Sample records for 10-percent volumetric blending

  1. Intrinsically safe moisture blending system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallman Jr., Russell L.; Vanatta, Paul D.

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for providing an adjustable blend of fluids to an application process is disclosed. The system uses a source of a first fluid flowing through at least one tube that is permeable to a second fluid and that is disposed in a source of the second fluid to provide the adjustable blend. The temperature of the second fluid is not regulated, and at least one calibration curve is used to predict the volumetric mixture ratio of the second fluid with the first fluid from the permeable tube. The system typically includes a differential pressure valve and a backpressure control valve to set the flow rate through the system.

  2. Biodiesel Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 2-page fact sheet discussing general biodiesel blends and the improvement in engine performance and emissions.

  3. We report measurement of the equilibrium plasma current profiles in the Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) that exhibit a peak beta in excess of 10 percent. The beta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Experiment (LDX) that exhibit a peak beta in excess of 10 percent. The beta of an LDX plasma is calculated will be discussed along with the conditions that lead to the creation of high beta plasmas. #12;Outline · Magnetic · Average and peak beta Substantial analyses must be performed on the magnetic data to actually obtain

  4. Optimal Blending Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, S.P.

    2001-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses a functional program developed for product blending. The program is installed at a Savannah River Plant production site on their VAX computer. A wide range of blending choices is available. The program can be easily changed or expanded. The technology can be applied at other areas where mixing or blending is done.

  5. Solar Volumetric Incentive and Payments Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''''NOTE: Portland General Electric, PacifiCorp, and Idaho Power are now accepting applications for the volumetric incentive program. Subsequent re-openings will take place every six months until...

  6. Dynamic Spherical Volumetric Simplex Splines with Applications in Biomedical Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hua, Jing

    Dynamic Spherical Volumetric Simplex Splines with Applications in Biomedical Simulation Yunhao Tan computational framework based on dy- namic spherical volumetric simplex splines for simulation of genus- zero to reconstruct the high-fidelity digi- tal model of a real-world object with spherical volumetric simplex splines

  7. DPF Performance with Biodiesel Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DPF Performance with Biodiesel Blends Aaron Williams, Bob McCormick, Bob Hayes, John Ireland National Renewable Energy Laboratory Howard L. Fang Cummins, Inc. Diesel Engine...

  8. Ethanol-blended Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist. Category UC-l 1, 13 DE@EnergyErnestEthanol-Blended Fuels A Study

  9. BLENDED AND ONLINE LEARNING IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, Randy

    ) "Flipped classroom" - focus on active learning and enhanced student engagement in the classroom #12;First dissatisfied with student learning experience #12;Blended Learning Initiative Large, first-year courses student engagement improve student learning outcomes improve knowledge retention #12;Framework for Blended

  10. Thermal Stabilization Blend Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2000-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This Blend Plan documents the feed material items that are stored in 2736-2 vaults, the 2736-ZB 638 cage, the 192C vault, and the 225 vault that will be processed through the thermal stabilization furnaces. The purpose of thermal stabilization is to heat the material to 1000 degrees Celsius to drive off all water and leave the plutonium and/or uranium as oxides. The stabilized material will be sampled to determine the Loss On Ignition (LOI) or percent water. The stabilized material must meet water content or LOI of less than 0.5% to be acceptable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99 specifications. Out of specification material will be recycled through the furnaces until the water or LOI limits are met.

  11. Large Mesh Deformation Using the Volumetric Graph Laplacian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazhdan, Michael

    VGL can impose volume constraints Volumetric constraints are represented by a quadric energy function volume constraints Volumetric constraints are represented by a quadric energy function #12 destination A quadric energy function is generated Minimum maps the points to their specified destination

  12. Interactive Volumetric Information Visualization for Document Corpus Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Ethan L.

    Interactive Volumetric Information Visualization for Document Corpus Management David S Ebert U must be extracted. By contrast, information analysis or document corpus management seeks to understand system that aids in the document corpus management task by em- ploying 3D volumetric visualization

  13. Progressive Compression of Volumetric Subdivision Meshes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laney, D; Pascucci, V

    2004-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a progressive compression technique for volumetric subdivision meshes based on the slow growing refinement algorithm. The system is comprised of a wavelet transform followed by a progressive encoding of the resulting wavelet coefficients. We compare the efficiency of two wavelet transforms. The first transform is based on the smoothing rules used in the slow growing subdivision technique. The second transform is a generalization of lifted linear B-spline wavelets to the same multi-tier refinement structure. Direct coupling with a hierarchical coder produces progressive bit streams. Rate distortion metrics are evaluated for both wavelet transforms. We tested the practical performance of the scheme on synthetic data as well as data from laser indirect-drive fusion simulations with multiple fields per vertex. Both wavelet transforms result in high quality trade off curves and produce qualitatively good coarse representations.

  14. Polycarbonate blends having an improved impact strength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, S.; Lazear, N.R.

    1984-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoplastic molding compositions characterized by their improved impact performance and deformation under load are disclosed comprising a homogeneous, intimate blend of a polycarbonate resin and a nuclear alkylated polycarbonate resin wherein blend dispersed is a polymeric modifier.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: blending feedstock varieties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News & Events, Partnership, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, Transportation Energy Winemakers have long known that blending different grape varietals can favorably...

  16. Appropriate Use of USGS Volumetric "Heat in Place" Method and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Monte Carlo Calculations Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Appropriate Use of USGS Volumetric "Heat in Place" Method and...

  17. Fuel blending with PRB coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCartney, R.H.; Williams, R.L. Jr. [Roberts and Schaefer, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Many methods exist to accomplish coal blending at a new or existing power plant. These range from a basic use of the secondary (emergency) stockout/reclaim system to totally automated coal handling facilities with segregated areas for two or more coals. Suitable choices for different sized coal plant are discussed, along with the major components of the coal handling facility affected by Powder River Basin coal. 2 figs.

  18. Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels ? Implementation Perspectives

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Blend Ethanol Fuels - Implementation Perspectives William Woebkenberg - US Fuels Technical and Regulatory Affairs Mercedes-Benz Research & Development North America July 25, 2013...

  19. Volumetric measurements of a spatially growing dust acoustic wave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Jeremiah D. [Physics Department, Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio 45504 (United States)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV) techniques are used to make volumetric measurements of the dust acoustic wave (DAW) in a weakly coupled dusty plasma system in an argon, dc glow discharge plasma. These tomo-PIV measurements provide the first instantaneous volumetric measurement of a naturally occurring propagating DAW. These measurements reveal over the measured volume that the measured wave mode propagates in all three spatial dimensional and exhibits the same spatial growth rate and wavelength in each spatial direction.

  20. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 Updated Feb 2009 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

  1. CNG, Hydrogen, CNG-Hydrogen Blends - Critical Fuel Properties...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    CNG, Hydrogen, CNG-Hydrogen Blends - Critical Fuel Properties and Behavior CNG, Hydrogen, CNG-Hydrogen Blends - Critical Fuel Properties and Behavior Presentation given by Jay...

  2. Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the US today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations.

  3. Sandia Energy - Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic Liquids Effective for Pretreating Mixed Blends of Biofuel Feedstocks Home Renewable Energy Energy Transportation Energy Biofuels...

  4. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  5. Green emitting phosphors and blends thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Setlur, Anant Achyut (Niskayuna, NY); Siclovan, Oltea Puica (Rexford, NY); Nammalwar, Prasanth Kumar (Bangalore, IN); Sathyanarayan, Ramesh Rao (Bangalore, IN); Porob, Digamber G. (Goa, IN); Chandran, Ramachandran Gopi (Bangalore, IN); Heward, William Jordan (Saratoga Springs, NY); Radkov, Emil Vergilov (Euclid, OH); Briel, Linda Jane Valyou (Niskayuna, NY)

    2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Phosphor compositions, blends thereof and light emitting devices including white light emitting LED based devices, and backlights, based on such phosphor compositions. The devices include a light source and a phosphor material as described. Also disclosed are phosphor blends including such a phosphor and devices made therefrom.

  6. Filing Holes in Complex Surfaces Using Volumetric Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazhdan, Michael

    Method for Building Complex Models From range Images, '96) Applies line of sight constraints based components Complex hole geometry Construction of an arbitrary mesh can result in non-manifold surfaceFiling Holes in Complex Surfaces Using Volumetric Diffusion J. Davis, S. Marschner, M. Garr and M

  7. Volumetric Hedging in Electricity Procurement Department of Industrial Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    Volumetric Hedging in Electricity Procurement Yumi Oum Department of Industrial Engineering: oren@ieor.berkeley.edu Email: deng@isye.gatech.edu Shmuel Oren Department of Industrial Engineering and System Engineering Georgia Tech Atlanta, GA, 30332-0205 Abstract-- Load serving entities (LSE) providing

  8. Volumetric Reconstruction in the MicroCAT Tomography System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cates, Josh

    0, half of the volume depth. . . . 59 vi #12; List of Figures 1.1 Scanning geometry of the MicroCAT system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2 Top view of MicroCAT scanning geometry, showing the pathVolumetric Reconstruction in the MicroCAT Tomography System A Thesis Presented for the Master

  9. Theory of volumetric capacitance of an electric double layer supercapacitor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skinner, Brian; Loth, M S; Shklovskii, B I

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric double layer supercapacitors are a fast-rising class of high-power energy storage devices based on porous electrodes immersed in a concentrated electrolyte or ionic liquid. As of yet there is no microscopic theory to describe their surprisingly large capacitance per unit volume (volumetric capacitance) of ~ 100 F/cm^3, nor is there a good understanding of the fundamental limits on volumetric capacitance. In this paper we present a non-mean-field theory of the volumetric capacitance of a supercapacitor that captures the discrete nature of the ions and the exponential screening of their repulsive interaction by the electrode. We consider analytically and via Monte-Carlo simulations the case of an electrode made from a good metal and show that in this case the volumetric capacitance can reach the record values. We also study how the capacitance is reduced when the electrode is an imperfect metal characterized by some finite screening radius. Finally, we argue that a carbon electrode, despite its relativ...

  10. Thermal characterization of polymer blends prepared by reactive blending of PC and PET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiorini, M.; Marchese, P. [Univ. of Bologna (Italy); Pilati, F. [Univ. of Modena (Italy)] [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Several Poly(ethylene terephthalate)-Bisphenol A polycarbonate (PC/PET) blends were prepared by reactive blending poly(ethylene terephthalate) and Bisphenol A polycarbonate in a batch mixer in the presence of ester exchange catalysts with different catalytic activity, such as Titanium, Terbium, Cerium, Samarium, Europium and Calcium/Antimony compounds. The catalytic activity and mixing time have been correlated with the extent of ester-carbonate exchange reactions and hence the influence of the PET/PC block copolymers formed during the blending on miscibility has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The results of the thermal characterization showed that blends with a single glass transition temperature can be prepared at different mixing time determined by the ester-carbonate exchange reaction activity of the different catalysts employed. In addition, the Tg`s values for the miscible blends were lower than those predicted by the widely used Flory-Fox equation, except from the blends prepared with the Titanium catalyst. Crystallization of PET in PC/PET blends was also investigated. Thermal analysis is a powerful technique that can be applied to the determination of miscibility in polymer blends. In this communication, the results of a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study on blends prepared by reactive blending PC and PET are reported.

  11. Dynamic Spherical Volumetric Simplex Splines with Applications in Biomedicine Wayne State University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Hong

    Dynamic Spherical Volumetric Simplex Splines with Applications in Biomedicine Yunhao Tan , Jing Hua computational framework based on dy- namic spherical volumetric simplex splines for simulation of genus- zero to reconstruct the high-fidelity digi- tal model of a real-world object with spherical volumetric simplex splines

  12. Two glass transitions in miscible polymer blends?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudowicz, Jacek; Freed, Karl F. [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Douglas, Jack F. [Materials Science and Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In contrast to mixtures of two small molecule fluids, miscible binary polymer blends often exhibit two structural relaxation times and two glass transition temperatures. Qualitative explanations postulate phenomenological models of local concentration enhancements due to chain connectivity in ideal, fully miscible systems. We develop a quantitative theory that explains qualitative trends in the dynamics of real miscible polymer blends which are never ideal mixtures. The theory is a synthesis of the lattice cluster theory of blend thermodynamics, the generalized entropy theory for glass-formation in polymer materials, and the Kirkwood-Buff theory for concentration fluctuations in binary mixtures.

  13. Continuous blending of dry pharmaceutical powders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pernenkil, Lakshman

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional batch blending of pharmaceutical powders coupled with long quality analysis times increases the production cycle time leading to strained cash flows. Also, scale-up issues faced in process development causes ...

  14. Imaginative play with blended reality characters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert, David Yann

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The idea and formative design of a blended reality character, a new class of character able to maintain visual and kinetic continuity between the fully physical and fully virtual; the technical underpinnings of its unique ...

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ethanol can be combined with gasoline in blends ranging from E10 (10% or less ethanol, 90% gasoline) up to E85 (up to 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). The Renewable Fuels Standard (under the Energy...

  16. Carnegie Mellon Multiperiod Blend Scheduling Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Department of Chemical Engineering Center for Advanced Process Decision-making Carnegie Mellon University frequently in the petrochemical industry. -Large cost savings can be achieved if the correct blending

  17. Exciting careers blending engineering, science, and ecology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    Exciting careers blending engineering, science, and ecology New Opportunities Making the world://bee.oregonstate.edu/ecoe Ecological Engineering is: Ecosystem restoration and habitat design at multiple scales Watershed Phytoremediation and bioremediation Industrial ecology Constructed wetlands and tidal marshlands Mitigation

  18. Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    blended biodiesel does not qualify. The biodiesel tax credit is applied against the corporation income tax imposed under KRS 141.040 and/or the limited liability entity tax (LLET) imposed under KRS...

  19. Viscoelastic properties of bidisperse homopolymer blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juliani

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF BIDISPKRSE HOMOPOLYMER BLENDS A Thesis by JULIANI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2000... Major Subject. Chemical Engineering VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF BIDISPERSE HOMOPOLYMER BLENDS A Thesis by JULIANI Submitted to Texas A&M University m partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style...

  20. Volume painting: incorporating volumetric rendering with line integral convolution (LIC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jaewook

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3137 TAMU College Station, TX 77843-3137 jaewooklee2001@yahoo.com Education M.S. in Visualization Sciences Texas A&M University, August 2005 B.F.A. in Graphic Design Pusan National University, February 1997 ... approach created by com- bining volumetric rendering techniques with the Line Integral Convolution (LIC) in 3D space. Although some techniques that combine volume rendering with the LIC have been introduced in computer graphics, they are mainly used...

  1. Inorganic volumetric light source excited by ultraviolet light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, S.; Walko, R.J.; Ashley, C.S.; Brinker, C.J.

    1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation. The composition comprises a porous substrate loaded with a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with an exciting radiation. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with a component, e.g., a phosphor, capable of interacting with exciting radiation of a first energy, e.g., ultraviolet light, to produce radiation of a second energy, e.g., visible light. 4 figures.

  2. J. Chem. Thermodynamics 1996, 28, 539550 Volumetric properties for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodnar, Robert J.

    J. Chem. Thermodynamics 1996, 28, 539550 Volumetric properties for {x1CO2+x2CH4+(1-x1-x2)N2 Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, U.S.A. The densities for {x1CO2+x2CH4+(1-x1.15, 473.15, 573.15) K using a custom-designed, high-pressure, high-temperature vibrating-tube densimeter

  3. WI Biodiesel Blending Progream Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redmond, Maria E; Levy, Megan M

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wisconsin State Energy Office?¢????s (SEO) primary mission is to implement cost?¢???effective, reliable, balanced, and environmentally?¢???friendly clean energy projects. To support this mission the Wisconsin Biodiesel Blending Program was created to financially support the installation infrastructure necessary to directly sustain biodiesel blending and distribution at petroleum terminal facilities throughout Wisconsin. The SEO secured a federal directed award of $600,000 over 2.25 years. With these funds, the SEO supported the construction of inline biodiesel blending facilities at two petroleum terminals in Wisconsin. The Federal funding provided through the state provided a little less than half of the necessary investment to construct the terminals, with the balance put forth by the partners. Wisconsin is now home to two new biodiesel blending terminals. Fusion Renewables on Jones Island (in the City of Milwaukee) will offer a B100 blend to both bulk and retail customers. CITGO is currently providing a B5 blend to all customers at their Granville, WI terminal north of the City of Milwaukee.

  4. Impes modeling of volumetric dry gas reservoirs with mobile water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forghany, Saeed

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    . For abnormally or geopressured reservoirs, pressure gradients often approach values equal to the overburden pressure gradient (i.e., ~1.0 psi/ft). 8, 9 Among these types of dry gas reservoirs, in this study we will focus on volumetric reservoir. 1... properties of a given reservoir?s gas and water can handle pressures starting from standard conditions up to 4,000 psi and the units for this table are tabulated in Table 3.1. Table 3.1- Units for the PVT properties used in the input file Pressure...

  5. Preliminary assessment of blending Hanford tank wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Kurath, D.E.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A parametric study of blending Hanford tank wastes identified possible benefits from blending wastes prior to immobilization as a high level or low level waste form. Track Radioactive Components data were used as the basis for the single-shell tank (SST) waste composition, while analytical data were used for the double-shell tank (DST) composition. Limiting components were determined using the existing feed criteria for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). Results have shown that blending can significantly increase waste loading and that the baseline quantities of immobilized waste projected for the sludge-wash pretreatment case may have been drastically underestimated, because critical components were not considered. Alternatively, the results suggest further review of the grout feed specifications and the solubility of minor components in HWVP borosilicate glass. Future immobilized waste estimates might be decreased substantially upon a thorough review of the appropriate feed specifications.

  6. Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions Comparison for Three Tier II Non-Road Diesel Engines Operating on Ethanol-Diesel Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merritt, P. M.; Ulmet, V.; McCormick, R. L.; Mitchell, W. E.; Baumgard, K. J.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regulated and unregulated emissions (individual hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes and ketones, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, and soluble organic fraction of particulate matter) were characterized in engines utilizing duplicate ISO 8178-C1 eight-mode tests and FTP smoke tests. Certification No. 2 diesel (400 ppm sulfur) and three ethanol/diesel blends, containing 7.7 percent, 10 percent, and 15 percent ethanol, respectively, were used. The three, Tier II, off-road engines were 6.8-L, 8.1-L, and 12.5-L in displacement and each had differing fuel injection system designs. It was found that smoke and particulate matter emissions decreased with increasing ethanol content. Changes to the emissions of carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen varied with engine design, with some increases and some decreases. As expected, increasing ethanol concentration led to higher emissions of acetaldehyde (increases ranging from 27 to 139 percent). Benzene emissions were reduced by up to 50 percent with the ethanol-blended fuels. Emissions of 1,3-butadiene were also substantially decreased, with reductions ranging from 24 to 82 percent. Isolated trends were noted for certain PAHs. There was a decrease in 1-nitropyrene with use of ethanol in all cases. Particulate phase 1-nitropyrene was reduced from 18 to 62 percent. There was also a general increase in the proportion of heavy PAHs in the particulate phase with ethanol use, and although less pronounced, a general decrease in light PAHs in the particulate phase.

  7. Development of By-Pass Blending Station System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, M.; Barnes, D.; Bunz, K.; Rosenberry, N.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new building blending station system named by-pass blending station (BBS) has been developed to reduce building pump energy consumption in both district heating and cooling systems. Theoretical investigation demonstrated that the BBS can...

  8. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues The United States has 11...

  9. Exploration of parameters for the continuous blending of pharmaceutical powders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Ben Chien Pang

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transition from traditional batch blending to continuous blending is an opportunity for the pharmaceutical industry to reduce costs and improve quality control. This operational shift necessitates a deeper understanding ...

  10. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, Hydrogen/CNG Blended Fuels Performance Testing in a Ford F-150

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. Francfort

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Federal regulation requires energy companies and government entities to utilize alternative fuels in their vehicle fleets. To meet this need, several automobile manufacturers are producing compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled vehicles. In addition, several converters are modifying gasoline-fueled vehicles to operate on both gasoline and CNG (Bifuel). Because of the availability of CNG vehicles, many energy company and government fleets have adopted CNG as their principle alternative fuel for transportation. Meanwhile, recent research has shown that blending hydrogen with CNG (HCNG) can reduce emissions from CNG vehicles. However, blending hydrogen with CNG (and performing no other vehicle modifications) reduces engine power output, due to the lower volumetric energy density of hydrogen in relation to CNG. Arizona Public Service (APS) and the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (DOE AVTA) identified the need to determine the magnitude of these effects and their impact on the viability of using HCNG in existing CNG vehicles. To quantify the effects of using various blended fuels, a work plan was designed to test the acceleration, range, and exhaust emissions of a Ford F-150 pickup truck operating on 100% CNG and blends of 15 and 30% HCNG. This report presents the results of this testing conducted during May and June 2003 by Electric Transportation Applications (Task 4.10, DOE AVTA Cooperative Agreement DEFC36- 00ID-13859).

  11. Blended Shelf: Reality-based Presentation and Exploration of Library

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiterer, Harald

    Blended library; shelf browsing; digital library ACM Classification Keywords H.5.2. [InformationBlended Shelf: Reality-based Presentation and Exploration of Library Collections Abstract We location of the library. Blended Shelf offers a 3D visualization of library collections

  12. HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Metal blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Blending HEU (highly enriched uranium) with less-enriched uranium to form LEU has been proposed as a disposition option. Five technologies are being assessed for blending HEU. This document provides data to be used in environmental impact analysis for the HEU-LEU disposition option that uses metal blending with an oxide waste product. It is divided into: mission and assumptions, conversion and blending facility descriptions, process descriptions and requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards discussion, and intersite transportation.

  13. HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: UNH blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. Disposition is a process of use or disposal of material that results in the material being converted to a form that is substantially and inherently more proliferation-resistant than is the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. This report provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate blending option to produce oxide for disposal. This the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) alternative will have two missions (1) convert HEU materials into HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend the HEU uranyl nitrate with depleted and natural assay uranyl nitrate to produce an oxide that can be stored until an acceptable disposal approach is available. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  14. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  15. Volumetric Global Illumination and Reconstruction via Energy Backprojection Frank Dachille IX, Klaus Mueller, and Arie Kaufman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Klaus

    Volumetric Global Illumination and Reconstruction via Energy Backprojection Frank Dachille IX State University of New York at Stony Brook Stony Brook, NY 11794-4400 Abstract Volumetric energy volu- metric backprojection. CR Categories: I.3.1 [Computer Graphics]: Hardware Archi- tecture; I.3

  16. Volumetric Harmonic Brain Mapping using a Variational Method Yalin Wang1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Paul

    Volumetric Harmonic Brain Mapping using a Variational Method Yalin Wang1 , Xianfeng Gu2 , Tony F investigation of 3D volumetric brain harmonic mapping. By transforming the full 3D brain volume to a solid volume to another. We suggest that 3D harmonic mapping of brain volumes to a solid sphere can provide

  17. Effect of Biodiesel Blending on the Speciation of Soluble Organic Fraction from a Light Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL] [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Foster, Prof. Dave [University of Wisconsin] [University of Wisconsin; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J. [University of Wisconsin] [University of Wisconsin

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel was volumetrically blended with 2007 certification ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel and run in a 1.7L direct-injection common rail diesel engine at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP). Engine fueling rate and injection timing were adjusted to maintain a constant load, while particulate samples were collected in a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and with a dilution tunnel sampling train. The samples collected at these two locations were found to contain different levels of soluble organic fraction (SOF) and the different hydrocarbon species in the SOF. This observation indicates that traditional SOF measurements, in light of the specific sampling procedure used, may not be appropriate to DPF applications.

  18. Tough Blends of Polylactide and Castor Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Megan L.; Paxton, Jessica M.; Hillmyer, Marc A. (UMM)

    2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a renewable resource polymer derived from plant sugars with several commercial applications. Broader implementation of the material is limited due to its inherent brittleness. We show that the addition of 5 wt % castor oil to PLLA significantly enhances the overall tensile toughness with minimal reductions in the modulus and no plasticization of the PLLA matrix. In addition, we used poly(ricinoleic acid)-PLLA diblock copolymers, synthesized entirely from renewable resources, as compatibilizers for the PLLA/castor oil blends. Ricinoleic acid, the majority fatty acid comprising castor oil, was polymerized through a lipase-catalyzed condensation reaction. The resulting polymers contained a hydroxyl end-group that was subsequently used to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide. The binary PLLA/castor oil blend exhibited a tensile toughness seven times greater than neat PLLA. The addition of block copolymer allowed for control over the morphology of the blends, and even further improvement in the tensile toughness was realized - an order of magnitude larger than that of neat PLLA.

  19. Process for blending coal with water immiscible liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heavin, Leonard J. (Olympia, WA); King, Edward E. (Gig Harbor, WA); Milliron, Dennis L. (Lacey, WA)

    1982-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous process for blending coal with a water immiscible liquid produces a uniform, pumpable slurry. Pulverized raw feed coal and preferably a coal derived, water immiscible liquid are continuously fed to a blending zone (12 and 18) in which coal particles and liquid are intimately admixed and advanced in substantially plug flow to form a first slurry. The first slurry is withdrawn from the blending zone (12 and 18) and fed to a mixing zone (24) where it is mixed with a hot slurry to form the pumpable slurry. A portion of the pumpable slurry is continuously recycled to the blending zone (12 and 18) for mixing with the feed coal.

  20. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    117 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated February 2009 Prepared by Keith Knoll Brian West Wendy Clark...

  1. Detailed HCCI Exhaust Speciation - ORNL Reference Fuel Blends...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HCCI Exhaust Speciation - ORNL Reference Fuel Blends Accurately measure exhaust profile from an HCCI engine with a variety of fuels and create a better understanding of HCCI...

  2. Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Ireland, J.; Fang, H. L.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presents results of tests of ultra-low sulfur diesel blended with soy-biodiesel at 5 percent using a Cummins ISB engine with a diesel particulate filter.

  3. Submitted to SIGGRAPH 2001 Filling holes in complex surfaces using volumetric diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    plausible, visually pleasing geometry, distinguish in the output model betSubmitted to SIGGRAPH 2001 Filling holes in complex surfaces using volumetric diffusion Steve Marschner James Davis Matt Garr Marc Levoy Stanford University Abstract We address the problem of building

  4. Optimal Static Hedging of Volumetric Risk in a Competitive Wholesale Electricity Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimal Static Hedging of Volumetric Risk in a Competitive Wholesale Electricity Market Yumi Oum wholesale electricity markets, regulated load serving entities (LSEs) and marketers with default service their obligation through combinations of long-term contracts, wholesale purchases and self

  5. Volumetric analysis of fish swimming hydrodynamics using synthetic aperture particle image velocimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendelson, Leah Rose

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract This thesis details the implementation of a three-dimensional PIV system to study the hydrodynamics of freely swimming Giant Danio (Danio aequipinnatus). Volumetric particle fields are reconstructed using synthetic ...

  6. Design and fabrication of force sensing robotic foot utilizing the volumetric displacement of a hyperelastic polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estrada, Matthew A

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis illustrates the fabrication and characterization of a footpad based on an original principle of volumetric displacement sensing. It is intended for use in detecting ground reaction forces in a running quadrupedal ...

  7. Interface modification in an immiscible rod-coil polymer blend using functionalized copolymers and polyelectrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Passinault, Robbie J

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -polymer specific interactions on interfacial properties and mechanical performance of the blend. Specifi cally, in uncompatibilized blends, the effect of vectra concentration and domain size on shear modulus is studied. While, in blends compatibilized with small...

  8. Purification Testing for HEU Blend Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, M.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Pierce, R.A.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is working to dispose of the inventory of enriched uranium (EU) formerly used to make fuel for production reactors. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has agreed to take the material after blending the EU with either natural or depleted uranium to give a {sup 235}U concentration of 4.8 percent low-enriched uranium will be fabricated by a vendor into reactor fuel for use in TVA reactors. SRS prefers to blend the EU with existing depleted uranium (DU) solutions, however, the impurity concentrations in the DU and EU are so high that the blended material may not meet specifications agreed to with TVA. The principal non-radioactive impurities of concern are carbon, iron, phosphorus and sulfur. Neptunium and plutonium contamination levels are about 40 times greater than the desired specification. Tests of solvent extraction and fuel preparation with solutions of SRS uranium demonstrate that the UO{sub 2} prepared from these solutions will meet specifications for Fe, P and S, but may not meet the specifications for carbon. The reasons for carbon remaining in the oxide at such high levels is not fully understood, but may be overcome either by treatment of the solutions with activated carbon or heating the UO{sub 3} in air for a longer time during the calcination step of fuel preparation.Calculations of the expected removal of Np and Pu from the solutions show that the specification cannot be met with a single cycle of solvent extraction. The only way to ensure meeting the specification is dilution with natural U which contains no Np or Pu. Estimations of the decontamination from fission products and daughter products in the decay chains for the U isotopes show that the specification of 110 MEV Bq/g U can be met as long as the activities of the daughters of U- 235 and U-238 are excluded from the specification.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels Clean Cities ReflectsElectricityEthanol Blends to

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminate blend phosphate Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space Sciences Collection: Physics 42 Formation of Biomimetic Porous Calcium Phosphate Coatings on Surfaces of PolyethyleneZinc Stearate Blends Summary: -zinc stearate blends...

  11. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization...

  12. Anomalous Phase Inversion in Polymer Blends Prepared by Cryogenic Mechanical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , as well as interpenetrating and bicontinu- ous networks.7,8 Phase inversion occurs when the mi- norityAnomalous Phase Inversion in Polymer Blends Prepared by Cryogenic Mechanical Alloying Archie P strategies for producing highly dis- persed multicomponent polymer blends. By their very nature

  13. CASIMIR EFFECT IN CROSSLINKED POLYMER BLENDS M. Benhamou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    -potential. I. INTRODUCTION Interpenetrated polymer networks (IPNs) or crosslinked polymer blends constitute new interpenetrating networks used as electronic device encapsulants [3]. For certain practical realizations, the IPNsCASIMIR EFFECT IN CROSSLINKED POLYMER BLENDS M. Benhamou , M. Boughou, H. Kaidi M. El Yaznasni, H

  14. Achieving High Chilled Water Delta T Without Blending Station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z.; Wang, G.; Xu, K.; Yu, Y.; Liu, M.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the blending station performance. The results show that the blending station is not necessary in the building chilled water systems with 2-way modulation valves at end users. Actually the end user valve configuration and control mainly impacts building chilled...

  15. Calcination of calcium carbonate and blend therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallow, William A. (Helotes, TX); Dziuk, Jr., Jerome J. (San Antonio, TX)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for calcination of a calcium carbonate material comprising heating the calcium carbonate material to a temperature and for a time sufficient to calcine the material to the degree desired while in the presence of a catalyst; said catalyst comprising at least one fused salt having the formula MCO.sub.3.CaCO.sub.3.CaO.H.sub.2 O.sub.x, wherein M is an alkali metal and x is 0 to 1 and formed by fusing MCO.sub.3 and CaCO.sub.3 in a molar ratio of about 1:2 to 2:1, and a blend adapted to be heated to CaO comprising a calcium carbonate material and at least one such fused salt.

  16. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT MISSION ANALYSIS WASTE BLENDING STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SHUFORD DH; STEGEN G

    2010-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary evaluation for blending Hanford site waste with the objective of minimizing the amount of high-level waste (HLW) glass volumes without major changes to the overall waste retrieval and processing sequences currently planned. The evaluation utilizes simplified spreadsheet models developed to allow screening type comparisons of blending options without the need to use the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model. The blending scenarios evaluated are expected to increase tank farm operation costs due to increased waste transfers. Benefit would be derived from shorter operating time period for tank waste processing facilities, reduced onsite storage of immobilized HLW, and reduced offsite transportation and disposal costs for the immobilized HLW.

  17. Phosphor blends for high-CRI fluorescent lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Setlur, Anant Achyut (Niskayuna, NY); Srivastava, Alok Mani (Niskayuna, NY); Comanzo, Holly Ann (Niskayuna, NY); Manivannan, Venkatesan (Clifton Park, NY); Beers, William Winder (Chesterland, OH); Toth, Katalin (Pomaz, HU); Balazs, Laszlo D. (Budapest, HU)

    2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A phosphor blend comprises at least two phosphors each selected from one of the groups of phosphors that absorb UV electromagnetic radiation and emit in a region of visible light. The phosphor blend can be applied to a discharge gas radiation source to produce light sources having high color rendering index. A phosphor blend is advantageously includes the phosphor (Tb,Y,LuLa,Gd).sub.x(Al,Ga).sub.yO.sub.12:Ce.sup.3+, wherein x is in the range from about 2.8 to and including 3 and y is in the range from about 4 to and including 5.

  18. Volumetric reach comparison of possible end-effectors for the articulated transporter and manipulator system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M.; Hamel, W.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Bills, K.C. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this research was to investigate the performance of the Articulated Transporter and Manipulator System (ATMS) during various tasks relative to the choice of wrist/end-effector configuration. The approach taken was to generate computer graphics-aided three-dimensional interactive application (CATIA) system-based models of four wrist/end-effector combinations and consider the volumetric reach of each of these configurations based on the capacity of the ATMS. The results indicate that a simple, lightweight end-effector provides a greater volumetric reach. The greatest variation presented herein is {approximately}40% when comparing a 7-degree-of-freedom (DOF) dexterous arm with a simple 3-DOF arm; however, the benefit of increasing volumetric reach by only 40% by using a simple arm may be outweighed by the loss of dexterity. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Seeding optimization for instantaneous volumetric velocimetry. Application to a jet in crossflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambonie, Tristan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Every volumetric velocimetry measurements based on tracer (particles, bubbles, etc.) detection can be strongly influenced by the optical screening phenomenon. It has to be taken into account when the the statistical properties associated to the performances of the particle detection and tracking algorithms are significantly affected. It leads to a maximum concentration of particles in the images thus limiting the final spatial resolution of the instantaneous three-dimensional three-components (3D3C) velocity fields. A volumetric velocimetry system based on Defocused Digital Particle Image Velocimetry is used to show that above a critical visual concentration of particles in the images, the concentration and accuracy of the final instantaneous raw velocity vector field drop. The critical concentration depends on physical parameters as well as on the processing algorithms. Three distinct regimes are identified. In the first regime, the concentration is well adapted to volumetric velocimetry, the largest concent...

  20. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as metal. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The mission of this Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will be to blend surplus HEU metal and alloy with depleted uranium metal to produce an LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  1. Time phased alternate blending of feed coals for liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schweigharett, Frank (Allentown, PA); Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA); Garg, Diwaker (Macungie, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method for reducing process performance excursions during feed coal or process solvent changeover in a coal hydroliquefaction process by blending of feedstocks or solvents over time. ,

  2. Photonic polymer-blend structures and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnes, Michael D.

    2004-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention comprises the formation of photonic polymer-blend structures having tunable optical and mechanical properties. The photonic polymer-blend structures comprise monomer units of spherical microparticles of a polymer-blend material wherein the spherical microparticles have surfaces partially merged with one another in a robust inter-particle bond having a tunable inter-particle separation or bond length sequentially attached in a desired and programmable architecture. The photonic polymer-blend structures of the present invention can be linked by several hundred individual particles sequentially linked to form complex three-dimensional structures or highly ordered two-dimensional arrays of 3D columns with 2D spacing.

  3. Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and Engine...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and Engine-in-the-Loop 2011 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review May 10, 2011 Neeraj Shidore (PI) - Vehicle...

  4. ash blended cement: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biomass blends Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: , low ash partially composted manure LAPC, high ash raw manure HARM, and high ash partially composted manure HAPC)...

  5. Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Impacts of Biodiesel Blends Bob McCormick (PI) With Teresa Alleman, Wendy Clark, Lisa Fouts, John Ireland, Mike Lammert, Jon Luecke, Dan Pedersen, Ken Proc, Matt Ratcliff, Matt...

  6. Disease resistance and performance of blended populations of creepi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abernathy, Scott David

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . Materials and Methods. . Results and Discussion. Conclusions. . . . 41 . . 41 . . 42 . . 45 . 74 SUMMARY REFERENCES. . 80 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Dollar spot progression in January, 1998 on single cultivar treatments. Page 32 Figure 2.... Dollar spot progression in January 1998 on Crenshaw, L-93 and Crenshaw / L-93 blended treatments. 33 Figure 3. Dollar spot progression in January, 1998 on Crenshaw, A-4 and Crenshaw / A-4 blended treatments. 34 Figure 4. Dollar spot progression...

  7. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poindl, M., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut fr Kunststofftechnik, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  8. Web-based Stereo Rendering for Visualization and Annotation of Scientific Volumetric Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eng, Daniel C.

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    that facilitate the viewing of large collections of images. Google Maps and Google Maps-like interfaces such as Brainmaps.org allow users to pan and zoom 2D images efficiently. However, they do not yet support the rendering of volumetric data in their standard web...

  9. Noise-Based Volume Rendering for the Visualization of Multivariate Volumetric Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tierny, Julien

    to meteorology and ge- ology require the analysis of such multivariate data and are in need of a comprehensiveNoise-Based Volume Rendering for the Visualization of Multivariate Volumetric Data Rostislav-velocity upstream (cyan). This is impossible with normal direct volume rendering (d). Abstract--Analysis

  10. The Natural Materials Browser: Using a Tablet Interface for Exploring Volumetric Materials Science Datasets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollerer, Tobias

    The Natural Materials Browser: Using a Tablet Interface for Exploring Volumetric Materials Science angus.forbes@sista.arizona.edu Tony Fast Department of Materials Science Georgia Institute of Technology Barbara holl@cs.ucsb.edu ABSTRACT We present a novel tablet application, the Natural Materials Browser

  11. Generating 3D volumetric meshes of internal and external fruit Mikolaj Cieslak1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Generating 3D volumetric meshes of internal and external fruit structure Mikolaj Cieslak1 Godin2 and Nadia Bertin1 1 INRA, UR 1115 Plantes et Systmes de Culture Horticoles, Domaine St Paul, Site Agroparc, F-84914 Avignon Cedex 9, France 2 CIRAD/INRIA/INRA, Virtual Plants INRIA Team, UMR AGAP

  12. Classification and volumetric analysis of temporal bone pneumatization using cone beam computed tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terasaki, Mark

    bone pneumatization in adults using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. Study Design. A total Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2014;117:376-384) The advances in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) overClassification and volumetric analysis of temporal bone pneumatization using cone beam computed

  13. Nanofluids Concentration Using Volumetric Flask M. Kostic, www.kostic.niu.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    Nanofluids Concentration Using Volumetric Flask M. Kostic, www.kostic.niu.edu Northern Illinois squared, then uncertainty will decrease linearly with the flask volume increase. Nanofluid concentration measurement: If we measure density of a nanofluid ( n) of unknown concentration, but known type of base fluid

  14. Synthetic Lung Tumor Data Sets for Comparison of Volumetric Algorithms1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernal, Javier

    Synthetic Lung Tumor Data Sets for Comparison of Volumetric Algorithms1 Adele P. Peskin of synthetic lung tumor data in which synthetic tumors of known volume are embedded in clinical lung computerized tomographic (CT) data in different background settings in the lung. Because the change

  15. Automatic Lung Segmentation of Volumetric Low-Dose CT Scans Using Graph Cuts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farag, Aly A.

