefold: (1) to provide additional data for the proposed candidate simulates dipentene, methyl benzoate and benzyl alcohol by means of in-depth literature searches encompassing both computerized data bases and a manual search of the older literature; (2) to fully evaluate twelve possible candidate simulants under more flexible simulant criteria; and (3) to develop a list of candidate simulants in the low and non-volatile categories. Computerized literature searches were conducted for the twelve possible candidate simulants under more flexible intake simulant criteria as well as for dimethyl methylphosphonate, a compound selected for evaluation by the USAF. The twelve possible candidates included: cyclohexanone, n-dodecanethiol, methyl salicylate, dihexyl ether, dypnone, n-aminopropyl morpholine, n-(2-hydroxyethyl) morpholine, butyl salicylate, di(2-ethyl hexyl) ether, 2-undecanol, 2-hydroxyethyl-n-octyl sulfide and n,n-diethyl-m-toluamide. Full assessments of the potential health hazards associated with exposure to n-dodecanethiol, methyl salicylate, butyl salicylate and n,n-diethyl-m-toluamide were completed. All of these compounds meet the majority of USAF criteria for candidate simulants. Cyclohexanone was disqualified for reasons of toxicity, while the available toxicological data for the seven remaining candidates were considered inadequate for full assessment of hazard.

  11. Interactions of Jet Fuels with Nitrile O-Rings: Petroleum-Derived versus Synthetic Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gormley, R.J.; Link, D.D.; Baltrus, J.P.; Zandhuis, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    A transition from petroleum-derived jet fuels to blends with Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels, and ultimately fully synthetic hydro-isomerized F-T fuels has raised concern about the fate of plasticizers in nitrile-butadiene rubber o-rings that are contacted by the fuels as this transition occurs. The partitioning of plasticizers and fuel molecules between nitrile o-rings and petroleum-derived, synthetic, and additized-synthetic jet fuels has been measured. Thermal desorption of o-rings soaked in the various jet fuels followed by gas chromatographic analysis with a mass spectrometric detector showed many of the plasticizer and stabilizer compounds were removed from the o-rings regardless of the contact fuel. Fuel molecules were observed to migrate into the o-rings for the petroleum-derived fuel as did both the fuel and additive for a synthetic F-T jet fuel additized with benzyl alcohol, but less for the unadditized synthetic fuel. The specific compounds or classes of compounds involved in the partitioning were identified and a semiquantitative comparison of relative partitioning of the compounds of interest was made. The results provide another step forward in improving the confidence level of using additized, fuIly synthetic jet fuel in the place of petroleum-derived fueL

  12. Interactions of Jet Fuels with Nitrile O-Rings: Petroleum-Derived versus Synthetic Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gormley, R.J.; Link, D.D.; Baltrus, J.P.; Zandhuis, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    A transition from petroleum-derived jet fuels to blends with Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels, and ultimately fully synthetic hydro-isomerized F-T fuels has raised concern about the fate of plasticizers in nitrile-butadiene rubber a-rings that are contacted by the fuels as this transition occurs. The partitioning of plasticizers and fuel molecules between nitrile a-rings and petroleum-derived, synthetic, and additized-synthetic jet fuels has been measured. Thermal desorption of o-rings soaked in the various jet fuels followed by gas chromatographic analysis with a mass spectrometric detector showed many of the plasticizer and stabilizer compounds were removed from the o-rings regardless of the contact fuel. Fuel molecules were observed to migrate into the o-rings for the petroleum-derived fuel as did both the fuel and additive for a synthetic F-T jet fuel additized with benzyl alcohol, but less for the unadditized synthetic fuel. The specific compounds or classes of compounds involved in the partitioning were identified and a semiquantitative comparison of relative partitioning of the compounds of interest was made. The results provide another step forward in improving the confidence level of using additized, fully synthetic jet fuel in the place of petroleum-derived fuel.

  13. Controlled synthesis of snowflake-like self-assemblies palladium nanostructures under microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Ting; Ma, Yue; Yang, Hanmin Li, Jinlin

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: We demonstrated the synthesis of snowflake-like palladium nanostructures for the first time. We discussed the influencing factors on the synthesis of snowflake-like Pd nanostructures. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}Pd{sub 4} to PVP at 5 is the optimal selection. The growth process was discussed. - Abstract: Self-assembly snowflake-like palladium nanostructures were synthesized under microwave irradiation using H{sub 2}PdCl{sub 4} as precursor, benzyl alcohol as both solvent and reducing agent, and PVP as stabilizer. The Pd snowflake-like nanostructures were formed and then characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction. The TEM images showed that the Pd nano-snowflakes were self-assemblies organized by hundreds of small spherical nanoparticles. Pd snowflake-like nanostructures with well-defined shape and uniform size can be obtained by tuning the concentration of palladium precursor, the molar ratio of H{sub 2}PdCl{sub 4}/PVP, as well as the heating time by microwave irradiation. The possible growing process of the snowflake-like Pd structures was also proposed on the basis of investigating the properties of as-synthesized Pd nanostructures under different conditions.

  14. Sessile drop studies on polybromide/zinc-bromine battery electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, K.; Leach, S.C.

    1982-08-01

    Improvements in the performance of zinc-bromine batteries have been observed with electrolytes containing a quaternary ammonium salt that complexes the bromine to reduce the concentration of free bromine in solution. A variety of quaternary ammonium salts that complex bromine to form a so-called polybromide oil have been considered. Various papers have discussed measurements of the physicochemical properties of the two-component system of bromine-quaternary ammonium bromide in an aqueous medium. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the interfacial tension of polybromide oils on the electrolytes for zinc-bromine batteries by reporting a study of the interfacial tension and contact angle of polybromide oil drops in which the sessile drop method is used. The interfacial tensions for the polybromide phases are found to be considerably lower than the values commonly reported for two-phase systems containing organic and aqueous phases. However, several two-phase systems, such as benzyl alcohol/water, furfural/water, and ethyl acetate/water have low interfacial tension comparable to that of the polybromide/electrolyte system. The low interfacial tension of the polybromide oil phase has important practical implications for the zinc-bromine battery. A stable emulsion can be produced very readily; small drops of the polybromide-oil phase can thus be stabilized with the electrolyte phase and can be expected to enhance the mass transfer of bromine from the polybromide to the electrode.

  15. Evidence for the formation of nitrogen-rich precious metal nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Veith, Gabriel M; Lupini, Andrew R; Baggetto, Loic; Browning, Jim; Keum, Jong Kahk; Villa, Alberto; Prati, Laura; Papandrew, Alexander B; Goenaga Jimenez, Gabriel A; Mullins, David R; et al

    2014-01-01

    We report evidence for the formation of nitrogen-rich precious metal nanoparticles (Pt, Pd) prepared by reactive sputtering of the pure metal in a N2 plasma. The composition of the nanoparticles varies as a function of particle size and growth conditions. For the smallest particles the nitrogen content appears to be as high as 6.7 N atoms for each Pd atom or 5.9 N atoms for each Pt atom whereas bulk films have nominal compositions of Pt7.3N and Pd2.5N. The nanoparticles are metastable in air and moisture, slowly decomposing over several years. This paper describes the synthesis of these materials alongmore » with experimental evidence of the composition, oxidation state, and growth modes. The catalytic properties of these N-rich nanoparticles were accessed by rotating disk electrode electrochemical studies, the liquid phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol and gas phase CO oxidation and support the experimental evidence for the materials composition.« less

  16. Molecular level control of nanoscale composition and morphology: Toward photocatalytic nanocomposites for solar-to-chemical energy conversion of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruberu, Thanthrige P.

    2013-05-15

    Understanding the factors influencing nanocrystal formation is a challenge yet to be realized. In comparison to the large number of studies on nanocrystal synthesis and their applications, the number of studies on the effect of the precursor chemistry on nanocrystal composition and shape remains low. Although photochemical fabrication of metalsemiconductor nano-heterostructures is reported in literature, control over the free particle formation and the site of metal deposition have not been achieved. Moreover, utilization of metal- semiconductor nano-heterostructures in photocatalytic reactions other than water splitting is hardly explored. In this thesis, we studied the effect of chalcogenide precursor reactivity on the composition, morphology and the axial anisotropy of cadmiumchalcogenide nanocrystals. We also investigated the influence of the irradiation wavelength in synthesizing metal-semiconductor nano-heterostructures. Finally, we showed that metal semiconductor nano-heterostructures can be used as a photocatalyst for alcohol dehydrogenation reactions. We explored the pathways for the formation of Pt and Pd nanoparticles on CdS and CdS{sub 0.4}Se{sub 0.6} nanorods. This study revealed that the wavelength of irradiation is critical to control free-standing vs. bound metal (Pt and Pd) nanoparticles to semiconductor. Additionally, we observed that metal photodeposition occurs on specific segments of axially anisotropic, compositionally graded CdS0.4Se0.6 nanorods due to the band-gap differential between their nano-domains. We used semiconductor-metal heterostructures for sunlightdriven dehydrogenation and hydrogenolysis of benzyl alcohol. Heterostructure composition dictates activity (turnovers) and product distribution. A few metal (Pt, Pd) islands on the semiconductor surface significantly enhance activity and selectivity and also greatly stabilize the semiconductor against photoinduced etching and degradation.

  17. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), and other aliphatic alcohols and ... amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), and other aliphatic alcohols and ...

  18. Characterization of Phase and Emulsion Behavior, Surfactant Retention, and Oil Recovery for Novel Alcohol Ethoxycarboxylate Surfactants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebone T. Moeti; Ramanathan Sampath

    1998-05-01

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Clark Atlanta University under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-97FT97278 during the period October 01, 1997 to April 01, 1998 which covers the first six months of the project. During this reporting period, laboratory space to set up the surfactant characterization measurement system in the Research Science Center was made available. A Ph.D. student in Chemistry was identified and is supported as a Graduate Research Assistant in this project. Her contribution towards this project will form her Ph.D. thesis. The test matrix to perform salinity and temperature scans was established. Supply requests to obtain refined hydrocarbon, surfactant, and crude were processed and supplies obtained. A temperature bath with a control unit to perform temperature scans was obtained on loan from Federal Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, WV. The setting up of the temperature control unit, and associated chiller with water circulation lines is in progress. Tests were conducted on several hybrid surfactants to identify the best surfactants for future experimental work that yield almost equal volumes of top, middle, and bottom phases when mixed with oil and water. The student reviewed the current literature in the subject area, and modeling efforts that were established in previous studies to predict electrical conductivities and inversion phenomena. These activities resulted in one published conference paper, and one student poster paper during this reporting period.