    Automatic Lung Segmentation of Volumetric Low-Dose CT Scans Using Graph Cuts Asem M. Ali and Aly A for unsupervised segmentation of the lung region from low dose computed tomography (LDCT) images. We follow distribution model. To better spec- ify region borders between lung and chest, each empirical distribution

  16. Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

    2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

  17. Blending of Radioactive Salt Solutions in Million Gallon Tanks - 13002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 - 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, 'One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory'. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks. (authors)

  18. Use of volumetric features for temporal comparison of mass lesions in full field digital mammograms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozek, Jelena, E-mail: jelena.bozek@fer.hr; Grgic, Mislav [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, Unska 3, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)] [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, Unska 3, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Kallenberg, Michiel; Karssemeijer, Nico [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 18, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 18, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Temporal comparison of lesions might improve classification between benign and malignant lesions in full-field digital mammograms (FFDM). The authors compare the use of volumetric features for lesion classification, which are computed from dense tissue thickness maps, to the use of mammographic lesion area. Use of dense tissue thickness maps for lesion characterization is advantageous, since it results in lesion features that are invariant to acquisition parameters. Methods: The dataset used in the analysis consisted of 60 temporal mammogram pairs comprising 120 mediolateral oblique or craniocaudal views with a total of 65 lesions, of which 41 were benign and 24 malignant. The authors analyzed the performance of four volumetric features, area, and four other commonly used features obtained from temporal mammogram pairs, current mammograms, and prior mammograms. The authors evaluated the individual performance of all features and of different feature sets. The authors used linear discriminant analysis with leave-one-out cross validation to classify different feature sets. Results: Volumetric features from temporal mammogram pairs achieved the best individual performance, as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (A{sub z} value). Volume change (A{sub z} = 0.88) achieved higher A{sub z} value than projected lesion area change (A{sub z} = 0.78) in the temporal comparison of lesions. Best performance was achieved with a set that consisted of a set of features extracted from the current exam combined with four volumetric features representing changes with respect to the prior mammogram (A{sub z} = 0.90). This was significantly better (p = 0.005) than the performance obtained using features from the current exam only (A{sub z} = 0.77). Conclusions: Volumetric features from temporal mammogram pairs combined with features from the single exam significantly improve discrimination of benign and malignant lesions in FFDM mammograms compared to using only single exam features. In the comparison with prior mammograms, use of volumetric change may lead to better performance than use of lesion area change.

  19. Controlled differential pressure system for an enhanced fluid blending apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis (Knoxville, TN)

    2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for producing a controlled blend of two or more fluids. Thermally-induced permeation through a permeable tube is used to mix a first fluid from outside the tube with a second fluid flowing through the tube. Mixture ratios may be controlled by adjusting the temperature of the first fluid or by adjusting the pressure drop through the permeable tube. The combination of a back pressure control valve and a differential regulator is used to control the output pressure of the blended fluid. The combination of the back pressure control valve and differential regulator provides superior flow control of the second dry gas. A valve manifold system may be used to mix multiple fluids, and to adjust the volume of blended fluid produced, and to further modify the mixture ratio.

  20. Evaluation of bitumen by realization of bitumen/polymer blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cogneau, P.; Goosse, S. [Parc Industriel, Perwez (Belgium)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Today, if we want to guarantee the durability of bitumen/polymer blends and membranes, characterization of bitumen by penetration hardness and softening point is not enough. Bitumen which is a {open_quotes}residue{close_quotes} of distillation is a poor relation of the petrochemistry. It will tend to become more so in view of the more sophisticated treatment units of the heavy components coming from refining. This paper will present the correlation existing between generic composition of bitumen and the characteristics of the bitumen/polymers (atatic polypropylene) blends. The generic composition of the bitumen is determined by thin layer chromatography associated with a detection flame ionization (Iatroscan method). More than 20 bitumens of different origins have been studied. The quality of the blends done with an EPP batch for each of these bitumens is acquired by using determination trials of viscosity, cold bending (new state and after aging), segregation, and morphological analyses.

  1. Blended learning through the eyes of Malagasy students Hoby ANDRIANIRINA Anne-Laure FOUCHER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Clermont-Ferrand, France Keywords: blended learning ; experience of students ; didactics French in a blended learning environment. This is part of a wider action research study in the Didactics of Languages

  2. Theoretical and experimental investigation of particle interactions in pharmaceutical powder blending

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pu, Yu, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In pharmaceutical manufacturing practices, blending of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with excipients is a crucial step in that homogeneity of active ingredient after blending is a key issue for the quality assurance ...

  3. BETO Seeks Stakeholder Input on the Use of Advanced Biofuel Blends...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    BETO Seeks Stakeholder Input on the Use of Advanced Biofuel Blends in Small Engines BETO Seeks Stakeholder Input on the Use of Advanced Biofuel Blends in Small Engines June 22,...

  4. Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson III, George R. (Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, Texas 78238 (United States)); Edwards, Tim; Corporan, Edwin (United States Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States)); Freerks, Robert L. (Rentech, Incorporated, 1331 17th Street, Denver, Colorado 80202 (United States))

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Aviation turbine engine fuel specifications are governed by ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, and the British Ministry of Defence (MOD). ASTM D1655 Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels and MOD Defence Standard 91-91 are the guiding specifications for this fuel throughout most of the world. Both of these documents rely heavily on the vast amount of experience in production and use of turbine engine fuels from conventional sources, such as crude oil, natural gas condensates, heavy oil, shale oil, and oil sands. Turbine engine fuel derived from these resources and meeting the above specifications has properties that are generally considered acceptable for fuels to be used in turbine engines. Alternative and synthetic fuel components are approved for use to blend with conventional turbine engine fuels after considerable testing. ASTM has established a specification for fuels containing synthesized hydrocarbons under D7566, and the MOD has included additional requirements for fuels containing synthetic components under Annex D of DS91-91. New turbine engine fuel additives and blend components need to be evaluated using ASTM D4054, Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives. This paper discusses these specifications and testing requirements in light of recent literature claiming that some biomass-derived blend components, which have been used to blend in conventional aviation fuel, meet the requirements for aviation turbine fuels as specified by ASTM and the MOD. The 'Table 1' requirements listed in both D1655 and DS91-91 are predicated on the assumption that the feedstocks used to make fuels meeting these requirements are from approved sources. Recent papers have implied that commercial jet fuel can be blended with renewable components that are not hydrocarbons (such as fatty acid methyl esters). These are not allowed blend components for turbine engine fuels as discussed in this paper.

  5. Second Law Comparisons of Volumetric and Flame Combustion in an Ideal Engine with Exhaust Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Graves, Ronald L [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We summarize the results of a theoretical second law (exergy) analysis of an idealized internal combustion engine operating in flame versus volumetric (e.g., HCCI-like) combustion modes. We also consider the impact of exhaust heat recovery. Our primary objective is to better understand the fundamental differences (if any) in thermodynamic irreversibility among these different combustion modes and the resulting impact on engine work output. By combustion irreversibility, we mean that portion of the fuel energy that becomes unavailable for producing useful work due to entropy generation in the combustion process, exclusive of all other heat and friction losses. A key question is whether or not volumetric combustion offers any significant irreversibility advantage over conventional flame combustion. Another key issue is how exhaust heat recovery would be expected to change the net work output of an ideal piston engine. Based on these results, we recommend specific research directions for improving the fuel efficiency of advanced engines.

  6. GPU-based Scalable Volumetric Reconstruction for Multi-view Stereo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, H; Duchaineau, M; Max, N

    2011-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new scalable volumetric reconstruction algorithm for multi-view stereo using a graphics processing unit (GPU). It is an effectively parallelized GPU algorithm that simultaneously uses a large number of GPU threads, each of which performs voxel carving, in order to integrate depth maps with images from multiple views. Each depth map, triangulated from pair-wise semi-dense correspondences, represents a view-dependent surface of the scene. This algorithm also provides scalability for large-scale scene reconstruction in a high resolution voxel grid by utilizing streaming and parallel computation. The output is a photo-realistic 3D scene model in a volumetric or point-based representation. We demonstrate the effectiveness and the speed of our algorithm with a synthetic scene and real urban/outdoor scenes. Our method can also be integrated with existing multi-view stereo algorithms such as PMVS2 to fill holes or gaps in textureless regions.

  7. Mechanically and chemically robust ZIF-8 monoliths with high volumetric adsorption capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Tian; Velazquez-Garcia, Jose; Bennett, Thomas D.; Fairen-Jimenez, David

    2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    of the monolith and therefore a reduction in the adsorption capacity. Lohe et al. have previously prepared monolithic aerogels using the precursors from MIL-100, but the obtained materials resulted in very low densities, low volumetric capacities... relatively flat surface. The different morphologies at the macro- and micro-scale resemble those previously observed for xerogels and aerogels,16,27 not only for amorphous MOF-like materials14 but also for carbon and silica aerogels28. Primary particle...

  8. Solid State Blending of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) with Polystyrene: Extent of PET Amorphization and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Brian S.

    Solid State Blending of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) with Polystyrene: Extent of PET Amorphization.interscience.wiley.com). ABSTRACT: Polystyrene (PS) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were blended to- gether in the solid. CMA PS/PET blend morphologies were characterized both qualitatively and quantitatively through

  9. Designing Polymer Blends Using Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms, and Markov Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potter, Don

    1 Designing Polymer Blends Using Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms, and Markov Chains N. K. Roy1 potential candidates for blending using Neural Networks. Generally the parent polymers of the blend need systems like branched polymers, high molecular weight polymer mixtures, block copolymers, interpenetrating

  10. ccsd00000932 Electronic structure of wurtzite and zinc-blende AlN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ccsd00000932 (version 1) : 10 Dec 2003 Electronic structure of wurtzite and zinc-blende AlN P. (December 10, 2003) Abstract The electronic structure of AlN in wurtzite and zinc-blende phases is studied in the calculations. Di#11;erences 1 #12; between the wurtzite and zinc-blende phases are small and re ect the slight

  11. Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    1 Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol in any concentration of up for gasoline-ethanol blends is, thus, necessary for the purpose of air-to-fuel ratio control. In this paper, we

  12. Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines* Kyung for gasoline-ethanol blends is, thus, necessary for the purpose of air-to-fuel ratio control. In this paper, we- ration, air-to-fuel ratio control, gasoline-ethanol blend, flex-fuel vehicles I. INTRODUCTION Currently

  13. Conjugated-Polymer Blends for Optoelectronics By Christopher R. McNeill* and Neil C. Greenham*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    Conjugated-Polymer Blends for Optoelectronics By Christopher R. McNeill* and Neil C. Greenham* 1. Introduction Blending of polymers has long been established as a technique to tune their physical properties the microstructure of the blend has new properties not present in either component. In the field of polymer

  14. Development and application of the method of distributed volumetric sources to the problem of unsteady-state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amini, Shahram

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering iii ABSTRACT Development and Application of the Method of Distributed Volumetric Sources to the Problem of Unsteady-State Fluid Flow in Reservoirs. (December 2007) Shahram Amini B.S.; M.S., University... of Tehran; M.S., IFP School (ENSPM) Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Peter P. Valk? Dr. Thomas A. Blasingame This work introduces the method of Distributed Volumetric Sources (DVS) to solve the transient and pseudosteady-state flow of fluids...

  15. HEU to LEU Conversion and Blending Facility: UNH blending alternative to produce LEU UNH for commercial use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form that is more proliferation-resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. Five technologies for blending HEU will be assessed. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the UNH blending HEU disposition option. Process requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste/emissions from plant, hazards, accident scenarios, and intersite transportation are discussed.

  16. Modeling of Sulfate Resistance of Flyash Blended Cement Concrete Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mobasher, Barzin

    Modeling of Sulfate Resistance of Flyash Blended Cement Concrete Materials Barzin Mobasher1. A simplified model is presented which used cement chemistry, concrete physics, and mechanics to develop of hardened concrete, principally the cement paste, caused by exposure of concrete to sulfates and moisture

  17. NOx, SOx & CO{sub 2} mitigation using blended coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Labbe, D.

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimates of potential CO{sub 2} reduction achievable through the use of a mixture of bituminous and subbituminous (PRB) coals, whilst attaining NOx and SOx compliance are presented. The optimization considerations to provide satisfactory furnace, boiler and unit performance with blended coal supplies to make such operation feasible are discussed. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  19. Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity and methods for manufacturing such blends

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje (East Patchogue, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

  20. HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Oxide blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for commercial use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. Disposition is a process of use or disposal of material that results in the material being converted to a form that is substantially and inherently more proliferation-resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the oxide blending HEU disposition option. This option provides for a yearly HEU throughput of 1 0 metric tons (MT) of uranium metal with an average U235 assay of 50% blended with 165 MT of natural assay triuranium octoxide (U{sub 3} O{sub 8}) per year to produce 177 MT of 4% U235 assay U{sub 3} O{sub 8}, for LWR fuel. Since HEU exists in a variety of forms and not necessarily in the form to be blended, worst case scenarios for preprocessing prior to blending will be assumed for HEU feed streams.

  1. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as oxide. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials into pure HEU oxide and (2) blend the pure HEU oxide with depleted and natural uranium oxide to produce an LWR grade LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  2. Review Of Rheology Models For Hanford Waste Blending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D. C.; Stone, M.

    2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The area of rheological property prediction was identified as a technology need in the Hanford Tank Waste - waste feed acceptance initiative area during a series of technical meetings among the national laboratories, Department of Energy-Office of River Protection, and Hanford site contractors. Meacham et al. delivered a technical report in June 2012, RPP-RPT-51652 ''One System Evaluation of Waste Transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant'' that included estimating of single shell tank waste Bingham plastic rheological model constants along with a discussion of the issues inherent in predicting the rheological properties of blended wastes. This report was selected as the basis for moving forward during the technical meetings. The report does not provide an equation for predicting rheological properties of blended waste slurries. The attached technical report gives an independent review of the provided Hanford rheological data, Hanford rheological models for single tank wastes, and Hanford rheology after blending provided in the Meacham report. The attached report also compares Hanford to SRS waste rheology and discusses some SRS rheological model equations for single tank wastes, as well as discussing SRS experience with the blending of waste sludges with aqueous material, other waste sludges, and frit slurries. Some observations of note: Savannah River Site (SRS) waste samples from slurried tanks typically have yield stress >1 Pa at 10 wt.% undissolved solids (UDS), while core samples largely have little or no yield stress at 10 wt.% UDS. This could be due to how the waste has been processed, stored, retrieved, and sampled or simply in the differences in the speciation of the wastes. The equations described in Meacham's report are not recommended for extrapolation to wt.% UDS beyond the available data for several reasons; weak technical basis, insufficient data, and large data scatter. When limited data are available, for example two to three points, the equations are not necessarily satisfactory (justified) for interpolations, due to the number of unknown variables equal the number of known data points, resulting in a coefficient of determination of one. SRS has had some success predicting the rheology of waste blends for similar waste types using rheological properties of the individual wastes and empirical blending viscosity equations. Both the Kendall-Monroe and Olney-Carlson equations were used. High accuracy was not obtained, but predictions were reasonable compared to measured flow curves. Blending SRS processed waste with frit slurry (much larger particles and the source of SRS glass formers) is a different sort of problem than that of two similar slurries of precipitated waste particles. A different approach to rheology prediction has had some success describing the incorporation of large frit particles into waste than the one used for blending two wastes. In this case, the Guth-Simha equation was used. If Hanford waste is found to have significant particles in the >100 ?m diameter range, then it might be necessary to handle those particles differently from broadly distributed waste particles that are primarily <30 ?m in diameter. The following are recommendations for the Hanford tank farms: Investigate the impact of large-scale mixing operations on yield stress for one or more Hanford tanks to see if Hanford waste rheological properties change to become more like SRS waste during both tank retrieval and tank qualification operations; Determine rheological properties of mobilized waste slurries by direct measurement rather than by prediction; Collect and characterize samples during the waste feed qualification process for each campaign; o From single source tanks that feed the qualification tanks; o Blends from the qualification tanks; Predictive rheological models must be used with caution, due to the lack of data to support such models and the utilization of the results that come from these models in making process decisions (e.g. the lack of actual operation experience). As experience is ga

  3. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  4. Volumetric Properties and Fluid Phase Equilibria of CO2 + H2O

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capobianco, Ryan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Gruszkiewicz, Miroslaw {Mirek} S [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL; Bodnar, Robert [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for accurate modeling of fluid-mineral processes over wide ranges of temperature, pressure and composition highlighted considerable uncertainties of available property data and equations of state, even for the CO2 + H2O binary system. In particular, the solubility, activity, and ionic dissociation equilibrium data for the CO2-rich phase, which are essential for understanding dissolution/precipitation, fluid-matrix reactions, and solute transport, are uncertain or missing. In this paper we report the results of a new experimental study of volumetric and phase equilibrium properties of CO2 + H2O, to be followed by measurements for bulk and confined multicomponent fluid mixtures. Mixture densities were measured by vibrating tube densimetry (VTD) over the entire composition range at T = 200 and 250 C and P = 20, 40, 60, and 80 MPa. Initial analysis of the mutual solubilities, determined from volumetric data, shows good agreement with earlier results for the aqueous phase, but finds that the data of Takenouchi and Kennedy (1964) significantly overestimated the solubility of water in supercritical CO2 (by a factor of more than two at 200 C). Resolving this well-known discrepancy will have a direct impact on the accuracy of predictive modeling of CO2 injection in geothermal reservoirs and geological carbon sequestration through improved equations of state, needed for calibration of predictive molecular-scale models and large-scale reactive transport simulations.

  5. Conversion and Blending Facility Highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranium hexafluoride. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) which will have two missions: (1) convert surplus HEU materials to pure HEU UF{sub 6} and a (2) blend the pure HEU UF{sub 6} with diluent UF{sub 6} to produce LWR grade LEU-UF{sub 6}. The primary emphasis of this blending be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The chemical and isotopic concentrations of the blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. The blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry.

  6. Effect of Organoclay on Compatibilization, Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Polycarbonate/Polystyrene Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, A K

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pristine and organoclay modified polycarbonate/polystyrene (PC/PS) blends are prepared using melt-mixing technique. These blends are characterized for their morphology, structural, thermal and mechanical properties. Though our FTIR and XRD results show weak interactions between PC and PS phases, however, DSC and morphological study reveals that pristine PC/PS blends are immiscible. On other hand, introduction of organoclay results compatibilization of two polymer phases which is supported by significant shift in glass transition temperatures of the component phases and a distinct morphology having no phase segregation on sub-micron scale. Intercalation of polymers inside the clay gallery is achieved and is supported by XRD studies. A better thermal stability and higher value of modulus of the compatibilized blends compared to pristine PC/PS blends also support the reinforcement effect of organoclay to the PC/PS blend matrix.

  7. Multi-scale analysis and simulation of powder blending in pharmaceutical manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ngai, Samuel S. H

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Multi-Scale Analysis methodology was developed and carried out for gaining fundamental understanding of the pharmaceutical powder blending process. Through experiment, analysis and computer simulations, microscopic ...

  8. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    IMPACT OF LOW OCTANE HYDROCARBON BLENDING STREAMS ON "E85" ENGINE OPTIMIZATION Jim Szybist and Brian West Oak Ridge National Laboratory October 19, 2012 Acknowledgement This...

  9. BLENDING STUDY FOR SRR SALT DISPOSITION INTEGRATION: TANK 50H SCALE-MODELING AND COMPUTER-MODELING FOR BLENDING PUMP DESIGN, PHASE 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.

    2011-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where 300,000-800,000 gallons of salt solution will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. Blending requires the miscible salt solutions from potentially multiple source tanks per batch to be well mixed without disturbing settled sludge solids that may be present in a Blend Tank. Disturbing solids may be problematic both from a feed quality perspective as well as from a process safety perspective where hydrogen release from the sludge is a potential flammability concern. To develop the necessary technical basis for the design and operation of blending equipment, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) completed scaled blending and transfer pump tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. A 94 inch diameter pilot-scale blending tank, including tank internals such as the blending pump, transfer pump, removable cooling coils, and center column, were used in this research. The test tank represents a 1/10.85 scaled version of an 85 foot diameter, Type IIIA, nuclear waste tank that may be typical of Blend Tanks used in SDI. Specifically, Tank 50 was selected as the tank to be modeled per the SRR, Project Engineering Manager. SRNL blending tests investigated various fixed position, non-rotating, dual nozzle pump designs, including a blending pump model provided by the blend pump vendor, Curtiss Wright (CW). Primary research goals were to assess blending times and to evaluate incipient sludge disturbance for waste tanks. Incipient sludge disturbance was defined by SRR and SRNL as minor blending of settled sludge from the tank bottom into suspension due to blending pump operation, where the sludge level was shown to remain constant. To experimentally model the sludge layer, a very thin, pourable, sludge simulant was conservatively used for all testing. To experimentally model the liquid, supernate layer above the sludge in waste tanks, two salt solution simulants were used, which provided a bounding range of supernate properties. One solution was water (H{sub 2}O + NaOH), and the other was an inhibited, more viscous salt solution. The research performed and data obtained significantly advances the understanding of fluid mechanics, mixing theory and CFD modeling for nuclear waste tanks by benchmarking CFD results to actual experimental data. This research significantly bridges the gap between previous CFD models and actual field experiences in real waste tanks. A finding of the 2009, DOE, Slurry Retrieval, Pipeline Transport and Plugging, and Mixing Workshop was that CFD models were inadequate to assess blending processes in nuclear waste tanks. One recommendation from that Workshop was that a validation, or bench marking program be performed for CFD modeling versus experiment. This research provided experimental data to validate and correct CFD models as they apply to mixing and blending in nuclear waste tanks. Extensive SDI research was a significant step toward bench marking and applying CFD modeling. This research showed that CFD models not only agreed with experiment, but demonstrated that the large variance in actual experimental data accounts for misunderstood discrepancies between CFD models and experiments. Having documented this finding, SRNL was able to provide correction factors to be used with CFD models to statistically bound full scale CFD results. Through the use of pilot scale tests performed for both types of pumps and available engineering literature, SRNL demonstrated how to effectively apply CFD results to salt batch mixing in full scale waste tanks. In other words, CFD models were in error prior to development of experimental correction factors determined during this research, which provided a technique to use CFD models fo

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMER GEL SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE VOLUMETRIC SWEEP AND REDUCE PRODUCING WATER/OIL RATIOS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Paul Willhite; Don W. Green; Stan McCool; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the research are to improve the effectiveness of polymer gels to increase volumetric sweep efficiency of fluid displacement processes and to reduce water production in production wells. The research is based on experimental data and conceptual and mathematical models developed from interpretation of experimental data. This report describes two types of mathematical models that were developed. One model type simulates the chemical reactions where polymer molecules are crosslinked to form a 3-dimensional network or gel. The model is based on statistical probabilities of reactions and yields molecular weights averages and distributions as functions of conversion. The second model type simulates the transport of chromium acetate, a common polymer crosslinker, through porous dolomite rock and includes the mechanisms of dolomite dissolution and chromium precipitation. The chromium transport model reasonably agreed with experimental data.

  11. Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

  12. Electrical Conductivity in Polymer Blends/ Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, Ajit R.; Bose, Suryasarathi; Bhattacharyya, Arup R. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400076 (India)

    2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) based polymer composites have emerged as the future multifunctional materials in view of its exceptional mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. One of the major interests is to develop conductive polymer composites preferably at low concentration of CNT utilizing their high aspect ratio (L/D) for numerous applications, which include antistatic devices, capacitors and materials for EMI shielding. In this context, polymer blends have emerged as a potential candidate in lowering the percolation thresholds further by the utilization of 'double-percolation' which arises from the synergistic improvements in blend properties associated with the co-continuous morphology. Due to strong inter-tube van der Waals' forces, they often tend to aggregate and uniform dispersion remains a challenge. To overcome this challenge, we exploited sodium salt of 6-aminohexanoic acid (Na-AHA) which was able to assist in debundlling the multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) through 'cation-{pi}' interactions during melt-mixing leading to percolative 'network-like' structure of MWNT within polyamide6 (PA6) phase in co-continuous PA6/acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) blends. The composite exhibited low electrical percolation thresholds of 0.25 wt% of MWNT, the lowest reported value in this system so far. Retention of 'network-like structure' in the solid state with significant refinement was observed even at lower MWNT concentration in presence Na-AHA, which was assessed through AC electrical conductivity measurements. Reactive coupling was found to be a dominant factor besides 'cation-{pi}' interactions in achieving low electrical percolation in PA6/ABS+MWNT composites.

  13. Filling holes in complex surfaces using volumetric diffusion James Davis Steven R. Marschner Matt Garr Marc Levoy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Filling holes in complex surfaces using volumetric diffusion James Davis Steven R. Marschner Matt of the head of Michelangelo's David. At right is a rendered 3D model of a section of his hair (corresponding), occlusions prevented access to the deepest crevices. The hole highlighted in this rendering has a complex

  14. Eddy-current probe impedance due to a volumetric flaw J. R. Bowler and S. A. Jenkins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowler, John R.

    Eddy-current probe impedance due to a volumetric flaw J. R. Bowler and S. A. Jenkins University 25 January 1991) Eddy current induced in a metal by a coil carrying an alternating current may, or inclusions. In eddy-current nondestructive evaluation, defectsare commonly sensedby a change of the coil

  15. Emissions mitigation of blended coals through systems optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Labbe [IOM Invensys Operations Management (United States)

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For coal fired power stations, such as those located in the US, that have installed NOx and SOx emissions abatement equipment substantial carbon dioxide reduction could be achieved by shifting from pure PRB coal to blended coals with local bituminous coal. Don Labbe explains how. The article is based on a presentation at Power-Gen Asia 2009, which takes place 7-9 October in Bangkok, Thailand and an ISA POWID 2009 paper (19th Annual Joint ISA POWID/EPRI Controlls and Instrumentation Conference, Chicago, Illinois, May 2009). 4 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Hydrogen effects on materials for CNG/H2 blends.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farese, David (Air Products, USA); Keller, Jay O.; Somerday, Brian P.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    No concerns for Hydrogen-Enriched Compressed Natural gas (HCNG) in steel storage tanks if material strength is < 950 MPa. Recommend evaluating H{sub 2}-assisted fatigue cracking in higher strength steels at H{sub 2} partial pressure in blend. Limited fatigue testing on higher strength steel cylinders in H{sub 2} shows promising results. Impurities in Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) (e.g., CO) may provide extrinsic mechanism for mitigating H{sub 2}-assisted fatigue cracking in steel tanks.

  17. INVESTIGATION ON THE FLAME EXTINCTION LIMIT OF FUEL BLENDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahsan R. Choudhuri

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lean flame extinction limits of binary fuel mixtures of methane (CH{sub 4}), propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}), and ethane (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) were measured using a twin-flame counter-flow burner. Experiments were conducted to generate an extinction equivalence ratio vs. global stretch rate plot and an extrapolation method was used to calculate the equivalence ratio corresponding to an experimentally unattainable zero-stretch condition. The foregoing gases were selected because they are the primary constitutes of natural gas, which is the primary focus of the present study. To validate the experimental setup and methodology, the flame extinction limit of pure fuels at zero stretch conditions were also estimated and compared with published values. The lean flame extinction limits of methane (f{sub ext} = 4.6%) and propane (f{sub ext} = 2.25%) flames measured in the present study agreed with the values reported in the literature. It was observed that the flame extinction limit of fuel blends have a polynomial relation with the concentration of component fuels in the mixture. This behavior contradicts with the commonly used linear Le Chatelier's approximation. The experimentally determined polynomial relations between the flame extinction limits of fuel blends (i.e. methane-propane and methane-ethane) and methane concentration are as follows: (1) Methane-Propane--%f{sub ext} = (1.05 x 10{sup -9}) f{sup 5}-(1.3644 x 10{sup -7}) f{sup 4}+(6.40299 x 10{sup -6}) f{sup 3}-(1.2108459 x 10{sup -4}) f{sup 2}+(2.87305329 x 10{sup -3}) f+2.2483; (2) Methane-Ethane--%f{sub ext} = (2.1 x 10{sup -9})f{sup 5}-(3.5752 x 10{sup -7}) f{sup 4}+(2.095425 x 10{sup -5}) f{sup 3}-(5.037353 x 10{sup -4}) f{sup 2} + 6.08980409 f + 2.8923. Where f{sub ext} is the extinction limits of methane-propane and methane-ethane fuel blends, and f is the concentration (% volume) of methane in the fuel mixture. The relations were obtained by fitting fifth order curve (polynomial regression) to experimentally measured extinction limits at different mixture conditions. To extend the study to a commercial fuel, the flame extinction limit for Birmingham natural gas (a blend of 95% methane, 5% ethane and 5% nitrogen) was experimentally determined and was found to be 3.62% fuel in the air-fuel mixture.

  18. Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagement of the National 93-4 AcquisitionO 231.1B ChgMicrosoft WordBlends

  19. Characterization of Polymer Blends: Optical Microscopy (*Polarized, Interference and Phase Contrast Microscopy*) and Confocal Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, Nathan Muruganathan [ORNL; Darling, Seth B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 15 surveys the characterization of macro, micro and meso morphologies of polymer blends by optical microscopy. Confocal Microscopy offers the ability to view the three dimensional morphology of polymer blends, popular in characterization of biological systems. Confocal microscopy uses point illumination and a spatial pinhole to eliminate out-of focus light in samples that are thicker than the focal plane.

  20. Interface modification in an immiscible rod-coil polymer blend using functionalized copolymers and polyelectrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Passinault, Robbie J

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Blends of rod-like and flexible-coil polymers are attractive for synthesizing molecular composites. In this study, a blend of a rod-like polymer (Vectra B950) and a flexible polymer (polystyrene) is used to investigate the influence of polymer-polymer...

  1. Blended Interaction Toward a Framework for the Design of Interactive Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiterer, Harald

    Blended Interaction Toward a Framework for the Design of Interactive Spaces Hans-Christian Jetter, Florian Geyer, Tobias Schwarz, Harald Reiterer Human-Computer Interaction Group, University of Konstanz In this paper, we propose Blended Interaction as a conceptual framework for the design of interactive spaces. We

  2. Probing Water Phases in Cement Blends using 1 Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    Probing Water Phases in Cement Blends using 1 H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry Jean)114 222 5973 Fax: +44 (0)114 222 5943 E-Mail: j.gorce@sheffield.ac.uk Extended Abstract: Cement and Concrete Science, Warwick, 16th + 17th September 2004 Introduction The nuclear industry uses blended cement

  3. In vitro analysis of biodegradable polymer blend/hydroxyapatite composites for bone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Lee E.

    In vitro analysis of biodegradable polymer blend/hydroxyapatite composites for bone tissue engineering Kacey G. Marra,1 Jeffrey W. Szem,2 Prashant N. Kumta,3 Paul A. DiMilla,4 Lee E. Weiss5 1 14 April 1999 Abstract: Blends of biodegradable polymers, poly(capro- lactone) and poly

  4. Calculation of critical dimensions for wurtzite and cubic zinc blende coaxial nanowire heterostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    Calculation of critical dimensions for wurtzite and cubic zinc blende coaxial nanowire-shell heterostructures in 111 zinc blende and 0001 wurtzite geometries. These calculations reveal that critical wurtzite nanowire systems. In this article we extend this methodology to explore and contrast coherency

  5. Phase controlled synthesis of ZnS nanobelts: zinc blende vs wurtzite Yong Ding a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Phase controlled synthesis of ZnS nanobelts: zinc blende vs wurtzite Yong Ding a , Xu Dong WangS nanostructures normally take the metastable wurtzite structure. This Letter investigates the conditions under which the formed phase can be con- trolled between zinc blende and wurtzite in nanomaterials synthesis

  6. Structural and Room-Temperature Transport Properties of Zinc Blende and Wurtzite InAs Nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Deli

    Structural and Room-Temperature Transport Properties of Zinc Blende and Wurtzite InAs Nanowires between pure zinc blende (ZB) NWs and wurtzite (WZ) NWs containing stacking faults and small ZB segments their growth-direction axis while wurtzite (WZ) InAs NWs grown on InAs (111)B substrates have numerous stacking

  7. Theoretical study of nonpolar surfaces of aluminum nitride: Zinc blende ,,110... and wurtzite ,,1010...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pandey, Ravi

    Theoretical study of nonpolar surfaces of aluminum nitride: Zinc blende ,,110... and wurtzite ,,101 structure and electronic properties of the nonpolar surfaces, namely zinc blende 110 and wurtzite (10 1 and small ther- mal expansion coefficient. At ambient conditions, AlN crys- tallizes in the wurtzite phase

  8. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document serves as a guide for blenders, distributors, sellers, and users of E85 and other ethanol blends above E10. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of E85 and other ethanol blends and includes supporting technical and policy references.

  9. X-ray Microscopy of Photovoltaic Polyfluorene Blends: Relating Nanomorphology to Device Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X-ray Microscopy of Photovoltaic Polyfluorene Blends: Relating Nanomorphology to Device Performance no features on the length scale of 50 nm or greater. Additionally, the performance of photovoltaic devices evaluated and compared to the performance of chloroform blends with varied weight ratio. By studying

  10. "Performance, Emission and Particle distribution of Diesel Engines Fueled with Diesel-Dimethoxymethane (DMM) Blends"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xibin Wang "Performance, Emission and Particle distribution of Diesel Engines Fueled with Diesel-Dimethoxymethane (DMM) Blends" Abstract : Combustion, performance and emission were studied for DI diesel engine fuelled with DMM/diesel fuel blends for DMM content from 0 to 50%. Results showed that, for diesel engine with fuel

  11. Synergistic Effect of coal blends on thermoplasticity evaluated using a temperature-variable dynamic viscoelastic measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Kensuke Masaki; Atsushi Dobashi; Kiyoshi Fukada [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To maximize the conversion of low-quality coal into good coke, we investigated the thermoplasticity of various binary blends of caking coals with slightly or noncaking coals using a dynamic viscoelastic technique with a temperature-variable rheometer. Coal blend samples were prepared by mixing two coals (1:1 by weight), which were heated from room temperature to 600 C at a rate of 3-80{sup o}C/min. At the slow rate of 3{sup o}C/min, the blends had a tan {delta} that was generally lower than the calculated value, showing that a negative interaction caused a loss of thermoplasticity. In contrast, at the rapid heating rate of 80{sup o}C/min, the tan {delta} of some blends was higher than the calculated value, indicating a positive interaction that enhanced the thermoplasticity. With rapid heating, the thermoplasticity of each coal itself increased, and their thermoplastic temperature ranges widened with rapid heating. Therefore, rapid heating was effective at converting these coal blends into good cokes. Moreover, even with slow heating, when a combination of coals (Gregory:Enshu, 1:1) showing some thermoplasticity in nearly the same temperature range was blended, a desirable synergistic effect of the blend was obtained. This suggests that blending coal with an overlapping thermoplastic temperature range is important for the synergistic effect, regardless of the heating rate. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10% of petroleum diesel, until now, issues with cold weather performance have prevented biodiesel blends from being

  14. HIGH-TEMPERATURE STEAM-TREATMENT OF PEEK, PEKK, PBI, AND THEIR BLENDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bluemel, Janet

    1 HIGH-TEMPERATURE STEAM-TREATMENT OF PEEK, PEKK, PBI, AND THEIR BLENDS: A SOLID-STATE NMR AND IR and their pure components after treating them with liquid water and steam at elevated temperatures and pressures. The pure polymer components and the PAEK-PBI (50 : 50 wt%) blends are steam-treated at 150 °C (302 °F

  15. Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks

  16. Modeling the Auto-Ignition of Biodiesel Blends with a Multi-Step Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toulson, Dr. Elisa [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Allen, Casey M [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Miller, Dennis J [Michigan State University, East Lansing; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Schock, Harold [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Lee, Tonghun [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is growing interest in using biodiesel in place of or in blends with petrodiesel in diesel engines; however, biodiesel oxidation chemistry is complicated to directly model and existing surrogate kinetic models are very large, making them computationally expensive. The present study describes a method for predicting the ignition behavior of blends of n-heptane and methyl butanoate, fuels whose blends have been used in the past as a surrogate for biodiesel. The autoignition is predicted using a multistep (8-step) model in order to reduce computational time and make this a viable tool for implementation into engine simulation codes. A detailed reaction mechanism for n-heptane-methyl butanoate blends was used as a basis for validating the multistep model results. The ignition delay trends predicted by the multistep model for the n-heptane-methyl butanoate blends matched well with that of the detailed CHEMKIN model for the majority of conditions tested.

  17. ccsd-00000932(version1):10Dec2003 Electronic structure of wurtzite and zinc-blende AlN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ccsd-00000932(version1):10Dec2003 Electronic structure of wurtzite and zinc-blende AlN P. Jonnard) Abstract The electronic structure of AlN in wurtzite and zinc-blende phases is studied experimentally. Differences 1 #12;between the wurtzite and zinc-blende phases are small and reflect the slight variations

  18. Conducting polymer blends: Polypyrrole and polythiophene blends with polystyrene, polycarbonate resin, poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinyl methyl ketone)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.L.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various aromatic compounds can be polymerized by electrochemical oxidation in solution containing a supporting electrolyte. Most studies have been devoted to polypyrrole and polythiophene. In situ doping during electrochemical polymerization yields free standing conductive polymer film. One major approach to making conducting polymer blends is electrochemical synthesis after coating the host polymer on a platinum electrode. In the electrolysis of pyrrole or thiophene monomer, using (t-Bu[sub 4]N)BF[sub 4] as supporting electrolyte, and acetonitrile as solvent, monomer can diffuse through the polymer film, to produce a polypyrrole or polythiophene blend in the film. Doping occurs along with polymerization to form a conducting polymer alloy. The strongest molecular interaction in polymers, and one that is central to phase behavior, is hydrogen bonding. This mixing at the molecular level enhances the degree of miscibility between two polymers and results in macroscopic properties indicative of single phase behavior. In this dissertation, the authors describes the syntheses of conducting polymer blends: polypyrrole and polythiophene blends with polystyrene, poly(bisphenol-A-carbonate), polyvinyl alcohol and poly(vinyl methyl ketone). The syntheses are performed both electrochemically and chemically. Characterization of these blends was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Percolating threshold conductivities occur from 7% to 20% for different polymer blends. The low threshold conductivity is attributed to blend homogeneity enhanced by hydrogen bonding between the carbonyl group in the insulating polymer and the N-H group in polypyrrole. Thermal stability, environmental stability, mechanical properties, crystallinity and morphological structure are also discussed. The authors have also engaged in the polymerization of imidazoles.

  19. Measurement of biodiesel blend and conventional diesel spray structure using x-ray radiography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kastengren, A. L.; Powell, C. F.; Wang, Y. J.; IM, K. S.; Wang, J.

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The near-nozzle structure of several nonevaporating biodiesel-blend sprays has been studied using X-ray radiography. Radiography allows quantitative measurements of the fuel distribution in sprays to be made with high temporal and spatial resolution. Measurements have been made at different values of injection pressure, ambient density, and with two different nozzle geometries to understand the influences of these parameters on the spray structure of the biodiesel blend. These measurements have been compared with corresponding measurements of Viscor, a diesel calibration fluid, to demonstrate the fuel effects on the spray structure. Generally, the biodiesel-blend spray has a similar structure to the spray of Viscor. For the nonhydroground nozzle used in this study, the biodiesel-blend spray has a slightly slower penetration into the ambient gas than the Viscor spray. The cone angle of the biodiesel-blend spray is generally smaller than that of the Viscor spray, indicating that the biodiesel-blend spray is denser than the Viscor spray. For the hydroground nozzle, both fuels produce sprays with initially wide cone angles that transition to narrow sprays during the steady-state portion of the injection event. These variations in cone angle with time occur later for the biodiesel-blend spray than for the Viscor spray, indicating that the dynamics of the injector needle as it opens are somewhat different for the two fuels.

  20. Removing the Microlensing Blending-Parallax Degeneracy Using Source Variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assef, R J; Afonso, C; Albert, J N; Andersen, J; Ansari, R; Aubourg, E; Bareyre, P; Beaulieu, J P; Charlot, X; Coutures, C; Ferlet, R; Fouqu, P; Glicenstein, J F; Goldman, B; Graff, D; Gros, M; Hassinski, J; Hamadache, C; De Kat, J; Le Guillou, Laurent; Lesquoy, E; Loup, C; Magneville, C; Marquette, J B; Maurice, E; Maury, A; Milsztajn, A; Moniez, M; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Perdereau, O; Rahal, Y R; Rich, J; Spiro, M; Tisserand, P; Vidal-Madjar, A; Vigroux, L; Zylberajch, S; Bennett, D P; Becker, A C; Griest, K; Vandehei, T; Welch, D L; Udalski, A; Szymanski, M K; Kubiak, M; Pietrzynski, G; Soszynski, I; Szewczyk, O; Wyrzykowski, L

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microlensing event MACHO 97-SMC-1 is one of the rare microlensing events for which the source is a variable star, simply because most variable stars are systematically eliminated from microlensing studies. Using observational data for this event, we show that the intrinsic variability of a microlensed star is a powerful tool to constrain the nature of the lens by breaking the degeneracy between the microlens parallax and the blended light. We also present a statistical test for discriminating the location of the lens based on the \\chi^2 contours of the vector \\Lambda, the inverse of the projected velocity. We find that while SMC self lensing is somewhat favored, neither location can be ruled out with good confidence.

  1. Influence of Substrate on Crystallization in Polythiophene/fullerene Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C He; D Germack; J Kline; D Delongchamp; D Fischer; C Snyder; M Toney; J Kushmerick; L Richter

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The nanoscale morphology of the active layer in organic, bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is crucial to device performance. Often a combination of casting conditions and post deposition thermal treatment is used to optimize the morphology. In general, the development of microscopic crystals is deleterious, as the exciton diffusion length is {approx}10 nm. We find that the microscopic crystallization behavior in polythiophene/fullerene blends is strongly influenced by the substrate on which the BHJ is cast. With a silicon oxide substrate, the crystal nucleation density is high and significant crystallization occurs at a temperature of 140 C. On more hydrophobic substrates, significantly higher temperatures are required for observable crystallization. This difference is attributed to the interfacial segregation of the PCBM, controlled by the substrate surface energy. The substrate dependence of crystallization has significant implications on the fullerene crystal growth mechanisms and practical implications for device studies.

  2. Establishing an optimized patient-specific verification program for volumetric modulated arc therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serna, Alfredo, E-mail: alfredo.serna@carm.es [Department of Medical Physics, Hospital Universitario Santa Luca, Cartagena (Spain); Mata, Fernando; Puchades, Vicente [Department of Medical Physics, Hospital Universitario Santa Luca, Cartagena (Spain)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quality assurance (QA) of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) increases the workload significantly. We compared the results from 4 verification methods to establish an efficient VMAT QA. Planning for VMAT treatments was carried out for 40 consecutive patients. Pretreatment verifications were carried out with ion chamber array Physikalish-Technische Werksttten (PTW729), electronic portal dosimetry (EPID), ion chamber measurements, and independent dose calculation with Diamond program. 2D analyses were made using the gamma analysis (3 mm distance to agreement and 3% dose difference relative to maximum, 10% dose threshold). Average point dose difference calculated by Eclipse relative to ion chamber measurements and Diamond were 0.1%0.9% and 0.6%2.2%, respectively. Average pass rate for PTW729 was 99.2%1.9% and 98.3%1.3% for EPID. The total required time (linac occupancy time given in parentheses) for each QA method was: PTW729 43.5 minutes (26.5 minutes), EPID 14.5 minutes (2.5 minutes), ion chamber 34.5 minutes (26.5 minutes), and Diamond 12.0 minutes (0 minute). The results were consistent and allowed us to establish an optimized protocol, considering safety and accuracy as well as workload, consisting of 2 verification methods: EPID 2D analysis and independent dose calculation.

  3. Effect of the Collimator Angle on Dosimetric Verification of the Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Yong Ho; Kim, Won Taek; Kim, Dong Won; Ki, Yongkan; Lee, Juhye; Bae, Jinsuk; Park, Dahl

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Collimator angle is usually rotated when planning volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) due to the leakage of radiation between multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaves. We studied the effect of the collimator angles on the results of dosimetric verification of the VMAT plans for head and neck patients. We studied VMAT plans for 10 head and neck patients. We made 2 sets of VMAT plans for each patient. Each set was composed of 10 plans with collimator angles of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 degrees. Plans in the first set were optimized individually and plans in the second set shared the 30 degree collimator angle optimization. Two sets of plans were verified using the 2-dimensional ion chamber array MatriXX (IBA Dosimetry, Germany). The comparison between the calculation and measurements were made by the $\\gamma$-index analysis. The $\\gamma$-index (2\\%/2 mm) and (3\\%/3 mm) passing rates had negative correlations with the collimator angle. Maximum difference between $\\gamma$-index (3\\%/3 mm) passing rates o...

  4. Demonstration of volumetric analysis using the topographical mapping system at Hanford

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carteret, B.A.; Pardini, A.F.; Samuel, T.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the spring of 1997, the Topographical Mapping System (TMS) for hazardous and radiological environments was used to perform volumetric measurements of simulated waste in the cold test cell in the Fuel Materials and Examination Facility at the Hanford site. The TMS was used to measure the volume of five simulated waste mounds. Custom software designed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory was used to calculate the volume of waste from the surface maps supplied by the TMS. The results of the measurements were analyzed using the Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote-Viewing System (ICERVS) and were documented. Development of the TMS and ICERVS was initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of characterization and remediation of underground storage tanks (USTs) at DOE sites across the country. DOE required a three-dimensional TMS suitable for use in hazardous and radiological environments. The intended application is the mapping of the interior of USTs as part of DOE`s waste characterization and remediation efforts to obtain baseline data on the content of storage tank interiors as well as on changes in the tank contents and levels brought about by waste remediation steps. Initially targeted for deployment at the Hanford site, the TMS was designed to be a self-contained, compact, and reconfigurable system that is capable of providing rapid, variable-resolution mapping information in poorly characterized workspaces with a minimum of operator intervention. An appendix contains the source code for calculating the volume from two surface maps.

  5. Statistical quality control for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery using machine log data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Park, Soah; Hwang, Taejin; Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Han, Tae Jin; Bae, Hoonsik

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this study is to set up statistical quality control for monitoring of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery error using machine log data. Eclipse and Clinac iX linac with the RapidArc system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA) is used for delivery of the VMAT plan. During the delivery of the RapidArc fields, the machine determines the delivered motor units (MUs) and gantry angle position accuracy and the standard deviations of MU (sigma_MU; dosimetric error) and gantry angle (sigma_GA; geometric error) are displayed on the console monitor after completion of the RapidArc delivery. In the present study, first, the log data was analyzed to confirm its validity and usability; then, statistical process control (SPC) was applied to monitor the sigma_MU and sigma_GA in a timely manner for all RapidArc fields: a total of 195 arc fields for 99 patients. The sigma_MU and sigma_GA were determined twice for all fields, that is, first during the patient-specific plan QA and then again during th...

  6. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranyl nitrate hexahydrate. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials to pure HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend pure HEU UNH with depleted and natural UNH to produce HEU UNH crystals. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU Will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  7. HEU to LEU Conversion and Blending Facility: UF{sub 6} blending alternative to produce LEU UF{sub 6} for commercial use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials; the nuclear material will be converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. Five technologies for blending HEU will be assessed; blending as UF{sub 6} to produce a UF{sub 6} product for commercial use is one of them. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the UF{sub 6} blending HEU disposition option. Resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards, accident scenarios, and intersite transportation are discussed.

  8. The development of nanoscale morphology in polymer:fullerene photovoltaic blends during solvent casting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Travis, Adrian

    The development of nanoscale morphology in polymer:fullerene photovoltaic blends during solventsm00343c The power conversion efficiency in a conjugated polymer-functionalized fullerene bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic (OPV) device is dependent both on the electronic properties

  9. Characterization and Combustion Performance of Corn Oil-Based Biofuel Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savant, Gautam Sandesh

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    into biodiesel. It is well known vegetable oil to biodiesel conversion involves many processes including transesterification, which makes biodiesel costly and time-consuming to produce. In this study, the effects of blending high-viscosity fresh and used corn...

  10. Knock limits in spark ignited direct injected engines using gasoline/ethanol blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasseris, Emmanuel P

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct Fuel Injection (DI) extends engine knock limits compared to Port Fuel Injection (PFI) by utilizing the in-cylinder charge cooling effect due to fuel evaporation. The use of gasoline/ethanol blends in DI is therefore ...

  11. Morphological effects on glass transition behavior in selected immiscible blends of amorphous and semicrystalline polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the systems polystyrene/polypropylene (PS/PP), polystyrene/high density polyethylene (PS/PE) and polycarbonate were conducted to study these effects by preparing blends with various polymers that varied

  12. Leaching and standing water characteristics of bottom ash and composted manure blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathis, James Gregory

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in significantly higher concentrations of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), P, and potassium (K). Generally, a higher CM content in acidic and alkaline blends resulted in higher leachate concentrations for total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total...

  13. Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation andEngine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Engine-in-the-Loop Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and Engine-in-the-Loop 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies...

  14. Exciton localization mechanisms in wurtzite/zinc-blende GaAs nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, Alexandra; Corfdir, Pierre; Heiss, Martin; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Uccelli, Emanuele; Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna; Phillips, Richard

    We investigate the emission properties of excitons in GaAs nanowires containing quantum disks formed by structural alternation between the zinc-blende and wurtzite phases, by means of temperature-dependent photoluminescence. At 10 K the emission...

  15. Glass Transition Phenomena in Melt-Processed Polystyrene/Polypropylene Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The presence of a rigid polycarbonate matrix as PET cools through its glass transition gives rise to a "wall" effect, causing the Tg of PET to increase [6]. The Tg of polybutadiene in polycarbonate/ABS blends

  16. Influence of branch content on the microstructure of blends of linear and octene-branched polyethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hussein, Ibnelwaleed A.

    experimental densities of the two polymer melts. Initially, chains of LLDPE and HDPE were completely mixed POLYMER JOURNAL #12;short chain branching (SCB) [26]. Few studies have made use of m-LLDPE in blend

  17. Process simulation, integration and optimization of blending of petrodiesel with biodiesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ting

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    strategies to meet these requirements. The primary objective of this work is to analyze alternatives for producing ULSD. In addition to the conventional approach of revamping existing hydrotreating facilities, the option of blending petrodiesel with biodiesel...

  18. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Keywords: Methyl decanoate; Methyl decenoate; Surrogate; Oxidation; Biodiesel fuels; Kinetic modeling; Engine; Low

  19. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  20. Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy: Planning and Evaluation for Prostate Cancer Cases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Pengpeng, E-mail: zhangp@mskcc.or [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Happersett, Laura; Hunt, Margie; Jackson, Andrew [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Zelefsky, Michael [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Mageras, Gig [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To develop an optimization method using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and evaluate VMAT plans relative to the standard intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) approach in prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A single gantry rotation was modeled using 177 equispaced beams. Multileaf collimator apertures and dose rates were optimized with respect to gantry angle subject to dose-volume-based objectives. Our VMAT implementation used conjugate gradient descent to optimize dose rate, and stochastic sampling to find optimal multileaf collimator leaf positions. A treatment planning study of 11 prostate cancer patients with a prescription dose of 86.4 Gy was performed to compare VMAT with a standard five-field IMRT approach. Plan evaluation statistics included the percentage of planning target volume (PTV) receiving 95% of prescribed dose (V95), dose to 95% of PTV (D95), mean PTV dose, tumor control probability, and dosimetric endpoints of normal organs, whereas monitor unit (MU) and delivery time were used to assess delivery efficiency. Results: Patient-averaged PTV V95, D95, mean dose, and tumor control probability in VMAT plans were 96%, 82.6 Gy, 88.5 Gy, and 0.920, respectively, vs. 97%, 84.0 Gy, 88.9 Gy, and 0.929 in IMRT plans. All critical structure dose requirements were met. The VMAT plans presented better rectal wall sparing, with a reduction of 1.5% in normal tissue complication probability. An advantage of VMAT plans was that the average number of MUs (290 MU) was less than for IMRT plans (642 MU). Conclusion: The VMAT technique can reduce beam on time by up to 55% while maintaining dosimetric quality comparable to that of the standard IMRT approach.

  1. Characterization of Jeffamine (polyoxypropyleneamine) based compatibilizers and bisphenol-a polycarbonate blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guenther, Gerhard Kurt

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CHARACTERIZATION OF IEFFAMINE (POLYOXYPROPYLENEAMINE) BASED COMPATIBILIZERS AND BISPHENOL-A POLYCARBONATE BLENDS A Thesis by GERHARD KURT GUENTHER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1991 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering CHARACTERIZATION OF JEFFAMINE (POLYOXYPROPYLENEAMINE) BASED COMPATIBILIZERS AND BISPHENOL-A POLYCARBONATE BLENDS A Thesis by GERHARD KURT GUENTHER...

  2. Solvent Blending Strategy to Upgrade MCU CSSX Solvent to Equivalent Next-Generation CSSX Solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene [ORNL; Moyer, Bruce A [ORNL

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of the present study have validated an equal-volume blending strategy for upgrading freshly prepared CSSX solvent to a blended solvent functionally equivalent to NG-CSSX solvent. It is shown that blending fresh CSSX solvent as currently used in MCU with an equal volume of an NG-CSSX solvent concentrate of appropriate composition yields a blended solvent composition (46.5 mM of MaxCalix, 3.5 mM of BOBCalixC6, 0.5 M of Cs-7SB, 3 mM of guanidine suppressor, and 1.5 mM of TOA in Isopar L) that exhibits equivalent batch ESS performance to that of the NG-CSSX solvent containing 50 mM of MaxCalix, 0.5 M of Cs-7SB, and 3 mM of guanidine suppressor in Isopar L. The solvent blend composition is robust to third-phase formation. Results also show that a blend containing up to 60% v/v of CSSX solvent could be accommodated with minimal risk. Extraction and density data for the effect of solvent concentration mimicking diluent evaporation or over-dilution of the equal-volume blended solvent are also given, providing input for setting operational limits. Given that the experiments employed all pristine chemicals, the results do not qualify a blended solvent starting with actual used MCU solvent, which can be expected to have undergone some degree of degradation. Consequently, further work should be considered to evaluate this risk and implement appropriate remediation if needed.

  3. Empirical Study of the Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Milestone Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Westbrook, S. R.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work was to develop a database that supports specific proposals for a stability test and specification for biodiesel and biodiesel blends. B100 samples from 19 biodiesel producers were obtained in December of 2005 and January of 2006 and tested for stability. Eight of these samples were then selected for additional study, including long-term storage tests and blending at 5% and 20% with a number of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels.

  4. Feedstock blending studies with laboratory indirectly heated gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, A.E.S.; Mullin, J.P.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To support the further development of indirectly heated gasifiers intended to provide fuels for advanced gas turbines, several indirectly heated laboratory gasifiers were constructed. During many comparative tests, advantages and problems with each system were observed. The most useful systems make use of laboratory tube furnaces in conjunction with temperature, time and pressure or volume yield measuring systems and a gas chromatograph with a thermal conductivity detector. In this paper, high temperature pyrolysis results obtained with the latest system are presented. Contrasting feedstocks suitable for commercial systems separately or in blends are used. Yield versus time measurements are used to determine relevant rate constants and outputs. Since the rate constants are mainly reflective of heat transfer effects, cylindrical dowel sticks of varying radii were volatilized. The data set leads to an analytic heat transfer model that considers the hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin components of the dowels. Also developed from the dowel experiments is an approximate procedure for estimating the proportionate releases of CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2} for any type of biomass whose component proportions are known.

  5. Hydration studies of calcium sulfoaluminate cements blended with fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garca-Mat, M.; De la Torre, A.G. [Departamento de Qumica Inorgnica, Cristalografa y Mineraloga, Universidad de Mlaga, 29071 Mlaga (Spain)] [Departamento de Qumica Inorgnica, Cristalografa y Mineraloga, Universidad de Mlaga, 29071 Mlaga (Spain); Len-Reina, L. [Servicios Centrales de Apoyo a la Investigacin, Universidad de Mlaga, 29071 Mlaga (Spain)] [Servicios Centrales de Apoyo a la Investigacin, Universidad de Mlaga, 29071 Mlaga (Spain); Aranda, M.A.G. [Departamento de Qumica Inorgnica, Cristalografa y Mineraloga, Universidad de Mlaga, 29071 Mlaga (Spain) [Departamento de Qumica Inorgnica, Cristalografa y Mineraloga, Universidad de Mlaga, 29071 Mlaga (Spain); CELLS-Alba synchrotron, Carretera BP 1413, Km. 3.3, E-08290 Cerdanyola, Barcelona (Spain); Santacruz, I., E-mail: isantacruz@uma.es [Departamento de Qumica Inorgnica, Cristalografa y Mineraloga, Universidad de Mlaga, 29071 Mlaga (Spain)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this work is to study the hydration and properties of calcium sulfoaluminate cement pastes blended with fly ash (FA) and the corresponding mortars at different hydration ages. Laboratory X-ray powder diffraction, rheological studies, thermal analysis, porosimetry and compressive strength measurements were performed. The analysis of the diffraction data by Rietveld method allowed quantifying crystalline phases and overall amorphous contents. The studied parameters were: i) FA content, 0, 15 and 30 wt.%; and ii) water addition, water-to-CSA mass ratio (w/CSA = 0.50 and 0.65), and water-to-binder mass ratio (w/b = 0.50). Finally, compressive strengths after 6 months of 0 and 15 wt.% FA [w/CSA = 0.50] mortars were similar: 73 2 and 72 3 MPa, respectively. This is justified by the filler effect of the FA as no strong evidences of reactivity of FA with CSA were observed. These results support the partial substitution of CSA cements with FA with the economic and environmental benefits.

  6. A Study of the Use of Jatropha Oil Blends in Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, C.R.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary: This project investigated the combustion performance of blends of unrefined Jatropha oil and its blends in laboratory boilers. Although a very limited amount of testing blends in distillate oil, ASTM No. 2 oil or heating oil was conducted, the primary interest was in testing the performance of blends with residual ASTM No. 6 oil. The basic idea is to provide a renewable fuel option to residual oil used in space heating and in industrial applications. The intent also was to explore the use of non-edible plant oil and one that might be potentially cheaper than biodiesel. The characteristics of No. 6 oil, such as high viscosity at ambient temperature, which requires it to be kept heated, make the blending with such oils feasible. Jatropha oil is one such oil and there is currently considerable interest building up in its use as a source for making biodiesel and jet fuel. A 10% blend of Jatropha oil with heating oil was burned using a standard burner in a residential boiler. Combustion performance was shown to be comparable with that of burning heating oil by itself with some noticeable differences. Typical heating oil has about 2000 ppm of sulfur, while the Jatropha oil has about 50 ppm leading to lower levels of sulphur dioxide emissions. Stack measurements also showed that the NOx emission was lower with the blend. We have previously reported similar reductions in NOx with blends of biodiesel in heating oil as well as slight reductions in PM2.5, particulates below 2.5 microns in size. Long term tests were not part of this project and hence deleterious effects on pumps, seals etc., if any, were not measured. The majority of the work involved testing blends of Jatropha oil with residual oil in a 1.5 million Btu/hr boiler with a burner modified to burn residual oil. Blends of 20 and 60% Jatropha oil and 100% Jatropha oil were burned in the combustion performance tests. The residual oil used had a sulfur content of over 2000 ppm and hence dramatic reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions are measured with the blends. Again, consistent with our past experience with biodiesel blends, significant reductions in nitrogen oxide emissions nearing 50% with 100% Jatropha oil, were also measured. This is in contrast with the use of biodiesel in diesel engines, where the NOx has a tendency to increase. In addition to the gaseous emission measurements, particulate emissions were measured using an EPA CTM-39 system to obtain both particulates, of sizes below 2.5 microns, so-called PM2.5, and of sizes larger than 2.5 microns. The results show that the particulate emissions are lower with the blending of Jatropha oil. Overall, one can conclude that the blending of Jatropha oil with residual oil is a feasible approach to using non-edible plant oil to provide a renewable content to residual oil, with significant benefits in the reduction of pollutant emissions such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulates.

  7. Biological-based optimization and volumetric modulated arc therapy delivery for stereotactic body radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diot, Quentin; Kavanagh, Brian; Timmerman, Robert; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To describe biological-based optimization and Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation-based treatment planning for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in lung, liver, and prostate patients. Methods: Optimization strategies and VMAT planning parameters using a biological-based optimization MC planning system were analyzed for 24 SBRT patients. Patients received a median dose of 45 Gy [range, 34-54 Gy] for lung tumors in 1-5 fxs and a median dose of 52 Gy [range, 48-60 Gy] for liver tumors in 3-6 fxs. Prostate patients received a fractional dose of 10 Gy in 5 fxs. Biological-cost functions were used for plan optimization, and its dosimetric quality was evaluated using the conformity index (CI), the conformation number (CN), the ratio of the volume receiving 50% of the prescription dose over the planning target volume (Rx/PTV50). The quality and efficiency of the delivery were assessed according to measured quality assurance (QA) passing rates and delivery times. For each disease site, one patient was replanned using physical cost function and compared to the corresponding biological plan. Results: Median CI, CN, and Rx/PTV50 for all 24 patients were 1.13 (1.02-1.28), 0.79 (0.70-0.88), and 5.3 (3.1-10.8), respectively. The median delivery rate for all patients was 410 MU/min with a maximum possible rate of 480 MU/min (85%). Median QA passing rate was 96.7%, and it did not significantly vary with the tumor site. Conclusions: VMAT delivery of SBRT plans optimized using biological-motivated cost-functions result in highly conformal dose distributions. Plans offer shorter treatment-time benefits and provide efficient dose delivery without compromising the plan conformity for tumors in the prostate, lung, and liver, thereby improving patient comfort and clinical throughput. The short delivery times minimize the risk of patient setup and intrafraction motion errors often associated with long SBRT treatment delivery times.

  8. Thoracic cavity segmentation algorithm using multiorgan extraction and surface fitting in volumetric CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bae, JangPyo [Interdisciplinary Program, Bioengineering Major, Graduate School, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744, South Korea and Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)] [Interdisciplinary Program, Bioengineering Major, Graduate School, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744, South Korea and Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Namkug, E-mail: namkugkim@gmail.com; Lee, Sang Min; Seo, Joon Beom [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Chan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine and Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine and Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To develop and validate a semiautomatic segmentation method for thoracic cavity volumetry and mediastinum fat quantification of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: The thoracic cavity region was separated by segmenting multiorgans, namely, the rib, lung, heart, and diaphragm. To encompass various lung disease-induced variations, the inner thoracic wall and diaphragm were modeled by using a three-dimensional surface-fitting method. To improve the accuracy of the diaphragm surface model, the heart and its surrounding tissue were segmented by a two-stage level set method using a shape prior. To assess the accuracy of the proposed algorithm, the algorithm results of 50 patients were compared to the manual segmentation results of two experts with more than 5 years of experience (these manual results were confirmed by an expert thoracic radiologist). The proposed method was also compared to three state-of-the-art segmentation methods. The metrics used to evaluate segmentation accuracy were volumetric overlap ratio (VOR), false positive ratio on VOR (FPRV), false negative ratio on VOR (FNRV), average symmetric absolute surface distance (ASASD), average symmetric squared surface distance (ASSSD), and maximum symmetric surface distance (MSSD). Results: In terms of thoracic cavity volumetry, the mean SD VOR, FPRV, and FNRV of the proposed method were (98.17 0.84)%, (0.49 0.23)%, and (1.34 0.83)%, respectively. The ASASD, ASSSD, and MSSD for the thoracic wall were 0.28 0.12, 1.28 0.53, and 23.91 7.64mm, respectively. The ASASD, ASSSD, and MSSD for the diaphragm surface were 1.73 0.91, 3.92 1.68, and 27.80 10.63 mm, respectively. The proposed method performed significantly better than the other three methods in terms of VOR, ASASD, and ASSSD. Conclusions: The proposed semiautomatic thoracic cavity segmentation method, which extracts multiple organs (namely, the rib, thoracic wall, diaphragm, and heart), performed with high accuracy and may be useful for clinical purposes.

  9. Conditional averaging on volumetric velocity fields for analysis of the pseudo-periodic organization of jet-in-crossflow vortices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambonie, Tristan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volumetric velocimetry measurements have been performed on a round jet in crossflow (JICF). Two kind of conditional averaging process are presented : a global conditional average (GCA) and a local conditional average (LCA). Vortices crossing the JICF symmetry plane are used to quantify the jet pseudo-periodicity leading to the GCA and LCA definitions. Because they make possible to improve the velocity field resolution as well as to significantly reduce the experimental noise, these conditional averages are an interesting and efficient way to study the instantaneous swirling structures of this instantaneous flow.

  10. J. Chem. Thermodynamics 1996, 28, 521538 Volumetric properties for {(1-x)CO2+xCH4},

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodnar, Robert J.

    J. Chem. Thermodynamics 1996, 28, 521538 Volumetric properties for {(1-x)CO2+xCH4}, {(1-x)CO2+xN2, U.S.A. Densities r of pure CO2, CH4, and {(1-x)CO2+xCH4}, {(1-x)CO2+xN2}, and {(1-x)CH4+xN2} were from mole fraction x=0 to x=1. The results were obtained with a custom-designed, high-pressure, high-temperature

  11. Gas and hydrocarbon vapor permeation in poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne)/poly(1-phenyl-1-propyne) blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morisato, A.; Shen, H.C.; Toy, L.G. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Permeation properties of phase-separated blends prepared from glassy poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) (PTMSP) and poly(1-phenyl-1-propyne) (PPP) were determined as a function of blend composition with pure hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and butane. Blend permeabilities decrease significantly with increasing PPP concentration and suggest the occurrence of a phase inversion at low PPP content (5 to 20 wt%). Based on TEM analysis high-aspect-ratio (extended) PPP ellipsoidal dispersions are found in a PTMSP matrix, indicating that the phase inversion is closely related to dispersed-phase connectivity in the blends.

  12. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

    2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be released. Installation requirements were also determined for a transfer pump which will remove tank contents, and which is also required to not disturb sludge. Testing techniques and test results for both types of pumps are presented.

  13. Chain ordering of regioregular polythiophene films through blending with a nickel bisdithiolene complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez-Maldonado, D. [CNRS, LCC (Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination), 205 Route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France) [CNRS, LCC (Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination), 205 Route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Universit de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LCC, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Ramos, B.; Bedel-Pereira, E.; Sguy, I. [LAAS-CNRS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France) [LAAS-CNRS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Universit de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LCC, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Villeneuve-Faure, C. [LAPLACE, Universit Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France)] [LAPLACE, Universit Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France); Sournia-Saquet, A.; Moineau-Chane Ching, K. I., E-mail: kathleen.chane@lcc-toulouse.fr [CNRS, LCC (Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination), 205 Route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); LAAS-CNRS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Alary, F.; Heully, J. L. [LCPQ-IRSAMC, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)] [LCPQ-IRSAMC, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An annealing-free strategy consisting of using a planar nickel bisdithiolene complex nickel bis[1,2-di(3?,4?-di-n-decyloxyphenyl)ethene-1,2-dithiolene] ([Ni(4dopedt){sub 2}]) is proposed for structuring poly(3-hexyl-thiophene) (P3HT). Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopies, in conjunction with electronic absorption, have been used for evidencing P3HT changes due to blending. PL and absorption observations are consistent and show a correlation between polymer chain organization and increasing amounts of [Ni(4dopedt){sub 2}]. Blending with [Ni(4dopedt){sub 2}] do not modify the Raman ring-breathing modes energies indicating that blending does not induce strongly disorder in P3HT chains. Atomic force microscopic measurements show that blends nanoscale morphology presents a homogeneous matrix and small fibrils related to [Ni(4dopedt){sub 2}] concentration, especially for blends with a [Ni(4dopedt){sub 2}] weight ratio lower than 50%.

  14. Concentration fluctuations in miscible polymer blends: Influence of temperature and chain rigidity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudowicz, Jacek; Freed, Karl F. [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)] [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Douglas, Jack F. [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States) [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In contrast to binary mixtures of small molecule fluids, homogeneous polymer blends exhibit relatively large concentration fluctuations that can strongly affect the transport properties of these complex fluids over wide ranges of temperatures and compositions. The spatial scale and intensity of these compositional fluctuations are studied by applying Kirkwood-Buff theory to model blends of linear semiflexible polymer chains with upper critical solution temperatures. The requisite quantities for determining the Kirkwood-Buff integrals are generated from the lattice cluster theory for the thermodynamics of the blend and from the generalization of the random phase approximation to compressible polymer mixtures. We explore how the scale and intensity of composition fluctuations in binary blends vary with the reduced temperature ? ? (T ? T{sub c})/T (where T{sub c} is the critical temperature) and with the asymmetry in the rigidities of the components. Knowledge of these variations is crucial for understanding the dynamics of materials fabricated from polymer blends, and evidence supporting these expectations is briefly discussed.

  15. Analysis Of Exhaust Emission Of Internal Combustion Engine Using Biodiesel Blend

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suvendu Mohanty; Dr. Om Prakash; Reasearch Scholar

    Abstract-The main purpose of this research is to study the effect of various blends of an environmental friendly alternative fuel such as biodiesel on the performance of diesel engine. In the Present investigation experimental work has been carried out to analyze the performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a single cylinder internal combustion engine fuelled with biodiesel blend at the different load. In this experiment the biodiesel which is use as a waste cooking oil (WCO) biodiesel.To investigation of the emission characteristics of the engine loads, which is supplied from the alternator. The experiment was carried out different load i.e. (NO LOAD, 100W 200W, 500W, 1000W, 1500W, 2000W, 2500W & 3000Watt) at engine speed 1500 rpm/min. A test was applied in which an engine was fuel with diesel and seven different blends of diesel. Biodiesel (B5, B10, B20, B40, B60, B80, B100) made from waste cooking oil and the results were analyzed.The emission of were measured carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon carbon(HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and oxygen ().The experimental results will be compared with biodiesel blends and diesel. The biodiesel results of (WCO) in lower emission of hydro carbon (HC) and (CO) and increase emission of (NO2). This study showed that the results of exhaust emission of biodiesel blends were lower than the diesel fuel. Keyword- Biodiesel (WCO), diesel engine, gas analyzer, Exhaust emission. I.

  16. Drive cycle analysis of butanol/diesel blends in a light-duty vehicle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miers, S. A.; Carlson, R. W.; McConnell, S. S.; Ng, H. K.; Wallner, T.; LeFeber, J.; Energy Systems; Esper Images Video & Multimedia

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential exists to displace a portion of the petroleum diesel demand with butanol and positively impact engine-out particulate matter. As a preliminary investigation, 20% and 40% by volume blends of butanol with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel were operated in a 1999 Mercedes Benz C220 turbo diesel vehicle (Euro III compliant). Cold and hot start urban as well as highway drive cycle tests were performed for the two blends of butanol and compared to diesel fuel. In addition, 35 MPH and 55 MPH steady-state tests were conducted under varying road loads for the two fuel blends. Exhaust gas emissions, fuel consumption, and intake and exhaust temperatures were acquired for each test condition. Filter smoke numbers were also acquired during the steady-state tests.

  17. The relationship between the thermoplastic behavior of blends and their component coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakurovs, R.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermoplastic behaviors of a number of coking coal blends were measured using proton magnetic resonance thermal analysis (PMRTA) to determine to what extent they were affected by interactions between the component coals. Most blends showed evidence that at temperatures near their temperatures of maximum fluidity the extent to which they fused was different to that expected if the coals did not interact. Only blends of coking coals of different rank fused to a greater extent than expected in the absence of interactions. Semi-anthracite, low rank coals and charcoal reduced the extent of fusion of coking coals to values below those expected if they were acting as inert diluents. These interactions are interpreted as being mediated by transfer of volatile material between the coals on heating.

  18. Study of Performance Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel, Yellow Grease Biodiesel and its Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virender Singh; Shubham Saxena; Shibayan Ghosh; Ankit Agrawal

    Abstract The feedstock used in our experiment for the production of biodiesel was Yellow Grease. The whole experiment was divided into two parts: Production and Testing. Production involves Transesterification of free fatty acids in yellow grease to form yellow grease alkyl esters. The process of testing involved calculation of the physio chemical properties, acid value, density, kinematics viscosity and various performance characteristics. The properties obtained were similar to the standards of biodiesel set by ASTM D6751. The conclusions derived from the experiments conducted were that the break thermal efficiency with biodiesel blends was little lower than that of diesel. The break specific energy consumption for B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100 is slightly higher than neat diesel. At all loads, diesel was found to have the lowet exhaust tempearture and the temperature for the different blends showed the upward trend with increasing concentration of biodiesel in the blends.

  19. The Effect of the Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide (DTBP) additive on HCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Buchholz, Bruce A; Flowers, Daniel L; Dibble, Robert W

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    diethyl ether (DEE) in ethanol fuel blends for a range ofbio-derived fuel components (ethanol) in emission productsHCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether

  20. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

    2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

  1. A novel reactive processing technique: using telechelic polymers to reactively compatibilize polymer blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashcraft, Earl C [ORNL; Ji, Haining [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Difunctional reactive polymers, telechelics, were used to reactively form multiblock copolymers in situ when melt-blended with a blend of polystyrene and polyisoprene. To quantify the ability of the copolymer to compatibilize the blends, the time evolution of the domain size upon annealing was analyzed by SEM. It was found that the most effective parameter to quantify the ability of the copolymer to inhibit droplet coalescence is Kreltstable, the relative coarsening constant multiplied by the stabilization time. These results indicate that intermediate-molecular-weight telechelic pairs of both highly reactive Anhydride-PS-Anhydride/NH2-PI-NH2 and slower reacting Epoxy-PS-Epoxy/COOH-PI-COOH both effectively suppress coalescence, with the optimal molecular weight being slightly above the critical molecular weight of the homopolymer,Mc. The effects of telechelic loading were also investigated, where the optimal loading concentration for this system was 0.5 wt %, as higher concentrations exhibited a plasticizing effect due to the presence of unreacted low-molecular-weight telechelics present in the blend. A determination of the interfacial coverage of the copolymer shows that a conversion of 1.5-3.0% was required for 20% surface coverage at 5.0 wt % telechelic loading, indicating a large excess of telechelics in this system. At the optimal loading level of 0.5 wt %, a conversion of 15% was required for 20% surface coverage. The results of these experiments provide a clear understanding of the role of telechelic loading and molecular weight on its ability to reactively form interfacial modifiers in phase-separated polymer blends and provide guidelines for the development of similar reactive processing schemes that can use telechelic polymers to reactively compatibilize a broad range of polymer blends.

  2. Numerical Model Investigation for Potential Methane Explosion and Benzene Vapor Intrusion Associated with High-Ethanol Blend

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    ABSTRACT: Ethanol-blended fuel releases usually stimulate methanogenesis in the subsurface, which could conditions exist. Ethanol- derived methane may also increase the vapor intrusion potential of toxic fuel to be modified when dealing with some high ethanol blend fuel (i.e., E20 up to E95) releases. INTRODUCTION

  3. Prediction of metallurgical coke strength from the petrographic composition of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutcu, H.; Toroglu, I.; Piskin, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Turkey, especially Zonguldak on the West Coast of Black Sea region, has large reserves of bituminous coal that can be used either directly or in blends with other coals for metallurgical coke production. It is possible to predict the coking properties of these coals by petrographic analysis. In this study, semi- and non-coking coals were blended with coking bituminous coals in varying proportions and an estimation was made as to their stability factors through petrographic techniques. It was established that semi- and non-coking bituminous coals could be used in the production of metallurgical coke.

  4. A review of chromatographic characterization techniques for biodiesel and biodiesel blends.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pauls, R. E. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This review surveys chromatographic technology that has been applied to the characterization of biodiesel and its blends. Typically, biodiesel consists of fatty acid methyl esters produced by transesterification of plant or animal derived triacylglycerols. Primary attention is given to the determination of trace impurities in biodiesel, such as methanol, glycerol, mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols, and sterol glucosides. The determination of the fatty acid methyl esters, trace impurities in biodiesel, and the determination of the biodiesel content of commercial blends of biodiesel in conventional diesel are also addressed.

  5. Appears in Proc. First International Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization, Transmission Filling Holes in Complex Surfaces using Volumetric Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    We address the problem of building watertight 3D models from surfaces that contain holes Filling Holes in Complex Surfaces using Volumetric Diffusion James Davis Stephen R. Marschner Matt Garr of the head of Michelangelo's David. At right is a rendered 3D model of a section of his hair (corre- sponding

  6. Effect of thermal history on the molecular orientation in polystyrene/poly(vinyl methyl ether) blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezolet, Michel

    ether) (PS/PVME) has been studied using polarization modulation infrared linear dichroism (PM to an increased orientation if the heating time at 51 8C is kept short. Moreover, PS and PVME develop a larger) blends; Thermal history; Polarization modulation infrared linear dichroism 1. Introduction The influence

  7. Ultrasonic and microscopic investigation of blends of polydimethylsiloxane and polyisobutylene at all

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    it would be important to control the mixing of two polymers during blend processing, in an extruder in different fields of application, in particular to characterize solid and molten polymers [Bridge (1987 50 years back. In 1948, Urick reported data of the ultrasonic attenuation in aqueous kaolin and sand

  8. Co-firing of coal and biomass fuel blends M. Sami, K. Annamalai*, M. Wooldridge1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    Co-firing of coal and biomass fuel blends M. Sami, K. Annamalai*, M. Wooldridge1 Department; accepted 6 June 2000 Abstract This paper reviews literature on co-firing of coal with biomass fuels. Here of coal and biomass fuels are presented. Different classes of co-firing methods are identified

  9. TURBULENT COMBUSTION MODELING OF COAL:BIOMASS BLENDS IN A SWIRL BURNER I -PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daripa, Prabir

    coal or by ex- haust clean up technology. For the power plants, the simplest solution is the preventive- ity well into the 21st century. This dependency on coal calls for better technologies to reduceTURBULENT COMBUSTION MODELING OF COAL:BIOMASS BLENDS IN A SWIRL BURNER I - PRELIMINARY RESULTS

  10. Relationship between MTBE-blended gasoline properties and warm-up driveability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzawa, Takumi; Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Kashiwabara, Kimito [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Fujisawa, Norihiro; Matsubara, Michiro

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between MBE-blended gasoline properties and warm-up driveability is investigated by focusing on the transient combustion air-fuel ratio that strongly relates to the combustion state of the engine. As a result, although warm-up driveability of MTBE-free gasoline has a high correlation with 50% distillation temperature (T50) and a high correlation with 100 C distillation volume (E100), the correlation is found to be low when blended with MTBE. Various formulas that improve correlation with peak excess air ratio ({lambda}) by correcting T50 and E100 for the amount of MTBE blended are examined. The formula for which the highest determination coefficient is obtained is proposed as a new driveability index (DI) that can also be applied to MTBE-blended gasoline. In addition, the effect on driveability by gasoline base materials using this new DI also is investigated. The results indicate that the new DI worsen when heavy reformate containing large amounts of aromatics or MTBE, an oxygen-containing compound, is used for the octane improver, leaving the balance of the volatility out of consideration.