  19. Characterization of Phase and Emulsion Behavior, Surfactant Retention, and Oil Recovery for Novel Alcohol Ethoxycarboxylate Surfactant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeti, Lebone T.; Sampath, Ramanathan

    2002-03-13

    Electrical conductivity measurements for middle, bottom, and top phases, as well as bottom/middle, and middle/bottom conjugate pair phases of the NEODOX 23-4/dodecane/10mM water system were continued from the previous reporting period. Electrical conductivity of the mixture decreased as the fraction of volume of the middle phase was increased and vice versa. Also inversion phenomena was observed. Following this, more emulsion studies at various temperatures were progresses. A theoretical model to predict the conductivity measurements using Maxwell equations was developed and sensitivity analyses to test the performance of the model was completed. Surtek, Golden, CO, our industrial partner in this project, investigated the suitability of the surfactant for enhanced oil recovery employing coreflooding techniques and observed lower surfactant and hydrocarbon recovery for NEODOX 23-4.

  20. Sampling for Beryllium Surface Contamination using Wet, Dry and Alcohol Wipe Sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, Kent

    2004-12-17

    This research project was conducted at the National Nuclear Security Administration's Kansas City Plant, operated by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, in conjunction with the Safety Sciences Department of Central Missouri State University, to compare relative removal efficiencies of three wipe sampling techniques currently used at Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling with dry Whatman 42 filter paper, with water-moistened (Ghost Wipe) materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Test plates were prepared using 100 mm X 15 mm Pyrex Petri dishes with interior surfaces spray painted with a bond coat primer. To achieve uniform deposition over the test plate surface, 10 ml aliquots of solution containing 1 beryllium and 0.1 ml of metal working fluid were transferred to the test plates and subsequently evaporated. Metal working fluid was added to simulate the slight oiliness common on surfaces in metal working shops where fugitive oil mist accumulates over time. Sixteen test plates for each wipe method (dry, water, and methanol) were processed and sampled using a modification of wiping patterns recommended by OSHA Method 125G. Laboratory and statistical analysis showed that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed significantly more (about twice as much) beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes (p< 0.001), which removed significantly more (about twice as much) residue as dry wipes (p <0.001). Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced residue removal efficiency.

  1. Hydrogen transfer from alcohols to carbonyl compounds catalyzed by aluminum porphyrins. Stereochemical aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konishi, Katsuaki; Aida, Takuzo; Inoue, Shohei (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-02-02

    There is interest in synthesizing molecules containing di- or tri-sulfide linkages together with sulfinate functions because of their potential as antiradiation agents. In the process of synthesizing such compounds, formation of monothioquinone S,S-dioxides presented a mechanistic problem which had to be overcome. This paper focuses on the formation of these dioxides and routes around them.

  2. Tantalum-containing catalyst useful for producing alcohols from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kinkade, Nancy E.

    1992-01-01

    A catalyst useful for selectively converting a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen to a mixture of lower alkanols consisting essentially of a mixture of molybdenum sulfide, an alkali metal compound and a tantalum compound.

  3. Tantalum-containing catalyst useful for producing alcohols from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kinkade, Nancy E.

    1991-01-01

    A catalyst useful for selectively converting a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen to a mixture of lower alkanols consisting essentially of a mixture of molybdenum sulfide, an alkali metal compound and a tantalum compound.

  4. Tantalum-containing catalyst useful for producing alcohols from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kinkade, N.E.

    1992-04-07

    A catalyst is described which is useful for selectively converting a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen to a mixture of lower alkanols. The catalyst consists essentially of a mixture of molybdenum sulfide, an alkali metal compound and a tantalum compound.

  5. Development characteristics of polymethyl methacrylate in alcohol/water mixtures. A lithography and Raman spectroscopy study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ocola, Leonidas E.; Costales, Maya; Gosztola, David J.

    2015-12-10

    Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) is the most widely used resist in electron beam lithography. This paper reports on a lithography and Raman spectroscopy study of development characteristics of PMMA in methanol, ethanol and isopropanol mixtures with water as developers. We have found that ethanol/water mixtures at a 4:1 volume ratio are an excellent, high resolution, non-toxic, developer for exposed PMMA. We also have found that the proper methodology to use so that contrast data can be compared to techniques used in polymer science is not to rinse the developed resist but to immediately dry with nitrogen. Our results show how powerful simple lithographic techniques can be used to study ternary polymer solvent solutions when compared to other techniques used in the literature. Raman data shows that there both tightly bonded –OH groups and non-hydrogen bonded –OH groups play a role in the development of PMMA. Tightly hydrogen bonded –OH groups show pure Lorentzian Raman absorption only in the concentration ranges where ethanol/water and IPA/water mixtures are effective developers of PMMA. The impact of the understanding these interactions may open doors to a new developers of other electron beam resists that can reduce the toxicity of the waste stream.

  6. Exploring Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Sugar and Sugar Alcohols to Reduce Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New aqueous phase reforming process uses liquid feedstocks to produce energy from hydrogen with reduced costs.

  7. Method for the synthesis of chiral allylic alcohols utilizing selone based chiral derivatizing agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silks, III, Louis A.

    2002-01-01

    Molecules containing a chiral 1,2-diol unit are synthesized from reactions between aldehydes and N-acyl selones. A chilled N-acyl selone is reacted with a Lewis acid such as TiCl.sub.4 and mixed with a tertiary amine such as diisopropylethylamine to generate an enolate solution. Upon further chilling of the enolate solution a desired aldehyde is added and after an acceptable reaction period a quencher is introduced and the product isolated.

  8. Thermochemical ethanol via indirect gasification and mixed alcohol synthesis of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S.; Aden, A.; Jechura, J.; Dayton, D.; Eggeman, T.

    2007-04-01

    This process design and technoeconomic evaluation addresses the conversion of biomass to ethanol via thermochemical pathways that are expected to be demonstrated at the pilot level by 2012.

  9. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S.; Aden, A.; Jechura, J.; Dayton, D.; Eggeman, T.

    2007-04-01

    This process design and technoeconomic evaluation addresses the conversion of biomass to ethanol via thermochemical pathways that are expected to be demonstrated at the pilot level by 2012.

  10. Thermochemical Ethanol via Direct Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, A.; Phillips, S. D.

    2009-07-01

    This report evaluates process design and technoeconomic criteria for a direct gasification process for conversion of biomass to ethanol. Follow-up to NREL/TP-510-41168.

  11. Thermochemical Design Report: Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S.; Aden, A.; Jechura, J.; Dayton, D.; Eggeman, T.

    2007-04-01

    This process design and technoeconomic evaluation addresses the conversion of biomass to ethanol via thermochemical pathways that are expected to be demonstrated at the pilot-unit level by 2012.

  12. Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K.

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

  13. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dombek, B.D.

    1996-03-01

    The primary objective of this project has been the pursuit of a catalyst system which would allow the selective production from syngas of methanol and isobutanol. It is desirable to develop a process in which the methanol to isobutanol weight ratio could be varied from 70/30 to 30/70. The 70/30 mixture could be used directly as a fuel additive, while, with the appropriate downstream processing, the 30/70 mixture could be utilized for methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) synthesis. The indirect manufacture of MTBE from a coal derived syngas to methanol and isobutanol process would appear to be a viable solution to MTBE feedstock limitations. To become economically attractive, a process fro producing oxygenates from coal-derived syngas must form these products with high selectivity and good rates, and must be capable of operating with a low-hydrogen-content syngas. This was to be accomplished through extensions of known catalyst systems and by the rational design of novel catalyst systems.

  14. Synthesis of PD particles by alcohols-assisted photoreduction for use in supported catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burton, Patrick David; Boyle, Timothy J; Datye, Abhaya

    2015-02-24

    The present disclosure provides a novel synthesis method for palladium nanoparticles and palladium nanoparticles made using the method. The nanoparticles resulting from the method are highly reactive and, when deposited on a support, are highly suitable for use as catalytic material.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Compression Ratio Turbo Gasoline Engine Operation Using Alcohol Enhancement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Massachusetts Institute of Technology at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high...

  16. The processing of alcohols, hydrocarbons and ethers to produce hydrogen for a PEMFC for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dams, R.A.J.; Hayter, P.R.; Moore, S.C.

    1997-12-31

    Wellman CJB Limited is involved in a number of projects to develop fuel processors to provide a hydrogen-rich fuel in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) systems for transportation applications. This work started in 1990 which resulted in the demonstration of 10kW PEMFC system incorporating a methanol reformer and catalytic gas clean-up system. Current projects include: The development of a compact fast response methanol reformer and gas clean-up system for a motor vehicle; Reforming of infrastructure fuels including gasoline, diesel, reformulated fuel gas and LPG to produce a hydrogen rich gas for PEMFC; Investigating the potential of dimethylether (DME) as source of hydrogen rich gas for PEMFCs; The use of thin film palladium diffusers to produce a pure hydrogen stream from the hydrogen rich gas from a reformer; and Processing of naval logistic fuels to produce a hydrogen rich gas stream for PEMFC power system to replace diesel generators in surface ships. This paper outlines the background to these projects and reports their current status.

  17. Fuel alcohol on the farm: a primer on production and use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The primer outlines for farmers the major factors to be considered before undertaking the production of ethanol on a small-scale basis - feedstocks, financing, safety, vehicle conversion and permit requirements. It illustrates and describes four small-scale stills that are currently operating.

  18. HD Applications of Significantly Downsized SI Engines Using Alcohol DI for Knock Avoidance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Direct injection of a second fuel (ethanol or methanol) is explored as a means of avoiding knock in turbocharged, high-compression ratio spark-ignited engines that could replace diesels in certain vocational applications.

  19. Heavy Alcohols as a Fuel Blending Agent for Compression Ignition Engine Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Blends of Phytol and diesel (by volume) were compared against baseline diesel experiments and simulations

  20. Synthesis, spectral characterization, and single crystal structure studies

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of (2-nitro-ethene-1,1-diyl)-bis-((4-isopropyl-benzyl)sulfane) (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Synthesis, spectral characterization, and single crystal structure studies of (2-nitro-ethene-1,1-diyl)-bis-((4-isopropyl-benzyl)sulfane) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthesis, spectral characterization, and single crystal structure studies of (2-nitro-ethene-1,1-diyl)-bis-((4-isopropyl-benzyl)sulfane) The title compound (2-nitro-ethene-1,1-diyl)-bis-(4-isopropylbenzyl)sulfane)

  1. Group 4 Metalloporphyrin diolato Complexes and Catalytic Application of Metalloporphyrins and Related Transition Metal Complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guodong Du

    2004-12-19

    In this work, the first examples of group 4 metalloporphyrin 1,2-diolato complexes were synthesized through a number of strategies. In general, treatment of imido metalloporphyrin complexes, (TTP)M=NR, (M = Ti, Zr, Hf), with vicinal diols led to the formation of a series of diolato complexes. Alternatively, the chelating pinacolate complexes could be prepared by metathesis of (TTP)MCl{sub 2} (M = Ti, Hf) with disodium pinacolate. These complexes were found to undergo C-C cleavage reactions to produce organic carbonyl compounds. For titanium porphyrins, treatment of a titanium(II) alkyne adduct, (TTP)Ti({eta}{sup 2}-PhC{triple_bond}CPh), with aromatic aldehydes or aryl ketones resulted in reductive coupling of the carbonyl groups to produce the corresponding diolato complexes. Aliphatic aldehydes or ketones were not reactive towards (TTP)Ti({eta}{sup 2}-PhC{triple_bond}CPh). However, these carbonyl compounds could be incorporated into a diolato complex on reaction with a reactive precursor, (TTP)Ti[O(Ph){sub 2}C(Ph){sub 2}O] to provide unsymmetrical diolato complexes via cross coupling reactions. In addition, an enediolato complex (TTP)Ti(OCPhCPhO) was obtained from the reaction of (TTP)Ti({eta}{sup 2}-PhC{triple_bond}CPh) with benzoin. Titanium porphyrin diolato complexes were found to be intermediates in the (TTP)Ti=O-catalyzed cleavage reactions of vicinal diols, in which atmospheric oxygen was the oxidant. Furthermore, (TTP)Ti=O was capable of catalyzing the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and {alpha}-hydroxy ketones to benzaldehyde and {alpha}-diketones, respectively. Other high valent metalloporphyrin complexes also can catalyze the oxidative diol cleavage and the benzyl alcohol oxidation reactions with dioxygen. A comparison of Ti(IV) and Sn(IV) porphyrin chemistry was undertaken. While chelated diolato complexes were invariably obtained for titanium porphyrins on treatment with 1,2-diols, the reaction of vicinal diols with tin porphyrins gave a number of products, including mono-, bis-alkoxo, and chelating diolato complexes, depending on the identity of diols and the stoichiometry employed. It was also found that tin porphyrin complexes promoted the oxidative cleavage of vicinal diols and the oxidation of {alpha}-ketols to {alpha}-diketones with dioxygen. In extending the chemistry of metalloporphyrins and analogous complexes, a series of chiral tetraaza macrocyclic ligands and metal complexes were designed and synthesized. Examination of iron(II) complexes showed that they were efficient catalysts for the cyclopropanation of styrene by diazo reagents. Good yields and high diastereoselectivity were obtained with modest enantioselectivity. A rationalization of the stereoselectivity was presented on the basis of structural factors in a carbene intermediate.

  2. Rapid brain scanning radiopharmaceutical

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sargent, III, Thornton W.; Shulgin, Alexander T.; Mathis, Chester A.

    1987-01-01

    A method for detecting the blood flow in animals, particularly in the brain, is provided wherein a detectable amount of a novel radioactive compound of the formula I is administered to one animal: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are independently alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms or benzyl; R.sub.3 is alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms, benzyl, cyclopropylalkyl of 4 to 6 carbon atoms, or cyanoalkyl of 2 to 6 carbon atoms; R.sub.4 is hydrogen, benzyl or alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms; with the provisos that R.sub.4 is not isopropyl and when R.sub.4 is methyl, R.sub.3 is not benzyl; and X is a radioactive halogen.

  3. Rapid brain scanning radiopharmaceutical

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sargent, T.W. III; Shulgin, A.T.; Mathis, C.A.

    1987-03-03

    A method for detecting the blood flow in animals, particularly in the brain, is provided wherein a detectable amount of a novel radioactive compound of the formula 1 is administered to one animal: as given in figure in patent wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are independently alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms or benzyl; R[sub 3] is alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms, benzyl, cyclopropylalkyl of 4 to 6 carbon atoms, or cyanoalkyl of 2 to 6 carbon atoms; R[sub 4] is hydrogen, benzyl or alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms; with the provisos that R[sub 4] is not isopropyl and when R[sub 4] is methyl, R[sub 3] is not benzyl; and X is a radioactive halogen. 2 figs.

  4. Summary of Decisions - April 15, 2013 - April 19, 2013 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... diagnosis of Alcohol Abuse and Major Depression, a history of binge alcohol drinking, ... related to his alcohol abuse and depression: though the individual is now taking ...

  5. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  6. Novel Approaches to the Production of Higher Alcohols From Synthesis Gas. Quarterly report, January 1 - March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, George W

    1997-02-13

    Effort during this quarter was devoted to three areas: 1) analyzing the data from earlier runs with "zinc chromite"catalyst and three different slurry liquids: decahydronaphthalene (Decalin®, DHN), tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin, THN) and tetrahydroquinoline (THQ); 2) analyzing newly-obtained data from earlier thermal stability tests on DHN and THN, and 3) carrying out a thermal stability test on THQ. Both the activity and selectivity of "zinc chromite" catalyst depended on the slurry liquid that was used. The catalyst activity for methanol synthesis was in the order: THQ > DHN > THN. Despite the basic nature of THQ, it exhibited the highest dimethyl ether (DME) production rates of the three liquids. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analyses of samples of THN and DHN were taken at the end of standard thermal stability tests at 375°C. With both liquids, the only measurable compositional change was a minor amount of isomerization. Analysis of a sample of THN after a thermal stability test at 425°C showed a small reduction in molecular weight, and a significant amount of opening of the naphthenic ring. Preliminary data from the tehrmal stability test of THQ showed that this molecule is more stable than DHN, but less stable than THN.

  7. Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Surgar Alcohols via the Aqueous-Phase Carbohydrate Reforming (ACR) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randy Cortright

    2006-06-30

    This project involved the investigation and development of catalysts and reactor systems that will be cost-effective to generate hydrogen from potential sorbitol streams. The intention was to identify the required catalysts and reactors systems as well as the design, construction, and operation of a 300 grams per hour hydrogen system. Virent was able to accomplish this objective with a system that generates 2.2 kgs an hour of gas containing both hydrogen and alkanes that relied directly on the work performed under this grant. This system, funded in part by the local Madison utility, Madison, Gas & Electric (MGE), is described further in the report. The design and development of this system should provide the necessary scale-up information for the generation of hydrogen from corn-derived sorbitol.

  8. Displacement of Hexanol by the Hexanoic Acid Overoxidation Product in Alcohol Oxidation on a Model Supported Palladium Nanoparticle Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchbinder, Avram M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Center for Catalysis and Surface Science; Inst. for Catalysis in Energy Processes; Ray, Natalie A. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Center for Catalysis and Surface Science; Lu, Junling [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy System Division; Van Duyne, Richard P. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Center for Catalysis and Surface Science; Inst. for Catalysis in Energy Processes; Stair, Peter C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Center for Catalysis and Surface Science; Inst. for Catalysis in Energy Processes; Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Weitz, Eric [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Center for Catalysis and Surface Science; Inst. for Catalysis in Energy Processes; Geiger, Franz M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Center for Catalysis and Surface Science; Inst. for Catalysis in Energy Processes

    2011-11-09

    This work characterizes the adsorption, structure, and binding mechanism of oxygenated organic species from cyclohexane solution at the liquid/solid interface of optically flat alumina-supported palladium nanoparticle surfaces prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The surface-specific nonlinear optical vibrational spectroscopy, sum-frequency generation (SFG), was used as a probe for adsorption and interfacial molecular structure. 1-Hexanoic acid is an overoxidation product and possible catalyst poison for the aerobic heterogeneous oxidation of 1-hexanol at the liquid/solid interface of Pd/Al?O? catalysts. Single component and competitive adsorption experiments show that 1-hexanoic acid adsorbs to both ALD-prepared alumina surfaces and alumina surfaces with palladium nanoparticles, that were also prepared by ALD, more strongly than does 1-hexanol. Furthermore, 1-hexanoic acid adsorbs with conformational order on ALD-prepared alumina surfaces, but on surfaces with palladium particles the adsorbates exhibit relative disorder at low surface coverage and become more ordered, on average, at higher surface coverage. Although significant differences in binding constant were not observed between surfaces with and without palladium nanoparticles, the palladium particles play an apparent role in controlling adsorbate structures. The disordered adsorption of 1-hexanoic acid most likely occurs on the alumina support, and probably results from modification of binding sites on the alumina, adjacent to the particles. In addition to providing insight on the possibility of catalyst poisoning by the overoxidation product and characterizing changes in its structure that result in only small adsorption energy changes, this work represents a step toward using surface science techniques that bridge the complexity gap between fundamental studies and realistic catalyst models.

  9. Novel Approaches to the Production of Higher Alcohols From Synthesis Gas. Quarterly report, January 1 - March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George W. Roberts

    1998-12-11

    A modified analytical system was assembled and calibrated, in preparation for a second run with cesium (Cs)-promoted ?zinc chromite? catalyst. A new column for the on-line gas chromatography (GC) was purchased for the analysis of various light olefin and paraffin isomers. A run was carried out in the continuous stirred autoclave using the Cs-promoted catalyst. Decahydronaphfialene was used as the slurry liquid. Reaction conditions were 375C, 2000 psig total pressure, 0.5 H&sub2;/CO ratio, and 5000 sL/Kg (cat.)-hr. Analysis of the data from this run is in progress. A manuscript on the thermal stability of potential slurry liquids was submitted to 'Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research,' and a paper was presented at the 1997 Spring National Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Houston, Texas.

  10. Impact of zeolite aging in hot liquid water on activity for acid-catalyzed dehydration of alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vjunov, Aleksei; Derewinski, Miroslaw A.; Fulton, John L.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2015-08-19

    The catalytic performance of zeolite in aqueous medium depends on a multitude of factors, such as the concentration and distribution of active sites and framework integrity. Al Kedge extended Xray absorption fine structure and 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopies in combination with DFT calculations are used to determine the distribution of tetrahedral Al sites both qualitatively and quantitatively for both parent and 48 h 160 C water treated HBEA catalysts. There is no evidence of Al coordination modification after aging in water. The distribution and concentration of Al Tsites, active centers for the dehydration of cyclohexanol, do not markedly impact the catalytic performance in water, because the Brnsted acidic protons are present in the form of hydrated hydronium ions and thus have very similar acid properties. The results suggest that all Brnsted acid sites are equally active in aqueous medium. The decrease of zeolite catalytic performance after water treatment is attributed to the reduced concentration of Brnsted acid sites. Increasing the stability of pore walls and decreasing the rate of SiOSi group hydrolysis may result in improved apparent zeolite catalytic performance in aqueous medium. Authors thank B. W. Arey (PNNL) for HIM measurements, T. Huthwelker for support during Al XAFS measurements at the Swiss Light Source (PSI, Switzerland), J. Z. Hu and S. D. Burton (PNNL) for support during NMR experiments. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. MD acknowledges support by the Materials Synthesis and Simulation Across Scales (MS3 Initiative) conducted under Laboratory Directed Research & Development Program at PNNL. HIM imaging and NMR experiments were performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for the DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract # DE-AC05-76RL0-1830

  11. Technical/economical feasibility study for the Apex Oil Company alcohol/gasohol plant near Carville, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The results of a study conducted to determine the feasibility of constructing and operating a 33 million gallon-per-year ethanol plant in Carville, Louisiana are presented. Under current market conditions the 33 million gallon per year ethanol plant under consideration by Apex at its Carville, Louisiana site does not appear to be attractive at this time. There are five major factors which contribute to this outcome: (1) the market for ethanol/gasohol is not developed to the point where there is sufficient demand to assure full plant utilization in the near future; (2) the price required to provide a reasonable rate of return is 80 cents per barrel above the current estimated market clearing price of $1.50 per gallon; (3) the capital costs to construct a plant of this size has increased from $30 million at the onset of the study to $86 million; (4) Louisiana gasohol blending incentives cannot be assured since there is insufficient local feedstock production to meet the minimum import requirements; and (5) lack of participation by major oil companies in the gasohol program limits both the distribution and potential retail outlets for the product. Apex plans to place the project on hold pending satisfactory resolution of these items.