  11. Detonations in Hydrocarbon Fuel Blends J.M. Austin and J.E. Shepherd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    in high-molecular weight hydrocarbon fuels of interest to pulse detonation engine applications of thermally decomposed JP-10 was studied at 295 K. This blend consisted of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane to be comparable. The addition of lower molecular weight fuels (hydrogen, acetylene, ethylene, 1 #12;and carbon

  12. Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene January 2010 Keywords: Wood plastic composites Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Polyethylene Extrusion a b into wood plastic composites through a two-step reactive extrusion technology. Wood flour was added into pre

  13. Zinc-blende ZnO and its role in nucleating wurtzite tetrapods and twinned nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Zinc-blende ZnO and its role in nucleating wurtzite tetrapods and twinned nanowires Yong Ding of wurtzite WZ ZnO tetrapods. The formation of the wurtzite 0113 twined nanowires is proposed based on the ZB core. Simple bonding density calculation shows that the wurtzite nanowires with 0110 side surfaces

  14. Using blends of cerambycid beetle pheromones and host plant volatiles to simultaneously attract a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    ethanol and a-pinene to determine whether such blends could be effective lures for detecting and moni-(undecyloxy)-ethanol, and race- mic 2-methyl-1-butanol. Bioassays in east-central Illinois captured 3070 to ethanol, with a-pinene enhancing attraction only for the pine specialist M. carolinensis. The optimal

  15. Kinetic effects of toluene blending on the extinction limit of n-decane diffusion flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ju, Yiguang

    analyses of kinetic path ways and species transport on flame extinction were also conducted. The results and emission properties, such as the ignition delay times, extinction limits, flame speeds, species profilesKinetic effects of toluene blending on the extinction limit of n-decane diffusion flames Sang Hee

  16. Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje (East Patchogue, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

  17. Optimization of Crude-Oil Blending Operations Sylvain Mouret Ignacio E. Grossmann Pierre Pestiaux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    refinery Crude-oil blending scheduling Scheduling formulations 2 Proposed approach Basic idea MINLP model Proposed approach Results and comparisons Conclusion Oil refinery A typical oil refinery Refining crude definition Given Refinery configuration Logistics constraints Initial tank inventory and composition Vessel

  18. Femtosecond electron-transfer holography in C{sub 60}/polymer blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maniloff, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Vacar, D. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Inst. for Polymers and Organic Solids; McBranch, D.; Wang, Hsing-Lin; Mattes, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heeger, A.J. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Inst. for Polymers and Organic Solids

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Holographic recording has recently been demonstrated in conducting polymer/C{sub 60} blends. Results are presented that demonstrate an improved signal-to-noise ratio is obtained when holographic detection is used to observe the dynamics of photo-induced absorption.

  19. Salt Brine Blending to Optimize Deicing and Anti-icing Performance and Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Salt Brine Blending to Optimize Deicing and Anti-icing Performance and Cost Effectiveness Stephen J in Method? #12;Deicing and Anti-icing Treatments Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Cargill, NA Salt Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2) w/additives Envirotech Serv., Scotwood Ind., NA Salt Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) Tiger

  20. Molecular Packing and Solar Cell Performance in Blends of Polymers with a Bisadduct Fullerene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Molecular Packing and Solar Cell Performance in Blends of Polymers with a Bisadduct Fullerene States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: We compare the solar cell performance of several polymers the efficiency of the solar cells only when they do not intercalate between the polymer side chains. When

  1. The Blend Down Monitoring System Demonstration at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benton, J.; Close, D.; Johnson, W., Jr.; Kerr, P.; March-Leuba, J.; Mastal, E.; Moss, C.; Powell, D.; Sumner, J.; Uckan, T.; Vines, R.; Wright, P.D.

    1999-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Agreements between the governments of the US and the Russian Federation for the US purchase of low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons calls for the establishment of transparency measures to provide confidence that nuclear nonproliferation goals are being met. To meet these transparency goals, the agreements call for the installation of nonintrusive US instruments to monitor the down blending of HEU to LEU. The Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) has been jointly developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to continuously monitor {sup 235}U enrichments and mass flow rates at Russian blending facilities. Prior to its installation in Russian facilities, the BDMS was installed and operated in a UF{sub 6} flow loop in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant simulating flow and enrichment conditions expected in a typical down-blending facility. A Russian delegation to the US witnessed the equipment demonstration in June, 1998. To conduct the demonstration in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), the BDMS was required to meet stringent Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing, safety and operational requirements. The Paducah demonstration was an important milestone in achieving the operational certification for the BDMS use in Russian facilities.

  2. Vapour Phase Hydration of Blended Oxide Magnox Waste Glasses Neil C. Hyatt,1*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    Vapour Phase Hydration of Blended Oxide Magnox Waste Glasses Neil C. Hyatt,1* William E. Lee,1 BNFL Technology Centre, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG. UK. ABSTRACT Vapour phase hydration across the alteration layer. Vapour phase hydration leads to formation of surface alteration products

  3. Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.

    1984-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

  4. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on Ethanol Engine Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is a very attractive fuel from an end-use perspective because it has a high chemical octane number and a high latent heat of vaporization. When an engine is optimized to take advantage of these fuel properties, both efficiency and power can be increased through higher compression ratio, direct fuel injection, higher levels of boost, and a reduced need for enrichment to mitigate knock or protect the engine and aftertreatment system from overheating. The ASTM D5798 specification for high level ethanol blends, commonly called E85, underwent a major revision in 2011. The minimum ethanol content was revised downward from 68 vol% to 51 vol%, which combined with the use of low octane blending streams such as natural gasoline introduces the possibility of a lower octane E85 fuel. While this fuel is suitable for current ethanol tolerant flex fuel vehicles, this study experimentally examines whether engines can still be aggressively optimized for the resultant fuel from the revised ASTM D5798 specification. The performance of six ethanol fuel blends, ranging from 51-85% ethanol, is compared to a premium-grade certification gasoline (UTG-96) in a single-cylinder direct-injection (DI) engine with a compression ratio of 12.9:1 at knock-prone engine conditions. UTG-96 (RON = 96.1), light straight run gasoline (RON = 63.6), and n-heptane (RON = 0) are used as the hydrocarbon blending streams for the ethanol-containing fuels in an effort to establish a broad range of knock resistance for high ethanol fuels. Results show that nearly all ethanol-containing fuels are more resistant to engine knock than UTG-96 (the only exception being the ethanol blend with 49% n-heptane). This knock resistance allows ethanol blends made with 33 and 49% light straight run gasoline, and 33% n-heptane to be operated at significantly more advanced combustion phasing for higher efficiency, as well as at higher engine loads. While experimental results show that the octane number of the hydrocarbon blend stock does impact engine performance, there remains a significant opportunity for engine optimization when considering even the lowest octane fuels that are in compliance with the current revision of ASTM D5798 compared to premium-grade gasoline.

  5. NUCLEAR ISOTOPIC DILUTION OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BY DRY BLENDING VIA THE RM-2 MILL TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Vikas Devrani; Harappan Sethi; Roger Henry; Nate Chipman

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies to disposition various excess fissile materials. In particular the INEEL has stored 1,700 Kg of offspec HEU at INTEC in CPP-651 vault facility. Currently, the proposed strategies for dispositioning are (a) aqueous dissolution and down blending to LEU via facilities at SRS followed by shipment of the liquid LEU to NFS for fabrication into LWR fuel for the TVA reactors and (b) dilution of the HEU to 0.9% for discard as a waste stream that would no longer have a criticality or proliferation risk without being processed through some type of enrichment system. Dispositioning this inventory as a waste stream via aqueous processing at SRS has been determined to be too costly. Thus, dry blending is the only proposed disposal process for the uranium oxide materials in the CPP-651 vault. Isotopic dilution of HEU to typically less than 20% by dry blending is the key to solving the dispositioning issue (i.e., proliferation) posed by HEU stored at INEEL. RM-2 mill is a technology developed and successfully tested for producing ultra-fine particles by dry grinding. Grinding action in RM-2 mill produces a two million-fold increase in the number of particles being blended in a centrifugal field. In a previous study, the concept of achieving complete and adequate blending and mixing (i.e., no methods were identified to easily separate and concentrate one titanium compound from the other) in remarkably short processing times was successfully tested with surrogate materials (titanium dioxide and titanium mono-oxide) with different particle sizes, hardness and densities. In the current project, the RM-2 milling technology was thoroughly tested with mixtures of natural uranium oxide (NU) and depleted uranium oxide (DU) stock to prove its performance. The effects of mill operating and design variables on the blending of NU/DU oxides were evaluated. First, NU and DU both made of the same oxide, UO{sub 3}, was used in the testing. Next, NU made up of UO{sub 3} and DU made up of UO{sub 2} was used in the test work. In every test, the blend achieved was characterized by spatial sampling of the ground product and analyzing for {sup 235}U concentration. The test work proved that these uranium oxide materials can be blended successfully. The spatial concentration was found to be uniform. Next, sintered thorium oxide pellets were used as surrogate for light water breeder reactor pellets (LWBR). To simulate LWBR pellet dispositioning, the thorium oxide pellets were first ground to a powder form and then the powder was blended with NU. In these tests also the concentration of {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th in blended products fell within established limits proving the success of RM-2 milling technology. RM-2 milling technology is applicable to any dry radioactive waste, especially brittle solids that can be ground up and mixed with the non-radioactive stock.

  6. SU-D-BRE-06: Modeling the Dosimetric Effects of Volumetric and Layer-Based Repainting Strategies in Spot Scanning Proton Treatment Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J E; Beltran, C; Herman, M G; Kruse, J J [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To compare multiple repainting techniques as strategies for mitigating the interplay effect in free-breathing, spot scanning proton plans. Methods: An analytic routine modeled three-dimensional dose distributions of pencil-beam proton plans delivered to a moving target. The interplay effect was studied in subsequent calculations by modeling proton delivery from a clinical synchrotron based spot scanning system and respiratory target motion, patterned from surrogate breathing traces from clinical 4DCT scans and normalized to nominal 0.5 and 1 cm amplitudes. Two distinct repainting strategies were modeled. In idealized volumetric repainting, the plan is divided up and delivered multiple times successively, with each instance only delivering a fraction of the total MU. Maximum-MU repainting involves delivering a fixed number of MU per spot and repeating a given energy layer until the prescribed MU are reached. For each of 13 patient breathing traces, the dose was computed for up to four volumetric repaints and an array of maximum-MU values. Delivery strategies were inter-compared based on target coverage, dose homogeneity, and delivery time. Results: Increasing levels of repainting generally improved plan quality and reduced dosimetric variability at the expense of longer delivery time. Motion orthogonal to the scan direction yielded substantially greater dose deviations than motion parallel to the scan direction. For a fixed delivery time, maximum-MU repainting was most effective relative to idealized volumetric repainting at small maximum-MU values. For 1 cm amplitude motion orthogonal to the scan direction, the average homogeneity metric (D5 D95)[%] of 23.4% was reduced to 7.6% with a 168 s delivery using volumetric repainting compared with 8.7% in 157.2 s for maximum-MU repainting. The associated static target homogeneity metric was 2.5%. Conclusion: Maximum-MU repainting can provide a reasonably effective alternative to volumetric repainting for systems without the capability to switch energies rapidly.

  7. Recycling of rubber tires in electric arc furnace steelmaking: simultaneous combustion of metallurgical coke and rubber tyres blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magdalena Zaharia; Veena Sahajwalla; Byong-Chul Kim; Rita Khanna; N. Saha-Chaudhury; Paul O'Kane; Jonathan Dicker; Catherine Skidmore; David Knights [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study investigates the effect of addition of waste rubber tires on the combustion behavior of its blends with coke for carbon injection in electric arc furnace steelmaking. Waste rubber tires were mixed in different proportions with metallurgical coke (MC) (10:90, 20:80, 30:70) for combustion and pyrolysis at 1473 K in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. Under experimental conditions most of the rubber blends indicated higher combustion efficiencies compared to those of the constituent coke. In the early stage of combustion the weight loss rate of the blends is much faster compared to that of the raw coke due to the higher volatile yield of rubber. The presence of rubber in the blends may have had an impact upon the structure during the release and combustion of their high volatile matter (VM) and hence increased char burnout. Measurements of micropore surface area and bulk density of the chars collected after combustion support the higher combustion efficiency of the blends in comparison to coke alone. The surface morphology of the 30% rubber blend revealed pores in the residual char that might be attributed to volatile evolution during high temperature reaction in oxygen atmosphere. Physical properties and VM appear to have a major effect upon the measured combustion efficiency of rubber blends. The study demonstrates that waste rubber tires can be successfully co-injected with metallurgical coke in electric arc furnace steelmaking process to provide additional energy from combustion. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Development of shape memory polymer (SMP) blend for biomedical and clinical applications Shape memory polymers (SMP) are a class of responsive stimuli materials that are able to respond to external stimulus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Development of shape memory polymer (SMP) blend for biomedical and clinical applications Shape properties of this shape memory biopolymers and blends. The bio-compatible SMP blend will be fabricated by melt-blending and gas foaming. The various shape memory and mechanical properties of the foam and solid

  9. Mode-of-Action of Self-Extinguishing Polymer Blends Containing Organoclays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pack, S.; Si, M; Koo, J; Sokolov, J; Koga, T; Kashiwagi, T; Rafailovich, M

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have shown that the addition of nanoclays is an effective means for enhancing the flame retardant properties of polymer blends. Polymer blends are difficult to render flame retardant even with the addition of flame retardant agents due to dispersion and phase segregation during the heating process. We show that the addition of 5% functionalized Cloisite 20A clays in combination with 15% decabromodiphenyl ether and 4% antimony trioxide to a polystyrene/poly(methyl methacrylate) blend can render the compound flame resistant within the UL-94-V0 standard. Using a variety of micro-characterization methods, we show that the clays are concentrated at the interfaces between the polymers in this blend and completely suppress phase segregation. The flame retardant (FR) is absorbed onto the clay surfaces, and the exfoliation of the clays also distributes the FR agent uniformly within the matrix. TGA of the nanocomposite indicates that prior to the addition of clay, the dissociation times of the individual components varied by more than 20 C, which complicated the gas-phase kinetics. Addition of the clays causes all the components to have a single dissociation temperature, which enhanced the efficacy of the FR formula in the gas phase. Cone calorimetry also indicated that the clays decreased the heat release rate (HRR) and the mass loss rate (MLR), due to the formation of a robust char. In contrast, minimal charring occurred in blends containing just the FR. SEM examination of the chars showed that the clay platelets were curved and in some cases tightly folded into nanotube-like structures. These features were only apparent in blends, indicating that they might be associated with thermal gradients across the polymer phase interface. SEM and SAXS examinations of the nanocomposites after partial exposure to the flame indicated that the clays aggregated into ribbon-like structures, approximately microns in length, after the surfactant thermally decomposed. Thermal modeling indicated that these ribbons might partially explain the synergy due to better distribution of the heat and improve the mechanical properties of the melt at high temperatures, in a manner similar to the one reported for carbon nanotubes.

  10. An evaluation of hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical behavior of processed oil shale solid waste 2; The use of time domain reflectometry (TDR) for monitoring in-situ volumetric water content in processed oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, T.L.; Elgezawi, S.M. (Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Kaser, T.G. (GIGO Computer and Electronic, Laramie, WY (US))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the use of time domain reflectometry (TDR) for monitoring volumetric water contents in processed oil shale solid waste. TDR measures soil water content via a correlation between the dielectric constant (K) of the 3 phase (soil-water-air) system and the volumetric water content ({theta}{sub v}). An extensive bench top research program has been conducted to evaluate and verify the use of this technique in processed oil shale solid waste. This study utilizes columns of processed oil shale packed to known densities and varying water contents and compares the columetric water content measured via TDR and the volumetric water content measured through gravimetric determination.

  11. Viscoelastic Properties and Phase Behavior of 12-tert-Butyl Ester Dendrimer/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harmon, Julie P.

    with bis- phenol A polycarbonate (PC), resulting in an in- crease in free volume with increasing dendrimer hyperbranched polyester/bisphenol A PC blends with respect to pure PC. Studies were conducted by Carr et al.24

  12. Particulate Matter Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine under Cold Fast Idle Conditions for Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimou, Iason

    The engine out particular matter number (PN) distributions at engine coolant temperature (ECT) of 0 C to 40 C for ethanol/ gasoline blends (E0 to E85) have been measured for a direct-injection spark ignition engine under ...

  13. Modeling The NOx Emissions In A Low NOx Burner While Fired With Pulverized Coal And Dairy Biomass Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uggini, Hari

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    by themselves already require cleanup technology; newer regulations will require development of new and economical technologies. Using a blend of traditional fuels & biomass is a promising technology to reduce NOX emissions. Experiments conducted previously...

  14. Organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kar, Kenneth

    The organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends have been assessed under warmed-up and cold idle conditions. The speciated emissions show that the ...

  15. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoll, K.; West, B.; Clark, W.; Graves, R.; Orban, J.; Przesmitzki, S.; Theiss, T.

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intended for policymakers and others who make decisions about, and set guidelines for, the proper use of intermediate ethanol blends such as E20 in both vehicle engines and other engine types.

  16. Nanowire-Induced Wurtzite InAs Thin Film on Zinc-Blende InAs Substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao, Jiming

    Nanowire-Induced Wurtzite InAs Thin Film on Zinc-Blende InAs Substrate By Jiming Bao, David C. Bell as that of their substrates. Here, we report on the observation of a wurtzite InAs thin-film structure on a zinc-blende In the wurtzite crystal structure. The bandgap of wurtzite InAs, obtained by low-temperature photoluminescence

  17. Solubility of carbon dioxide in an aqueous blend of diethanolamine and piperazine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mondal, M.K. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The solubility of CO{sub 2} in aqueous blends of diethanolamine (DEA) and piperazine (PZ), from mixtures of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, was measured for temperatures and CO{sub 2} partial pressures ranging from (303.14 to 353.14) K and (10.133 to 20.265) kPa, respectively. Measurements were made by a saturation method using a laboratory scale bubble column. The results of CO{sub 2} solubility in liquid are expressed as {alpha}(CO{sub 2}) (mol CO{sub 2}/mol amine) for all experimental runs. A solubility model is developed to correlate and predict the solubility data of CO{sub 2} in aqueous blends of DEA and PZ. There is all acceptable degree of agreement between the experimental data of the present study and predictions of the solubility model with an average absolute deviation of less than 4.5%.

  18. Finite element analysis on the fracture of rubber toughened polymer blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Y.; Mai, Y.W. [Univ. of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Wu, J. [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology (Hong Kong)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of rubber particle volume fraction on the constitutive relation and fracture toughness of polymer blends was studied using elastic-plastic Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The effect of rubber particle cavitation on the stress-strain state at a crack tip was also investigated. Stress analysis reveals that because of the high rubber bulk modulus, the hydrostatic stress inside the rubber particle is close to that in the adjacent matrix material element. As a result, the rubber particle imposes a severe plastic constraint to the surrounding matrix and limits its plastic strain. Rubber particle cavitation can effectively release the constraint and enable large scale plastic strain to occur. Different failure criteria were used to determine the optimum rubber particle volume fraction for the polymer blends studied in this paper.

  19. Growth of epitaxial iron nitride ultrathin film on zinc-blende gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pak, J.; Lin, W.; Wang, K.; Chinchore, A.; Shi, M.; Ingram, D. C.; Smith, A. R.; Sun, K.; Lucy, J. M.; Hauser, A. J.; Yang, F. Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report the growth of iron nitride on zinc-blende gallium nitride using molecular beam epitaxy. First, zinc-blende GaN is grown on a magnesium oxide substrate having (001) orientation; second, an ultrathin layer of FeN is grown on top of the GaN layer. In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction is used to monitor the surface during growth, and a well-defined epitaxial relationship is observed. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy is used to reveal the epitaxial continuity at the gallium nitride-iron nitride interface. Surface morphology of the iron nitride, similar to yet different from that of the GaN substrate, can be described as plateau valley. The FeN chemical stoichiometry is probed using both bulk and surface sensitive methods, and the magnetic properties of the sample are revealed.

  20. Disk-cylinder and disk-sphere nanoparticles from block copolymer blend solution construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jiahua [ORNL] [ORNL; Zhang, Shiyi [Texas A& M University] [Texas A& M University; Zhang, Ke [Northeastern University] [Northeastern University; Wang, Xiaojun [ORNL] [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL] [ORNL; Wooley, Karen L [ORNL] [ORNL; Pochan, Darrin [University of Delaware] [University of Delaware

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers strive to produce nanoparticles with complexity in composition and structure. Although traditional spherical, cylindrical and membranous, or planar, nanostructures are ubiquitous, scientists seek more complicated geometries for potential functionality. Here we report the simple solution construction of multigeometry nanoparticles, disk-sphere and diskcylinder, through a straightforward, molecular-level, blending strategy with binary mixtures of block copolymers. The multigeometry nanoparticles contain disk geometry in the core with either spherical patches along the disk periphery in the case of disk-sphere particles or cylindrical edges and handles in the case of the disk-cylinder particles. The portions of different geometry in the same nanoparticles contain different core block chemistry, thus also defining multicompartments in the nanoparticles. Although the block copolymers chosen for the blends are important for the definition of the final hybrid particles, the control of the kinetic pathway of assembly is critical for successful multigeometry particle construction.

  1. Isotopic Tracing of Fuel Carbon in the Emissions of a Compression-Ignition Engine Fueled with Biodiesel Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchholz, B A; Cheng, A S; Dibble, R W

    2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental tests were conducted on a Cummins 85.9 direct-injected diesel engine fueled with biodiesel blends. 20% and 50% blend levels were tested, as was 100% (neat) biodiesel. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), hydrocarbons (HC) and CO were measured under steady-state operating conditions. The effect of biodiesel on PM emissions was mixed; however, the contribution of the volatile organic fraction to total PM was greater for the higher biodiesel blend levels. When only non-volatile PM mass was considered, reductions were observed for the biodiesel blends as well as for neat biodiesel. The biodiesel test fuels increased NO{sub x}, while HC and CO emissions were reduced. PM collected on quartz filters during the experimental runs were analyzed for carbon-14 content using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMs). These measurements revealed that carbon from the biodiesel portion of the blended fuel was marginally less likely to contribute to PM, compared to the carbon from the diesel portion of the fuel. The results are different than those obtained in previous tests with the oxygenate ethanol, which was observed to be far less likely contribute to PM than the diesel component of the blended fuel. The data suggests that chemical structure of the oxygen- carbon bonds in an oxygenate affects the PM formation process.

  2. Use of Savannah River Site facilities for blend down of highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, W.E.; McKibben, J.M.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company was asked to assess the use of existing Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities for the conversion of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). The purpose was to eliminate the weapons potential for such material. Blending HEU with existing supplies of depleted uranium (DU) would produce material with less than 5% U-235 content for use in commercial nuclear reactors. The request indicated that as much as 500 to 1,000 MT of HEU would be available for conversion over a 20-year period. Existing facilities at the SRS are capable of producing LEU in the form of uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}) powder, uranyl nitrate [UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}] solution, or metal. Additional processing, and additional facilities, would be required to convert the LEU to uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) or uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 3}), the normal inputs for commercial fuel fabrication. This study`s scope does not include the cost for new conversion facilities. However, the low estimated cost per kilogram of blending HEU to LEU in SRS facilities indicates that even with fees for any additional conversion to UO{sub 2} or UF{sub 6}, blend-down would still provide a product significantly below the spot market price for LEU from traditional enrichment services. The body of the report develops a number of possible facility/process combinations for SRS. The primary conclusion of this study is that SRS has facilities available that are capable of satisfying the goals of a national program to blend HEU to below 5% U-235. This preliminary assessment concludes that several facility/process options appear cost-effective. Finally, SRS is a secure DOE site with all requisite security and safeguard programs, personnel skills, nuclear criticality safety controls, accountability programs, and supporting infrastructure to handle large quantities of special nuclear materials (SNM).

  3. Ab initio study of phase transition of boron nitride between zinc-blende and rhombohedral structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishida, S.; Funashima, H.; Sato, K.; Katayama-Yoshida, H. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Boron nitride has polymorphs such as zinc-blende (c-BN), wurtzite (w-BN), rhombohedral (r-BN), and graphite-like (h-BN) forms. We simulate the direct conversion of r-BN to c-BN through electronic excitation. In our calculation, the conversion is made possible by increasing the hole concentration to over 0.06/atom. This conversion should be experimentally possible by hole-doping via an electric double layer transistor (EDLT) or capacitor.

  4. Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL; Eibl, Mary A [ORNL] [ORNL; Nafziger, Eric J [ORNL] [ORNL; Kaul, Brian C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

  5. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  6. Recovery and Blend-Down Uranium for Beneficial use in Commercial Reactors - 13373

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magoulas, Virginia [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In April 2001 the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) signed an Interagency Agreement to transfer approximately 33 MT of off-specification (off-spec) highly enriched uranium (HEU) from DOE to TVA for conversion to commercial reactor fuel. Since that time additional surplus off-spec HEU material has been added to the program, making the total approximately 46 MT off-spec HEU. The disposition path for approximately half (23 MT) of this 46 MT of surplus HEU material, was down blending through the H-canyon facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The HEU is purified through the H-canyon processes, and then blended with natural uranium (NU) to form low enriched uranium (LEU) solution with a 4.95% U-235 isotopic content. This material was then transported to a TVA subcontractor who converted the solution to uranium oxide and then fabricated into commercial light water reactor (LWR) fuel. This fuel is now powering TVA reactors and supplying electricity to approximately 1 million households in the TVA region. There is still in excess of approximately 10 to 14 MT of off-spec HEU throughout the DOE complex or future foreign and domestic research reactor returns that could be recovered and down blended for use in either currently designed light water reactors, ?5% enriched LEU, or be made available for use in subsequent advanced 'fast' reactor fuel designs, ?19% LEU. (authors)

  7. Low-temperature pyrolysis of coal to produce diesel-fuel blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, T.B.; Jett, O.J.; Wu, J.S.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-temperature (623 to 773/sup 0/K) coal pyrolysis was investigated in a bench-scale retort. Factorially designed experiments were conducted to determine the effects of temperature, coal-particle size, and nitrogen flow rate on the yield of liquid products. Yield of condensable organic products relative to the proximate coal volatile matter increased by 3.1 and 6.4 wt % after increasing nitrogen purge flow rate from 0.465 to 1.68 L/min and retort temperature from 623 to 723/sup 0/K, respectively. The liquid product may be suitable for blending with diesel fuel. The viscosity and density of coal liquids produced at 723/sup 0/K were compared with those of diesel fuel. The coal liquids had a higher carbon-to-hydrogen ratio and a lower aliphatic-to-aromatic ratio than premium quality No. 2 diesel fuel. It was recommended that liquids from coal pyrolysis be blended with diesel fuel to determine stability of the mixture and performance of the blend in internal combustion engines.

  8. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S H-CANYON FACILITY: RECOVERY AND DOWN BLEND URANIUM FOR BENEFICIAL USE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magoulas, V.

    2013-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    For over fifty years, the H Canyon facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has performed remotely operated radiochemical separations of irradiated targets to produce materials for national defense. Although the materials production mission has ended, the facility continues to play an important role in the stabilization and safe disposition of proliferable nuclear materials. As part of the US HEU Disposition Program, SRS has been down blending off-specification (off-spec) HEU to produce LEU since 2003. Off-spec HEU contains fission products not amenable to meeting the American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM) commercial fuel standards prior to purification. This down blended HEU material produced 301 MT of ~5% enriched LEU which has been fabricated into light water reactor fuel being utilized in Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) reactors in Tennessee and Alabama producing economic power. There is still in excess of ~10 MT of off-spec HEU throughout the DOE complex or future foreign and domestic research reactor returns that could be recovered and down blended for beneficial use as either ~5% enriched LEU, or for use in subsequent LEU reactors requiring ~19.75% enriched LEU fuel.

  9. NMOG Emissions Characterization and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sluder, Scott [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is a biofuel commonly used in gasoline blends to displace petroleum consumption; its utilization is on the rise in the United States, spurred by the biofuel utilization mandates put in place by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory responsibility to implement the EISA mandates through the promulgation of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA has historically mandated an emissions certification fuel specification that calls for ethanol-free fuel, except for the certification of flex-fuel vehicles. However, since the U.S. gasoline marketplace is now virtually saturated with E10, some organizations have suggested that inclusion of ethanol in emissions certification fuels would be appropriate. The test methodologies and calculations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations for gasoline-fueled vehicles have been developed with the presumption that the certification fuel does not contain ethanol; thus, a number of technical issues would require resolution before such a change could be accomplished. This report makes use of the considerable data gathered during the mid-level blends testing program to investigate one such issue: estimation of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. The data reported in this paper were gathered from over 600 cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted on 68 vehicles representing 21 models from model year 2000 to 2009. Most of the vehicles were certified to the Tier-2 emissions standard, but several older Tier-1 and national low emissions vehicle program (NLEV) vehicles were also included in the study. Exhaust speciation shows that ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde dominate the oxygenated species emissions when ethanol is blended into the test fuel. A set of correlations were developed that are derived from the measured non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and the ethanol blend level in the fuel. These correlations were applied to the measured NMHC emissions from the mid-level ethanol blends testing program and the results compared against the measured NMOG emissions. The results show that the composite FTP NMOG emissions estimate has an error of 0.0015 g/mile {+-}0.0074 for 95% of the test results. Estimates for the individual phases of the FTP are also presented with similar error levels. A limited number of tests conducted using the LA92, US06, and highway fuel economy test cycles show that the FTP correlation also holds reasonably well for these cycles, though the error level relative to the measured NMOG value increases for NMOG emissions less than 0.010 g/mile.

  10. NMOG Emissions Characterizations and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sluder, Scott [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is a biofuel commonly used in gasoline blends to displace petroleum consumption; its utilization is on the rise in the United States, spurred by the biofuel utilization mandates put in place by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory responsibility to implement the EISA mandates through the promulgation of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA has historically mandated an emissions certification fuel specification that calls for ethanol-free fuel, except for the certification of flex-fuel vehicles. However, since the U.S. gasoline marketplace is now virtually saturated with E10, some organizations have suggested that inclusion of ethanol in emissions certification fuels would be appropriate. The test methodologies and calculations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations for gasoline-fueled vehicles have been developed with the presumption that the certification fuel does not contain ethanol; thus, a number of technical issues would require resolution before such a change could be accomplished. This report makes use of the considerable data gathered during the mid-level blends testing program to investigate one such issue: estimation of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. The data reported in this paper were gathered from over 600 cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted on 68 vehicles representing 21 models from model year 2000 to 2009. Most of the vehicles were certified to the Tier-2 emissions standard, but several older Tier-1 and national low emissions vehicle program (NLEV) vehicles were also included in the study. Exhaust speciation shows that ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde dominate the oxygenated species emissions when ethanol is blended into the test fuel. A set of correlations were developed that are derived from the measured non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and the ethanol blend level in the fuel. These correlations were applied to the measured NMHC emissions from the mid-level ethanol blends testing program and the results compared against the measured NMOG emissions. The results show that the composite FTP NMOG emissions estimate has an error of 0.0015 g/mile {+-}0.0074 for 95% of the test results. Estimates for the individual phases of the FTP are also presented with similar error levels. A limited number of tests conducted using the LA92, US06, and highway fuel economy test cycles show that the FTP correlation also holds reasonably well for these cycles, though the error level relative to the measured NMOG value increases for NMOG emissions less than 0.010 g/mile.

  11. Low-Temperature Biodiesel Research Reveals Potential Key to Successful Blend Performance (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10% of petroleum diesel, until now, issues with cold weather performance have prevented biodiesel blends from being widely adopted. Some biodiesel blends have exhibited unexplained low-temperature performance problems even at blend levels as low as 2% by volume. The most common low-temperature performance issue is vehicle stalling caused by fuel filter clogging, which prevents fuel from reaching the engine. Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reveals the properties responsible for these problems, clearing a path for the development of solutions and expanded use of energy-conserving and low-emissions alternative fuel. NREL researchers set out to study the unpredictable nature of biodiesel crystallization, the condition that impedes the flow of fuel in cold weather. Their research revealed for the first time that saturated monoglyceride impurities common to the biodiesel manufacturing process create crystals that can cause fuel filter clogging and other problems when cooling at slow rates. Biodiesel low-temperature operational problems are commonly referred to as 'precipitates above the cloud point (CP).' NREL's Advanced Biofuels team spiked distilled soy and animal fat-derived B100, as well as B20, B10, and B5 biodiesel blends with three saturated monoglycerides (SMGs) at concentration levels comparable to those of real-world fuels. Above a threshold or eutectic concentration, the SMGs (monomyristin, monopalmitin, and monostearin) were shown to significantly raise the biodiesel CP, and had an even greater impact on the final melting temperature. Researchers discovered that upon cooling, monoglyceride initially precipitates as a metastable crystal, but it transforms over time or upon slight heating into a more stable crystal with a much lower solubility and higher melting temperature - and with increased potential to cause vehicle performance issues. This explains why fuel-filter clogging typically occurs over the course of long, repeated diurnal cooling cycles. The elevated final melting points mean that restarting vehicles with clogged filters can be difficult even after ambient temperatures have warmed to well above CP. By examining how biodiesel impurities affect filtration and crystallization during warming and cooling cycles, NREL researchers uncovered an explanation for poor biodiesel performance at low temperatures. The observation of a eutectic point, or a concentration below which SMGs have no effect, indicates that SMGs do not have to be completely removed from biodiesel to solve low-temperature performance problems.

  12. Texture analysis on the fluence map to evaluate the degree of modulation for volumetric modulated arc therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, So-Yeon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il Han [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Sung-Joon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744, (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon 433-270 (Korea, Republic of); Carlson, Joel [Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon 433-270 (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Texture analysis on fluence maps was performed to evaluate the degree of modulation for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans. Methods: A total of six textural features including angular second moment, inverse difference moment, contrast, variance, correlation, and entropy were calculated for fluence maps generated from 20 prostate and 20 head and neck VMAT plans. For each of the textural features, particular displacement distances (d) of 1, 5, and 10 were adopted. To investigate the deliverability of each VMAT plan, gamma passing rates of pretreatment quality assurance, and differences in modulating parameters such as multileaf collimator (MLC) positions, gantry angles, and monitor units at each control point between VMAT plans and dynamic log files registered by the Linac control system during delivery were acquired. Furthermore, differences between the original VMAT plan and the plan reconstructed from the dynamic log files were also investigated. To test the performance of the textural features as indicators for the modulation degree of VMAT plans, Spearmans rank correlation coefficients (r{sub s}) with the plan deliverability were calculated. For comparison purposes, conventional modulation indices for VMAT including the modulation complexity score for VMAT, leaf travel modulation complexity score, and modulation index supporting station parameter optimized radiation therapy (MI{sub SPORT}) were calculated, and their correlations were analyzed in the same way. Results: There was no particular textural feature which always showed superior correlations with every type of plan deliverability. Considering the results comprehensively, contrast (d = 1) and variance (d = 1) generally showed considerable correlations with every type of plan deliverability. These textural features always showed higher correlations to the plan deliverability than did the conventional modulation indices, except in the case of modulating parameter differences. The r{sub s} values of contrast to the global gamma passing rates with criteria of 2%/2 mm, 2%/1 mm, and 1%/2 mm were 0.536, 0.473, and 0.718, respectively. The respective values for variance were 0.551, 0.481, and 0.688. In the case of local gamma passing rates, the r{sub s} values of contrast were 0.547, 0.578, and 0.620, respectively, and those of variance were 0.519, 0.527, and 0.569. All of the r{sub s} values in those cases were statistically significant (p < 0.003). In the cases of global and local gamma passing rates, MI{sub SPORT} showed the highest correlations among the conventional modulation indices. For global passing rates, r{sub s} values of MI{sub SPORT} were ?0.420, ?0.330, and ?0.632, respectively, and those for local passing rates were ?0.455, ?0.490 and ?0.502. The values of r{sub s} of contrast, variance, and MI{sub SPORT} with the MLC errors were ?0.863, ?0.828, and 0.795, respectively, all with statistical significances (p < 0.001). The correlations with statistical significances between variance and dose-volumetric differences were observed more frequently than the others. Conclusions: The contrast (d = 1) and variance (d = 1) calculated from fluence maps of VMAT plans showed considerable correlations with the plan deliverability, indicating their potential use as indicators for assessing the degree of modulation of VMAT plans. Both contrast and variance consistently showed better performance than the conventional modulation indices for VMAT.

  13. Dosimetric comparison of volumetric modulated Arc therapy, step-and-shoot, and sliding window IMRT for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schnell, Erich; De La Fuente Herman, Tania; Young, Julie; Hildebrand, Kim; Algan, Ozer; Syzek, Elizabeth; Herman, Terence; Ahmad, Salahuddin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center 800 N.E. 10th St., OKCC L100, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States)

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This study aims to evaluate treatment plans generated by Step-and-Shoot (SS), Sliding Window (SW) and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) in order to assess the differences in dose volume histograms of planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OAR), conformity indices, radiobiological evaluations, and plan quality for prostate cancer cases. Six prostate cancer patients treated in our center were selected for this retrospective study. Treatment plans were generated with Eclipse version 8.9 using 10 MV photon beams. For VMAT, Varian Rapid Arc with 1 or 2 arcs, and for SS and SW IMRT, 7-9 fields were used. Each plan had three PTVs with prescription doses of 81, 59.4, and 45 Gy to prostate, to prostate and lymph nodes, and to pelvis, respectively. Doses to PTV and OAR and the conformal indices (COIN) were compared among three techniques. The equivalent uniform dose (EUD), tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) were calculated and compared. The mean doses to the PTV prostate on average were 83 Gy and the percent differences of mean dose among all techniques were below 0.28. For bladder and rectum, the percent differences of mean dose among all techniques were below 2.2. The COIN did not favour any particular delivery method over the other. The TCP was higher with SS and SW for four patients and higher with VMAT for two patients. The NTCP for the rectum was the lowest with VMAT in five out of the six patients. The results show similar target coverage in general.

  14. Technical Issues Associated With the Use of Intermediate Ethanol Blends (>E10) in the U.S. Legacy Fleet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, Bechtold [Alliance Technical Services; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Timbario, Tom [Alliance Technical Services; Goodman, Marc [Alliance Technical Services

    2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in assessing the impact of using intermediate ethanol blends (E10 to E30) in the legacy fleet of vehicles in the U.S. fleet. The purpose of this report is to: (1) identify the issues associated with intermediate ethanol blends with an emphasis on the end-use or vehicle impacts of increased ethanol levels; (2) assess the likely severity of the issues and whether they will become more severe with higher ethanol blend levels, or identify where the issue is most severe; (3) identify where gaps in knowledge exist and what might be required to fill those knowledge gaps; and (4) compile a current and complete bibliography of key references on intermediate ethanol blends. This effort is chiefly a critical review and assessment of available studies. Subject matter experts (authors and selected expert contacts) were consulted to help with interpretation and assessment. The scope of this report is limited to technical issues. Additional issues associated with consumer, vehicle manufacturer, and regulatory acceptance of ethanol blends greater than E10 are not considered. The key findings from this study are given.

  15. Numerical study of the effect of oxygenated blending compounds on soot formation in shock tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehm, H. [Physikalische Chemie I, Universitaet Bielefeld (Germany); Braun-Unkhoff, M. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany)

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This numerical study deals with the influence of blends on the amount of soot formed in shock tubes, which were simulated by assuming a homogeneous plug flow reactor model. For this purpose, first, the reaction model used here was validated against experimental results previously obtained in the literature. Then, the soot volume fractions of various mixtures of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-benzene, isobutene-benzene, methanol-benzene, and ethanol-benzene diluted in argon were simulated and compared to the results of benzene-argon pyrolysis at 1721 K and 5.4 MPa. For MTBE, isobutene, methanol, and ethanol, small amounts of additives to benzene-argon mixtures promoted soot formation, for the shock tube model assumed, while higher concentrations of these additives led to smaller soot volume fractions in comparison to pure benzene-argon pyrolysis. The most significant soot promotion effect was found for the additives MTBE and isobutene. The channel for MTBE decomposition producing isobutene and methanol is very effective at temperatures beyond 1200 K. Thus, both MTBE-benzene and isobutene-benzene mixtures diluted in argon showed rather similar behavior in regard to soot formation. Special emphasis was directed toward the causes for the concentration-dependent influence of the blends on the amount of soot formed. Aromatic hydrocarbons and acetylene were identified as key gas-phase species that determine the trends in the formation of soot of various mixtures. From reaction flux analysis for phenanthrene, it was deduced that the combinative routes including phenyl species play a major role in forming PAHs, especially at early reaction times. It is found that the additives play an important role in providing material to grow side chains, such as by reaction channels including phenylacetylene or benzyl, which are confirmed to form aromatic hydrocarbons and thus to influence the amount of soot formed, particularly when the concentrations of the blends are increased. (author)

  16. Correlation between speciated hydrocarbon emissions and flame ionization detector response for gasoline/alcohol blends .