  12. EERE Success Story—Exploring Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Sugar and Sugar Alcohols to Reduce Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New aqueous phase reforming process uses liquid feedstocks to produce energy from hydrogen with reduced costs.

  13. Ag-Al2O3 Catalyst HC-SCR: Performance with Light Alcohols and Other Reductants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  14. Structure of substituted 2-(phenoxy)benzimidazoles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavlova, I. S. Pervova, I. G.; Lipunova, G. N.; Novikova, R. K.; Slepukhin, P. A.; Lipunov, I. N.

    2013-03-15

    The synthesis and X-ray diffraction study of 1-benzyl-2-[2-(5-ethyltetrazole-2-yl)-phenoxy]-1H-benzimidazole and 1-benzyl-2-[2-(5-ethyltetrazole-2-yl)-4-nitrophenoxy]-1H-benzimidazole single crystals have been performed. The oxidative splitting of an azo-hydrazone group of 1-(2-hydroxy-(5-nitro)phenyl)-3-ethyl-5-(benzylbenzimidazolyl)formazans, a break in the C2-N1 bond, the interaction of o-hydroxyl group of aryl fragment with oxygen, and the formation of new 2-(phenoxy)benzimidazoles are found to occur in the presence of perchlorate iron(III).

  15. Analysis of the Effects of Compositional and Configurational Assumptions on Product Costs for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Mixed Alcohols FY 2007 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine alternative biomass-to-ethanol conversion process assumptions and configuration options to determine their relative effects on overall process economics. A process-flow-sheet computer model was used to determine the heat and material balance for each configuration that was studied. The heat and material balance was then fed to a costing spreadsheet to determine the impact on the ethanol selling price. By examining a number of operational and configuration alternatives and comparing the results to the base flow sheet, alternatives having the greatest impact the performance and cost of the overall system were identified and used to make decisions on research priorities. This report, which was originally published in December 2008, has been revised primarily to correct information presented in Appendix B -- Base Case Flow Sheets and Model Results. The corrections to Appendix B include replacement of several pages in Table B.1 that duplicated previous pages of the table. Other changes were made in Appendix B to correct inconsistencies between stream labels presented in the tables and the stream labels in the figures.

  16. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    and alcohol purity specifications (commonly referred to as the "DuPont" waiver). ... and alcohol purity specifications (commonly referred to as the "DuPont" waiver). ...

  17. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... and alcohol purity specifications (commonly referred to as the "DuPont" waiver). ... and alcohol purity specifications (commonly referred to as the "DuPont" waiver). ...

  18. Summary of Decisions - June 22, 2015 - June 26, 2015 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    had not successfully addressed the DOE's security concerns regarding his use of alcohol, which included frequent intoxication and had resulted in three alcohol-related...

  19. Summary of Decisions - May 26, 2014 - May 30, 2014 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The individual has a history of four arrests for Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol (DUI). A DOE psychologist also found that the individual habitually used alcohol to...

  20. Security Cases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to administrative review citing as security concerns the individual's diagnosis of alcohol abuse and his alcohol-related arrests. After conducting a hearing, convened at the...

  1. Summary of Decisions - December 1, 2014 - December 5, 2014 |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    found that the individual had not resolved the security concerns arising from his alcohol use and diagnosis by a DOE psychologist that he suffered from alcohol use disorder,...

  2. TABLE33.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), and other aliphatic alcohols and ethers intended for motor gasoline blending...

  3. Lockout/Tagout for the Control of Hazardous Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a written explanation for each fatality on an attachment to this form. 4. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms violations Any Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms...

  4. TABLE34.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), and other aliphatic alcohols and ethers intended for motor gasoline blending...

  5. Summary of Decisions - June 29, 2015 - July 3, 2015 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    concluded that the individual had not resolved the DOE's concerns regarding his use of alcohol, which included frequent intoxication and had resulted in one alcohol-related arrest. ...

  6. Summary of Decisions - April 20, 2015 - April 24, 2015 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    security concerns regarding his use of alcohol, which included frequent intoxication ... individual was properly diagnosed with Alcohol Dependence, an illness that, in his ...

  7. The original of this document contains information which is subject...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    random breath alcohol test to the Individual. That test indicated that the Individual's blood alcohol level was .034 percent. This incident led the Local Security Office (LSO) to...

  8. The role of polymer formation during vapor phase lubrication...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The lubrication of silicon surfaces with alcohol vapors has recently been demonstrated. ... The parent alcohol molecule pentanol, has molecular weight of 88amu, suggesting that ...

  9. Synthesis and Rheological Characterization of Poly (vinyl acetate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    alcohol-b-vinyl acetate) Triblock Copolymer Hydrogels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthesis and Rheological Characterization of Poly (vinyl acetate-b-vinyl alcohol-...

  10. Microsoft Word - LLNLHRPfinal062606.doc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DETAILS OF FINDINGS Drug and Alcohol Test Random Selection Process 4 LLNL ... personal integrity, drug andor alcohol abuse, financial responsibility, job ...

  11. Summary of Decisions - January 4, 2016 - January 8, 2016 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    derogatory information pertaining to her alcohol use, a Local Security Office (LSO) ... individual met the criteria for a Mild Alcohol Disorder, without adequate evidence of ...

  12. Total Blender Net Input of Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w ... Notes: RBOB with Ether, RBOB with Alcohol, and Reformulated GTAB Motor Gasoline Blending ...

  13. Security | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... or mentalpersonality disorders, alcohol abuse, use of illegal drugs or the abuse ... in the Human Reliability and Alcohol Abuse Within the Office Secure ...

  14. DOE F 470.7 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program) and the breath alcohol technician. Screening results are to be afixed to the form. PDF icon Human Reliability Program (HRP) Alcohol Testing Form More Documents & ...

  15. Security Hearing FAQs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... For example, if you have undergone an alcohol rehabilitation program, you might consider ... not to use illegal drugs, andor evidence showing a positive test for drugs or alcohol. ...

  16. What to Expect when being Processed for a Department of Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... history * Police records * Any drug and alcohol abuse * Any personal conduct issues HOW ... such as arrests, credit problems, alcohol abuse, illegal drug use, or any other ...

  17. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Alcohol Testing System (Assistant)) PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational Health and Safety Medical System (OHS) (Includes the Drug and Alcohol ...

  18. Challenge # 3 … Operational Issues

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by blending with a solvent e.g. alcohol. Is stabilization required for a ... of filtered, diluted (usually with alcohol) pyrolysis oils in burners, internal ...

  19. Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Crude Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w ... Notes: RBOB with Ether, RBOB with Alcohol, and Reformulated GTAB Motor Gasoline Blending ...

  20. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... The lubrication of silicon surfaces with alcohol vapors has recently been demonstrated. ... The parent alcohol molecule pentanol, has molecular weight of 88amu, suggesting that ...

  1. Summary of Decisions - May 18, 2015 - May 22, 2015 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Psychiatrist) diagnosis of Alcohol Use Disorder. Further the Administrative Judge found no evidence that the individual had participated in any alcohol treatment program since the ...

  2. Development of a plasmid-based expression system in Clostridium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    heterologous expression of bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenases (adhEs) Title: Development ... heterologous expression of bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenases (adhEs) Authors: Hon, ...

  3. Inspection Letter Report: INS-L-11-01 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in the Human Reliability Program and Alcohol Abuse within the Office of Secure ... Program (HRP) and alcohol abuse within the Office of Secure Transportation (OST). ...

  4. Monthly Energy Review The Monthly Energy Review

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    finished motor gasoline (leaded or unleaded) and alcohol (generally ethanol but sometimes methanol) limited to 10 percent by volume of alcohol. Gasohol is included in finished...

  5. Lewis Acid Pairs for the Activation of Biomass-derived Oxygenates in Aqueous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roman, Yuriy

    2015-09-14

    The objective of this project is to understand the mechanistic aspects behind the cooperative activation of oxygenates by catalytic pairs in aqueous media. Specifically, we will investigate how the reactivity of a solid Lewis acid can be modulated by pairing the active site with other catalytic sites at the molecular level, with the ultimate goal of enhancing activation of targeted functional groups. Although unusual catalytic properties have been attributed to the cooperative effects promoted by such catalytic pairs, virtually no studies exist detailing the use heterogeneous water-tolerant Lewis pairs. A main goal of this work is to devise rational pathways for the synthesis of porous heterogeneous catalysts featuring isolated Lewis pairs that are active in the transformation of biomass-derived oxygenates in the presence of bulk water. Achieving this technical goal will require closely linking advanced synthesis techniques; detailed kinetic and mechanistic investigations; strict thermodynamic arguments; and comprehensive characterization studies of both materials and reaction intermediates. For the last performance period (2014-2015), two technical aims were pursued: 1) C-C coupling using Lewis acid and base pairs in Lewis acidic zeolites. Tin-, zirconium-, and hafnium containing zeolites (e.g., Sn-, Zr-, and Hf-Beta) are versatile solid Lewis acids that selectively activate carbonyl functional groups. In this aim, we demonstrate that these zeolites catalyze the cross-aldol condensation of aromatic aldehydes with acetone under mild reaction conditions with near quantitative yields. NMR studies with isotopically labeled molecules confirm that acid-base pairs in the Si-O-M framework ensemble promote soft enolization through α-proton abstraction. The Lewis acidic zeolites maintain activity in the presence of water and, unlike traditional base catalysts, in acidic solutions. 2) One-pot synthesis of MWW zeolite nanosheets for activation of bulky substrates. Through post-synthetic modifications, layered zeolite precursors can be transformed into 2-dimensional (2D), zeolites with open architectures. These novel hierarchical microporous/mesoporous materials with exposed active sites can facilitate the conversion of bulky substrates while maintaining higher stability than amorphous mesoporous materials. However, post-synthetic exfoliation techniques are energy intensive, multi-step and require highly alkaline conditions that result in low silica yields and a partially amorphous product. In this aim, we demonstrate an effective one-pot synthesis method to generate exfoliated single-unit-cell thick MWW nanosheets. The new material, named MIT-1, is synthesized using a rationally-designed OSDA and results in a material with high crystallinity, surface area, and acidity that does not require post-synthetic treatments other than calcination. A parametric study of Al, Na, and water content reveals that MIT-1 crystallizes over a wide synthetic window. Characterization data show that MIT-1 has high mesoporosity with an external surface area exceeding 500 m2g-1 and a high external acid site density of 21 x 10-5 mol g-1. Catalytic tests demonstrate that MIT-1 has three-fold higher catalytic activity for the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of benzene with benzyl alcohol as compared to that of other 3D MWW topology zeolites.