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallner, T. (Energy Systems)

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. renewable fuel standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion by 2022. Ethanol will be capped at 15 billion, which leaves 21 billion to come from other sources such as butanol. Butanol has a higher energy density and lower affinity for water than ethanol. Moreover, alcohol fueled engines in general have been shown to positively affect engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide compared with their gasoline fueled counterparts. In light of these developments, the variety and blend levels of oxygenated constituents is likely to increase in the foreseeable future. The effect on engine-out emissions for total hydrocarbons is less clear due to the relative insensitivity of the flame ionization detector (FID) toward alcohols and aldehydes. It is well documented that hydrocarbon (HC) measurement using a conventional FID in the presence of oxygenates in the engine exhaust stream can lead to a misinterpretation of HC emissions trends for alcohol fuel blends. Characterization of the exhaust stream for all expected hydrocarbon constituents is required to accurately determine the actual concentration of unburned fuel components in the exhaust. In addition to a conventional exhaust emissions bench, this characterization requires supplementary instrumentation capable of hydrocarbon speciation and response factor independent quantification. Although required for certification testing, this sort of instrumentation is not yet widely available in engine development facilities. Therefore, an attempt is made to empirically determine FID correction factors for oxygenate fuels. Exhaust emissions of an engine fueled with several blends of gasoline and ethanol, n-butanol and iso-Butanol were characterized using both a conventional FID and a Fourier transform infrared. Based on these results, a response factor predicting the actual hydrocarbon emissions based solely on FID results as a function of alcohol type and content is presented. Finally, the correlation derived from data presented in this study is compared with equations and results found in the literature.

  17. ETBE as a gasoline blending component. The experience of Elf Aquitaine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatin, L.; Fombarlet, C.; Bernasconi, C.; Gauthier, A.; Schmelzle, P.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study, led by Elf Aquitaine for several years, shows the possibility to use ETBE instead of MTBE as a gasoline component and compares properties of these two ethers regarding different parameters like octanes, volatility, engine cleanliness, stability of the ethers themselves and of gasoline blends, lubricant compatibility and toxicological data. ETBE appears at least as good as MTBE and sometimes better, as ETBE is chemically more similar to hydrocarbons than MTBE and can be used advantageously as a gasoline oxygenated component. 9 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for 2016. Furthermore, lean-burn GDI engines can offer even higher fuel economy than stoichiometric GDI engines and have overcome challenges associated with cost-effective aftertreatment for NOx control. Along with changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10% due to the recent EPA waiver allowing 15% ethanol. In addition, the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the use of biofuels in upcoming years. GDI engines are of environmental concern due to their high particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port-fuel injected (PFI) gasoline vehicles; widespread market penetration of GDI vehicles may result in additional PM from mobile sources at a time when the diesel contribution is declining. In this study, we characterized particulate emissions from a European certified lean-burn GDI vehicle operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. Particle mass and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 driving cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. Fuels included certification gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. The data are compared to a previous study on a U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI vehicle operating on the same ethanol blends. The lean-burn GDI vehicle emitted a higher number of particles, but had an overall smaller average size. Particle number per mile decreased with increasing ethanol content for the transient tests. For the 30 and 80 mph tests, particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content, although the shape of the particle size distribution remained the same. Engine-out OC/EC ratios were highest for the stoichiometric GDI vehicle with E20, but tailpipe OC/EC ratios were similar for all vehicles.

  19. Powertrain Component Inspection from Mid-Level Blends Vehicle Aging Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoffner, Brent [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Johnson, Ryan [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Heimrich, Martin J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Lochte, Michael [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 calls on the nation to significantly increase its use of renewable fuels to meet its transportation energy needs. The law expands the renewable fuel standard to require use of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel by 2022. Given that ethanol is the most widely used renewable fuel in the U.S. market, ethanol will likely make up a significant portion of the 36-billion-gallon requirement. The vast majority of ethanol used in the United States is blended with gasoline to create E10-gasoline with up to 10% ethanol. The remaining ethanol is sold in the form of E85 - a gasoline blend with as much as 85% ethanol that can only be used in flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs). Consumption of E85 is at present limited by both the size of the FFV fleet and the number of E85 fueling stations. Gasoline consumption in the United States is currently about 140 billion gallons per year; thus the maximum use of ethanol as E10 is only about 14 billion gallons. While the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) remains committed to expanding the E85 infrastructure, that market represented less than 1% of the ethanol consumed in 2010 and will not be able to absorb projected volumes of ethanol in the near term. Because of these factors, DOE and others have been assessing the viability of using mid-level ethanol blends (E15 or E20) as a way to accommodate growing volumes of ethanol. The DOE Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program has been under way since 2007, supported jointly by the Office of the Biomass Program and the Vehicle Technologies Program. One of the larger projects, the Catalyst Durability Study, or Vehicle Aging Study, will be completed early in calendar year 2011. The following report describes a subproject of the Vehicle Aging Study in which powertrain components from 18 of the vehicles were examined at Southwest Research Institute under contract to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  20. The Use of Triangular-Shaped PV Arrays to Better Blend into Historical Structures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When considering the installation of a solar PV array on a designated historical structure, placement of each solar panel requires extra attention to aesthetic considerations. If the solar array cannot be installed behind the structure or hidden on a roof plane that is not visible from the public street or sidewalk, it can sometimes be installed as an architectural feature that blends into the historical structure. One way to do this is to utilize triangular-shaped PV panels that conform with the buildings roof lines.

  1. Combustion characterization of the blend of plant coal and recovered coal fines. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, S. [SS Energy Environmental International, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States); Scaroni, A.; Miller, B. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Combustion Lab.; Choudhry, V. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States)

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this proposed research program is to determine the combustion characteristics of the blend derived from mixing a plant coal and recovered and clean coal fines from the pond. During this study, one plant coal and three blend samples will be prepared and utilized. The blend samples will be of a mixture of 90% plant coal + 10% fines, 85% plant coal + 15% fines, 80% plant coal + 20% fines having particle size distribution of 70% passing through -200 mesh size. These samples` combustion behavior will be examined in two different furnaces at Penn State University, i.e., a down-fired furnace and a drop-tube furnace. The down-fired furnace will be used mainly to measure the emissions and ash deposition study, while the drop tube furnace will be used to determine burning profile, combustion efficiency, etc.

  2. Volumetric particle modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dingle, Brent Michael

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation presents a robust method of modeling objects and forces for computer animation. Within this method objects and forces are represented as particles. As in most modeling systems, the movement of objects is driven by physically based...

  3. Volumetric particle modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dingle, Brent Michael

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    and the lifetime of each particle is infinite. 2.1.2 Growing Patterns Particle systems can also model static or instantaneous things. They have been used to model plants and fracture patterns [21, 22] as well as lightning, frost, ice or snowflakes [23... mixes with dirt particles to form mud particles................................................... 121 61 Mud drying and cracking............................................................................................... 122 62 Ice melting...

  4. Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy: Effective and Efficient End-to-End Patient-Specific Quality Assurance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Daniel, Jennifer, E-mail: jennifer.odaniel@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Das, Shiva; Wu, Q. Jackie; Yin Fangfang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To explore an effective and efficient end-to-end patient-specific quality-assurance (QA) protocol for volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) and to evaluate the suitability of a stationary radiotherapy QA device (two-dimensional [2D] ion chamber array) for VMAT QA. Methods and Materials: Three methods were used to analyze 39 VMAT treatment plans for brain, spine, and prostate: ion chamber (one-dimensional absolute, n = 39), film (2D relative, coronal/sagittal, n = 8), and 2D ion chamber array (ICA, 2D absolute, coronal/sagittal, n = 39) measurements. All measurements were compared with the treatment planning system dose calculation either via gamma analysis (3%, 3- to 4-mm distance-to-agreement criteria) or absolute point dose comparison. The film and ion chamber results were similarly compared with the ICA measurements. Results: Absolute point dose measurements agreed well with treatment planning system computed doses (ion chamber: median deviation, 1.2%, range, -0.6% to 3.3%; ICA: median deviation, 0.6%, range, -1.8% to 2.9%). The relative 2D dose measurements also showed good agreement with computed doses (>93% of pixels in all films passing gamma, >90% of pixels in all ICA measurements passing gamma). The ICA relative dose results were highly similar to those of film (>90% of pixels passing gamma). The coronal and sagittal ICA measurements were statistically indistinguishable by the paired t test with a hypothesized mean difference of 0.1%. The ion chamber and ICA absolute dose measurements showed a similar trend but had disparities of 2-3% in 18% of plans. Conclusions: After validating the new VMAT implementation with ion chamber, film, and ICA, we were able to maintain an effective yet efficient patient-specific VMAT QA protocol by reducing from five (ion chamber, film, and ICA) to two measurements (ion chamber and single ICA) per plan. The ICA (Matrixx Registered-Sign , IBA Dosimetry) was validated for VMAT QA, but ion chamber measurements are recommended for absolute dose comparison until future developments correct the ICA angular dependence.

  5. FusionArc optimization: A hybrid volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matuszak, Martha M.; McShan, Daniel L.; Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Steers, Jennifer M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 and Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Long, Troy; Edwin Romeijn, H. [Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Fraass, Benedick A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 (United States)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To introduce a hybrid volumetric modulated arc therapy/intensity modulated radiation therapy (VMAT/IMRT) optimization strategy called FusionArc that combines the delivery efficiency of single-arc VMAT with the potentially desirable intensity modulation possible with IMRT.Methods: A beamlet-based inverse planning system was enhanced to combine the advantages of VMAT and IMRT into one comprehensive technique. In the hybrid strategy, baseline single-arc VMAT plans are optimized and then the current cost function gradients with respect to the beamlets are used to define a metric for predicting which beam angles would benefit from further intensity modulation. Beams with the highest metric values (called the gradient factor) are converted from VMAT apertures to IMRT fluence, and the optimization proceeds with the mixed variable set until convergence or until additional beams are selected for conversion. One phantom and two clinical cases were used to validate the gradient factor and characterize the FusionArc strategy. Comparisons were made between standard IMRT, single-arc VMAT, and FusionArc plans with one to five IMRT/hybrid beams.Results: The gradient factor was found to be highly predictive of the VMAT angles that would benefit plan quality the most from beam modulation. Over the three cases studied, a FusionArc plan with three converted beams achieved superior dosimetric quality with reductions in final cost ranging from 26.4% to 48.1% compared to single-arc VMAT. Additionally, the three beam FusionArc plans required 22.4%-43.7% fewer MU/Gy than a seven beam IMRT plan. While the FusionArc plans with five converted beams offer larger reductions in final cost-32.9%-55.2% compared to single-arc VMAT-the decrease in MU/Gy compared to IMRT was noticeably smaller at 12.2%-18.5%, when compared to IMRT.Conclusions: A hybrid VMAT/IMRT strategy was implemented to find a high quality compromise between gantry-angle and intensity-based degrees of freedom. This optimization method will allow patients to be simultaneously planned for dosimetric quality and delivery efficiency without switching between delivery techniques. Example phantom and clinical cases suggest that the conversion of only three VMAT segments to modulated beams may result in a good combination of quality and efficiency.

  6. New photon science and extreme field physics: volumetric interaction of ultra-intense laser pulses with over-dense targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hegelich, Bjorn M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The constantly improving capabilities of ultra-high power lasers are enabling interactions of matter with ever extremer fields. As both the on target intensity and the laser contrast are increasing, new physics regimes are becoming accessible and new effects materialize, which in turn enable a host of applications. A first example is the realization of interactions in the transparent-overdense regime (TOR), which is reached by interacting a highly relativistic (a{sub 0} > 10), ultra high contrast laser pulse with a solid density, nanometer target. Here, a still overdense target is turned transparent to the laser by the relativistic mass increase of the electrons, increasing the skin depth beyond the target thickness and thus enabling volumetric interaction of the laser with the entire target instead of only a small interaction region at the critical density surface. This increases the energy coupling, enabling a range of effects, including relativistic optics and pulse shaping, mono-energetic electron acceleration, highly efficient ion acceleration in the break-out afterburner regime, the generation of relativistic and forward directed surface harmonics. In this talk we will show the theoretical framework for this regime, explored by multi-D, high resolution and high density PIC simulations as well as analytic theory and present measurements and experimental demonstrations of direct relativistic optics, relativistic HHG, electron acceleration, and BOA ion acceleration in the transparent overdense regime. These effects can in turn be used in a host of applications including laser pulse shaping, ICF diagnostics, coherent x-ray sources, and ion sources for fast ignition (IFI), homeland security applications and medical therapy. This host of applications already makes transparent-overdense regime one of general interest, a situation reinforced by the fact that the TOR target undergoes an extremely wide HEDP parameter space during interaction ranging from WDM conditions (e.g . brown dwarfs) early in the interaction to extremely high energy densities of {approx}10{sup 11} J/cm{sup 3} at peak, dropping back to the underdense but extremely hot parameter range of gamma-ray bursts. Furthermore, whereas today this regime can only be accessed on very few dedicated facilities, employing special targets and pulse cleaning technology, the next generation of laser facilities like RAL-10PW, ELI, or Gekko-Exa will operate in this regime by default, turning its understanding in a necessity rather than a curiosity.

  7. Fixed Bed Countercurrent Low Temperature Gasification of Dairy Biomass and Coal-Dairy Biomass Blends Using Air-Steam as Oxidizer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordillo Ariza, Gerardo

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    W) countercurrent fixed bed gasifier was rebuilt to perform gasification studies under quasisteady state conditions using dairy biomass (DB) as feedstock and various air-steam mixtures as oxidizing sources. A DB-ash (from DB) blend and a DB-Wyoming coal blend were...

  8. Fuel-Cycle energy and emission impacts of ethanol-diesel blends in urban buses and farming tractors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Lee, H.

    2003-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    About 2.1 billion gallons of fuel ethanol was used in the United States in 2002, mainly in the form of gasoline blends containing up to 10% ethanol (E10). Ethanol use has the potential to increase in the U.S. blended gasoline market because methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), formerly the most popular oxygenate blendstock, may be phased out owing to concerns about MTBE contamination of the water supply. Ethanol would remain the only viable near-term option as an oxygenate in reformulated gasoline production and to meet a potential federal renewable fuels standard (RFS) for transportation fuels. Ethanol may also be blended with additives (co-solvents) into diesel fuels for applications in which oxygenation may improve diesel engine emission performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the fuel-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission effects of ethanol-gasoline blends relative to those of gasoline for applications in spark-ignition engine vehicles (see Wang et al. 1997; Wang et al. 1999; Levelton Engineering et al. 1999; Shapouri et al. 2002; Graboski 2002). Those studies did not address the energy and emission effects of ethanol-diesel (E-diesel or ED) blends relative to those of petroleum diesel fuel in diesel engine vehicles. The energy and emission effects of E-diesel could be very different from those of ethanol-gasoline blends because (1) the energy use and emissions generated during diesel production (so-called ''upstream'' effects) are different from those generated during gasoline production; and (2) the energy and emission performance of E-diesel and petroleum diesel fuel in diesel compression-ignition engines differs from that of ethanol-gasoline blends in spark-ignition (Otto-cycle-type) engine vehicles. The Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs (DCCA) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a full fuel-cycle analysis of the energy and emission effects of E-diesel blends relative to those of petroleum diesel when used in the types of diesel engines that will likely be targeted first in the marketplace. This report documents the results of our study. The draft report was delivered to DCCA in January 2003. This final report incorporates revisions by the sponsor and by Argonne.

  9. Effect of Blending on High-Pressure Laminar Flame Speed Measurements, Markstein Lengths, and Flame Stability of Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lowry, William Baugh

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    . Hydrocarbon blends of methane, ethane, and propane make up a large portion of natural gas and it has been shown that dimethyl ether can be used as a supplement or in its pure form for gas turbine combustion. Because of this, a fundamental understanding... include the flame speeds for binary blends of methane, ethane, propane, and dimethyl ether performed at elevated pressures, up to 10-atm initial pressure, using a spherically expanding flame in a constant-volume vessel. Also included in this thesis is a...

  10. Transition between wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN: An effect of deposition condition of molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, B. M.; Xie, M. H.; Wu, H. S.; Wang, N.; Tong, S. Y. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tang, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    GaN exists in both wurtzite and zinc-blende phases and the growths of the two on its (0001) or (111) surfaces are achieved by choosing proper deposition conditions of molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). At low substrate temperatures but high gallium fluxes, metastable zinc-blende GaN films are obtained, whereas at high temperatures and/or using high nitrogen fluxes, equilibrium wurtzite phase GaN epilayers resulted. This dependence of crystal structure on substrate temperature and source flux is not affected by deposition rate. Rather, the initial stage nucleation kinetics plays a primary role in determining the crystallographic structures of epitaxial GaN by MBE.

  11. Effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement blended with siliceous fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deschner, Florian, E-mail: florian.deschner@gmail.com [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, berlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dbendorf (Switzerland)] [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, berlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dbendorf (Switzerland); Lothenbach, Barbara; Winnefeld, Frank [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, berlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dbendorf (Switzerland)] [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, berlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dbendorf (Switzerland); Neubauer, Jrgen [GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Mineralogy, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)] [GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Mineralogy, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement pastes blended with 50 wt.% of siliceous fly ash is investigated within a temperature range of 7 to 80 C. The elevation of temperature accelerates both the hydration of OPC and fly ash. Due to the enhanced pozzolanic reaction of the fly ash, the change of the composition of the CSH and the pore solution towards lower Ca and higher Al and Si concentrations is shifted towards earlier hydration times. Above 50 C, the reaction of fly ash also contributes to the formation of siliceous hydrogarnet. At 80 C, ettringite and AFm are destabilised and the released sulphate is partially incorporated into the CSH. The observed changes of the phase assemblage in dependence of the temperature are confirmed by thermodynamic modelling. The increasingly heterogeneous microstructure at elevated temperatures shows an increased density of the CSH and a higher coarse porosity. -- Highlights: The reaction of quartz powder at 80 C strongly enhances the compressive strength. Almost no strength increase of fly ash blended OPC at 80 C was found after 2 days. Siliceous hydrogarnet is formed upon the reaction of fly ash at high temperatures. Temperature dependent change of the system was simulated by thermodynamic modelling. Destabilisation of ettringite above 50 C correlates with sulphate content of CSH.

  12. Experimental investigation of burning rates of pure ethanol and ethanol blended fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parag, Shintre; Raghavan, Vasudevan [Thermodynamics and Combustion Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, Tamilnadu, 600036 (India)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental experimental study to determine the burning rates of ethanol and ethanol-blended fossil fuels is presented. Pure liquid ethanol or its blends with liquid fossil fuels such as gasoline or diesel, has been transpired to the surface a porous sphere using an infusion pump. Burning of the fuel takes place on the surface of the porous sphere, which is placed in an air stream blowing upwards with a uniform velocity at atmospheric pressure and temperature under normal gravity conditions. At low air velocities, when ignited, a flame envelopes the sphere. For each sphere size, air stream velocity and fuel type, the fuel feed rate will vary and the same is recorded as the burning rate for that configuration. The flame stand-off distances from the sphere surface are measured by post-processing the digital image of the flame photograph using suitable imaging software. The transition velocity at which the flame moves and establishes itself at the wake region of the sphere has been determined for different diameters and fuel types. Correlations of these parameters are also presented. (author)

  13. Exploiting Photo-induced Reactions in Polymer Blends to Create Hierarchically Ordered, Defect-free Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balazs, Anna (U of Pittsburgh) [U of Pittsburgh

    2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer simulations reveal how photo-induced chemical reactions can be exploited to create long-range order in binary and ternary polymeric materials. The process is initiated by shining a spatially uniform light over a photosensitive AB binary blend, which undergoes both a reversible chemical reaction and phase separation. We then introduce a well-collimated, higher-intensity light source. Rastering this secondary light over the sample locally increases the reaction rate and causes formation of defect-free, spatially periodic structures. These binary structures resemble either the lamellar or hexagonal phases of microphase-separated di-block copolymers. We measure the regularity of the ordered structures as a function of the relative reaction rates for different values of the rastering speed and determine the optimal conditions for creating defect-free structures in the binary systems. We then add a non-reactive homo-polymer C, which is immiscible with both A and B. We show that this component migrates to regions that are illuminated by the secondary, higher-intensity light, allowing us to effectively write a pattern of C onto the AB film. Rastering over the ternary blend with this collimated light now leads to hierarchically ordered patterns of A, B, and C. The findings point to a facile, non-intrusive process for manufacturing high-quality polymeric devices in a low-cost, efficient manner.

  14. 95 Production and Testing of Coconut Oil Biodiesel Fuel and its Blend

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oguntola J Alamu; Opeoluwa Dehinbo; Adedoyin M Sulaiman; Oguntola J. Alamu; Opeoluwa Dehinbo; Adedoyin M. Sulaiman

    Many researchers have successfully worked on generating energy from different alternative sources including solar and biological sources such as the conversion of trapped energy from sunlight to electricity and conversion of some renewable agricultural products to fuel. This work considers the use of coconut oil for the production of alternative renewable and environmental friendly biodiesel fuel as an alternative to conventional diesel fuel. Test quantities of coconut oil biodiesel were produced through transesterification reaction using 100g coconut oil, 20.0 % ethanol (wt % coconut oil), 0.8% potassium hydroxide catalyst at 65C reaction temperature and 120 min. reaction time. The experiment was carried out three times and average results evaluated. Low yield of the biodiesel (10.4%) was obtained. The coconut oil biodiesel produced was subsequently blended with petroleum diesel and characterized as alternative diesel fuel through some ASTM standard fuel tests. The products were further evaluated by comparing specific gravity and viscosity of the biodiesel blend, the raw coconut oil and conventional petroleum diesel.

  15. Small-angle scattering investigations of poly([epsilon]-caprolactone)/polycarbonate blends -- 2: Small-angle X-ray and light scattering study of semicrystalline/semicrystalline and semicrystalline/amorphous blend morphologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, Y.W.; Stein, R.S. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering); Lin, J.S.; Wignall, G.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States))

    1994-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Crystalline morphologies of poly([epsilon]-caprolactone) (PCL) and polycarbonate (PC) blends were probed with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and small-angle light scattering (SALS). Quantitative SAXS analysis suggested that random mixing of PCL and PC lamellae occurred in the semicrystalline/semicrystalline state. Two distinct regions of incorporation were identified in the semicrystalline/amorphous state. It was found that PCL was rejected from the PC interlamellar region in the PCL-rich blends. In contrast, PCL was incorporated into the amorphous phase between the crystalline lamellae in the PC-rich blends. This transition from interlamellar exclusion to interlamellar inclusion may be related to the glass transition temperatures or the mobility of the blends. It is proposed that the mode of incorporation or exclusion is governed by the competition between entropy and diffusion. Additionally, SALS coupled with optical microscopy indicated that PC is an effective nucleating agent for PCL crystallization as manifested by the reduction of PCL spherulitic size with the addition of PC.

  16. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Sector

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    EPA approved a waiver for the use of motor gasoline blends containing up to 15 percent ethanol (E15) in MY 2007 and newer vehicles-an increase over the 10-percent ethanol limit...

  17. Overview of Two Hydrogen Energy Storage Studies: Wind Hydrogen in California and Blending in Natural Gas Pipelines (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M. W.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation provides an overview of two NREL energy storage studies: Wind Hydrogen in California: Case Study and Blending Hydrogen Into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues. The presentation summarizes key issues, major model input assumptions, and results.

  18. Excitonic properties of strained wurtzite and zinc-blende GaNAlxGa1xN quantum dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fonoberov, Vladimir

    Excitonic properties of strained wurtzite and zinc-blende GaNAlxGa1xN quantum dots Vladimir A 2003 We investigate exciton states theoretically in strained GaN/AlN quantum dots with wurtzite WZ of GaN QDs.18 Molecu- lar beam epitaxial growth in the StranskiKrastanov mode of wurtzite WZ Ga

  19. Optical properties of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaNAlN quantum dots Vladimir A. Fonoberova)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fonoberov, Vladimir

    Optical properties of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaNAlN quantum dots Vladimir A. Fonoberova; published 20 August 2004 We investigate theoretically and compare optical properties of wurtzite and zincN/AlN interface governs optical properties of wurtzite quantum dots while having a small effect on zinc

  20. Excitonic complexes in single zinc-blende GaN/AlN quantum dots grown by droplet epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    As, Donat Josef

    -assembled wurtzite GaN QDs1 and up to 300 K in site-controlled wurtzite nanowire QDs.2 Less mature than their wurtzite counterparts, single self-assembled zinc- blende (ZB) GaN QDs already show good prospects in terms to 100 K.5 They even present several advantages over self-assembled wurtzite GaN QDs: shorter radiative

  1. Universality of electron accumulation at wurtzite c-and a-plane and zinc-blende InN surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    As, Donat Josef

    Universality of electron accumulation at wurtzite c- and a-plane and zinc- blende InN surfaces P. D 27 August 2007 Electron accumulation is found to occur at the surface of wurtzite 112¯0 , 0001.6 Experimental studies to date have focused on wurtzite c-plane surfaces,1­3,7 although pre- vious

  2. Selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ethanol/gasoline blends over a silver/alumina catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL] [ORNL; Fisher, Galen [University of Michigan] [University of Michigan; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lean gasoline engines running on ethanol/gasoline blends and equipped with a silver/alumina catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ethanol provide a pathway to reduced petroleum consumption through both increased biofuel utilization and improved engine efficiency relative to the current stoichiometric gasoline engines that dominate the U.S. light duty vehicle fleet. A pre-commercial silver/alumina catalyst demonstrated high NOx conversions over a moderate temperature window with both neat ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol. Selectivity to NH3 increases with HC dosing and ethanol content in gasoline blends, but appears to saturate at around 45%. NO2 and acetaldehyde behave like intermediates in the ethanol SCR of NO. NH3 SCR of NOx does not appear to play a major role in the ethanol SCR reaction mechanism. Ethanol is responsible for the low temperature SCR activity observed with the ethanol/gasoline blends. The gasoline HCs do not deactivate the catalyst ethanol SCR activity, but they also do not appear to be significantly activated by the presence of ethanol.

  3. Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content on the lifespan and maximum length of benzene plumes Diego E. Gomez1 and Pedro 10 March 2009. [1] A numerical model was used to evaluate how the concentration of ethanol

  4. Physical and chemical characteristics of an interesterified blend of butterfat and cottonseed oil with possible industrial applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rashidi, Nabil

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    interest in milkfat research in other parts of the world. In 1984, a symposium was held in Sweden that dealt exclusively with milkfat and its modification. Emphasis was placed on milkfat-vegetable oil blends. These products are legally sold now in some...

  5. Susceptibility of Aluminum Alloys to Corrosion in Simulated Fuel Blends Containing Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, Jeffery K [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined was accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  6. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines.

  7. Comparison of Simulated and Experimental Combustion of Biodiesel Blends in a Single Cylinder Diesel HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of biodiesel content on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine performance has been investigated both experimentally and by computer simulation. Combustion experiments were performed in a single cylinder HCCI engine using blends of soy biodiesel in ultra low sulfur diesel, with concentrations ranging from 0 to 50 vol% and equivalence ratios ( ) from 0.38 to 0.48. Data from the engine tests included combustion analysis and exhaust composition analysis with standard gaseous emissions equipment. The engine utilized a custom port fuel injection strategy to provide highly premixed charges of fuel and air, making it possible to compare the results with single zone chemical kinetics simulations that were performed using CHEMKIN III, with a reaction set including 670 species and over 3000 reactions. The reaction mechanism incorporated equations for the combustion of a paraffinic fuel, n-heptane, and an oxygenated component, methyl butanoate, as well as reactions for the formation of NOx. The zero-dimensional model did a reasonably good job of predicting the HCCI combustion event, correctly predicting intake temperature effects on the phasing of both low temperature heat release (LTHR) and the main combustion event. It also did a good job of predicting the magnitude of LTHR. Differences between the simulation and experimental data included the dependence on biodiesel concentration and the duration of both LTHR and the main combustion event. The probable reasons for these differences are the changing derived cetane number (DCN) of the model fuel blend with biodiesel concentration, and the inability of the model to account for stratification of temperature and . The simulation also showed that concentrations of intermediate species produced during LTHR are dependent on the magnitude of LTHR, but otherwise the addition of biodiesel has no discernable effect.

  8. Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 1: Refrigerant Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark O. McLinden; Arno Laesecke; Eric W. Lemmon; Joseph W. Magee; Richard A. Perkins

    2002-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of measuring thermodynamic properties R125, R410A and R507A, measuring viscosity and thermal conductivity of R410A and R507A and comparing data to mixture models in NIST REFPROP database. For R125, isochoric (constant volume) heat capacity was measured over a temperature range of 305 to 397 K (32 to 124 C) at pressures up to 20 MPa. For R410A, isochoric heat capacity was measured along 8 isochores with a temperature range of 303 to 397 K (30 to 124 C) at pressures up to 18 MPa. Pressure-density-temperature was also measured along 14 isochores over a temperature range of 200 to 400 K (-73 to 127 C) at pressures up to 35 MPa and thermal conductivity along 6 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 404 K (28 to 131 C) with pressures to 38 MPa. For R507A, viscosity was measured along 5 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 421 K (28 to 148 C) at pressures up to 83 MPa and thermal conductivity along 6 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 404 K (28 to 131 C) with pressures to 38 MPa. Mixture models were developed to calculate the thermodynamic properties of HFC refrigerant mixtures containing R32, R125, R134a and/or R125. The form of the model is the same for all the blends considered, but blend-specific mixing functions are required for the blends R32/125 (R410 blends) and R32/134a (a constituent binary of R407 blends). The systems R125/134a, R125/143a, R134a/143a, and R134a/152a share a common, generalized mixing function. The new equation of state for R125 is believed to be the most accurate and comprehensive formulation of the properties for that fluid. Likewise, the mixture model developed in this work is the latest state-of-the-art for thermodynamic properties of HFC refrigerant blends. These models were incorporated into version 7 of NIST REFPROP database.

  9. Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas (H/CNG) Blend Transit Buses: October 15, 2002--September 30, 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Toro, A.; Frailey, M.; Lynch, F.; Munshi, S.; Wayne, S.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report covers literature and laboratory analyses to identify modification requirements of a Cummins Westport B Gas Plus engine for transit buses using a hydrogen/compressed natural fuel blend.

  10. Valence band density of states of zinc-blende and wurtzite InN from x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    As, Donat Josef

    Valence band density of states of zinc-blende and wurtzite InN from x-ray photoemission for wurtzite InN 112¯0 are shown to yield a VB-DOS similar to that of zinc-blende InN, although the nonzero the thermodynamically stable phase is the wurtzite 2H polymorph4 wz-InN , judicious choice of substrate material

  11. POTENTIAL IMPACT OF BLENDING RESIDUAL SOLIDS FROM TANKS 18/19 MOUNDS WITH TANK 7 OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eibling, R; Erich Hansen, E; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2007-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    High level waste tanks 18F and 19F have residual mounds of waste which may require removal before the tanks can be closed. Conventional slurry pump technology, previously used for waste removal and tank cleaning, has been incapable of removing theses mounds from tanks 18F and 19F. A mechanical cleaning method has been identified that is potentially capable of removing and transferring the mound material to tank 7F for incorporation in a sludge batch for eventual disposal in high level waste glass by the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been requested to evaluate whether the material transferred from tanks 18F/19F by the mechanical cleaning technology can later be suspended in Tank 7F by conventional slurry pumps after mixing with high level waste sludge. The proposed mechanical cleaning process for removing the waste mounds from tanks 18 and 19 may utilize a high pressure water jet-eductor that creates a vacuum to mobilize solids. The high pressure jet is also used to transport the suspended solids. The jet-eductor system will be mounted on a mechanical crawler for movement around the bottom of tanks 18 and 19. Based on physical chemical property testing of the jet-eductor system processed IE-95 zeolite and size-reduced IE-95 zeolite, the following conclusions were made: (1) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite has a mean and median particle size (volume basis) of 115.4 and 43.3 microns in water. Preferential settling of these large particles is likely. (2) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite rapidly generates settled solid yield stresses in excess of 11,000 Pascals in caustic supernates and will not be easily retrieved from Tank 7 with the existing slurry pump technology. (3) Settled size-reduced IE-95 zeolite (less than 38 microns) in caustic supernate does not generate yield stresses in excess of 600 Pascals in less than 30 days. (4) Preferential settling of size-reduced zeolite is a function of the amount of sludge and the level of dilution for the mixture. (5) Blending the size-reduced zeolite into larger quantities of sludge can reduce the amount of preferential settling. (6) Periodic dilution or resuspension due to sludge washing or other mixing requirements will increase the chances of preferential settling of the zeolite solids. (7) Mixtures of Purex sludge and size-reduced zeolite did not produce yield stresses greater than 200 Pascals for settling times less than thirty days. Most of the sludge-zeolite blends did not exceed 50 Pascals. These mixtures should be removable by current pump technology if sufficient velocities can be obtained. (8) The settling rate of the sludge-zeolite mixtures is a function of the ionic strength (or supernate density) and the zeolite- sludge mixing ratio. (9) Simulant tests indicate that leaching of Si may be an issue for the processed Tank 19 mound material. (10) Floating zeolite fines observed in water for the jet-eductor system and size-reduced zeolite were not observed when the size-reduced zeolite was blended with caustic solutions, indicating that the caustic solutions cause the fines to agglomerate. Based on the test programs described in this report, the potential for successfully removing Tank 18/19 mound material from Tank 7 with the current slurry pump technology requires the reduction of the particle size of the Tank 18/19 mound material.

  12. Effect of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cell blended with organic salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabri, Nasehah Syamin; Yap, Chi Chin; Yahaya, Muhammad [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Salleh, Muhamad Mat [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents the influence of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of organic solar cell blended with organic salt. The organic solar cells were composed of indium tin oxide as anode, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene]: (6,6)-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester: tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate blend as organic active layer and aluminium as cathode. The devices underwent a simultaneous fixed-voltage electrical and thermal treatment at different temperatures of 25, 50 and 75 C. It was found that photovoltaic performance improved with the thermal treatment temperature. Accumulation of more organic salt ions in the active layer leads to broadening of p-n doped regions and hence higher built-in electric field across thin intrinsic layer. The simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment has been shown to be able to reduce the electrical treatment voltage.

  13. Photo-response of a P3HT:PCBM blend in metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devynck, M.; Rostirolla, B.; Watson, C. P.; Taylor, D. M., E-mail: d.m.taylor@bangor.ac.uk [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Dean Street, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 1UT (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors are investigated, in which the insulator is cross-linked polyvinylphenol and the active layer a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, and the electron acceptor [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Admittance spectra and capacitance-voltage measurements obtained in the dark both display similar behaviour to those previously observed in P3HT-only devices. However, the photo-capacitance response is significantly enhanced in the P3HT:PCBM case, where exciton dissociation leads to electron transfer into the PCBM component. The results are consistent with a network of PCBM aggregates that is continuous through the film but with no lateral interconnection between the aggregates at or near the blend/insulator interface.

  14. Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of Zinc-Blende FeN(111) on Wurtzite GaN(0001)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of Zinc-Blende FeN(111) on Wurtzite GaN(0001) Wenzhi Lin, Jeongihm], but not hexagonal (wurtzite) GaN, a fast-developing semiconductor material with important technological applicationsN on wurtzite GaN(0001), by employing e-beam evaporation in an ultra-high vacuum MBE cham- ber. The FeN films

  15. BLENDED CALCIUM ALUMINATE-CALCIUM SULFATE CEMENT-BASED GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout which has a pH greater than 12.4. In addition, blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement compositions can be formulated such that the primary cementitious phase is a stable crystalline material. A less alkaline material (pH {<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts [Wiersma, 2009a and b, Wiersma, 2010, and Serrato and Langton, 2010]. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere [Griffin, 2010, Stefanko, 2009 and Wiersma, 2009 and 2010, Bobbitt, 2010, respectively]. Radiolysis calculations are also provided in a separate document [Reyes-Jimenez, 2010].

  16. Compressor calorimeter performance of refrigerant blends: Comparative methods and results for a refrigerator/freezer application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C K; Sand, J R

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A protocol was developed to define calorimeter operating pressures for nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures (NARMs) which corresponded with the saturated evaporator and condenser temperatures commonly used for pure refrigerants. Compressor calorimeter results were obtained using this equivalent-mean-temperature (EMT) approach and a generally applied Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) procedure at conditions characteristic of a domestic refrigerator-freezer application. Tests with R-12 and two NARMs indicate that compressor volumetric and isentropic efficiencies are nearly the same for refrigerants with similar capacities and pressure ratios. The liquid-line temperature conditions specified in the AHAM calorimeter rating procedure for refrigerator-freezer compressors were found to preferentially derate NARM performance relative to R-12. Conversion of calorimeter data taken with a fixed liquid-line temperature to a uniform minimal level of condenser subcooling is recommended as a fairer procedure when NARMs are involved. Compressor energy-efficiency-ratio (EER) and capacity data measured as a result of the EMT approach were compared to system performance calculated using an equivalent-heat-exchanger-loading (EHXL) protocol based on a Lorenz-Meutzner (L-M) refrigerator-freezer modeling program. The EHXL protocol was used to transform the calorimeter results into a more relevant representation of potential L-M cycle performance. The EMT method used to set up the calorimeter tests and the AHAM liquid-line conditions combined to significantly understate the cycle potential of NARMs relative to that predicted at the more appropriate EHXL conditions. Compressor conditions representative of larger heat exchanger sizes were also found to give a smaller L-M cycle advantage relative to R-12.

  17. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

  18. Compact reaction cell for homogenizing and down-blending highly enriched uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.; Horton, J.A.

    1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a specialized reaction cell for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide. In a preferred form, the reaction cell comprises a reaction chamber with increasing diameter along its length (e.g. a cylindrical chamber having a diameter of about 2 inches in a lower portion and having a diameter of from about 4 to about 12 inches in an upper portion). Such dimensions are important to achieve the necessary conversion while at the same time affording criticality control and transportability of the cell and product. The reaction chamber further comprises an upper port and a lower port, the lower port allowing for the entry of reactant gases into the reaction chamber, the upper port allowing for the exit of gases from the reaction chamber. A diffuser plate is attached to the lower port of the reaction chamber and serves to shape the flow of gas into the reaction chamber. The reaction cell further comprises means for introducing gases into the reaction chamber and a heating means capable of heating the contents of the reaction chamber. The present invention also relates to a method for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide in the reaction cell of the present invention. The invention is useful for down-blending highly enriched uranium metal by the simultaneous conversion of highly enriched uranium metal and natural or depleted uranium metal to uranium oxide within the reaction cell. 4 figs.

  19. Correlations of Polyimides and Blended Polyimides for High Temperature Gas Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John R. Klaehn; Christopher J. Orme; Thomas A. Luther; Eric S. Peterson; Jagoda M. Urban-Klaehn

    2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High performance polymers are of interest for high temperature gas separations, especially for the sequestration of carbon dioxide. A new family of high performance imide polymers has been identified as a successful membrane capture material. VTEC polyimides possess desired thermal properties (up to 500 C) along with being robust and flexible even after multiple thermal cycles (up to 400 C). Polyimides (PI) are excellent materials for high selectivity for smaller kinetic diameter gases such as H2 and CO2; however, they have low fluxes. We blended small amounts of different polymers with VTEC polyimide, which changes the fluxes. Another critical problem when working with glassy polymers is their moisture content. It has been found that water entrapped within the polymer matrix (left over from the solvent, or physisorbed) can also cause the polymer to change dramatically. Additionally presence of molecular water in the polymers void volume has been validated through Positron Annihilation Lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy. In this presentation, polymer characterization and gas-separation testing results will be discussed.

  20. Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity- controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline to diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions. Engine-out emissions for aldehydes, ketones and PM were compared with emissions from conventional diesel combustion. Sampling and analysis was carried out following micro-tunnel dilution of the exhaust. Particle geometric mean diameter, number-size distribution, and total number concentration were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For the particle mass measurements, samples were collected on Teflon-coated quartz-fiber filters and analyzed gravimetrically. Gaseous aldehydes and ketones were sampled using dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid phase extraction cartridges and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In addition, emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) were also measured to investigate the destruction of CO, HC and formaldehydes by the catalyst.

  1. A dosimetric comparative study: Volumetric modulated arc therapy vs intensity-modulated radiation therapy in the treatment of nasal cavity carcinomas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Kham, E-mail: khamdiep@gmail.com [School of Health Professions, Medical Dosimetry Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, School of Health ProfessionsUnit 2, Houston, TX (United States); Cummings, David; Lanza, Vincent C.; Morris, Kathleen; Wang, Congjun; Sutton, Jordan; Garcia, John [School of Health Professions, Medical Dosimetry Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, School of Health ProfessionsUnit 2, Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences between volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the treatment of nasal cavity carcinomas. The treatment of 10 patients, who had completed IMRT treatment for resected tumors of the nasal cavity, was replanned with the Philips Pinnacle{sup 3} Version 9 treatment-planning system. The IMRT plans used a 9-beam technique whereas the VMAT (known as SmartArc) plans used a 3-arc technique. Both types of plans were optimized using Philips Pinnacle{sup 3} Direct Machine Parameter Optimization algorithm. IMRT and VMAT plans' quality was compared by evaluating the maximum, minimum, and mean doses to the target volumes and organs at risk, monitor units (MUs), and the treatment delivery time. Our results indicate that VMAT is capable of greatly reducing treatment delivery time and MUs compared with IMRT. The reduction of treatment delivery time and MUs can decrease the effects of intrafractional uncertainties that can occur because of patient movement during treatment delivery. VMAT's plans further reduce doses to critical structures that are in close proximity to the target volume.

  2. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT OF MARSSIM FIELD CALIBRATION FOR QUANTIFICATION OF CS-137 VOLUMETRICALLY CONTAMINATED SOILS IN THE BC CONTROLLED AREA USING 2 BY 2 SODIUM IODIDE DETECTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PAPPIN JL

    2007-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the Technical Basis and Documentation for Field Calibrations of radiation measurement equipment for use in the MARSSIM Seeping Surveys of the BC Controlled Area (BCCA). The Be Controlled Area is bounded on tt1e north by (but does not include) the BCCribs & Trenches and is bounded on the south by Army Loop Road. Parts of the BC Controlled Area are posted as a Contamination Area and the remainder is posted as a Soil Contamination Area. The area is approximately 13 square miles and divided into three zones (Zone A , Zone B. and Zone C). A map from reference 1 which shows the 3 zones is attached. The MARSSIM Scoping Surveys are intended 10 better identify the boundaries of the three zones based on the volumetric (pCi/g) contamination levels in the soil. The MARSSIM Field Calibration. reference 2. of radiation survey instrumentation will determine the Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) and an algorithm for converting counts to pCi/g. The instrumentation and corresponding results are not intended for occupational radiation protection decisions or for the release of property per DOE Order 5400.5.

  3. Application of Image And X-Ray Microtomography Technique To Quantify Filler Distribution In Thermoplastic-Natural Rubber Blend Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad, Sahrim; Rasid, Rozaidi; Mouad, A. T. [Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Aziz Mohamed, A.; Abdullah, Jaafar; Dahlan, M.; Mohamad, Mahathir; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Hamzah Harun, M. [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Yazid, Hafizal [Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Hafizal Yazid, Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Abdullah, W. Saffiey W.

    2010-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray microtomography and ImageJ 1.39 u is used as a tool to quantify volume percentage of B{sub 4}C as fillers in thermoplastic-natural rubber blend composites. The use of percentage of area occupied by fillers as obtain from ImageJ from the microtomography sliced images enables the proposed technique to easily obtain the amount volume percentage of B{sub 4}C in the composite non-destructively. Comparison with other technique such as density measurement and chemical analysis proves the proposed technique as one of the promising approach.

  4. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non?Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoll, Keith [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); West, Brian H [ORNL; Clark, Wendy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Graves, Ronald L [ORNL; Orban, John [Battelle, Columbus; Przesmitzki, Steve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In summer 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program is to assess the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals in the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20--gasoline blended with 15 and 20% ethanol--on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This first report provides the results available to date from the first stages of a much larger overall test program. Results from additional projects that are currently underway or in the planning stages are not included in this first report. The purpose of this initial study was to quickly investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the following: (1) Regulated tailpipe emissions for 13 popular late model vehicles on a drive cycle similar to real-world driving and 28 small non-road engines (SNREs) under certification or typical in use procedures. (2) Exhaust and catalyst temperatures of the same vehicles under more severe conditions. (3) Temperature of key engine components of the same SNREs under certification or typical in-use conditions. (4) Observable operational issues with either the vehicles or SNREs during the course of testing. As discussed in the concluding section of this report, a wide range of additional studies are underway or planned to consider the effects of intermediate ethanol blends on materials, emissions, durability, and driveability of vehicles, as well as impacts on a wider range of nonautomotive engines, including marine applications, snowmobiles, and motorcycles. Section 1 (Introduction) gives background on the test program and describes collaborations with industry and agencies to date. Section 2 (Experimental Setup) provides details concerning test fuels, vehicle and SNRE selection, and test methods used to conduct the studies presented in this report. Section 3 (Results and Discussion) summarizes the vehicle and SNRE studies and presents data from testing completed to date. Section 4 (Next Steps) describes planned future activities. The appendixes provide test procedure details, vehicle and SNRE emissions standards, analysis details, and additional data and tables from vehicle and SNRE tests.

  5. Low and intermediate temperature oxidation of ethanol and ethanol-PRF blends: An experimental and modeling study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, Francis M.; Chaos, Marcos; Dryer, Frederick L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this brief communication, we present new experimental species profile measurements for the low and intermediate temperature oxidation of ethanol under knock-prone conditions. These experiments show that ethanol exhibits no global low temperature reactivity at these conditions, although we note the heterogeneous decomposition of ethanol to ethylene and water. Similar behavior is reported for an E85 blend in n-heptane. Kinetic modeling results are presented to complement these experiments and elucidate the interaction of ethanol and primary reference fuels undergoing cooxidation. (author)

  6. Evolution of crystalline structures of poly([epsilon]-caprolactone)/polycarbonate blends; 1: Isothermal crystallization kinetics as probed by synchrotron small-angle x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, Y.W.; Stein, R.S. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering); Chu, B.; Wu, G. (State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Long Island, NY (United States))

    1994-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Evolution of the poly([epsilon]-caprolactone) (PCL) lamellae in blends of PCL/PC (polycarbonate) was monitored by synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The effects of crystallization temperature, PC concentration, and PC crystallinity on the PCL lamellar growth in the PCL-rich blends were investigated. The half-crystallization time derived from the temporal change of the peak intensity increased with crystallization temperature and generally increased with the addition of PC. For a given blend composition, the lamellar growth rate increased with increasing PC crystallinity. The interlamellar spacing initially varied with time and then approached a plateau value at the later stage of crystallization. An insertion mechanism is proposed in which the PCL is crystallized in the amorphous intralamellar phase. This model is also consistent with the quantitative SAXS results, which suggested that random mixing of PCL and PC lamellae occurred in the semicrystalline (PCL)/semicrystalline (PC) state.

  7. Study of the Crystalline Morphology Evolution of PET and PET/PC Blends by Time-resolved Synchrotron Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) and DSC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbosa, Irineu; Larocca, Nelson M.; Hage, Elias [Dep. de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Plivelic, Tomas S.; Torriani, Iris L. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Mantovani, Gerson L. [Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09090-400 Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Isothermal melt crystallization of poly(ethylene terephthalate)(PET) and PET/PC (polycarbonate) blend, with and without a transesterification catalyst, was studied by time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in order to achieve the variation of the morphological parameters throughout the whole crystallization time. For neat PET, the catalyst promotes a decrease of the crystal lamellar thickness but for the blend no variations were observed. The effect of incorporation of catalyst in crystallization kinetics was very distinct in PET pure and the blend: in the former the catalyst leads to an increase of this kinetics while for the latter it was observed a decreasing.

  8. Determination of the effect of different additives in coking blends using a combination of in situ high-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miguel C. Diaz; Karen M. Steel; Trevor C. Drage; John W. Patrick; Colin E. Snape [Nottingham University, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry measurements were carried out on 4:1 wt/wt blends of a medium volatile bituminous coal with two anthracites, two petroleum cokes, charcoal, wood, a low-temperature coke breeze, tyre crumb, and active carbon to determine the effects on fluidity development to identify the parameters responsible for these effects during pyrolysis and to study possible relationships among the parameters derived from these techniques. Positive, negative, and neutral effects were identified on the concentration of fluid material. Small positive effects (ca. 5-6%) were caused by blending the coal with petroleum cokes. Charcoal, wood, and active carbon all exerted negative effects on concentration (18-27% reduction) and mobility (12-25% reduction in T2) of the fluid phase, which have been associated with the inert character and high surface areas of these additives that adsorb the fluid phase of the coal. One of the anthracites and the low-temperature coke breeze caused deleterious effects to a lesser extent on the concentration (7-12%) and mobility (13-17%) of the fluid material, possibly due to the high concentration of metals in these additives (ca. 11% ash). Despite the high fluid character of tyre crumb at the temperature of maximum fluidity of the coal (73%), the mobility of the fluid phase of the blend was lower than expected. The comparison of {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry results indicated that to account for the variations in minimum complex viscosity for all the blends, both the maximum concentration of fluid phase and the maximum mobility of the fluid material had to be considered. For individual blends, two exponential relationships have been found between the complex viscosity and the concentration of solid phase in both the softening and resolidification stages but the parameters are different for each blend. 30 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Combustion properties of coal-char blends: NO{sub x} emission characteristics. Interim final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; Khan, L.; Khan, S. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Smoot, L.D.; Germane, G.J.; Eatough, C.N. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Advanced Combustion Engineering Research Center

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Under pulverized coal combustion conditions, NO{sub x} formed during the release of volatile matter far exceed NO{sub x} formed from combustion of the resulting char. It is believed that interactions of NO{sub x} with char is responsible for the reduced NO{sub x} formation from the combustion of char. The goal of this research is to assess the potential technical and economical benefits of co-firing coal-char blends in pulverized coal boilers to reduce NO{sub x}. The rationale for the proposed research is that the presence of char in the flame during the initial stages of combustion may provide catalytic activity for reduction of NO{sub x} produced from volatile nitrogen. This project is a cooperative effort between the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) and BYU/ACERC. Seven hundred and fifty pounds of three coal-char blends containing 12.5%, 25%, and 50% char and 125 pounds of a coal-activated carbon blend containing 12.5% activated carbon were prepared. The volatile matter contents of the blends ranged from 27.3 to 35.6% (dry basis). Char (16.2 wt% volatile matter) was made from an Illinois No. 6 coal (Peabody Coal Company) in a continuous feed charring oven under mild gasification conditions. Nine combustion tests will be performed with the coal and blends in a 0.5--1.0 MBtu/hr combustor located at BYU. Combustion data will be analyzed to determine the effect of blend type, stoichiometry, and flame temperature on NO{sub x} formation, ignition characteristics, flame stability, and combustion efficiency. A four month no-cost extension has been requested for the project. The results of the combustion tests will be reported in the final technical report in December 1993.

  10. A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

  11. Dosimetric effects of weight loss or gain during volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pair, Matthew L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Du, Weiliang [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Rojas, Hector D.; Kanke, James E.; McGuire, Sean E.; Lee, Andrew K.; Kuban, Deborah A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kudchadker, Rajat J., E-mail: rkudchad@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Weight loss or gain during the course of radiation therapy for prostate cancer can alter the planned dose to the target volumes and critical organs. Typically, source-to-surface distance (SSD) measurements are documented by therapists on a weekly basis to ensure that patients' exterior surface and isocenter-to-skin surface distances remain stable. The radiation oncology team then determines whether the patient has undergone a physical change sufficient to require a new treatment plan. The effect of weight change (SSD increase or decrease) on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) dosimetry is not well known, and it is unclear when rescanning or replanning is needed. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of weight change (SSD increase or decrease) on IMRT or VMAT dose delivery in patients with prostate cancer and to determine the SSD change threshold for replanning. Whether IMRT or VMAT provides better dose stability under weight change conditions was also determined. We generated clinical IMRT and VMAT prostate and seminal vesicle treatment plans for varying SSDs for 10 randomly selected patients with prostate cancer. The differences due to SSD change were quantified by a specific dose change for a specified volume of interest. The target mean dose, decreased or increased by 2.9% per 1-cm SSD decrease or increase in IMRT and by 3.6% in VMAT. If the SSD deviation is more than 1 cm, the radiation oncology team should determine whether to continue treatment without modifications, to adjust monitor units, or to resimulate and replan.

  12. SU-E-T-28: A Treatment Planning Comparison of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Vs. Proton Therapy for Post-Mastectomy Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez, M; Zhang, R; Sanders, M; Newhauser, W [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The delivery of post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) can be challenging for patients with left-sided breast cancer due to the PTV size and proximity to critical organs. This study investigates the use of protons for PMRT in a clinically-representative cohort of patients, and quantitatively compares volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to proton therapy to have an evidence-based rationale for selecting a treatment modality for these patients. Methods: Eight left-sided PMRT patients previously treated at our clinic with VMAT were identified for the study. PTVs included the chest wall and regional lymph nodes. Passively scattered (PS) and intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans were constructed using the Eclipse proton planning system. The resulting plans were compared to the original VMAT plan on the basis of PTV coverage; dose homogeneity index (DHI) and conformity index (CI); dose to organs at risk (OAR); tumor control probability (TCP), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and secondary cancer complication probability (SCCP). Differences were tested for significance using the paired Student's t-test (p<0.01). Results: All modalities produced clinically acceptable PMRT plans. The comparison demonstrated proton treatment plans provide significantly lower NTCP values for the heart and the lung while maintaining significantly better CI and DHI. At a prescribed dose of 50.4 Gy (RBE) in the PTV, the calculated mean NTCP value for the patients decreased from 1.3% to 0.05% for the whole heart (cardiac mortality) and from 3.8% to 1.1% for the lungs (radiation pneumonitis) for both proton therapy plans from VMAT plans. Both proton modalities showed a significantly lower SCCP for the contralateral breast compared to VMAT. Conclusion: All three plans (VMAT, PS, and IMPT) provide acceptable treatment plans for PMRT. However, proton therapy shows a significant advantage over VMAT with regards to sparing OARs and may be more advantageous for patients with unfavorable anatomy.

  13. SU-E-J-267: Weekly Volumetric and Dosimetric Changes in Adaptive Conformal Radiotherapy of Non-Small-Cell-Lung Cancer Using 4D CT and Gating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z [the 6th People's Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, Shanghai (China); Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Shang, Q [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Xiong, F; Zhang, X; Zhang, Q; Fu, S [the 6th People's Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: This study was to evaluate the significance of weekly imageguided patient setup and to assess the volumetric and dosimetric changes in no-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with adaptive conformal radiotherapy (CRT). Methods: 9 NSCLC patients treated with 3D CRT underwent 4D CT-on-rail every five fractions. ITV was generated from three phases of the 4DCT (the end of exhalation, 25% before and after the end of exhalation). The margin of ITV to PTV is 5mm. 6 weekly CTs were acquired for each patient. The weekly CTs were fused with the planning CT by vertebrae. The couch shift was recorded for each weekly CT to evaluate the setup error. The gross tumor volumes (GTVs) were contoured on weekly CT images by a physician. Beams from the original plans were applied to weekly CTs to calculate the delivered doses. All patients underwent replanning after 20 fractions. Results: Among the total 54 CTs, the average setup error was 2.0 1.7, 2.6 2.1, 2.7 2.2 mm in X, Y, and Z direction, respectively. The average volume of the primary GTV was reduced from 42.45 cc to 22.78 cc (47.04%) after 6 weeks. The maximal volume regression occurred between 15 and 20 fractions. Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) reduced the V20 and V5 of the lung by 33.5% and 16.89%, respectively. ART also reduced Dmean and D1/3 of the heart by 31.7% and 32.32%, respectively. Dmax of the spinal cord did not vary much during the treatment course. Conclusion: 5 mm margin is sufficient for 4D weekly CTguided radiotherapy in lung cancer. Tumor regression was observed in the majority of patients. ART significantly reduced the OARs dose. Our preliminary results indicated that an off-line ART approach is appropriate in clinical practice.

  14. Radiological and Clinical Pneumonitis After Stereotactic Lung Radiotherapy: A Matched Analysis of Three-Dimensional Conformal and Volumetric-modulated Arc Therapy Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palma, David A., E-mail: d.palma@vumc.n [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Senan, Suresh; Haasbeek, Cornelis J.A.; Verbakel, Wilko F.A.R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vincent, Andrew [Department of Biometrics, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lagerwaard, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Lung fibrosis is common after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung tumors, but the influence of treatment technique on rates of clinical and radiological pneumonitis is not well described. After implementing volumetric modulated arc therapy (RapidArc [RA]; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) for SBRT, we scored the early pulmonary changes seen with arc and conventional three-dimensional SBRT (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-five SBRT patients treated with RA were matched 1:2 with 50 SBRT patients treated with 3D-CRT. Dose fractionations were based on a risk-adapted strategy. Clinical pneumonitis was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Acute radiological changes 3 months posttreatment were scored by three blinded observers. Relationships among treatment type, baseline factors, and outcomes were assessed using Spearman's correlation, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests, and logistic regression. Results: The RA and 3D-CRT groups were well matched. Forty-three patients (57%) had radiological pneumonitis 3 months after treatment. Twenty-eight patients (37%) had computed tomography (CT) findings of patchy or diffuse consolidation, and 15 patients (20%) had ground-glass opacities only. Clinical pneumonitis was uncommon, and no differences were seen between 3D-CRT vs. RA patients in rates of grade 2/3 clinical pneumonitis (6% vs. 4%, respectively; p = 0.99), moderate/severe radiological changes (24% vs. 36%, respectively, p = 0.28), or patterns of CT changes (p = 0.47). Radiological severity scores were associated with larger planning target volumes (p = 0.09) and extended fractionation (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Radiological changes after lung SBRT are common with both approaches, but no differences in early clinical or radiological findings were observed after RA. Longer follow-up will be required to exclude late changes.

  15. Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust gas emissions in a reciprocating four stroke cycle engine. The test matrix varied engine load and air-to-fuel ratio at throttle openings of 50% and 100% at equivalence ratios of 1.00 and 0.90 for hydrogen percentages of 10%, 20% and 30% by volume. In addition, tests were performed at 100% throttle opening, with an equivalence ratio of 0.98 and a hydrogen blend of 20% to further investigate CO emission variations. Data analysis indicated that the use of hydrogen/natural gas fuel blend penalizes the engine operation with a 1.5 to 2.0% decrease in torque, but provided up to a 36% reduction in CO, a 30% reduction in NOX, and a 5% increase in brake thermal efficiency. These results concur with previous results published in the open literature. Further reduction in emissions can be obtained by retarding the ignition timing.

  16. Feature Extraction in Volumetric Bioimages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Min

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    each panel). Cross-sectional images of SAMs depicted in thesequence of time-lapse SAM images (as shown in Figure 2.2).each panel). Cross-sectional images of SAMs depicted in the

  17. Potential for Improved Intelligence Quotient Using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Compared With Conventional 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation for Whole-Ventricular Radiation in Children

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qi, X. Sharon, E-mail: xqi@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Stinauer, Michelle; Rogers, Brion [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Madden, Jennifer R. [Department of Neuro-Oncology, The Children's Hospital, Aurora, Colorado (United States)] [Department of Neuro-Oncology, The Children's Hospital, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Wilkening, Greta N. [Department of Pediatrics, The Children's Hospital, Aurora, Colorado (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics, The Children's Hospital, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Liu, Arthur K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To compare volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in the treatment of localized intracranial germinoma. We modeled the effect of the dosimetric differences on intelligence quotient (IQ). Method and Materials: Ten children with intracranial germinomas were used for planning. The prescription doses were 23.4 Gy to the ventricles followed by 21.6 Gy to the tumor located in the pineal region. For each child, a 3D-CRT and full arc VMAT was generated. Coverage of the target was assessed by computing a conformity index and heterogeneity index. We also generated VMAT plans with explicit temporal lobe sparing and with smaller ventricular margin expansions. Mean dose to the temporal lobe was used to estimate IQ 5 years after completion of radiation, using a patient age of 10 years. Results: Compared with the 3D-CRT plan, VMAT improved conformality (conformity index 1.10 vs 1.85), with slightly higher heterogeneity (heterogeneity index 1.09 vs 1.06). The averaged mean doses for left and right temporal lobes were 31.3 and 31.7 Gy, respectively, for VMAT plans and 37.7 and 37.6 Gy for 3D-CRT plans. This difference in mean temporal lobe dose resulted in an estimated IQ difference of 3.1 points at 5 years after radiation therapy. When the temporal lobes were explicitly included in the VMAT optimization, the mean temporal lobe dose was reduced 5.6-5.7 Gy, resulting in an estimated IQ difference of an additional 3 points. Reducing the ventricular margin from 1.5 cm to 0.5 cm decreased mean temporal lobe dose 11.4-13.1 Gy, corresponding to an estimated increase in IQ of 7 points. Conclusion: For treatment of children with intracranial pure germinomas, VMAT compared with 3D-CRT provides increased conformality and reduces doses to normal tissue. This may result in improvements in IQ in these children.

  18. The use of RapidArc volumetric-modulated arc therapy to deliver stereotactic radiosurgery and stereotactic body radiotherapy to intracranial and extracranial targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roa, Dante E., E-mail: droa@uci.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Irvine-Medical Center, Orange, CA (United States); Schiffner, Daniel C.; Zhang Juying; Dietrich, Salam N.; Kuo, Jeffrey V.; Wong, Jason; Ramsinghani, Nilam S.; Al-Ghazi, Muthana S.A.L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Irvine-Medical Center, Orange, CA (United States)

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Twenty-three targets in 16 patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) were analyzed in terms of dosimetric homogeneity, target conformity, organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing, monitor unit (MU) usage, and beam-on time per fraction using RapidArc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) vs. multifield sliding-window intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Patients underwent computed tomography simulation with site-specific immobilization. Magnetic resonance imaging fusion and optical tracking were incorporated as clinically indicated. Treatment planning was performed using Eclipse v8.6 to generate sliding-window IMRT and 1-arc and 2-arc RapidArc plans. Dosimetric parameters used for target analysis were RTOG conformity index (CI{sub RTOG}), homogeneity index (HI{sub RTOG}), inverse Paddick Conformity Index (PCI), D{sub mean} and D5-D95. OAR sparing was analyzed in terms of D{sub max} and D{sub mean}. Treatment delivery was evaluated based on measured beam-on times delivered on a Varian Trilogy linear accelerator and recorded MU values. Dosimetric conformity, homogeneity, and OAR sparing were comparable between IMRT, 1-arc RapidArc and 2-arc RapidArc plans. Mean beam-on times {+-} SD for IMRT and 1-arc and 2-arc treatments were 10.5 {+-} 7.3, 2.6 {+-} 1.6, and 3.0 {+-} 1.1 minutes, respectively. Mean MUs were 3041, 1774, and 1676 for IMRT, 1-, and 2-arc plans, respectively. Although dosimetric conformity, homogeneity, and OAR sparing were similar between these techniques, SRS and SBRT fractions treated with RapidArc were delivered with substantially less beam-on time and fewer MUs than IMRT. The rapid delivery of SRS and SBRT with RapidArc improved workflow on the linac with these otherwise time-consuming treatments and limited the potential for intrafraction organ and patient motion, which can cause significant dosimetric errors. These clinically important advantages make image-guided RapidArc useful in the delivery of SRS and SBRT to intracranial and extracranial targets.

  19. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy vs conventional fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy in a whole-ventricular irradiation: A planning comparison study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakanaka, Katsuyuki [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Mizowaki, Takashi, E-mail: mizo@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Sato, Sayaka; Ogura, Kengo; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluated the dosimetric difference between volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and conventional fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (cIMRT) in whole-ventricular irradiation. Computed tomography simulation data for 13 patients were acquired to create plans for VMAT and cIMRT. In both plans, the same median dose (100% = 24 Gy) was prescribed to the planning target volume (PTV), which comprised a tumor bed and whole ventricles. During optimization, doses to the normal brain and body were reduced, provided that the dose constraints of the target coverage were satisfied. The dose-volume indices of the PTV, normal brain, and body as well as monitor units were compared between the 2 techniques by using paired t-tests. The results showed no significant difference in the homogeneity index (0.064 vs 0.065; p = 0.824) of the PTV and conformation number (0.78 vs 0.77; p = 0.065) between the 2 techniques. In the normal brain and body, the dose-volume indices showed no significant difference between the 2 techniques, except for an increase in the volume receiving a low dose in VMAT; the absolute volume of the normal brain and body receiving 1 Gy of radiation significantly increased in VMAT by 1.6% and 8.3%, respectively, compared with that in cIMRT (1044 vs 1028 mL for the normal brain and 3079.2 vs 2823.3 mL for the body; p<0.001). The number of monitor units to deliver a 2.0-Gy fraction was significantly reduced in VMAT compared with that in cIMRT (354 vs 873, respectively; p<0.001). In conclusion, VMAT delivers IMRT to complex target volumes such as whole ventricles with fewer monitor units, while maintaining target coverage and conformal isodose distribution comparable to cIMRT; however, in addition to those characteristics, the fact that the volume of the normal brain and body receiving a low dose would increase in VMAT should be considered.

  20. SU-E-T-105: Development of 3D Dose Verification System for Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Using Improved Polyacrylamide-Based Gel Dosimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, K; Fujimoto, S; Akagi, Y; Hirokawa, Y [Hiroshima Heiwa Clinic, Hiroshima (Japan); Hayashi, S [Hiroshima International University, Hiroshima (Japan); Miyazawa, M [R-TECH.INC, Toukyo (Japan)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The aim of this dosimetric study was to develop 3D dose verification system for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using polyacrylamide-based gel (PAGAT) dosimeter improved the sensitivity by magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}). Methods: PAGAT gel containing MgCl{sub 2} as a sensitizer was prepared in this study. Methacrylic-acid-based gel (MAGAT) was also prepared to compare the dosimetric characteristics with PAGAT gel. The cylindrical glass vials (4 cm diameter, 12 cm length) filled with each polymer gel were irradiated with 6 MV photon beam using Novalis Tx linear accelerator (Varian/BrainLAB). The irradiated polymer gel dosimeters were scanned with Signa 1.5 T MRI system (GE), and dose calibration curves were obtained using T{sub 2} relaxation rate (R{sub 2} = 1/T{sub 2}). Dose rate (100-600 MU min{sup ?1}) and fractionation (1-8 fractions) were varied. In addition, a cubic acrylic phantom (10 10 10 cm{sup 3}) filled with improved PAGAT gel inserted into the IMRT phantom (IBA) was irradiated with VMAT (RapidArc). C-shape structure was used for the VMAT planning by the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS). The dose comparison of TPS and measurements with the polymer gel dosimeter was accomplished by the gamma index analysis, overlaying the dose profiles for a set of data on selected planes using in-house developed software. Results: Dose rate and fractionation dependence of improved PAGAT gel were smaller than MAGAT gel. A high similarity was found by overlaying the dose profiles measured with improved PAGAT gel dosimeter and the TPS dose, and the mean pass rate of the gamma index analysis using 3%/3 mm criteria was achieved 90% on orthogonal planes for VMAT using improved PAGAT gel dosimeter. Conclusion: In-house developed 3D dose verification system using improved polyacrylamide-based gel dosimeter had a potential as an effective tool for VMAT QA.

  1. Biodiesel Production From Animal Fats And Its Impact On The Diesel Engine With Ethanol-Diesel Blends: A Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darunde Dhiraj S; Prof Deshmukh Mangesh M

    Abstract Mainly animal fats and vegetable oils are used for the production of biodiesel. Several types of fuels can be derived from triacylglycerol-containing feedstock. Biodiesel which is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats. Biodiesel is produced by transesterifying the oil or fat with an alcohol (methanol/ethanol) under mild conditions in the presence of a base catalyst. This paper discuses fuel production, fuel properties, environmental effects including exhaust emissions and co-products. This also describes the use of glycerol which is the by-product in esterification process along with biodiesel. The impact of blending of biodiesel with ethanol and diesel on the diesel engine has described.

  2. Investigation of the Potential for Biofuel Blends in Residual Oil-Fired Power Generation Units as an Emissions Reduction Strategy for New York State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, C.R.; McDonald, R.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a significant amount of oil, about 12.6 million barrels per year, used for power generation in New York State. The majority of it is residual oil. The primary reason for using residual oil probably is economic, as these fuels are cheaper than distillates. However, the stack emissions from the use of such fuels, especially in densely populated urban areas, can be a cause for concern. The emissions of concern include sulfur and nitrogen oxides and particulates, particularly PM 2.5. Blending with distillate (ASTM No.2) fuels may not reduce some or all of these emissions. Hence, a case can be made for blending with biofuels, such as biodiesel, as they tend to have very little fuel bound sulfur and nitrogen and have been shown in prior work at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to reduce NOx emissions as well in small boilers. Some of the research carried out at CANMET in Canada has shown potential reductions in PM with blending of biodiesel in distillate oil. There is also the benefit obtaining from the renewable nature of biofuels in reducing the net carbon dioxide emitted thus contributing to the reduction of green house gases that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere. The present project was conceived to examine the potential for such benefits of blending biofuels with residual oil. A collaboration was developed with personnel at the New York City Poletti Power Plant of the New York Power Authority. Their interest arose from an 800 MW power plant that was using residual oil and which was mandated to be shut down in 2010 because of environmental concerns. A blend of 20% biodiesel in residual oil had also been tested for a short period of about two days in that boiler a couple of years back. In this project, emission measurements including particulate measurements of PM2.5 were made in the commercial boiler test facility at BNL described below. Baseline tests were done using biodiesel as the blending biofuel. Biodiesel is currently and probably in the foreseeable future more expensive than residual fuel. So, another task was to explore potential alternative biofuels that might confer emission benefits similar to those of biodiesel, while being potentially significantly cheaper. Of course, for power plant use, availability in the required quantities is also a significant criterion. A subsidiary study to determine the effect of the temperature of the filter used to collect and measure the PM 2.5 emissions was conducted. This was done for reasons of accuracy in a residential boiler using distillate fuel blends. The present report details the results obtained in these tests with the baseline ASTM No. 6 fuel and blends of biodiesel with it as well as the results of the filter temperature study. The search for the alternative 'cheaper' biofuel identified a potential candidate, but difficulties encountered with the equipment during the testing prevented testing of the alternative biofuel.

  3. Miscibility of blends of poly(methyl methacrylate) and oligodiols based on a bisphenol A nucleus and ethylene oxide or propylene oxide branches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Jaffrennou; E. R. Soule; F. Mechin; J. Borrajo; J. P. Pascault; R. J. J. Williams

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud-point curves of blends of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with a series of oligodiols based on a bisphenol A nucleus and short branches of poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(propylene oxide) (BPA-EO or BPA-PO), and with PEO and PPO oligomers, were obtained using a light transmission device. Experimental results were fitted with the Flory- Huggins model using an interaction parameter depending on both temperature and composition. For PMMA/PEO and PMMA/PPO blends, the miscibility increased when increasing the size of the diol, due to the significant decrease in the entropic and enthalpic terms contributing to the interaction parameter. This reflected the decrease in the selfassociation of solvent molecules and in the contribution of terminal OH groups to the mismatching of solubility parameters. For PMMA/BPA-EO blends, a decrease of the entropic contribution to the interaction parameter when increasing the size of the oligodiol was also found. However, the effect was counterbalanced by the opposite contribution of combinatorial terms leading to cloud-point curves located in approximately the same temperature range. For PMMA/BPA-PO blends, the interaction parameter exhibited a very low value. In this case, the effect of solvent size was much more important on combinatorial terms than on the interaction parameter, leading to an increase in miscibility when decreasing the oligodiol size. For short BPA-PO oligodiols no phase separation was observed. The entropic contribution of the interaction parameter exhibited an inverse relationship with the size of the oligodiols, independent of the nature of the chains bearing the hydroxyls and the type of OH groups (primary or secondary). This indicates that the degree of self-association of solvent molecules through their OH terminal groups, was mainly determined by their relative sizes.

  4. Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is a very effective reductant of nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environment. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the USA, lean gasoline engines equipped with an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for the catalyst performance evaluations. High NOX conversions were achieved with ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol; however, higher C1/N ratio was needed to achieve greater than 90% NOX conversion, which also resulted in significant HC slip. Temperature and HC dosing were important in controlling selectivity to NH3 and N2O. At high temperatures, NH3 and N2O yields increased with increased HC dosing. At low temperatures, NH3 yield was very low, however, N2O levels became significant. The ability to generate NH3 under lean conditions has potential for application of a dual SCR approach (HC SCR + NH3 SCR) to reduce fuel consumption needed for NOX reduction and/or increased NOX conversion, which is discussed in this work.

  5. Ambipolar blends of CuPc and C60: charge carrier mobility, electronic structure and its implications for solar cell applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Bruetting; M. Bronner; M. Goetzenbrugger; A. Opitz

    2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Ambipolar transport has been realised in blends of the molecular hole conductor Cu-phthalocyanine (CuPc) and the electron conducting fullerene C60. Charge carrier mobilities and the occupied electronic levels have been analyzed as a function of the mixing ratio using field-effect transistor measurements and photoelectron spectroscopy. These results are discussed in the context of photovoltaic cells based on these materials.

  6. Color tuning of Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce phosphor and their blend for white LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kottaisamy, M. [Materials Research Laboratory, Kalasalingam University, Krishnankoil 626 190 (India)], E-mail: mmksamy66@yahoo.com; Thiyagarajan, P.; Mishra, J.; Ramachandra Rao, M.S. [Materials Science Research Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gadolinium or lanthanum co-doped (0.5 mole) yttrium aluminum garnet doped with cerium phosphors were synthesized by a citric acid gel method and the effect of co-dopants on the structural and luminescent properties were studied. A significant peak shift in the photoluminescence spectra of yttrium aluminum garnet doped cerium was observed from 535 to 556 and 576 nm for gadolinium or lanthanum co-doped phosphors, respectively. The color tuned phosphor were blended with yttrium aluminum garnet doped cerium which showed a considerable improvement in the Commission International De Eclairage chromaticity co-ordinate values of gallium nitride based blue light emitting diode pumped white light. White light emitted from yttrium aluminum garnet doped cerium shows a Commission International De Eclairage value of (0.229, 0.182) whereas the yttrium aluminum garnet doped cerium phosphor blended with gadolinium or lanthanum co-doped phosphor shows (0.262, 0.243) and (0.295, 0.282), respectively. These results demonstrate the possibility to use these phosphor blends to enhance the white light generation in the field of white-light emitting diode solid-state lighting.

  7. Hardgrove grindability study of Powder River Basin and Appalachian coal components in the blend to a midwestern power station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padgett, P.L.; Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Five coals representing four distinct coal sources blended at a midwestern power station were subjected to detailed analysis of their Hardgrove grindability. The coals are: a low-sulfur, high volatile A bituminous Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal (Pike County, KY); a medium-sulfur, high volatile A bituminous Pittsburgh coal (southwestern PA); a low-sulfur, subbituminous Wyodak coal from two mines in the eastern Powder River Basin (Campbell County, WY). The feed and all samples processed in the Hardgrove grindability test procedure were analyzed for their maceral and microlithotype content. The high-vitrinite Pittsburgh coal and the relatively more petrographically complex Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal exhibit differing behavior in grindability. The Pittsburgh raw feed, 16x30 mesh fraction (HGI test fraction), and the {minus}30 mesh fraction (HGI reject) are relatively similar petrographically, suggesting that the HGI test fraction is reasonably representative of the whole feed. The eastern Kentucky coal is not as representative of the whole feed, the HGI test fraction having lower vitrinite than the rejected {minus}30 mesh fraction. The Powder River Basin coals are high vitrinite and show behavior similar to the Pittsburgh coal.

  8. Determination of photocarrier density under continuous photoirradiation using spectroscopic techniques as applied to polymer: Fullerene blend films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanemoto, Katsuichi, E-mail: kkane@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp; Nakatani, Hitomi; Domoto, Shinya [Department of Physics, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a method to determine the density of photocarrier under continuous photoirradiation in conjugated polymers using spectroscopic signals obtained by photoinduced absorption (PIA) measurements. The bleaching signals in the PIA measurements of polymer films and the steady-state absorption signals of oxidized polymer solution are employed to determine the photocarrier density. The method is applied to photocarriers of poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in a blended film consisting of P3HT and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The photocarrier density under continuous photoirradiation of 580 mW/cm{sup 2} is determined to be 3.5??10{sup 16?}cm{sup ?3}. Using a trend of the carrier density increasing in proportion to the square root of photo-excitation intensity, we provide a general formula to estimate the photocarrier density under simulated 1 sun solar irradiation for the P3HT: PCBM film of an arbitrary thickness. We emphasize that the method proposed in this study enables an estimate of carrier density without measuring a current and can be applied to films with no electrodes as well as to devices.

  9. Compatibility Study for Plastic, Elastomeric, and Metallic Fueling Infrastructure Materials Exposed to Aggressive Formulations of Ethanol-blended Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory began a series of experiments to evaluate the compatibility of fueling infrastructure materials with intermediate levels of ethanol-blended gasoline. Initially, the focus was elastomers, metals, and sealants, and the test fuels were Fuel C, CE10a, CE17a and CE25a. The results of these studies were published in 2010. Follow-on studies were performed with an emphasis on plastic (thermoplastic and thermoset) materials used in underground storage and dispenser systems. These materials were exposed to test fuels of Fuel C and CE25a. Upon completion of this effort, it was felt that additional compatibility data with higher ethanol blends was needed and another round of experimentation was performed on elastomers, metals, and plastics with CE50a and CE85a test fuels. Compatibility of polymers typically relates to the solubility of the solid polymer with a solvent. It can also mean susceptibility to chemical attack, but the polymers and test fuels evaluated in this study are not considered to be chemically reactive with each other. Solubility in polymers is typically assessed by measuring the volume swell of the polymer exposed to the solvent of interest. Elastomers are a class of polymers that are predominantly used as seals, and most o-ring and seal manufacturers provide compatibility tables of their products with various solvents including ethanol, toluene, and isooctane, which are components of aggressive oxygenated gasoline as described by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1681. These tables include a ranking based on the level of volume swell in the elastomer associated with exposure to a particular solvent. Swell is usually accompanied by a decrease in hardness (softening) that also affects performance. For seal applications, shrinkage of the elastomer upon drying is also a critical parameter since a contraction of volume can conceivably enable leakage to occur. Shrinkage is also indicative of the removal of one or more components of the elastomers (by the solvent). This extraction of additives can negatively change the properties of the elastomer, leading to reduced performance and durability. For a seal application, some level of volume swell is acceptable, since the expansion will serve to maintain a seal. However, the acceptable level of swell is dependent on the particular application of the elastomer product. It is known that excessive swell can lead to unacceptable extrusion of the elastomer beyond the sealed interface, where it becomes susceptible to damage. Also, since high swell is indicative of high solubility, there is a heightened potential for fluid to seep through the seal and into the environment. Plastics, on the other hand, are used primarily in structural applications, such as solid components, including piping and fluid containment. Volume change, especially in a rigid system, will create internal stresses that may negatively affect performance. In order to better understand and predict the compatibility for a given polymer type and fuel composition, an analysis based on Hansen solubility theory was performed for each plastic and elastomer material. From this study, the solubility distance was calculated for each polymer material and test fuel combination. Using the calculated solubility distance, the ethanol concentration associated with peak swell and overall extent of swell can be predicted for each polymer. The bulk of the material discussion centers on the plastic materials, and their compatibility with Fuel C, CE25a, CE50a, and CE85a. The next section of this paper focuses on the elastomer compatibility with the higher ethanol concentrations with comparison to results obtained previously for the lower ethanol levels. The elastomers were identical to those used in the earlier study. Hansen solubility theory is also applied to the elastomers to provide added interpretation of the results. The final section summarizes the performance of the metal coupons.