  6. Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Warner, Benjamin P.; McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark

    2006-06-20

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  7. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Warner, Benjamin P.; McClesky, T. Mark

    2008-11-11

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  8. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Warner, Benjamin P.; McClesky, T. Mark

    2008-10-14

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  9. Underground Storage Tanks: New Fuels and Compatibility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... 1980 1984 1990 1995 1981 1985 1988 2005 Prior to Oct. 1980: No single or double wall tanks are warrantied for any alcohol or alcohol blended fuels. Oct. 1980 to Jun. 1984: ...

  10. The original of this document contains information which is subject...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Possession of a Firearm While Under the Influence of Alcohol, and was later charged with ... Possession of a Firearm While Under the Influence of Alcohol, and the subsequent charge of ...

  11. The original of this document contains information which is subject...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... habitually to excess, or has been diagnosed by a psychiatrist or licensed clinical psychologist as alcohol dependent or as suffering from alcohol abuse." 10 C.F.R. 710.8(j). ...

  12. " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...","*","*",0,"*",0,0,0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*",0,"*" ...","*",0,"*",0,0,0,0,0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ","*",0,"*",0,0,0,0,0,0,0 325199," Other ...

  13. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...73,"*","*",22,"W",0,0,"W" 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",317,7359,0,"*",251,"*",1,0,7 325199," ...","*","*","W","*",0,0,"*" 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ","W",72,0,"*","W","*",0,0,0 325199," ...

  14. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Electricity...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...mediates",2673,0,0,0,2673 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",7359,0,485,4,7840 325199," Other Basic ...ermediates",160,0,0,0,160 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",72,0,0,4,69 325199," Other Basic ...

  15. Low-Cost, Haziness-Free, Transparent Insulation Based On a Porous...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Image of porous silica material in alcohol.
    Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Image of porous silica material in alcohol. Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Lead ...

  16. Originally Released: July 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 0 0 * 0 * 0 * 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 3 0 * 2 * 0 0 1 325199 Other Basic ... * 0 0 * 0 0 0 0 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Originally Released: July ...

  17. Originally Released: July 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 0 0 * 0 * 0 * 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 3 0 * 2 * 0 0 1 325199 Other Basic ... * 0 0 * 0 0 0 0 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 325199 Other Basic ...

  18. Released: March 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Intermediates",0,0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",485,448,37,"*" 325199," Other Basic ... Intermediates",0,0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",0,0,0,0 325199," Other Basic Organic ...

  19. Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Intermediates 2 0 1 0 0 0 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 1 0 1 0 0 1 325199 Other Basic Organic ... Intermediates 0 0 0 0 0 0 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 0 0 0 0 0 0 325199 Other Basic Organic ...

  20. 311221," Wet Corn Milling",0,0,0,0,0

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...mediates",0,"X","X","X",0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",0,0,0,"X",0 325199," Other Basic ...mediates",0,"X","X","X",0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",0,"X","X","X",0 325199," Other Basic ...

  1. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...673,"*","*",22,"*",0,0,17 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",307,7359,0,"*",245,"*",1,0,4 325199," ...160,"*","*",5,"*",0,0,"*" 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",2,72,0,"*",2,"*",0,0,0 325199," Other ...

  2. From PADD 1 to PADD 2 Movements by Tanker, Pipeline, Barge and...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reformulated - RBOB 0 2008-2015 RBOB for Blending with Alcohol* 2005-2009 Conventional ... Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB with Alcohol are discontinued as of the January 2010 ...

  3. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...566,,0,"*",15,,"*",0,0,12 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",111,,2717,,0,"*",80,,"*",1,0,1 325199," ...,,178,,0,"*",4,,"*",0,0,1 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ","*",,1,,0,0,"*",,"*",0,0,0 325199," ...

  4. Table 11.5 Electricity: Sales to Utility and Nonutility Purchasers...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Intermediates 0 0 0 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 4 0 4 325199 Other Basic Organic ... and Intermediates 0 0 0 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 4 0 4 325199 Other Basic Organic ...

  5. Originally Released: July 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    37 9 1 * 16 * 0 0 12 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 110 9 0 * 82 * 19 0 * 325199 Other Basic ... 6 1 0 * 4 * 0 0 1 325193 Ethyl Alcohol * * 0 0 * * 0 0 0 325199 Other Basic ...

  6. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    * 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 325193 Ethyl Alcohol * * * * * * 0 0 0 0 325199 Other Basic ... * 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 325193 Ethyl Alcohol * 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 325199 Other Basic ...

  7. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Electricity...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...mediates",2566,0,0,0,2566 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",2715,2,427,0,3143 325199," Other Basic ...ermediates",178,0,0,0,178 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",1,0,0,0,1 325199," Other Basic Organic ...

  8. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    * * * 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 325193 Ethyl Alcohol * * * * * * * * 0 * 325199 Other Basic ... * 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 325193 Ethyl Alcohol * 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 325199 Other Basic ...

  9. 3219," Other Wood Products",41,43,0,58

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Intermediates",0,0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",5,5,0,0 325199," Other Basic Organic ... Intermediates",0,0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",0,0,0,0 325199," Other Basic Organic ...

  10. 3219," Other Wood Products",0,0,0

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Intermediates",0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",0,0,0 325199," Other Basic Organic ... and Intermediates",0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",0,0,0 325199," Other Basic Organic ...

  11. Released: October 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Intermediates",0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",0,0,0 325199," Other Basic Organic ... and Intermediates",0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",0,0,0 325199," Other Basic Organic ...

  12. Table 11.3 Electricity: Components of Onsite Generation, 2010...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Intermediates 0 0 0 0 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 485 448 37 * 325199 Other Basic Organic ... and Intermediates 0 0 0 0 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 0 0 0 0 325199 Other Basic Organic ...

  13. 3219," Other Wood Products",7,12,8

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Intermediates",0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",16,0,0 325199," Other Basic Organic ... and Intermediates",0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",0,0,0 325199," Other Basic Organic ...

  14. From PADD 1 to PADD 2 Movements by Tanker and Barge

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reformulated - RBOB 0 2008-2015 RBOB for Blending with Alcohol* 2005-2009 Conventional 50 ... Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB with Alcohol are discontinued as of the January 2010 ...

  15. Life cycle inventory of biodiesel and petroleum diesel for use...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biodiesel is made by chemically combining any natural oil or fat with an alcohol such as methanol or ethanol. Methanol has been the most commonly used alcohol in the commercial ...

  16. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... R VCE is an ethylenevinyl acetatevinyl alcohol terpolymer binder for filled elastomers ... 34.9 and 37.9%, while the vinyl alcohol content is typically between 1.27 and 1.78%. ...

  17. Table 3.1 Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    52 2,673 * * 22 * 0 0 18 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 307 7,392 0 * 245 * 1 0 4 325199 Other ... 7 160 * * 5 * 0 0 * 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 2 69 0 * 2 * 0 0 0 325199 Other Basic ...

  18. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    R VCE is an ethylenevinyl acetatevinyl alcohol terpolymer binder for filled elastomers ... 34.9 and 37.9%, while the vinyl alcohol content is typically between 1.27 and 1.78%. ...

  19. East Coast (PADD 1) Net Receipts of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    RBOB for Blending with Alcohol* 2005-2009 RBOB for Blending with Ether* 2005-2009 GTAB* ... Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB with Alcohol are discontinued as of the January 2010 ...

  20. 3219," Other Wood Products",5,0,41,0,5

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Intermediates",0,0,0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",11,0,5,0,10 325199," Other Basic ... Intermediates",0,0,0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",0,0,0,0,0 325199," Other Basic Organic ...

  1. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...2566,0,"*",15,"*","*",0,8 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",114,2715,0,"*",80,"*",1,0,2 325199," ...5,178,0,"*",4,"*",0,0,"*" 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ","*",1,0,0,"*","*",0,0,0 325199," Other ...

  2. ASM 2010_Lrajeev_poster.pptx

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    r eductase:hydrogenase alcohol dehydrogenase 2802 regulator 3 298 3 302 3 303 3 304 3 305 HK R R membrane prtn RR H K 2394 2 395 2 396 alcohol dehydrogenase 2114 RR 2116 ...

  3. Table 2.1 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2010...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    W 0 0 1 W 0 0 3 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 3 0 * 1 * 0 0 2 325199 Other Basic ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 325193 Ethyl Alcohol * 0 0 0 * 0 0 0 325199 Other Basic ...

  4. Summary of Decisions - August 10, 2015 - August 14, 2015 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The LSO had alleged that Individual's 2005 alcohol-related arrest, and an opinion by a psychologist that he was a user of alcohol habitually to excess, which the psychiatrist ...

  5. Table 3.2 Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    52 9 2 * 22 * 0 0 18 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 307 25 0 * 252 * 25 0 4 325199 Other ... 7 1 1 * 5 * 0 0 * 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 2 * 0 * 2 * 0 0 0 325199 Other Basic ...

  6. 311221," Wet Corn Milling",0,0,"X",0

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...mediates","X","X","X","X" 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",0,0,"X",0 325199," Other Basic Organic ...mediates","X","X","X","X" 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ","X","X","X","X" 325199," Other Basic ...

  7. Table 11.5 Electricity: Sales to Utility and Nonutility Purchasers...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Intermediates",0,0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",32,0,32,1 325199," Other Basic Organic ... Intermediates",0,0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",0,0,0,0 325199," Other Basic Organic ...

  8. Table 2.2 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2010...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    W 0 0 1 W 0 0 3 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 3 0 * 1 * 0 0 2 325199 Other Basic ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 325193 Ethyl Alcohol * 0 0 0 * 0 0 0 325199 Other Basic ...

  9. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ..."*","*",42,5,"*",0,25,0.9 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",61,1309,0,"*",29,"*",1,0,7,5.6 325199," ...","*","W","*",0,0,"*",0.8 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ","*","*",0,0,"*",0,0,0,"*",0.9 325199," ...