  10. TIME-VARYING FLAME IONIZATION SENSING APPLIED TO NATURAL GAS AND PROPANE BLENDS IN A PRESSURIZED LEAN PREMIXED (LPM) COMBUSTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Straub; B. T. Chorpening; E. D. Huckaby; J. D. Thornton; W. L. Fincham

    2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In-situ monitoring of combustion phenomena is a critical need for optimal operation and control of advanced gas turbine combustion systems. The concept described in this paper is based on naturally occurring flame ionization processes that accompany the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. Previous work has shown that flame ionization techniques may be applied to detect flashback, lean blowout, and some aspects of thermo-acoustic combustion instabilities. Previous work has focused on application of DC electric fields. By application of time-varying electric fields, significant improvements to sensor capabilities have been observed. These data have been collected in a lean premixed combustion test rig operating at 0.51-0.76 MPa (5-7.5 atm) with air preheated to 588 K (600F). Five percent of the total fuel flow is injected through the centerbody tip as a diffusion pilot. The fuel composition is varied independently by blending approximately 5% (volume) propane with the pipeline natural gas. The reference velocity through the premixing annulus is kept constant for all conditions at a nominal value of 70 m/s. The fuel-air equivalence ratio is varied independently from 0.46 0.58. Relative to the DC field version, the time-varying combustion control and diagnostic sensor (TV-CCADS) shows a significant improvement in the correlation between the measured flame ionization current and local fuel-air equivalence ratio. In testing with different fuel compositions, the triangle wave data show the most distinct change in flame ionization current in response to an increase in propane content. Continued development of this sensor technology will improve the capability to control advanced gas turbine combustion systems, and help address issues associated with variations in fuel supplies.

  11. BLENDING LOW ENRICHED URANIUM WITH DEPLETED URANIUM TO CREATE A SOURCE MATERIAL ORE THAT CAN BE PROCESSED FOR THE RECOVERY OF YELLOWCAKE AT A CONVENTIONAL URANIUM MILL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schutt, Stephen M.; Hochstein, Ron F.; Frydenlund, David C.; Thompson, Anthony J.

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Throughout the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex, there are a number of streams of low enriched uranium (LEU) that contain various trace contaminants. These surplus nuclear materials require processing in order to meet commercial fuel cycle specifications. To date, they have not been designated as waste for disposal at the DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS). Currently, with no commercial outlet available, the DOE is evaluating treatment and disposal as the ultimate disposition path for these materials. This paper will describe an innovative program that will provide a solution to DOE that will allow disposition of these materials at a cost that will be competitive with treatment and disposal at the NTS, while at the same time recycling the material to recover a valuable energy resource (yellowcake) for reintroduction into the commercial nuclear fuel cycle. International Uranium (USA) Corporation (IUSA) and Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (NFS) have entered into a commercial relationship to pursue the development of this program. The program involves the design of a process and construction of a plant at NFS' site in Erwin, Tennessee, for the blending of contaminated LEU with depleted uranium (DU) to produce a uranium source material ore (USM Ore{trademark}). The USM Ore{trademark} will then be further processed at IUC's White Mesa Mill, located near Blanding, Utah, to produce conventional yellowcake, which can be delivered to conversion facilities, in the same manner as yellowcake that is produced from natural ores or other alternate feed materials. The primary source of feed for the business will be the significant sources of trace contaminated materials within the DOE complex. NFS has developed a dry blending process (DRYSM Process) to blend the surplus LEU material with DU at its Part 70 licensed facility, to produce USM Ore{trademark} with a U235 content within the range of U235 concentrations for source material. By reducing the U235 content to source material levels in this manner, the material will be suitable for processing at a conventional uranium mill under its existing Part 40 license to remove contaminants and enable the product to re-enter the commercial fuel cycle. The tailings from processing the USM Ore{trademark} at the mill will be permanently disposed of in the mill's tailings impoundment as 11e.(2) byproduct material. Blending LEU with DU to make a uranium source material ore that can be returned to the nuclear fuel cycle for processing to produce yellowcake, has never been accomplished before. This program will allow DOE to disposition its surplus LEU and DU in a cost effective manner, and at the same time provide for the recovery of valuable energy resources that would be lost through processing and disposal of the materials. This paper will discuss the nature of the surplus LEU and DU materials, the manner in which the LEU will be blended with DU to form a uranium source material ore, and the legal means by which this blending can be accomplished at a facility licensed under 10 CFR Part 70 to produce ore that can be processed at a conventional uranium mill licensed under 10 CFR Part 40.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS OF SINGLE CYLINDER FOUR STROKE DI DIESEL ENGINE OPERATING ON NEEM OIL BIODIESEL AND ITS BLENDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rob Res; Dharmendra Yadav; Nitin Shrivastava; Vipin Shrivastava

    Increasing oil prices, and global warming activates the research and development of substitute energy resources to maintain economic development. The methyl esters of vegetable oil, known as biodiesel are becoming popular because of their low ecological effect and potential as a green substitute for compression ignition engine. The main objective of this study is to investigate the performance of neem oil methyl ester on a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection, and 8 HP capacity diesel engine. The Experimental research has been performed to analyze the performance of different blends 20 % (BD20), 50 % (BD50), and 100 % (BD100) of neem oil biodiesel. Biodiesel, when compared to conventional diesel fuel, results showed that the brake specific fuel consumption and brake specific energy consumption are higher and brake thermal efficiency less during testing of engine. The brake specific energy consumption is increased by 0.60 % to 8.25 % and brake thermal efficiency decreased by 0.57 % to 7.62 % at 12 kg engine brake load as compared to diesel fuel. When the fuel consumption of biodiesel is compared to diesel fuel it observed that the fuel consumption was increased by 2.5 % to 19.5 % than that of diesel fuel for B20, B50 and B100 bends at 12 kg engine brake load. It is observed that the performance of biodiesel blends is less as compared to plain diesel and during testing of diesel engine run normally for all engine loads. It is investigated that the neem oil biodiesel 20 % blend showed very close performance when compared to plain diesel and hence can be used as an alternative fuel for conventional diesel in the future.

  13. The performance of blended conventional and novel binders in the in-situ stabilisation/solidification of a contaminated site soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Hailing; Jin, Fei; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    RESPONSE: Thank you for your comment. [9, 43] was added in page 3 line 49. [44] was added in page 3 line 54. [43] D. G. Snelsona, S. Wilda, M. O'Farrellb, Heat of hydration of Portland CementMetakaolinFly ash (PCMKPFA) blends, Cem. Concr. Res. 38... ] . In -situ S/S has three main advantages: 1) it is well established as efficient and cost-effective; 2) it produces no spoil and, hence no landfill waste and 3) there is no risk to site workers of exposure to contamination. Portland cement (PC) and lime...

  14. Absence of Structural Impact of Noble Nanoparticles on P3HT: PCBM Blends for Plasmon Enhanced Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells Probed by Synchrotron Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuele Lilliu; Mejd Alsari; Oier Bikondoa; J. Emyr Macdonald; Marcus S. Dahlem

    2014-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The incorporation of noble metal nanoparticles, displaying localized surface plasmon resonance, in the active area of donor-acceptor bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices is an industrially compatible light trapping strategy, able to guarantee better absorption of the incident photons and give an efficiency improvement between 12% and 38%. In the present work, we investigate the effect of Au and Ag nanoparticles blended with P3HT: PCBM on the P3HT crystallization dynamics by synchrotron grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. We conclude that the presence of (1) 80nm Au, (2) mix of 5nm, 50nm, 80nm Au, (3) 40nm Ag, and (4) 10nm, 40nm, 60nm Ag colloidal nanoparticles, at different concentrations below 0.3 wt% in P3HT: PCBM blends, does not affect the behaviour of the blends themselves.

  15. Effectiveness of organoclays as compatibilizers for multiphase polymer blends A sustainable route for the mechanical recycling of co-mingled plastics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Causa, Andrea; Acierno, Domenico; Filippone, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Universit di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio, 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Mistretta, Maria Chiara [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Aerospaziale, dei Materiali, Universit di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, ed. 6, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We prepare and characterize multiphase systems in which small amounts of recycled polymer, namely polyethylene terephtalate (PET) ground from waste bottles, are dispersed in a co-continuous blend of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP). Some of such ternary systems are also filled with plate-like clay nanoparticles with different polarities, in order to assess their influence on the morphology and mechanical behaviour of the blends. On the basis of preliminary wettability considerations and inspections by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the PET is found to preferentially locate within the PP phase. Such a positioning is desirable in order to minimize the presence of multiple interfaces, which is one of the major issues in the recycling process of co-mingles plastics. By means of SEM, dynamic-mechanical analysis and tensile tests we show that the addition of a filler with low polarity, which locates at the PET-matrix interface, has relevant implications on the structure and properties of the ternary systems, refining their morphology at the micro-scale and enhancing their high-temperature mechanical behaviour.

  16. The photospheric solar oxygen project: III. Investigation of the centre-to-limb variation of the 630nm [OI]-NiI blend

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caffau, E; Steffen, M; Livingston, W; Bonifacio, P; Malherbe, J -M; Doerr, H -P; Schmidt, W

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar photospheric abundance of oxygen is still a matter of debate. For about ten years some determinations have favoured a low oxygen abundance which is at variance with the value inferred by helioseismology. Among the oxygen abundance indicators, the forbidden line at 630nm has often been considered the most reliable even though it is blended with a NiI line. In Papers I and Paper II of this series we reported a discrepancy in the oxygen abundance derived from the 630nm and the subordinate [OI] line at 636nm in dwarf stars, including the Sun. Here we analyse several, in part new, solar observations of the the centre-to-limb variation of the spectral region including the blend at 630nm in order to separate the individual contributions of oxygen and nickel. We analyse intensity spectra observed at different limb angles in comparison with line formation computations performed on a CO5BOLD 3D hydrodynamical simulation of the solar atmosphere. The oxygen abundances obtained from the forbidden line at differe...

  17. Combustion properties of coal-char blends: NO{sub x} emission characteristics. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; Khan, L.; Khan, S. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Smoot, L.D.; Germane, G.J.; Eatough, C.N. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Advanced Combustion Engineering Research Center

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests under pulverized coal combustion conditions suggest that NO{sub x} formed during release of volatile matter far exceed NO{sub x} formed during combustion of the resulting char. This is attributed to char/NO{sub x} interactions by both direct reduction of NO{sub x} by carbon and char-catalyzed reduction by CO. This implies combustion of char not only produces substantially lower NO{sub x} but the presence of char in the flame during initial stages of combustion may potentially provide catalytic activity for reduction of NO{sub x} produced from volatile nitrogen. The goal of the project is to determine if the concept of NO{sub x} reduction by char/NO{sub x} interactions, while maintaining a high combustion efficiency by co-firing coal with char, is a technically feasible way to reduce NO{sub x}, emissions. The project will provide important combustion data required to establish the feasibility of utilizing chars in industrial combustion applications and the advantages of burning coal-char blends in reducing NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions. During the reporting period, 19 runs were made with a continuous feed charring oven (CFCO) to produce 237 pounds of char(about 16%vm) required for preparing coal-char blends.

  18. Zinc-blende (Cubic) GaN and AlGaN Layers, Structures and Bulk Crystals by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novikov, Sergei V.; Zainal, Norzaini; Akimov, Andrey V.; Staddon, Chris R.; Foxon, C. Thomas; Kent, Anthony J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the growth of zinc-blende GaN and AlGaN layers, structures and bulk crystals by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We have developed a process for growth by MBE of free-standing cubic GaN layers. Undoped thick cubic GaN films were grown on semi-insulating GaAs (001) substrates by a modified plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) method and were removed from the GaAs substrate after the growth. The resulting free-standing GaN wafers with thicknesses in the 30-100 {mu}m range may be used as substrates for further epitaxy of cubic GaN-based structures and devices. We have developed procedures to cleave the wafers into 10x10 mm{sup 2} square substrates and to polish them to produce epi-ready surfaces. The first GaN/InGaN LEDs on our zinc-blende GaN substrates have been demonstrated by our collaborators at Sharp Laboratories of Europe.

  19. The Renewable Fuel Standard and Ethanol Pricing: A Sensitivity Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNair, Robert

    2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    of biofuel. The current Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) requires 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel use by 2022. A large proportion of the mandate is to consist of corn-based ethanol. Most ethanol is consumed in the U.S. as a 10 percent blend of ethanol...

  20. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels; Phase 3: Effects of Winter Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Content on Blend Flammability; Flammability Limits of Denatured Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; Clark, W.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assessed differences in headspace flammability for summertime gasolines and new high-ethanol content fuel blends. The results apply to vehicle fuel tanks and underground storage tanks. Ambient temperature and fuel formulation effects on headspace vapor flammability of ethanol/gasoline blends were evaluated. Depending on the degree of tank filling, fuel type, and ambient temperature, fuel vapors in a tank can be flammable or non-flammable. Pure gasoline vapors in tanks generally are too rich to be flammable unless ambient temperatures are extremely low. High percentages of ethanol blended with gasoline can be less volatile than pure gasoline and can produce flammable headspace vapors at common ambient temperatures. The study supports refinements of fuel ethanol volatility specifications and shows potential consequences of using noncompliant fuels. E85 is flammable at low temperatures; denatured ethanol is flammable at warmer temperatures. If both are stored at the same location, one or both of the tanks' headspace vapors will be flammable over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This is relevant to allowing consumers to splash -blend ethanol and gasoline at fueling stations. Fuels compliant with ASTM volatility specifications are relatively safe, but the E85 samples tested indicate that some ethanol fuels may produce flammable vapors.

  1. Blackmore, K. and Kane, L., Blended Learning for Course Sharing A Case Study Proceedings of the 2010 AaeE Conference, Sydney, Copyright Blackmore, K. and Kane, L., 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackmore, Kim

    that has been employed in restructuring a Solar Energy Technology course at a major Australian university for Course Sharing ­ A Case Study Kim Blackmore Australian National University, Canberra, Australia Kim.Blackmore@anu.edu.au Lauren Kane Australian National University, Canberra, Australia Lauren.Kane@anu.edu.au Abstract: A blend

  2. Enhanced efficiency of p-type doping by band-offset effect in wurtzite and zinc-blende GaAs/InAs-core-shell nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Changsheng; Wang, Jiqing, E-mail: jqwang@ee.ecnu.edu.cn; Lin, Weixian; Mao, Huibing; Zhao, Qiang; Yang, Pingxiong [Key Laboratory of Polarized Materials and Devices, East china Normal University, shanghai 200241 (China); Xing, Huaizhong [Department of Applied Physics, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2014-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Using first principles calculation based on density-functional theory, we investigated p-type electronic structures and the doping mechanism in wurtzite (WZ) and zinc-blende (ZB) GaAs/InAs-core-shell nanowires (NWs) along the [0001] and [111] directions, respectively. Comparing the doping in WZ and ZB core-shell NWs, we found it is easier and more stable to realize dopant in WZ NWs. Due to the type I band-offset, p-type doping in the GaAs-core of GaAs{sub core}/InAs{sub shell} for both WZ and ZB NWs makes that the valence band-edge electrons in the InAs-shell can spontaneously transfer to the impurity states, forming one-dimensional hole gas. In particular, this process accompanies with a reverse transition in WZ core-shell nanowire due to the existence of antibonding and bonding states.

  3. A Treatment Planning and Acute Toxicity Comparison of Two Pelvic Nodal Volume Delineation Techniques and Delivery Comparison of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Versus Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Hypofractionated High-Risk Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myrehaug, Sten [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chan, Gordon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Craig, Tim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Weinberg, Vivian [Biostatistics Core, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Cheng, Chun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Cheung, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: arjun.sahgal@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To perform a comparison of two pelvic lymph node volume delineation strategies used in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for high risk prostate cancer and to determine the role of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods and Materials: Eighteen consecutive patients accrued to an ongoing clinical trial were identified according to either the nodal contouring strategy as described based on lymphotropic nanoparticle-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging technology (9 patients) or the current Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) consensus guidelines (9 patients). Radiation consisted of 45 Gy to prostate, seminal vesicles, and lymph nodes, with a simultaneous integrated boost to the prostate alone, to a total dose of 67.5 Gy delivered in 25 fractions. Prospective acute genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities were compared at baseline, during radiotherapy, and 3 months after radiotherapy. Each patient was retrospectively replanned using the opposite method of nodal contouring, and plans were normalized for dosimetric comparison. VMAT plans were also generated according to the RTOG method for comparison. Results: RTOG plans resulted in a significantly lower rate of genitourinary frequency 3 months after treatment. The dosimetric comparison showed that the RTOG plans resulted in both favorable planning target volume (PTV) coverage and lower organs at risk (OARs) and integral (ID) doses. VMAT required two to three arcs to achieve adequate treatment plans, we did not observe consistent dosimetric benefits to either the PTV or the OARs, and a higher ID was observed. However, treatment times were significantly shorter with VMAT. Conclusion: The RTOG guidelines for pelvic nodal volume delineation results in favorable dosimetry and acceptable acute toxicities for both the target and OARs. We are unable to conclude that VMAT provides a benefit compared with IMRT.

  4. Hanford's 100-HX Pump and Treat Project - a Successful Blend of Science, Technology, Construction, and Project Management - 12412

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albin, Kenneth A.; Bachand, Marie T.; Biebesheimer, Fred H.; Neshem, Dean O.; Smoot, John L. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) recently completed construction and start-up of the $25 million 100-HX Groundwater Pump and Treat Project for the Department of Energy (DOE) at its Hanford Reservation site in Washington State. From the onset, the 100-HX Project Leadership Team was able to successfully blend the science and technology of a state-of-the-art groundwater pump and treat system with the principles, tools, and techniques of traditional industrial-type construction and project management. From the 1940's through most of the 1980's, the United States used the Hanford Site to produce nuclear material for national defense at reactor sites located along the Columbia River. While the reactors were operational, large volumes of river water were treated with sodium dichromate (to inhibit corrosion of the reactor piping) and used as a coolant for the reactors. After a single pass through the reactor and before being discharged back to the river, the coolant water was sent to unlined retention basins to cool and to allow the short-lived radioactive contaminants to decay. As a result of these operations, hexavalent chromium was introduced to the vadose zone, and ultimately into the groundwater aquifer and the adjacent Columbia River. In addition, numerous leaks and spills of concentrated sodium dichromate stock solution over the lifetime of reactor operations led to higher concentrations of chromate in the vadose zone and groundwater in localized areas. As a result, the 100 Area was included in the National Priorities List sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The mission of the 100-HX Project is to significantly reduce the concentration of hexavalent chromium in the groundwater by treating up to 3.8 billion gallons (14,300 mega-liters) of contaminated water over its first nine years of operations. In order to accomplish this mission, groundwater scientists and geologists using sophisticated scientific modeling optimized the 100-HX's approximately 0.7 square mile (181 hecto-meters) extraction and injection well field to support continuous operation of a maximum of 800 gallons (3,028 liters) per minute, 24 hours per day, and 7 days per week. The use of traditional resin technology for the plant's ion exchange system required a change out of the resin every 12 weeks and shipment to an offsite facility 1,500 miles (2,414 kilometers) away for regeneration. Instead, the project leadership pursued newer technology with a disposable resin that could be disposed of on-site and would require less frequent change outs, reducing the project's life cycle costs by more than $16 million. Constructing the facility had its own challenges. The well field location overlapped ecologically sensitive lands where bald eagles and native wildlife use the land for their mating habitat for nearly half of the year. Building locations had to be planned around historically and culturally sensitive areas, and around another contractor's remediation work zones. Also, the size of the well field required a transfer (pumping) facility and installation of more than 60 miles (97 kilometers) of high-density polypropylene pipe, 23 miles (38 kilometers) of power cable, and 28 miles (46 kilometers) of control cable. Along with schedule and budget constraints typical of any fast-track project, the project team dealt with severe resource constraints due to competing projects across the Hanford Site caused by the influx of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act stimulus funding. In addition, the project team itself was stretched between completing another $25 million dollar construction project while designing and constructing this project. In order to save money, the project schedule was compressed by three months from the original baseline schedule. This was made possible by the strong use of project management principles throughout the design, construction, and testing phases, as well as implementation of many lessons learned from a similar construction project. In summary, the 100-HX

  5. ELECTROPLATING-BASED APPROACHES TO VOLUMETRIC NANOMANUFACTURING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    these approaches as nanostructuring improves specific energy storage performance and increasing volume improves application, energy storage directly benefits from these approaches as nanostructuring improves specific previously demonstrated a variety of MEMS-based energy storage devices with micron-scale features fabricated

  6. WHITE PAPER A "VolumetricNeutron Source" -

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and finallyon a one to two year integrated sector testing phase. The last phase, critical to the design start-update of CY 2025 for the U.S.'s DEMO. USDOE Fusion Enerw Advisorv Committee (FEAC) findingsandrecommendaoons The United States Department of Energy's Fusion Energy Advisory Committee established a "Panel 1

  7. Assessing the feasibility of volumetric-modulated arc therapy using simultaneous integrated boost (SIB-VMAT): An analysis for complex head-neck, high-risk prostate and rectal cancer cases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cilla, Savino, E-mail: savinocilla@gmail.com [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura Giovanni Paolo II, Universit Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Deodato, Francesco; Diges, Cinzia; Macchia, Gabriella; Picardi, Vincenzo; Ferro, Marica [Radiation Oncology Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura Giovanni Paolo II, Universit Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Sallustio, Giuseppina [Radiology Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura Giovanni Paolo II, Universit Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); De Spirito, Marco; Piermattei, Angelo [Physics Institute, Universit Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome (Italy); Morganti, Alessio G. [Radiation Oncology Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura Giovanni Paolo II, Universit Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy)

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) allowed the simultaneous delivery of different doses to different target volumes within a single fraction, an approach called simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). As consequence, the fraction dose to the boost volume can be increased while keeping low doses to the elective volumes, and the number of fractions and overall treatment time will be reduced, translating into better radiobiological effectiveness. In recent years, volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has been shown to provide similar plan quality with respect to fixed-field IMRT but with large reduction in treatment time and monitor units (MUs) number. However, the feasibility of VMAT when used with SIB strategy has few investigations to date. We explored the potential of VMAT in a SIB strategy for complex cancer sites. A total of 15 patients were selected, including 5 head-and-neck, 5 high-risk prostate, and 5 rectal cancer cases. Both a double-arc VMAT and a 7-field IMRT plan were generated for each case using Oncentra MasterPlan treatment planning system for an Elekta Precise linac. Dosimetric indexes for targets and organs at risk (OARs) were compared based on dose-volume histograms. Conformity index, homogeneity index, and dose-contrast index were used for target analyses. The equivalent uniform doses and the normal tissue complication probabilities were calculated for main OARs. MUs number and treatment time were analyzed to score treatment efficiency. Pretreatment dosimetry was performed using 2-dimensional (2D)-array dosimeter. SIB-VMAT plans showed a high level of fluence modulation needed for SIB treatments, high conformal dose distribution, similar target coverage, and a tendency to improve OARs sparing compared with the benchmark SIB-IMRT plans. The median treatment times reduced from 13 to 20 minutes to approximately 5 minutes for all cases with SIB-VMAT, with a MUs reduction up to 22.5%. The 2D-array ion-chambers' measurements reported an agreement of more than 95% for a criterion of 3% to 3 mm. SIB-VMAT was able to combine the advantages of conventional SIB-IMRT with its highly conformal dose distribution and OARs sparing and the advantages of 3D-conformal radiotherapy with its fast delivery.

  8. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) vs. conventional fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy for {sup 18}F-FDG-PET-guided dose escalation in oropharyngeal cancer: A planning study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teoh, May, E-mail: m.teoh@nhs.net [Department of Oncology, St. Luke's Cancer Centre, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, Surrey (United Kingdom); Beveridge, Sabeena [Department of Medical Physics, St. Luke's Cancer Centre, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, Surrey (United Kingdom); Wood, Katie; Whitaker, Stephen [Department of Oncology, St. Luke's Cancer Centre, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, Surrey (United Kingdom); Adams, Elizabeth; Rickard, Donna; Jordan, Tom; Nisbet, Andrew [Department of Medical Physics, St. Luke's Cancer Centre, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, Surrey (United Kingdom); Clark, Catharine H. [Department of Medical Physics, St. Luke's Cancer Centre, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, Surrey (United Kingdom); National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET)guided focal dose escalation in oropharyngeal cancer may potentially improve local control. We evaluated the feasibility of this approach using volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) and compared these plans with fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) focal dose escalation plans. Materials and methods: An initial study of 20 patients compared RapidArc with fixed-field IMRT using standard dose prescriptions. From this cohort, 10 were included in a dose escalation planning study. Dose escalation was applied to {sup 18}F-FDG-PETpositive regions in the primary tumor at dose levels of 5% (DL1), 10% (DL2), and 15% (DL3) above standard radical dose (65 Gy in 30 fractions). Fixed-field IMRT and double-arc RapidArc plans were generated for each dataset. Dose-volume histograms were used for plan evaluation and comparison. The Paddick conformity index (CI{sub Paddick}) and monitor units (MU) for each plan were recorded and compared. Both IMRT and RapidArc produced clinically acceptable plans and achieved planning objectives for target volumes. Dose conformity was significantly better in the RapidArc plans, with lower CI{sub Paddick} scores in both primary (PTV1) and elective (PTV2) planning target volumes (largest difference in PTV1 at DL3; 0.81 0.03 [RapidArc] vs. 0.77 0.07 [IMRT], p = 0.04). Maximum dose constraints for spinal cord and brainstem were not exceeded in both RapidArc and IMRT plans, but mean doses were higher with RapidArc (by 2.7 1 Gy for spinal cord and 1.9 1 Gy for brainstem). Contralateral parotid mean dose was lower with RapidArc, which was statistically significant at DL1 (29.0 vs. 29.9 Gy, p = 0.01) and DL2 (29.3 vs. 30.3 Gy, p = 0.03). MU were reduced by 39.849.2% with RapidArc (largest difference at DL3, 641 94 vs. 1261 118, p < 0.01). {sup 18}F-FDG-PETguided focal dose escalation in oropharyngeal cancer is feasible with RapidArc. Compared with conventional fixed-field IMRT, RapidArc can achieve better dose conformity, improve contralateral parotid sparing, and uses fewer MU.

  9. Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 2: Air Conditioner System Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piotr A. Domanski; W. Vance Payne

    2002-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of conducting comprehensive measurements of thermophysical for refrigerant R125 and refrigerant blends R410A and R507A and developing new equation of state formulations and mixture models for predicting thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerant blends. Part 2 of this project conducted performance measurements of split-system, 3-ton R22 and R410A residential air conditioners in the 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C) outdoor temperature range and development of a system performance model. The performance data was used in preparing a beta version of EVAP-COND, a windows-based simulation package for predicting performance of finned-tube evaporators and condensers. The modeling portion of this project also included the formulation of a model for an air-conditioner equipped with a thermal expansion valve (TXV). Capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) were measured and compared. The R22 system's performance was measured over the outdoor ambient temperature range of 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C). The same test range was planned for the R410A system. However, the compressor's safety system cut off the compressor at the 135.0 F (57.2 C) test temperature. The highest measurement on this system was at 130.0 F (54.4 C). Subsequently, a custom-manufactured R410A compressor with a disabled safety system and a more powerful motor was installed and performance was measured at outdoor temperatures up to 155.0 F (68.3 C). Both systems had similar capacity and EER performance at 82.0 F (27.8 C). The capacity and EER degradation of both systems were nearly linearly dependent with rising ambient outdoor ambient test temperatures. The performance degradation of R410A at higher temperatures was greater than R22. However, the R22 and R410A systems both operated normally during all tests. Visual observations of the R410A system provided no indication of vibrations or TXV hunting at high ambient outdoor test conditions with the compressor operating in the transcritical regime.

  10. EA-1642-S1: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, KY

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts of DOEs proposed action of providing cost-shared funding for the University of Kentucky (UK) Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis project and of the No-Action Alternative.

  11. Evaluation of inter-laminar shear strength of GFRP composed of bonded glass/polyimide tapes and cyanate-ester/epoxy blended resin for ITER TF coils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemmi, T.; Matsui, K.; Koizumi, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Fusion Research and Development Directorate 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki, 311-0193 (Japan); Nishimura, A. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Fusion Engineering Research Center 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Nishijima, S. [Osaka University, Division of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Engineering 1-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Shikama, T. [Tohoku University, Institute for Materials Research 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The insulation system of the ITER TF coils consists of multi-layer glass/polyimide tapes impregnated a cyanate-ester/epoxy resin. The ITER TF coils are required to withstand an irradiation of 10 MGy from gamma-ray and neutrons since the ITER TF coils is exposed by fast neutron (>0.1 MeV) of 10{sup 22} n/m{sup 2} during the ITER operation. Cyanate-ester/epoxy blended resins and bonded glass/polyimide tapes are developed as insulation materials to realize the required radiation-hardness for the insulation of the ITER TF coils. To evaluate the radiation-hardness of the developed insulation materials, the inter-laminar shear strength (ILSS) of glass-fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) fabricated using developed insulation materials is measured as one of most important mechanical properties before/after the irradiation in a fission reactor of JRR-3M. As a result, it is demonstrated that the GFRPs using the developed insulation materials have a sufficient performance to apply for the ITER TF coil insulation.

  12. Method of producing a diesel fuel blend having a pre-determined flash-point and pre-determined increase in cetane number

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waller, Francis Joseph; Quinn, Robert

    2004-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method of producing a diesel fuel blend having a pre-determined flash-point and a pre-determined increase in cetane number over the stock diesel fuel. Upon establishing the desired flash-point and increase in cetane number, an amount of a first oxygenate with a flash-point less than the flash-point of the stock diesel fuel and a cetane number equal to or greater than the cetane number of the stock diesel fuel is added to the stock diesel fuel in an amount sufficient to achieve the pre-determined increase in cetane number. Thereafter, an amount of a second oxygenate with a flash-point equal to or greater than the flash-point of the stock diesel fuel and a cetane number greater than the cetane number of the stock diesel fuel is added to the stock diesel fuel in an amount sufficient to achieve the pre-determined increase in cetane number.

  13. Hg and Se capture and fly ash carbons from combustion of complex pulverized feed blends mainly of anthracitic coal rank in Spanish power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    I. Surez-Ruiz; J.C. Hower; G.A. Thomas [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR-CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the petrology and chemistry of fly ashes produced in a Spanish power plant from the combustion of complex pulverized feed blends made up of anthracitic/meta-anthracitic coals, petroleum, and natural coke are investigated. It was found that the behavior of fly ash carbons derived from anthracitic coals follows relatively similar patterns to those established for the carbons from the combustion of bituminous coals. Fly ashes were sampled in eight hoppers from two electrostatic precipitator (ESP) rows. The characterization of the raw ashes and their five sieved fractions (from {gt}150 to {lt}25 {mu}m) showed that glassy material, quartz, oxides, and spinels in different proportions are the main inorganic components. As for the organic fraction, the dominant fly ash carbons are anisotropic carbons, mainly unburned carbons derived from anthracitic vitrinite. The concentration of Se and Hg increased in ashes of the second ESP row, this increase being related to the higher proportion of anisotropic unburned carbons, particularly those largely derived from anthracitic vitrinite in the cooler ashes of the ESP (second row) and also related to the decrease in the flue gas temperature. This suggests that the flue gas temperature plays a major role in the concentration of mercury for similar ratios of unburned carbons. It was also found that Hg is highly concentrated in the medium-coarser fractions of the fly ashes ({gt} 45 {mu}m), there being a positive relationship between the amount of these carbons, which are apparently little modified during the combustion process, in the medium-coarse fractions of the ashes and the Hg retention. According to the results obtained, further research on this type of fly ash could be highly productive. 28 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. The Effects of Trans-Esterification of Castor Seed Oil Using Ethanol, Methanol and their Blends on the Properties and Yields of Biodiesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent Enontiemonria; Ayoola Ayodeji; Anawe Paul; Apeye Lucky; Oteri Ogheneofego

    The effects of ethanol, methanol and their blends at different percentage mixtures on the properties and yields of biodiesel at varied trans-esterification times and temperatures using sodium hydroxide as a base catalyst have been investigated. At 70 o C, the optimum yields were: for ethanol 88.4%, 94.2%, 94.8%, and 95.2 % and for methanol, 90.6%, 95.6%, 96.0%, and 96.4% at 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours and 4 hours respectively. The biodiesel yields increased as time of reaction progressed for both solvents but the yields obtained from methanol were generally higher than those from ethanol. A mixture of both solvents at 50 % each produced the overall highest of biodiesel yield of 98.6 % at 70 o C and in 4 hours compared to either solvent used alone at the same time and temperature. The properties such as densities, viscosities, flash points and pour points of the biodiesels tested were found to conform to ASTM standards. The average values were as follows: densities at 15 o C, were 0.8951, 0.8876 and 0.8832g/cm 3; viscosities (at 40 o C) were 4.7160cSt, 4.7380cSt and 4.5055cSt; flash points were 140.9 o C, 147.4 o C and 161.6 o C while for pour points they were-2.4375 o C,-1.6875 o C and-6 o C for ethyl, methyl and ethyl/methyl biodiesel respectively.

  15. In-Cylinder Fuel Blending of Gasoline/Diesel for Improved Efficiency and Lowest Possible Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL] [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Kokjohn, Sage [University of Wisconsin, Madison] [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Reitz, Rolf [University of Wisconsin] [University of Wisconsin

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In-cylinder fuel blending of gasoline/diesel fuel is investigated on a multi-cylinder light-duty diesel engine as a potential strategy to control in-cylinder fuel reactivity for improved efficiency and lowest possible emissions. This approach was developed and demonstrated at the University of Wisconsin through modeling and single-cylinder engine experiments. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential and challenges of this method on a multi-cylinder engine. More specifically, the effect of cylinder-to-cylinder imbalances, heat rejection, and in-cylinder charge motion as well as the potential limitations imposed by real-world turbo-machinery were investigated on a 1.9-liter four-cylinder engine. This investigation focused on one engine condition, 2300 rpm, 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). Gasoline was introduced with a port-fuel-injection system. Parameter sweeps included gasoline-to-diesel fuel ratio, intake air mixture temperature, in-cylinder swirl number, and diesel start-of-injection phasing. In addition, engine parameters were trimmed for each cylinder to balance the combustion process for maximum efficiency and lowest emissions. An important observation was the strong influence of intake charge temperature on cylinder pressure rise rate. Experiments were able to show increased thermal efficiency along with dramatic decreases in oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). However, indicated thermal efficiency for the multi-cylinder experiments were less than expected based on modeling and single-cylinder results. The lower indicated thermal efficiency is believed to be due increased heat transfer as compared to the model predictions and suggest a need for improved cylinder-to-cylinder control and increased heat transfer control.

  16. Optimization of blended battery packs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erb, Dylan C. (Dylan Charles)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis reviews the traditional battery pack design process for hybrid and electric vehicles, and presents a dynamic programming (DP) based algorithm that eases the process of cell selection and pack design, especially ...

  17. Ashing properties of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, D.L.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fusion properties of sulfur materials present in coals were investigated. The treatment of the samples of eleven different coals is described. Thermal treatment of low temperature ashing (LTA) concentrates of eight of the coals was performed, and raw and wash ashing curves were examined to determine what quantitative correlations, if any, exist between ashing parameters and rank of coal. The actual form of the function which describes the ashing curve is derived.

  18. Mid-Level Ethanol Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaeferApril 1,(EAC)TABLE OF CONTENTS 1of:Microsoft WordREMARKSMicrosoft

  19. VOLUME 80, NUMBER 14 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 6 APRIL 1998 Clean and As-Covered Zinc-Blende GaN (001) Surfaces: Novel Surface Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    recently atomically resolved scanning tunneling micrographs have been obtained for wurtzite GaN surfaces [3 in a systematic way. The stable crystal phase of GaN is the wurtzite struc- ture. However, cubic (zinc-blende) Ga appealing for device applica- tions: It has a lower band gap than the wurtzite phase (by 0.2 eV) and can

  20. Sunco Oil manufactures three types of gasoline (gas 1, gas 2 and gas 3). Each type is produced by blending three types of crude oil (crude 1, crude 2 and crude 3). The sales price per barrel of gasoline and the purchase price per

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, David

    Sunco Oil manufactures three types of gasoline (gas 1, gas 2 and gas 3). Each type is produced by blending three types of crude oil (crude 1, crude 2 and crude 3). The sales price per barrel of gasoline and the purchase price per barrel of crude oil are given in following table: Gasoline Sale Price per barrel Gas 1

  1. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank Farm Blend) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Daniel, W. E.; Hall, H. K.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.