  10. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...673,"*","*",22,"*",0,0,18 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",307,7392,0,"*",245,"*",1,0,4 325199," ...160,"*","*",5,"*",0,0,"*" 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",2,69,0,"*",2,"*",0,0,0 325199," Other ...

  11. Released: March 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Intermediates",0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",4,0,4 325199," Other Basic Organic ... and Intermediates",0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",4,0,4 325199," Other Basic Organic ...

  12. Biofuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ethanol Ethanol-an alcohol-is made primarily from the starch in corn grain. It is most ... combines organically-derived oils with alcohol (ethanol or methanol) in the presence of ...

  13. Released: August 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...es",0,"X",0,"X","X","X",0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ","X","X","X","X","X","X","X" 325199," ...","X","X","X","X","X","X" 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ","X","X","X","X","X","X","X" 325199," ...

  14. Originally Released: July 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    37 2,566 * * 15 * 0 0 12 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 110 2,717 0 * 80 * 1 0 * 325199 Other ... 6 178 0 * 4 * 0 0 1 325193 Ethyl Alcohol * 1 0 0 * * 0 0 0 325199 Other Basic ...

  15. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...,190,0,1,117,"*","*",0,74 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",863,117,0,4,665,8,46,0,22 325199," ...",48,8,0,"*",36,"*",0,0,3 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ","*","*",0,0,"*","*",0,0,0 325199," ...

  16. Released: October 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Intermediates",0,0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",427,389,0,38 325199," Other Basic ... Intermediates",0,0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",0,0,0,0 325199," Other Basic Organic ...

  17. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Intermediates 0 0 0 0 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 427 389 0 38 325199 Other Basic Organic ... and Intermediates 0 0 0 0 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 0 0 0 0 325199 Other Basic Organic ...

  18. Originally Released: July 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...",15,,"*",,"*",0,,13,,"*" 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",114,,2717,,0,"*",81,,"*",,1,0,,1,,0 ...,,0,"*",4,,"*",,0,0,,1,,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ","*",,1,,0,0,"*",,"*",,0,0,,0,,0 ...

  19. Summary of Decisions - January 25, 2016 - January 29, 2016 |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The individual received a citation for an alcohol-related offense, and the local security ... The DOE psychologist concluded that the individual was a user of alcohol habitually to ...

  20. Table 7.10 Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    155 W W 116 102 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 419 379 40 1,276 429 325199 Other Basic ... and Intermediates W W 0 W W 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 4 4 0 W 4 325199 Other Basic Organic ...

  1. Table 4.2 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    49 9 * * 22 * 0 0 17 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 307 25 0 * 252 * 25 0 4 325199 Other ... 6 1 * * 5 * 0 0 * 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 2 * 0 * 2 * 0 0 0 325199 Other Basic ...

  2. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...,9,,0,"*",16,,"*",,0,0,12 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",111,,9,,0,"*",82,,"*",,19,0,1 325199," ...6,,1,,0,"*",4,,"*",,0,0,1 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ","*",,"*",,0,0,"*",,"*",,0,0,0 325199," ...

  3. Table 11.3 Electricity: Components of Onsite Generation, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...mediates","W","W",0,"W",1 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",521,521,0,0,5.9 325199," Other Basic ... Intermediates",0,0,0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",0,0,0,0,0 325199," Other Basic Organic ...

  4. "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Intermediates",0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",0,0,0 325199," Other Basic Organic ... and Intermediates",0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",0,0,0 325199," Other Basic Organic ...

  5. Originally Released: July 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...*",16,,"*",,"*",0,13,,"*" 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",114,,9,,0,"*",83,,"*",,19,0,1,,0 ...1,,0,"*",5,,"*",,0,0,1,,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ","*",,"*",,0,0,"*",,"*",,0,0,0,,0 ...

  6. Table 4.1 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    49 2,673 * * 22 * 0 0 17 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 307 7,359 0 * 245 * 1 0 4 325199 Other ... 6 160 * * 5 * 0 0 * 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 2 72 0 * 2 * 0 0 0 325199 Other Basic ...

  7. Released: July 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...","*",0,"*",0,0,0,0,0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ","*","*","*","*","*","*",0,0,0,0 ...","*",0,"*",0,0,0,0,0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ","*",0,"*",0,0,0,0,0,0,0 325199," Other ...

  8. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...6,,"*","*",15,,"*",0,0,12 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",110,,2717,,0,"*",80,,"*",1,0,"*" ...,,178,,0,"*",4,,"*",0,0,1 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ","*",,1,,0,0,"*",,"*",0,0,0 325199," ...

  9. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...,52,9,2,"*",22,"*",0,0,18 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",307,25,0,"*",252,"*",25,0,4 325199," ...",7,1,1,"*",5,"*",0,0,"*" 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",2,"*",0,"*",2,"*",0,0,0 325199," Other ...

  10. Aging Studies of VCE Dismantlement Returns (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    VCE is an ethylenevinyl acetatevinyl alcohol terpolymer binder for filled elastomers ... 34.9 and 37.9%, while the vinyl alcohol content is typically between 1.27 and 1.78%. ...

  11. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...9,9,"*","*",22,"*",0,0,17 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",307,25,0,"*",252,"*",25,0,4 325199," ...6,1,"*","*",5,"*",0,0,"*" 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",2,"*",0,"*",2,"*",0,0,0 325199," Other ...

  12. From PADD 1 to PADD 2 Movements by Tanker, Pipeline, Barge and...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reformulated - RBOB 0 0 0 477 0 0 2008-2015 RBOB for Blending with Alcohol* 2005-2009 ... Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB with Alcohol are discontinued as of the January 2010 ...

  13. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...,9,,1,"*",16,,"*",,0,0,12 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",110,,9,,0,"*",82,,"*",,19,0,"*" ...6,,1,,0,"*",4,,"*",,0,0,1 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ","*",,"*",,0,0,"*",,"*",,0,0,0 325199," ...

  14. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column:...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Intermediates 0 0 0 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 0 0 0 325199 Other Basic Organic ... and Intermediates 0 0 0 325193 Ethyl Alcohol 0 0 0 325199 Other Basic Organic ...

  15. Peer Review 2013 Dutta Syngas | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol and Methanol Tax Ethyl alcohol and methyl alcohol motor fuels are taxed at a rate of $0.14 per gallon when used as a motor fuel. Ethyl alcohol is defined as a motor fuel that is typically derived from agricultural products that have been denatured. Methyl alcohol is a motor fuel that is most commonly derived from wood products. (Reference South Dakota Statutes 10-47B-3 and 10-47B-4

  17. Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop: Summary Report Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

  18. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duran, E.L.

    1984-11-29

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  19. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duran, Edward L.

    1985-01-01

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  20. Hydroxide Degradation Pathways for Substituted Benzyltrimethyl Ammonium: A DFT Study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Long, Hai; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2014-11-01

    The stability of cations used in the alkaline exchange membranes has been a major challenge. In this paper, degradation energy barriers were investigated by density functional theory for substituted benzyltrimethyl ammonium (BTMA+) cations. Findings show that electron-donating substituent groups at meta-position(s) of the benzyl ring could result in increased degradation barriers. However, after investigating more than thirty substituted BTMA+ cations, the largest improvement in degradation barrier found was only 6.7 kJ/mol. This suggests a modest (8×) improvement in stability for this type of approach may be possible, but for anything greater other approaches will need to be pursued.

  1. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, C.E.

    1999-02-09

    A method is described for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process. 2 figs.

  2. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, Charles E.

    1999-02-09

    A method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process.

  3. Synthesis of labeled oxalic acid derivatives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Alvarez, Marc A.

    2004-06-22

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, specifically ##STR1## where each C* is selected from the group consisting of a carbon-12, i.e., .sup.12 C, or a carbon-13, i.e., .sup.13 C and at least one C* is .sup.13 C, R.sup.1 is selected from the group of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl and aryl, and X is selected from the group of --NR.sup.2 R.sup.3 where R.sup.2 and R.sup.3 are each independently selected from the group of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, alkoxy and aryl, --SR.sup.4 where R.sup.4 is selected from the group of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, alkoxy and aryl, and --OR.sup.5 where R.sup.5 is selected from the group of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, alkoxy and aryl with the proviso that when R.sup.1 is methyl then R.sup.5 is other than methyl, when R.sup.1 is ethyl then R.sup.5 is other than ethyl, and when R.sup.1 is benzyl then R.sup.5 is other than benzyl.

  4. Infrared spectroscopy of organic free radicals related to combustion processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weisshaar, J.C.

    1993-12-01

    The primary long-term goal of this work is to develop new techniques for measuring vibrational spectra of polyatomic neutral free radicals. The authors explore a variation of resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI) in which tunable {omega}{sub IR} excites the radical vibrationally and {omega}{sub UV} selectively ionizes only the vibrationally excited molecules. Development of the IR + UV R2PI experiment is underway. In the meantime, the authors have used optical R2PI and pulsed field ionization (PFI) detection to obtain new vibrational spectra of species such as the benzyl and phenylsilane cations. In benzyl, a great deal was learned about the vibronic coupling mechanism in the mixed q{sup 2}A{sub 2}-2{sup 2}B{sub 2} system near 450 nm by projecting the mixed states onto the manifold of cation vibrational states. In phenylsilane{sup +}, we find that the sixfold barrier to internal rotation of the silyl group is small (V{sub 6} = +19 cm{sup {minus}1}). We are beginning to understand the mechanisms of coupling of torsional states with vibration, overall rotation, and other electronic states. In addition, we are developing a new model of internal rotation in aromatic compounds based on Prof. Frank Weinhold`s natural resonance theory.

  5. Transetherification method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hearn, D.

    1985-04-09

    Transetherification is carried out in a catalytic distillation reactor, wherein the catalytic structure also serves as a distillation structure, by feeding a first ether to the catalyst bed to at least partially dissociate it into a first olefin and a first alcohol while concurrently therewith feeding either a second olefin (preferably a tertiary olefin) having a higher boiling point than said first olefin or a second alcohol having a higher boiling point than said first alcohol to the catalyst whereby either the second olefin and the first alcohol or the first olefin and the second alcohol react to form a second ether which has a higher boiling point than the first ether, which second ether is concurrently removed as a bottoms in the concurrent reaction-distillation to force that reaction to completion, while the unreacted first olefin or first alcohol is removed in the overhead. 1 fig.

  6. Method of performing sugar dehydration and catalyst treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-06-01

    The invention includes a method of treating a solid acid catalyst. After exposing the catalyst to a mixture containing a sugar alcohol, the catalyst is washed with an organic solvent and is then exposed to a second reaction mixture. The invention includes a process for production of anhydrosugar alcohol. A solid acid catalyst is provided to convert sugar alcohol in a first sample to an anhydrosugar alcohol. The catalyst is then washed with an organic solvent and is subsequently utilized to expose a second sample. The invention includes a method for selective production of an anhydrosugar. A solid acid catalyst is provided within a reactor and anhydrosugar alcohol is formed by flowing a starting sugar alcohol into the reactor. The acid catalyst is then exposed to an organic solvent which allows a greater amount of additional anhydrosugar to be produced than would occur without exposing the acid catalyst to the organic solvent.

  7. Transetherification method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hearn, Dennis

    1985-01-01

    Transetherification is carried out in a catalytic distillation reactor, wherein the catalytic structure also serves as a distillation structure, by feeding a first ether to the catalyst bed to at least partially dissociate it into a first olefin and a first alcohol while concurrently therewith feeding either a second olefin (preferably a tertiary olefin) having a higher boiling point than said first olefin or a second alcohol having a higher boiling point than said first alcohol to the catalyst whereby either the second olefin and the first alcohol or the first olefin and the second alcohol react to form a second ether which has a higher boiling point than the first ether, which second ether is concurrently removed as a bottoms in the concurrent reaction-distillation to force that reaction to completion, while the unreacted first olefin or first alcohol is removed in the overhead.

  8. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols | Department of Energy 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S.

  9. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational Health

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Safety Medical System (OHS) (Includes the Drug and Alcohol Testing System (Assistant)) | Department of Energy MedGate Occupational Health and Safety Medical System (OHS) (Includes the Drug and Alcohol Testing System (Assistant)) PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational Health and Safety Medical System (OHS) (Includes the Drug and Alcohol Testing System (Assistant)) PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational Health and Safety Medical System

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Definition The following fuels are defined as alternative fuels by the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992: pure methanol, ethanol, and other alcohols; blends of 85% or more of alcohol with gasoline; natural gas and liquid fuels domestically produced from natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas (propane); coal-derived liquid fuels; hydrogen; electricity; pure biodiesel (B100); fuels, other than alcohol, derived from biological materials; and P-Series fuels. In addition, the U.S.

  11. Solvent and Process for Recovery of Hydroxide from Aqueous Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Chambliss, C. Kevin; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Keever, Tamara J.

    1999-09-13

    Hydroxide values and associated alkali metal may be recovered from alkaline aqueous solutions using classes of fluorinated alcohols in a water immiscible solvent. The alcohols are characterized by fluorine substituents which are proximal to the acidic alcohol protons and are located to adjust the acidity of the extractant and the solubility of the extractant in the solvent. A method for stripping the extractant and solvent to regenerate the extractant and purified aqueous hydroxide solution is described.

  12. Solvent and process for recovery of hydroxide from aqueous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chambliss, C. Kevin (Macon, GA); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Keever, Tamara J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01

    Hydroxide values and associated alkali metal may be recovered from alkaline aqueous solutions using classes of fluorinated alcohols in a water immiscible solvent. The alcohols are characterized by fluorine substituents which are proximal to the acidic alcohol protons and are located to adjust the acidity of the extractant and the solubility of the extractant in the solvent. A method for stripping the extractant and solvent to regenerate the extractant and purified aqueous hydroxide solution is described.

  13. PSH-15-0095 - In the Matter of Personnel Security Hearing | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy 2 - In the Matter of Personnel Security Hearing PSH-15-0072 - In the Matter of Personnel Security Hearing On November 25, 2015, an Administrative Judge issued a decision in which he determined that an individual's request for access authorization should not be granted. In the Notification Letter, the DOE alleged that the individual suffered from alcohol abuse and consumed alcohol habitually to excess. In support of these allegations, the DOE cited the individual's five alcohol-related

  14. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Catalytic transfer hydrogenation (CTH) using alcohols as hydrogen carrier on Ru/C leads to selective conversion of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to dimethylfuran (DMF) with the highest ever (>80%) yield. Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation of Furans to Methylfurans with Alcohols as a Hydrogen Carrier Work was performed by the groups of Dion Vlachos and Raul Lobo at the University of Delaware Research Details - Hydrogen can be effectively delivered from alcohols to HMF over a Ru/C catalyst to

  15. Synthesis and Rheological Characterization of Poly (vinyl acetate-b-vinyl

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    alcohol-b-vinyl acetate) Triblock Copolymer Hydrogels (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Synthesis and Rheological Characterization of Poly (vinyl acetate-b-vinyl alcohol-b-vinyl acetate) Triblock Copolymer Hydrogels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthesis and Rheological Characterization of Poly (vinyl acetate-b-vinyl alcohol-b-vinyl acetate) Triblock Copolymer Hydrogels Authors: SpeetjensII, Frank W. ; Mahanthappa, Mahesh K. [1] + Show Author Affiliations (UW) Publication

  16. The original of this document contains information which is subject...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    security concerns related to excessive alcohol consumption, which often leads to the exercise of questionable judgment or the failure to control impulses, and calls into...

  17. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... by weight, and the blend must meet ASTM volatility specifications as well as phase separation and alcohol purity specifications (commonly referred to as the "DuPont" waiver). ...

  18. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    by weight, and the blend must meet ASTM volatility specifications as well as phase separation and alcohol purity specifications (commonly referred to as the "DuPont" waiver). ...

  19. PRAJ Industries Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    molasses based distillery technology, plant and equipment for alcohol, fuel ethanol and beer production. References: PRAJ Industries Ltd1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  20. Security Cases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in December 2014 for Driving While Intoxicated. He immediately stopped drinking alcohol and sought help voluntarily from his site's employee assistance program (EAP). After...

  1. Security Cases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the individual to address concerns about his falsification of information and alcohol use. The individual's behavior raised security concerns under Criteria F, H and L....

  2. Summary of Decisions - December 3, 2012 - December 7, 2012 |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the individual had successfully addressed the DOE's security concerns regarding his alcohol consumption. Specifically, the Hearing Officer concluded that the individual's eight...

  3. Forensic Sites | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wildlife Service Forensics Laboratory (FWS) US Secret Service US Treasury Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) Forensic Organizations Web Sites American...

  4. Demonstration and Deployment Workshop - Day 2 | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    PDF icon danddworkshopholmgren.pdf More Documents & Publications Sustainable Solutions to Global Energy Challenges Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from ...

  5. Method of altering lignin in trees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacKay, J.; O`Malley, D.; Whetten, R.; Sederoff, R.

    1998-10-20

    Methods of providing and breeding trees having more easily extractable lignin due to the presence of a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (Cad) null gene are presented. 16 figs.

  6. Selective Oxidation of Organic Substrates to Partially Oxidized...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Brief (243 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Rapid and controlled rate of catalysis, utilizing ozone for oxidation of alcohols to ketones or aldehydes, is made possible...

  7. DOE Financial Assistance Awards: Active Project Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Federal award o Alcoholic beverages o Entertainment o Meals in your home townnot traveling, including working lunches o Unauthorized airfare upgrades o Auto expenses, when ...

  8. Trichy Distilleries and Chemicals Ltd TDCL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Zip: 600 020 Sector: Biomass Product: Chennai-based, alcohol manufactureres and biomass project developers. Coordinates: 13.06397, 80.24311...

  9. Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high-surface-area support are widely used for catalytic reforming, pollution control, alcohol oxidation, and electrocatalysis in fuel cells. Owing to the nanoscale size of the...

  10. Pioneer Distilleries Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd Place: Hyderabad, Arunachal Pradesh, India Zip: 500 016 Product: Focused on alcohol, spirits and ethanol production. Coordinates: 17.6726, 77.5971 Show Map Loading...

  11. Power Ecalene Fuels Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Arvada, Colorado Zip: 80007 Region: Rockies Area Sector: Biofuels Product: Mixed alcohol transportation fuel Website: www.powerecalene.com Coordinates: 39.862942,...

  12. Bioroot Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to higher mixed alcohol transportation fuels, we are dedicated to helping transform modern municipal waste management practices from a polluting, non-producer of tangible goods...

  13. Corporate Tax Credit | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alcohol Fuel Credit (Federal) Corporate Tax Credit United States Commercial Industrial Ethanol Methanol No Alternative Energy Development Incentive (Corporate) (Utah) Corporate Tax...

  14. Gold-catalyzed synthesis of carbonates and carbamates from carbon monoxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friend, Cynthia M; Madix, Robert J; Xu, Bingjun

    2015-01-20

    The invention provides a method for producing organic carbonates via the reaction of alcohols and carbon monoxide with oxygen adsorbed on a metallic gold or gold alloy catalyst.

  15. Guangdong ZhongKe Tianyuan Regeneration Engineering Co Ltd ZKTY...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    equipment in China to assist firms with the production of ethanol, edible alcohol and acetic acid. References: Guangdong ZhongKe Tianyuan Regeneration Engineering Co. Ltd...

  16. Integration of a "Passive Water Recovery" MEA into a Portable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Radiator heat exchanger requires large surface area Water recovery components are heavy ... stability in alcohol solutions: laser-drilled holes Minimal drag of water - ...

  17. Weekly Petroleum Status Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alcohol. The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, ... propane, and butane; and many other products used for their energy or chemical content. ...

  18. PSADEFS.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Alcohol. The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, ... A generic term applied to a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, ...

  19. Glossary - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alcohol: The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, ... propane, and butane; and many other products used for their energy or chemical content. ...

  20. Bio-Oxo Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is it difficult? Aldehydes are more toxic to bacterial cells than alcohols. Toxins and inhibitors such as acetate, formate and 5- (hydroxymethyl)furfural are created ...

  1. InMon,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gas (common- tenance infrastructure. (Denver, also a Clean City, has also ly known as propane); coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels other than alcohol that are derived from...

  2. The original of this document contains information which is subject...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), for Alcohol Related Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, 4 and that this is an ...

  3. Search for: All records | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Name: Subject: Identifier Numbers: Research Org: Sponsoring Org: Publication Date: ... Here we show the importance of host engineering for the production of short-chain alcohols ...

  4. Summary of Decisions - March 17, 2014 - March 21, 2014 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and becoming an active participant in Alcoholics Anonymous - attending several meetings per week, working closely with a sponsor, and performing service work to the organization. ...

  5. Kansas's 1st congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    district Conestoga Energy Partners LLC ESE Alcohol Gateway Ethanol LLC formerly Wildcat Bio Energy LLC Kansas Ethanol LLC Nesika Energy LLC Orion Ethanol Reeve Agri Energy Inc...

  6. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with ... Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous alcohol (ethanol with less than 1% water) intended for gasoline ...

  7. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Key Terms Definition Hydrogen The lightest of all gases, occurring chiefly in combination with oxygen in water; exists also in acids, bases, alcohols, petroleum, and other ...

  8. Washington/Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs (Washington) Utility Rebate Program Yes Biodiesel and Alcohol Fuel Blend Sales Tax Exemption (Washington) Sales Tax Incentive No...

  9. Comparison of SPME headspace analysis to U.S. EPA method5030/8260B for MTBE monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Oh, Kuen-Chan

    2005-02-01

    A novel method for analysis of methyl tert-butyl ether andtert-butyl alcohol using solid phase microextraction is described andcompared to a standard method.

  10. Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis showed that gasoline direct injection engine particulates from alcohol-blended fuels are significantly different in morphology and nanostructures PDF icon p-19seong.pdf ...

  11. Cutting Biofuel Production Costs | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cutting Biofuel Production Costs Working to use sunlight to convert biomass to biofuels, ... bioderived alcohols to benzaldehyde, toluene, and the zero-emission biofuel hydrogen. ...

  12. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational Health and Safety Medical System (OHS) (Includes the Drug and Alcohol Testing System (Assistant)) PIA - Savannah...

  13. Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol ...

  14. Search for: All records | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    carbon transformation and mercury methylation for tundra soils from Barrow, Alaska. ... alcohols, and organic acids were analyzed, and CH4 and CO2 emissions were quantified. ...

  15. Property:Incentive/ExpireDtString | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Appliance Rebate Program (Alabama) + 2010-05-09 + Alameda Municipal Power - Solar Photovoltaics Rebate Program (California) + 2017-12-31 + Alcohol Fuels Exemption (Hawaii)...

  16. Security Cases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    raised concerns under Criterion L regarding his questionable judgment in driving with a Blood Alcohol Content in excess of the legal limit and his criminal activity (cocaine use...

  17. Sales Tax Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Coal with CCS Natural Gas BiomassBiogas Yes Alcohol Fuels Exemption (Hawaii) Sales Tax Incentive Hawaii...

  18. Sales Tax Incentive | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Coal with CCS Natural Gas BiomassBiogas Yes Alcohol Fuels Exemption (Hawaii) Sales Tax Incentive Hawaii...

  19. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (US)","02 PETROLEUM; 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 10 SYNTHETIC FUELS; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; ALCOHOLS; BRASSICA; DIESEL...

  20. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    bus Final report Sheehan J Camobreco V Duffield J Graboski M Shapouri H PETROLEUM BIOMASS FUELS SYNTHETIC FUELS ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS ALCOHOLS BRASSICA DIESEL FUELS...

  1. bus. Final report Sheehan, J.; Camobreco, V.; Duffield, J.; Graboski...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sheehan, J.; Camobreco, V.; Duffield, J.; Graboski, M.; Shapouri, H. 02 PETROLEUM; 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 10 SYNTHETIC FUELS; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; ALCOHOLS; BRASSICA; DIESEL...

  2. DOE F 5631

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DATE: EMPLOYER: ALCOHOL TESTING DATE: ANNIVERSARYDUE DATE: TRAINING COMPLETION DATE: COUNTERINTELLIGENCE EVALUATION APPROVAL DATE: SECTION A - SUPERVISORY REVIEW I have reviewed ...

  3. Occupation Codes

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... from effects of high, low, or changes in air pressure. ... 0311 METHYL ALCOHOL (OR METHANOL) Carbinol Wood spirits ... Includes: Fixtures, load indicators, hooks, shackles, ...

  4. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) Procurement Cycle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System (HRMS) PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational Health and Safety Medical System (OHS) (Includes the Drug and Alcohol Testing System (Assistant)

  5. Federal, State, and Local Coordination | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Valley Authority (TVA), Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), Director of National Intelligence (DNI), ...

  6. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Movements by Tanker and Barge...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Components MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending w Ether* MGBC - Reformulated GTAB* MGBC - Conventional MGBC ...

  7. Search for: All records | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Development of a plasmid-based expression system in Clostridium thermocellum and its use to screen heterologous expression of bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenases (adhEs) Hon, Shuen ...

  8. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, Richard K.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1984-01-01

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  9. Windows Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lead Performer: Heliotrope Technologies - Oakland, CA Partner: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Berkeley, CA Image of porous silica material in alcohol.
    Photo credit: ...

  10. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Movements by Pipeline between...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w Alcohol* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other ...

  11. Refinery Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending with Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending with Ether* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional CBOB ...

  12. Calendar Year 2010 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Letter Report on "Inspection of Allegations Relating to Irregularities in the Human Reliability Program and Alcohol Abuse within the Office of Secure Transportation November 16, ...

  13. Method of altering lignin in trees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacKay, John; O'Malley, David; Whetten, Ross; Sederoff, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Methods of providing and breeding trees having more easily extractable lignin due to the presence of a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (Cad) null gene are presented.

  14. Total Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Components, RBOB Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, RBOB w Ether Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, RBOB w Alcohol Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, ...

  15. Bioenergy Technologies FY14 Budget At-a-Glance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... The data from the office's efforts directed at alcohol fuels will be available to industry and others looking to commercialize any of these technology pathways. Specific technical ...

  16. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) Energy Employees...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MedGate Occupational Health and Safety Medical System (OHS) (Includes the Drug and Alcohol Testing System (Assistant)) PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) Procurement ...

  17. UPDATED: Energy Department Announces New Advance in Biofuel Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    savings in processing costs and time, plus isobutanol is a higher grade of alcohol than ethanol. "Unlike ethanol, isobutanol can be blended at any ratio with gasoline ...

  18. Host cells and methods for producing isoprenyl alkanoates (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the esterification of an isoprenol and a straight-chain fatty acid, such as an alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT), wax ester synthasediacylglycerol acyltransferase (WSDGAT) ...

  19. Driving "Back to the Future": Flex-Fuel Vehicle Awareness | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Today's ethanol, essentially a non-drinkable grain alcohol, is made from corn or sugar cane. Researchers have also been developing processes to convert the cellulose in ...

  20. U.S. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Stocks by Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC ...

  1. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Downregulation of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (CAD) Leads to Improved Saccharification Efficiency in Switchgrass Chunxiang,Fu ; Xirong,Xiao ; Yajun,Xi ; Yaxin,Ge ; Fang,Chen ; ...

  2. East Coast (PADD 1) Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Net...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending w Ether* MGBC - Reformulated GTAB* MGBC - Conventional MGBC ...

  3. Security Cases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Required to abstain from alcohol for one year by his probation following his 2013 arrest, he violated that requirement two weeks before the end of his probationary period, ...

  4. INSPECTION REPORT: DOE/IG-0921 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (4) the use of inappropriate influence; and (5) improprieties related to the consumption of alcohol during an offsite event. Key aspects of the allegation were substantiated. ...

  5. Optically transparent and environmentally durable superhydrophobic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The functionalized silica nanoparticles were dissolved in a solution of the solvents isopropyl alcohol and 4-chlorobenzotrifluoride (PCBTF) and a proprietary ceramic binder ...

  6. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) Human Resource...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contractor (HRMS) PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational Health and Safety Medical System (OHS) (Includes the Drug and Alcohol Testing System (Assistant)

  7. NOTIFICATION AND FEDERAL EMPLOYEE ANTIDISCRIMINATION AND RETALIATION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Federal agencies, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the Drug Enforcement Administration, the Immigration and ...

  8. Coloring and Activity Book

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... With chemical processes, gas is turned into liquid alcohol fuels. Bioenergy Crop Plant Cells Cellulose Plant Cell Wall Sugar Molecules Fermentation: Chemical reactions that convert ...

  9. Cover #3 Single Sheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... INDIVIDUAL SENTENCED FOR THEFT OF ALUMINUM FROM BPA SUBSTATION A joint OIG investigation with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (BATF&E) and local law ...

  10. Scientific Achievement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    convert furans to alcohols via hydrogenation through the MPV mechanism and then to ethers. Combined with metal catalysts (RuC), synergetic hydrogenolysis occurs. Catalytic...

  11. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and very selectively be delivered from alcohols to HMF over Lewis acid catalysts. - Upon reduction, etherification happens twice on the same active site to increase the...

  12. Summary of Decisions - May 27, 2013 - May 31, 2013 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    presented sufficient evidence to resolve the security concerns associated with her improper use of prescription medication as well as her diagnoses of depression and alcohol abuse. ...

  13. Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectroscopy (DEMS) > Analytical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FTIR Direct alcohol fuel cells are those which utilize small organic molecules, such as methanol or ethanol, as fuels without first reforming them to hydrogen gas. These devices...

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Blend Requirement Suppliers that import gasoline for sale in North Carolina must offer fuel that is not pre-blended with fuel alcohol but that is suitable for future blending. Future contract provisions that restrict distributors or retailers from blending gasoline with fuel alcohol are void. (Reference North Carolina General Statutes 75-90, 105-449.60

  15. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    GTAB 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RBOB for Blending with Ether 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RBOB for Blending with Alcohol 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,497 Conventional 0 0 266 0 0 0 1,099 CBOB for Blending with Alcohol 0 0...

  16. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    GTAB 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RBOB for Blending with Ether 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RBOB for Blending with Alcohol 0 0 0 0 0 222 1,728 Conventional 25 0 0 0 0 0 817 CBOB for Blending with Alcohol 0 0...

  17. Conversion of Methanol, Ethanol and Propanol over Zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-04

    Renewable fuel from lignocellulosic biomass has recently attracted more attention due to its environmental and the potential economic benefits over the crude oil [1]. In particular the production of fuel range hydrocarbon (HC) from alcohol generated lots of interest since the alcohol can be produced from biomass via thermochemical [2] (mixed alcohol from gasification derived synthesis gas) as well as the biochemical routes [3] (alcohol fermentation). Along with the development of ZSM5 synthesis and the discovery of methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process by Mobil in 1970’s triggered lots of interest in research and development arena to understand the reaction mechanisms of alcohols over zeolites in particular ZSM5 [4]. More detailed research on methanol conversion was extensively reported [5] and in recent times the research work can be found on ethanol [6] and other alcohols as well but comprehensive comparison of catalyst activity and the deactivation mechanism of the conversion of various alcohols over zeolites has not been reported. The experiments were conducted on smaller alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol over HZSM5. The experimental results on the catalyst activity and the catalyst deactivation mechanism will be discussed.

  18. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...mediates",12763.7,8.8,5.1 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",28213.9,23.7,13.6 325199," Other Basic ...ermediates",11015.9,5,4.5 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",169.7,0.2,0.1 325199," Other Basic ...

  19. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Electricity...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...tes",3443,0,"W",0,"W",0.9 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",1309,0,521,32,1798,5 325199," Other ...diates",205,0,0,0,205,0.5 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ","*",0,0,0,"*",0.5 325199," Other Basic ...

  20. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...mediates",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",4,0,"W",0,0,0,"W",0 325199," Other ...","X","X","X","X","X","X" 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",0,"X",0,"X","X","X",0,"X" 325199," ...