    2013-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energys Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanfords tank waste. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Supplemental Treatment is likely to be required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTPs LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750C) continuous method by which LAW can be processed irrespective of whether the waste contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be comparable to LAW glass, i.e. leaches Tc-99, Re and Na at <2g/m2 during ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency) durability testing. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product was investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage. Monolithing in an inorganic geopolymer binder, which is amorphous, macro-encapsulates the granules, and the monoliths pass ANSI/ANS 16.1 and ASTM C1308 durability testing with Re achieving a Leach Index (LI) of 9 (the Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility, IDF, criteria for Tc-99) after a few days and Na achieving an LI of >6 (the Hanford IDF criteria for Na) in the first few hours. The granular and monolithic waste forms also pass the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for all Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) components at the Universal Treatment Standards (UTS). Two identical Benchscale Steam Reformers (BSR) were designed and constructed at SRNL, one to treat non-radioactive simulants and the other to treat actual radioactive wastes. The results from the non-radioactive BSR were used to determine the parameters needed to operate the radioactive BSR in order to confirm the findings of non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale and engineering scale tests and to qualify an FBSR LAW waste form for applications at Hanford. Radioactive testing commenced using SRS LAW from Tank 50 chemically trimmed to look like Hanfords blended LAW known as the Rassat simulant as this simulant composition had been tested in the non-radioactive BSR, the non-radioactive pilot scale FBSR at the Science Applications International Corporation-Science and Technology Applications Research (SAIC-STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID and in the TTT Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD) at Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) in Denver, CO. This provided a tie back between radioactive BSR testing and non-radioactive BSR, pilot scale, and engineering scale testing. Approximately six hundred grams of non-radioactive and radioactive BSR product were made for extensive testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests performed in 2004 at SAIC-STAR and the engineering scale test performed in 2008 at HRI with the Rassat simulant. The same mineral phases and off-gas species were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing. The granular ESTD and BSR products (radioactive and non-radioactive) were analyzed for to

  2. Thermal stability in the blended lithium manganese oxide Lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide cathode materials: An in situ time-resolved X-Ray diffraction and mass spectroscopy study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hu, Enyuan; Bak, Seong Min; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Zhang, Lulu; Shao, Minhua

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal stabilities of a series of blended LiMn2O4(LMO)-LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) cathode materials with different weight ratios were studied by in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD) combined with mass spectroscopy in the temperature range of 25C-580C under helium atmosphere. Upon heating, the electrochemically delithiated LMO changed into Mn3O4 phase at around 250C. Formation of MnO with rocksalt structure started at 520C. This observation is in contrast to the previous report for chemically delithiate LMO in air, in which a process of ?-MnO2 transforming to ?-MnO2 was observed. Oxygen peak was not observed in all cases, presumably as a result of either consumptionmoreby the carbon or detection limit. CO2 profile correlates well with the phase transition and indirectly suggests the oxygen release of the cathode. Introducing NCM into LMO has two effects: first, it makes the high temperature rock-salt phase formation more complicated with more peaks in CO2 profile due to different MO (M = Ni, Mn, Co) phases; secondly, the onset temperature of CO2 release is lowered, implying lowered oxygen release temperature. Upon heating, XRD patterns indicate the NCM part reacts first, followed by the LMO part. This confirms the better thermal stability of LMO over NCM.less

  3. Thermal stability in the blended lithium manganese oxide Lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide cathode materials: An in situ time-resolved X-Ray diffraction and mass spectroscopy study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hu, Enyuan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bak, Seong Min [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Senanayake, Sanjaya D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yang, Xiao-Qing [Dongguk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Energy and Materials Engineering; Nam, Kyung-Wan [Dongguk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Energy and Materials Engineering] (ORCID:0000000162786369); Zhang, Lulu [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Shao, Minhua

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal stabilities of a series of blended LiMn2O4(LMO)-LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) cathode materials with different weight ratios were studied by in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD) combined with mass spectroscopy in the temperature range of 25C-580C under helium atmosphere. Upon heating, the electrochemically delithiated LMO changed into Mn3O4 phase at around 250C. Formation of MnO with rocksalt structure started at 520C. This observation is in contrast to the previous report for chemically delithiate LMO in air, in which a process of ?-MnO2 transforming to ?-MnO2 was observed. Oxygen peak was not observed in all cases, presumably as a result of either consumption by the carbon or detection limit. CO2 profile correlates well with the phase transition and indirectly suggests the oxygen release of the cathode. Introducing NCM into LMO has two effects: first, it makes the high temperature rock-salt phase formation more complicated with more peaks in CO2 profile due to different MO (M = Ni, Mn, Co) phases; secondly, the onset temperature of CO2 release is lowered, implying lowered oxygen release temperature. Upon heating, XRD patterns indicate the NCM part reacts first, followed by the LMO part. This confirms the better thermal stability of LMO over NCM.

  4. Techniques for Interactive and Interrogative Scientific Volumetric Visualization Robert Haimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peraire, Jaime

    the need to perform extremely expensive searches over large datasets. This greatly speeds up and vector variables defined at each grid node, in addition to the grid coordinates. To make matters even are called by VISUAL3. Also, any required recalculation of surfaces is performed in this section. The final

  5. automated volumetric grid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mentations use orchestration Turner, Ken 9 An automated energy management system in a smart grid context MIT - DSpace Summary: The ongoing transformation of electric grids into...

  6. Improvement and extension of the dielectric method of volumetric analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, W. Kermit

    1939-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hncnm of its operation anC ohsraotsristioo. He oas forosC to oorh largely in ompirioal fashion, aiCOC by very fss theoretical oonsMszations in his selsoticm of sentry settings for his titrations Ths rssonsnos type instmamt whioh he oas using, sinoe... by Coulczsb~o Lent~ Xn s vnounn, the foxoe bccaem ceo crpycsitolp o~ pertiolos of cLmya g 1 an(L q, esgaccaea hy e Wstanos r, is eersssea by the Wuat i on c4 ?Qa g" Ca hate@notion of a material nesSm kate the syaes smmunRag Chs the. Omel4cn of e...

  7. airs volumetric temperature: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of Glasgow has preservation on reconstructed images at the same compression ratio. 1. INTRODUCTION The 3D pyramid compressor Cockshott, W. Paul 257 Optimal Static...

  8. Reflection impulsivity in binge drinking: behavioural and volumetric correlates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banca, Paula; Lange, Iris; Worbe, Yulia; Howell, Nicholas A.; Irvine, Michael; Harrison, Neil A.; Moutoussis, Michael; Voon, Valerie

    2015-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    of healthy peoples behaviour. Further details of the fitting procedure and comparison with the fixed-decision-threshold models can be obtained from Moutoussis et al. (2011). Image data acquisition Imaging data were acquired using a Siemens 3TTimTrio scanner... (Siemens Medical System Systems, Erlangen, Germany) with a 32-channel head coil at the Wolfson Brain Imaging Center at the University of Cambridge. Scans were obtained using a T1-weighted structural image with the following parameters: repetition time...

  9. Gas Deliverability Using the Method of Distributed Volumetric Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Xiaoze

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    conductivity. Parametric study is performed by varying the proppant pack permeability with a linear distribution, varying fracture width with an elliptical distribution and varying fracture height with an elliptical distribution. The details of hydraulic...

  10. Complete Object Modeling using a Volumetric Approach for Mesh Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcon, Marco

    to the number of application both in vision and in graphics that require good reconstructions. In order to get- scription of the energy minimization approach; af- ter that we will show how to formulate the problem of depth map reconstruction in term of energy mi- nimization. 3.1 Energy minimization approach Our approach

  11. Equilibrium and volumetric data and model development of coal fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, R.L. Jr.; Gasem, K.A.M.; Park, J.

    1992-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The long term goal of our efforts is to develop accurate predictive methods for description of equilibrium phase properties for a variety of types of mixtures and operating conditions. The specific objectives of the work specified herein include: (1) development of an experimental facility having the capability to provide data on equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) and liquid densities, and doing so with greater accuracy and speed than our previous facility, (2) measurement of equilibrium phase properties for systematically-selected mixtures-specifically those containing important solute gases (such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethane, carbonyl sulfide, ammonia) in a series of heavy paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic solvents (e.g., n-decane, n-eicosane, n-octacosane, n-hexatriacontane, cyclohexane, Decalin, perhydrophenanthrene, perhydropyrene, benzene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene), (3) testing/development of correlation frameworks for representing the phase behavior of fluids of the type encountered in coal conversion processes, and (4) generalization of parameters in the correlation frameworks to enable accurate predictions for systems of the type studied, permitting predictions to be made for systems and conditions other than those for which experimental data are available.

  12. Volumetric In Situ Electrical Heating: An Unexploited Electrotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bridges, J. E.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    can triple flow rates from heavy-oil wells for an incremental operational cost of only a few dollars per barrel. The electrically enhanced oil recovery (EEOR) single-well stimulation method produces 15 barrels of oil for every barrel of oil consumed...

  13. Gas Deliverability Using the Method of Distributed Volumetric Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Xiaoze

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Productivity index (PI) is an important indicator of a well?s production capacity. For conventional reservoirs, well productivity is usually calculated using the pressure response of the reservoir in its pseudosteady-state ...

  14. airs volumetric cloud: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    consists of the successive operations of the physical processes; buoyancy, diffusion, viscosity, adiabatic expansion, fall of a droplet by gravity, descent flow dragged by the...

  15. Volumetric In Situ Electrical Heating: An Unexploited Electrotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bridges, J. E.

    of the product or combustion of the more volatile products of the process. '17 In the mid-1970s, we at lIT Research Institute (IITRI) became interested in heating warehouse-size blocks of oil shale with electrical energy principally in the shortwave radio...-frequency (RF) band. A thermally efficient method to do this was demonstrated in a series of small-scale field tests in the late 1970s and early 1980s, but most of the activity with respect to oil shale was shelved because of the drop in oil prices...

  16. Analysis of volumetric changes through melting using a dilatometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frankel, Jay I [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A conventional push-rod dilatometer is modified in order to accurately correlate the measured density to the predicted sample temperature of alloys in the phase-change regime. This new configuration makes use of a standard furnace assembly; however, the specimen is now symmetrically encased in a well-instrumented, graphite cylindrical shell. The combination of system geometry and high-conductivity sample holder material promotes the development of a simplified heat transfer model. The solution of this model properly correlates the measured density to that of the actual sample temperature based on using remote, sample-holder temperature measurements. Preliminary results using aluminum A356 provide insight into the proposed configuration.

  17. Volume painting: incorporating volumetric rendering with line integral convolution (LIC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jaewook

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (NPR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 II.2. Volume Rendering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 II.3. Line Integral Convolution (LIC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 III METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 III.1... INTRODUCTION In this thesis, we introduce a new Non-Photorealistic Rendering (NPR) technique, called Volume Painting. An example of Volume Painting is shown in Figure 1. Fig. 1. Volume Painting of the Implicit Geometry. During the last decade, NPR has become...

  18. RESEARCH ARTICLE Modified control grid interpolation for the volumetric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pekkan, Kerem

    flows David H. Frakes Kerem Pekkan Lakshmi P. Dasi Hiroumi D. Kitajima Diane de Zelicourt Hwa optimized for D. H. Frakes (&) Harrington Department of Bioengineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA e-mail: dfrakes@asu.edu D. H. Frakes 4-D Imaging, Inc., Atlanta, GA, USA K. Pekkan Department

  19. Flexible MXene/Carbon Nanotube Composite Paper with High Volumetric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    papers were expected to exhibit an improved rate performance, when employed as supercapacitor electrodes. Adv. Mater. 2014, DOI: 10.1002adma.201404140 www.advmat.de...

  20. GEOMETRIC PROCESSING OF VOLUMETRIC OBJECTS Romildo Silva 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S to the unit sphere S 3 is called Gauss map. A straightforward computation shows that, under the canonical the partial derivatives of f by f x , f y , f z , f xy , etc. 2.2 The Gauss Map The vectors F x , F y and F z parametrisation, the Gauss map is given by N(p) = ( f x ; f y ; f z ; 1)= q 1 + krfk 2 #1; (4) Equation (4) shows

  1. Scanners and drillers: Characterizing expert visual search through volumetric images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Understanding the patterns of search may inform best practices in training future radiologists. It may also one of two dominant search strategies: ``drilling'' and ``scanning.'' Drillers restrict eye movements

  2. Viscoelastic properties of bidisperse homopolymer blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juliani

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    characteristic feature of well entangled polymer systems, and that type A damping is a special case of type C, applicable only in marginally entangled polymer liquids....

  3. Evaluation of polyethylene-modified asphalt blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Consuegra Granger, Fernando

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aggregate and asphalt modified with LDPE (binder contents of 4. 8%%u and 5. 87'). 42 Table 9. Summary of statistical parameters derived from IDT testing on crushed granite mixtures bound with AC-20 + LDPE (4. 8%, and 5. 8/ binder). 46 Table 10. Summary... of creep to rupture data for crushed granite mixtures. 71 Table 11. Summary of the results of IDT repeated load fatigue testing of river gravel mixtures bound with Texaco asphalt: AC- 10, AC-10 + LDPE and AC-20. Table 12. K, ' and n, values of river...

  4. Brake blending strategy for a hybrid vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boberg, Evan S. (Hazel Park, MI)

    2000-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including a transmission for driving a pair of wheels of a vehicle and a heat engine and an electric motor/generator coupled to the transmission. A friction brake system is provided for applying a braking torque to said vehicle. A controller unit generates control signals to the electric motor/generator and the friction brake system for controllably braking the vehicle in response to a drivers brake command. The controller unit determines and amount of regenerative torque available and compares this value to a determined amount of brake torque requested for determining the control signals to the electric motor/generator and the friction brake system.

  5. Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels Implementation Perspectives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2B: End Use and Fuel Certification Bill Woebkenberg, Fuels Technical and Regulatory Affairs Senior Engineer, Mercedes-Benz

  6. Carnegie Mellon Multiperiod Blend Scheduling Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Department of Chemical Engineering Center for Advanced Process Decision-making Carnegie Mellon University operations arises frequently in the petrochemical industry. - Although simple to represent, these models

  7. Phase Behavior in Asymmetric Polymer Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nedoma, Alisyn Jenise

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1065-1067. Sanchez, I. C. ; Lacombe, R. H. Macromolecules117, 481-500. Sanchez, I. C. ; Lacombe, R. H. Macromolecules

  8. EFFECTS OF BIODIESEL BLENDING ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Jing

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Rising fuel costs and energy demands, combined with growing concern over health related and environmental concerns, have led to increased interest in the use of biodiesel. Biodiesel can be utilized as a direct replacement for conventional petroleum...

  9. Tropexx - Blending System - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSS A-Z SiteManhattan ProjectMay 29,

  10. Intermediate Ethanol Blends: Plans and Status

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment of EnergyIndustry15Among States inFederal Waters |Activities)

  11. Performance of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1 TermoelectricaPaving the pathPeople'sTransientFleet in the

  12. Stocks of Motor Gasoline Blending Components

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO) Highlights 2008DeutscheState470,6036,190

  13. South Texas Blending | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form HistoryRistmaSinosteelSolarSolkarTopicsSouthNew Jersey:

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulase C.Tier 2 andIndependenceFuelsas aBenefits

  15. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

    1987-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doherty, Joseph P. (Elkton, MD); Marek, James C. (Augusta, GA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper (II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the orginal organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge and transferred to a virtrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage.

  17. A 4-D Climatology (1979-2009) of the Monthly Tropospheric Aerosol Optical Depth Distribution over the Mediterranean Region from a Comparative Evaluation and Blending of Remote Sensing and Model Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabat, P.; Somot, S.; Mallet, M.; Chiapello, I.; Morcrette, J. -J.; Solmon, F.; Szopa, S.; Dulac, F.; Collins, W.; Ghan, Steven J.; Horowitz, L.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lee, Y. H.; Naik, Vaishali; Nagashima, T.; Shindell, Drew; Skeie, R. B.

    2013-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the 1980s several spaceborne sensors have been used to retrieve the aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the Mediterranean region. In parallel, AOD climatologies coming from different numerical model simulations are now also available, permitting to distinguish the contribution of several aerosol types to the total AOD. In this work, we perform a comparative analysis of this unique multiyear database in terms of total AOD and of its apportionment by the five main aerosol types (soil dust, seasalt, sulfate, black and organic carbon). We use 9 different satellite-derived monthly AOD products: NOAA/AVHRR, SeaWiFS (2 products), TERRA/MISR, TERRA/MODIS, AQUA/MODIS, ENVISAT/MERIS, PARASOL/POLDER and MSG/SEVIRI, as well as 3 more historical datasets: NIMBUS7/CZCS, TOMS (onboard NIMBUS7 and Earth- Probe) and METEOSAT/MVIRI. Monthly model datasets include the aerosol climatology from Tegen et al. (1997), the climate-chemistry models LMDz-OR-INCA and RegCM-4, the multi-model mean coming from the ACCMIP exercise, and the reanalyses GEMS and MACC. Ground-based Level- 2 AERONET AOD observations from 47 stations around the basin are used here to evaluate the model and satellite data. The sensor MODIS (on AQUA and TERRA) has the best average AOD scores over this region, showing a relevant spatiotemporal variability and highlighting high dust loads over Northern Africa and the sea (spring and summer), and sulfate aerosols over continental Europe (summer). The comparison also shows limitations of certain datasets (especially MERIS and SeaWiFS standard products). Models reproduce the main patterns of the AOD variability over the basin. The MACC reanalysis is the closest to AERONET data, but appears to underestimate dust over Northern Africa, where RegCM-4 is found closer to MODIS thanks to its interactive scheme for dust emissions. The vertical dimension is also investigated using the CALIOP instrument. This study confirms differences of vertical distribution between dust aerosols showing a large vertical spread, and other continental and marine aerosols which are confined in the boundary layer. From this compilation, we propose a 4-D blended product from model and satellite data, consisting in monthly time series of 3-D aerosol distribution at a 50 km horizontal resolution over the Euro-Mediterranean marine and continental region for the 20032009 period. The product is based on the total AOD from AQUA/MODIS, apportioned into sulfates, black and organic carbon from the MACC reanalysis, and into dust and sea-salt aerosols from RegCM-4 simulations, which are distributed vertically based on CALIOP climatology.We extend the 20032009 reconstruction to the past up to 1979 using the 20032009 average and applying the decreasing trend in sulfate aerosols from LMDz-OR-INCA, whose AOD trends over Europe and the Mediterranean are median among the ACCMIP models. Finally optical properties of the different aerosol types in this region are proposed from Mie calculations so that this reconstruction can be included in regional climate models for aerosol radiative forcing and aerosolclimate studies.

  18. Dispensing Equipment Testing with Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline Test Fluid: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyce, K.; Chapin, J. T.

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Nonpetroleum-Based Fuel Task addresses the hurdles to commercialization of biomass-derived fuels and fuel blends. One such hurdle is the unknown compatibility of new fuels with current infrastructure, such as the equipment used at service stations to dispense fuel into automobiles. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technology Program and the Biomass Program have engaged in a joint project to evaluate the potential for blending ethanol into gasoline at levels higher than nominal 10 volume percent. This project was established to help DOE and NREL better understand any potentially adverse impacts caused by a lack of knowledge about the compatibility of the dispensing equipment with ethanol blends higher than what the equipment was designed to dispense. This report provides data about the impact of introducing a gasoline with a higher volumetric ethanol content into service station dispensing equipment from a safety and a performance perspective.

  19. Fusion Engineering and Design 38 (1998) 219255 Study of a spherical tokamak based volumetric neutron source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tillack, Mark

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ), developmental strategies for the demonstration fusion power plant (DEMO) are being discussed. A relatively the necessary technology for reactor components of future fusion power plants [1]. This VNS would provide, over components, materials, and their combinations for the Pilot Plants, DEMO, and future commercial power plants

  20. Simulation of the SAVI, Strut Adjusted Volumetric Implant, Brachytherapy Mackenzie Endres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltisberger, Jay H.

    for breast cancer treatments. The goal of this project was to create a model of the geometry of the device accurate dose distributions of normalized breast cancer treatments. The mcnp5 results will be useful patients. Background: There are three generations of breast cancer brachytherapy treatments for breast

  1. Real-Time Volumetric Shadows using 1D Min-Max Mipmaps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jiawen

    Light scattering in a participating medium is responsible for several important effects we see in the natural world. In the presence of occluders, computing single scattering requires integrating the illumination scattered ...

  2. VNS: A volumetric neutron source for fusion nuclear technology testing and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdou, M.A.; Peng, Y.K.; Ying, A.Y. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent progress in fusion plasma research and the initiation of the Engineering Design Activity for ITER provide incentives to seriously explore technically sound and logically consistent pathways toward development of fusion as a practical and attractive energy source. A critical goal is the successful construction and operation of a fusion power demonstration plant (DEMO). Major world program strategies call for DEMO operation by the year 2025. Such a date is important in order for fusion to play a significant role in the energy supply market in the second half of the twenty-first century. Without such a DEMO goal, it will be very hard to justify major financial commitments in the near term for major projects such as ITER. The major question is whether a DEMO goal by the year 2025 is attainable from a technical standpoint. This has been the central question being addressed in a study, called VENUS. Results to date show that a DEMO by the year 2025 can be realized if three major facilities begin operation in parallel by the year 2005. These facilities are: (1) ITER, (2) VNS, and (3) IFMIF. Results show that VNS is a necessary element toward DEMO in a strategy consistent with present world program plans. The key requirements to test and develop fusion nuclear components (e.g. blanket) are 1 MW/m{sup 2} neutron wall load, >10 m{sup 2} of test area at the first wall, steady state or long burn plasma operation, fluence of {approx}6MWy/m{sup 2} at the first wall in {approx}10-12 year period, and duty cycle x availability factor of {approx}0.3. Results of the study show that an attractive design envelope for VNS that satisfies the nuclear testing and development requirements exists. Within this design envelope, the most attractive design points for VNS appear to be driven plasma (Q{approx}1) in tokamak configuration with normal toroidal-field copper coils, major radius 1.5-2.0m, fusion power {approx}100MW, and neutron wall load {approx}1.5MW/m{sup 2}.

  3. Requirements and Design Envelope for Volumetric Neutron Source Fusion Facilities for Fusion Nuclear Technology Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdou, M [University of California, Los Angeles] [University of California, Los Angeles; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL] [ORNL

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper shows that timely development of fusion nuclear technology (FNT) components, e.g. blanket, for DEMO requires the construction and operation of a fusion facility parallel to ITER. This facility, called VNS, will be dedicated to testing, developing and qualifying FNT components and material combinations. Without VNS, i.e. with ITER alone, the confidence level in achieving DEMO operating goals has been quantified and is unacceptably low (< 1 %). An attractive design envelope for VNS exists. Tokamak VNS designs with driven plasma (Q ~ 1-3), steady state plasma operation and normal copper toroidal field coils lead to small sized devices with moderate cost.

  4. A temperature-controlled device for volumetric measurements of Helium adsorption in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cross, Benjamin; Wolf, Pierre-Etienne

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a set-up for studying adsorption of helium in silica aerogels, where the adsorbed amount is easily and precisely controlled by varying the temperature of a gas reservoir between 80 K and 180 K. We present validation experiments and a first application to aerogels. This device is well adapted to study hysteresis, relaxation, and metastable states in the adsorption and desorption of fluids in porous media.

  5. Thermophoretic transport of particles that act as volumetric heat sources in natural convection flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conklin, J.C.; Krane, R.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The natural convection boundary layer with suspended heat generating aerosol particles adjacent to a cooled, isothermal, vertical wall was investigated for the following circumstances: laminar and turbulent flow, large temperature differences between the wall and the fluid, stable thermal stratification far from the wall, and fluid participation in thermal radiation heat transfer. The deposition of aerosol particles by thermophoresis was investigated. A scaling analysis showed the negligible effect inside the boundary layer of the particulate heat source strengths of practical interest. Only the temperature of the fluid far from the wall is affected appreciably by the heat sources. The scaled boundary layer differential equations are transformed to a nonsimilarity form for numerical solution using two different methods. An expression for the ratio of mass transfer to heat transfer coefficients was developed to simplify the computation of thermophoretic particle deposition at the wall for the case of constant temperature conditions far from the wall. Variable thermophysical property effect for the three gases of steam, air, and hydrogen were investigated. A dimensionless ratio of transfer coefficients for large temperature differences and turbulent flow was computed as a product of the laminar constant property results and a ratio of the known thermophysical properties at the wall and far from the wall. An approximation of the laminar constant property results for all three gases is developed in terms of the known wall and fluid temperatures, Prandtl number, and a thermophoretic constant. This allows particle deposition to be computed from a known heat transfer coefficient without explicitly solving the particle conservation equation. 120 refs., 29 figs., 21 tabs.

  6. A temperature-controlled device for volumetric measurements of Helium adsorption in porous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    a set-up for studying adsorption of helium in silica aerogels, where the adsorbed amount is easily- dation experiments and a first application to aerogels. This device is well adapted to study hysteresis, such as grafoil, carbon nanotubes, or silica glasses. The case of silica aerogels has attracted attention

  7. O2-06-05 AVOXEL-BASED MORPHOMETRY STUDY OF VOLUMETRIC MRI IN FAMILIAL ALZHEIMER'S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Paul

    , Robert Koeppe3, Clifford Jack4, Marc Raichle2, Daniel Marcus2, John Ringman5, Paul Thompson5, Andrew (TIV), gender, acquisition site, and APOE genotype. An interaction term between group and the expected

  8. A temperature-controlled device for volumetric measurements of Helium adsorption in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Cross; Laurent Puech; Pierre-Etienne Wolf

    2008-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a set-up for studying adsorption of helium in silica aerogels, where the adsorbed amount is easily and precisely controlled by varying the temperature of a gas reservoir between 80 K and 180 K. We present validation experiments and a first application to aerogels. This device is well adapted to study hysteresis, relaxation, and metastable states in the adsorption and desorption of fluids in porous media.

  9. A study of electro-osmosis as a means of volumetric control of clays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Ronald

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - trolling the ssvaaent of water in very plastic slay~ Xf the mi, stare content san be eontrollo&, then velunstrie ohanges sey be a&pasta& ?s desire&i Ths nb)sativa of this Shady 1s to &eton@as the feas1bil1ty of the elaotr~tie process aa a ssans... of aentroiling 'the nsvesent ef v@14 water either into er eat of ~ very plastic slay so as to thereby aeaoa- pliah desire& volans ahangos ot the naos involve& II THE PRINCIPLES GZ ElglZR(&4HEOTIG FLCH ral Priuoi les, Ia order to more fully explain tho...

  10. Volumetric Mammographic Density: Heritability and Association With Breast Cancer Susceptibility Loci

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brand, Judith S.; Humphreys, Keith; Thompson, Deborah J.; Li, Jingmei; Eriksson, Mikael; Czene, Kamila

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    women who were genotyped using the custom Illumina iSelect genotyping array (iCOGS, details described below). The same selection criteria were applied to both samples. We included all women with raw digital mammograms who were in the age range... was estimated by fitting variance-component models as implemented in the Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines package (SOLAR, version 7.2.5.) (33,34). This approach is based on maximum likelihood estimation of a linear mixed-effects model...

  11. Copper nanocrystal modified activated carbon for supercapacitors with enhanced volumetric energy and power density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    capacitors (EDLCs) have evoked wide interest in recent years due to their ability to supply high power of EDLCs is based on the quick formation of a double layer of surface charges and counter materials for EDLCs should have large surface area to accumulate a large amount of charges, and a size

  12. Volumetric Excise Tax Credit for Alternative Fuels (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On August 10, 2005, President Bush signed into law the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, and Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU)]. The act includes authorization for a multitude of transportation infrastructure projects, establishes highway safety provisions, provides for research and development, and includes a large number of miscellaneous provisions related to transportation, most of which are not included in Annual Energy Outlook 2006 because their energy impacts are vague or undefined.

  13. Evaluation of Acid Fracturing Using the Method of Distributed Volumetric Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jaehun

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    acid volume versus cumulative production with optimum fracture half length............................................................................................40 4.1 For Well SA-2, IPR and VLP curves shows production rates... at the beginning of production....................................................................................47 4.2 For Well SA-2, IPR & VLP curves shows production rates at the end of production history; the absolute open flow (AOF) of IPR is much less...

  14. Measurements of photon absorbed fractions and dose profiles using a gelatin-based volumetric dosimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Scottie Wayne

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    &M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: W ley E. Bolch (Chair of Committee) Ge ge E. Davis ember) Milton E. McLain (Member) John . Poston r. (Member) Jo...

  15. Integration and quantification of uncertainty of volumetric and material balance analyses using a Bayesian framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogele, Chile

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ......................................... 13 Example 1: Gas-cap Oil Reservoir Reported by Dake ................... 13 Case 1: Large Uncertainty in Prior and Small Uncertainty in Pressure Data .............................................................................. 13 Case 2... OHIP and quantify uncertainty. Test the framework using data for gas-cap oil reservoirs reported in the literature. 2. Investigate the effect of correlation between parameters of the prior distribution on the combined OHIP estimate. General...

  16. Variable Speed Drive Volumetric Tracking (VSDVT) for Airflow Control in Variable Air Volume (VAV) Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, M.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    this method by integrating it with the static pressure reset techniques to prevent malfunctioning under several typical building operating problems. Unfortunately, this method can not be used in buildings which have pneumatic terminal box controllers...

  17. One-dimensional transient analysis of volumetric heating for laser drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Chong; Salama, Islam A.; Quick, Nathaniel R.; Kar, Aravinda [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, College of Optics and Photonics, Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers (CREOL), University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816-2700 (United States); Intel Corporation-Assembly and Technology Development, 5000 W. Chandler Boulevard, CH5-159, Chandler, Arizona 85226-3699 (United States); AppliCote Associates, LLC, 1445 Dolgner Place, Suite 23, Sanford, Florida 32771 (United States); College of Optics and Photonics, Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers (CREOL), University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816-2700 (United States)

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Generally laser energy is considered to interact only with the substrate surface, as in metals, where the laser beam does not propagate into the substrate beyond a very small absorption depth. There are, however, many instances, particularly for ceramics and polymers, where the laser beam can penetrate into the substrate to substantial depths depending on the laser wavelength and laser-material interaction characteristics. Specifically there are polymeric dielectrics used as multilayer electronic substrates in which a laser beam of wavelength 9.3 {mu}m can penetrate into the substrate. The laser energy interacts at the substrate surface as well as inside the substrate. This particular aspect of laser-material interactions is important in laser drilling of blind microvias in polymeric multilayer electronic substrates. A one-dimensional transient heat conduction model including vaporization parameters is constructed to analyze this behavior. The absorption coefficient of the dielectric is also considered in this model and the problem is solved analytically. The microvia drilling speed, temperature distribution in the dielectric, and the thickness of the residue along the microvia walls and at the bottom of the microvia are studied for different laser irradiation conditions. An overheated metastable state of material is found to exist inside the workpiece. The overheating parameters are calculated for various laser drilling parameters and are used to predict the onset of thermal damage and to minimize the residue.

  18. A technique for determining volumetric strain of soils under rapid triaxial loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahoney, Joe Paul

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ra P r'r. ;1 a I" ri I. '~ 0 &1 Oai. a Reductl Gn 3 10 1/ 24 25 TEST R!S'. ll I'S 4&N&O EiN!4LYSIS DLS!, 'IS!r!O'I Ol- E&'b!r? rr&rJ I, ", rill I I 5 I Ri il!. i. : Eoir&1 pnle ni t Tes 5 '. es ul ' s 'r'II '". ';: r'RY . 4!JQ !. 'Q... ii- 2 Caiib'ration Curve for Upper Load Region of Gilmore Loader 51 Figure A-3 Example Calibration Curve for Top Physi tech 0ptical Tracker Page 53 Calibration gevice for i at'!al Ins! ru!, ; nted 3ands 54 Calibration Curve for Lateral Inst' u...

  19. Method and application of horizontal slice volumetrics to waterflood management and horizontal drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshpande, A.; Flemings, P.B. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Huang, J. [Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer mapping program was used to make horizontal slices of pore volume. The goal was to create maps that showed the distribution of pore volume vertically and laterally throughout the reservoir. That information was used for studying waterflood feasibility, monitoring an existing waterflood, and planning a horizontal well. This work was done at the United States Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills, CA. The reservoirs are the Miocene aged Northwest Stevens A sands and T & N sands. These sands are a series of stacked deep water turbidites draped across the western nose of a plunging anticline. To determine the reservoir sensitivity to the approach used to calculate horizontal slice volume, two methods were tested. The first involves creation of four isochores, bounded above by the sand top or base and below by the slice top or base, whose volumes are combined to give the slice volume. The second involves creation of a grid of the slice itself from which slice volume is calculated.

  20. Method and application of horizontal slice volumetrics to waterflood management and horizontal drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshpande, A.; Flemings, P.B. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)); Huang, J. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer mapping program was used to make horizontal slices of pore volume. The goal was to create maps that showed the distribution of pore volume vertically and laterally throughout the reservoir. That information was used for studying waterflood feasibility, monitoring an existing waterflood, and planning a horizontal well. This work was done at the United States Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills, CA. The reservoirs are the Miocene aged Northwest Stevens A sands and T N sands. These sands are a series of stacked deep water turbidites draped across the western nose of a plunging anticline. To determine the reservoir sensitivity to the approach used to calculate horizontal slice volume, two methods were tested. The first involves creation of four isochores, bounded above by the sand top or base and below by the slice top or base, whose volumes are combined to give the slice volume. The second involves creation of a grid of the slice itself from which slice volume is calculated.

  1. Volumetric quantification of lung nodules in CT with iterative reconstruction (ASiR and MBIR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Baiyu [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)] [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Barnhart, Huiman [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Richard, Samuel [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)] [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Robins, Marthony [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)] [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Colsher, James [Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Samei, Ehsan [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States) [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Physics, Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Volume quantifications of lung nodules with multidetector computed tomography (CT) images provide useful information for monitoring nodule developments. The accuracy and precision of the volume quantification, however, can be impacted by imaging and reconstruction parameters. This study aimed to investigate the impact of iterative reconstruction algorithms on the accuracy and precision of volume quantification with dose and slice thickness as additional variables.Methods: Repeated CT images were acquired from an anthropomorphic chest phantom with synthetic nodules (9.5 and 4.8 mm) at six dose levels, and reconstructed with three reconstruction algorithms [filtered backprojection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR), and model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR)] into three slice thicknesses. The nodule volumes were measured with two clinical software (A: Lung VCAR, B: iNtuition), and analyzed for accuracy and precision.Results: Precision was found to be generally comparable between FBP and iterative reconstruction with no statistically significant difference noted for different dose levels, slice thickness, and segmentation software. Accuracy was found to be more variable. For large nodules, the accuracy was significantly different between ASiR and FBP for all slice thicknesses with both software, and significantly different between MBIR and FBP for 0.625 mm slice thickness with Software A and for all slice thicknesses with Software B. For small nodules, the accuracy was more similar between FBP and iterative reconstruction, with the exception of ASIR vs FBP at 1.25 mm with Software A and MBIR vs FBP at 0.625 mm with Software A.Conclusions: The systematic difference between the accuracy of FBP and iterative reconstructions highlights the importance of extending current segmentation software to accommodate the image characteristics of iterative reconstructions. In addition, a calibration process may help reduce the dependency of accuracy on reconstruction algorithms, such that volumes quantified from scans of different reconstruction algorithms can be compared. The little difference found between the precision of FBP and iterative reconstructions could be a result of both iterative reconstruction's diminished noise reduction at the edge of the nodules as well as the loss of resolution at high noise levels with iterative reconstruction. The findings do not rule out potential advantage of IR that might be evident in a study that uses a larger number of nodules or repeated scans.

  2. Calculation of volumetric behavior of hydrocarbon fluids when subjected to laboratory liberation processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Stephen Gary

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the truth of either of the above conditions does not necessarily imply single phase. Organick presented a method by whioh the oorreot convergence pressure, P? is automatioally selecte4 in the course of 4etermining the split between the phases of a.... This initializes a corresponding value of P/P&. 2 ~ Compute appropriate K's for all oomponents at 1 and P using NH'SA K-value constants (bi~) ~ Zi Whenever I ~(1, Exit to undersaturate4 vapor~ otherwise proceed to step 4i 4. Whenever EZ K (I, Exit...

  3. 1 Long-term volumetric eruption rates and magma budgets 2 Scott M. White

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    were compiled for selected volcanic centers where long-term (>104 years) data 15 were available. More be a consequence of the fundamental 30 parameters governing rates of melt generation (e.g., subsolidus isentropic, geothermal 43 resources and the evolution and heat budget of the 44 crust, surprisingly little is known

  4. Nondestructive volumetric 3-D chemical mapping of nickel-sulfur compounds at the nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris W. M.; Chu Y.; Nelson, G.J.; Kiss, A.M.; Izzo Jr, J.R.; Liu, Y.; Liu, M.; Wang, S.; Chiu W.K.S.

    2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Nano-structures of nickel (Ni) and nickel subsulfide (Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}) materials were studied and mapped in 3D with high-resolution x-ray nanotomography combined with full field XANES spectroscopy. This method for characterizing these phases in complex microstructures is an important new analytical imaging technique, applicable to a wide range of nanoscale and mesoscale electrochemical systems.

  5. Estimation of iron-55 volumetric contamination via surrogates produced during Z-machine operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores-McLaughlin, John

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Detectable Activity Fe Iron Cr Chromium Co Cobalt vii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT............................................................................................................... iii............................................................................................................................. 34 viii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Cr-50 (n, ?) Cr-51 and Fe-54 (n, ?) Fe-55 probability vs. incident neutron...

  6. Improved estimation of mineral and fluid volumetric concentrations in thinly bedded carbonate formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdn, Carlos

    solid composition, include thin beds, and are subject to mud-filtrate invasion. They combine nuclear solid composition, thin beds, and mud-filtrate invasion. Likewise, neutron-capture spectroscopy and GR by Heidari et al. (2012) were suc- cessfully tested on challenging synthetic data sets, and are suitable

  7. Building and Environment 44 (2009) 216226 Effect of volumetric heat sources on hysteresis phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flynn, Morris R.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    phenomena in natural and mixed-mode ventilation M.R. Flynna,1 , C.P. Caulfieldb, a Department of Mechanical this methodology may be extended to the converse problem of winter-time heating wherein hot, buoyant air is purposefully supplied to the interior space using a coupled ventilation scheme. A ``blocked'' flow regime

  8. Dependence of displacementlength scaling relations for fractures and deformation bands on the volumetric changes across them

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fossen, Haakon

    , Donald M. Reeves f a Geomechanics-Rock Fracture Group, Department of Geological Sciences and Engineeringosciences Montpellier, 34000 Montpellier, France c Centre for Integrated Petroleum Research, University of Bergen, Alle

  9. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a 42-month research program that focused on the understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work was conducted on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A rate equation that describes the reaction between chromium acetate and polymer molecules was regressed from experimental data. A mathematical model that describes the crosslinking reaction between two polymer molecules as a function of time was derived. The model was based on probability concepts and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. Average molecular weights of pre-gel aggregates were measured as a function of time and were comparable to model simulations. Experimental methods to determine molecular weight distributions of pre-gel aggregates were unsuccessful. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results and data from literature. Gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted in sandpacks to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on DPR. All gels studied reduced the permeability to water by a greater factor than the factor by which the oil permeability was reduced. Greater DPR was observed as the concentrations of polymer and chromium were increased. A conceptual model of the mechanisms responsible for DPR is presented. Primary features of the model are (1) the development of flow channels through the gel by dehydration and displacement of the gel and by re-connection of pre-treatment, residual oil volume and (2) high flow resistance in the channels during water flow is caused by significant saturations of oil remaining in the channels. A similar study of DPR was conducted in Berea sandstone cores. Both oil and water permeabilities were reduced by much smaller factors in Berea sandstone cores than in similar treatments in sandpacks. Poor maturation of the gelant in the Berea rock was thought to be caused by fluid-rock interactions that interfered with the gelation process.

  10. A Reexamination of USGS Volumetric "Heat in Place" Method | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 WindtheEnergy InformationOf TheLtdJalisco, Mexico |

  11. Appropriate Use of USGS Volumetric "Heat in Place" Method and Monte

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcatAntrim County,Delhi (NCT), India Sector:Virginia:

  12. CELLULOSE ESTER / POLYOLEFIN BINARY BLENDS : RHEOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY AND IMPACT PROPERTIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    by a chemical modification to bring new properties is one of the paths to produce a bioplastic. Progressively

  13. Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method Diesel Combustion Control with Closed-Loop Control of the Injection...

  14. NREL UL Fuel Dispensing Infrastructure Intermediate Blends Performance Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, K.; Clark, W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation provides an overview of NREL's project to determine compatibility and safe performance of installed fuel dispensing infrastructure with E15.

  15. Settling of rubber particles in asphalt-rubber blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wattanachai, Piyachat

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -rubber weights and the undissolved rubber weights of sample 10/27/97 . . . 38 II-8 Schematic of the Superpave~ test equipment. . . . . . . 40 11-9 The Superpave? performance grade specification. . . . . Ill-l The GPC chromatogram of neat Exxon AC-10... Corhett Results Asphaltenes Saturates Naphthene Aromatics Polar Aromatics Exxon AC-10 10 1% 11 6% 46. 2% 30. 7% Resin D 3. 5% 17. 8% 54. 8% 21. 6% Vacuum Tower Bottom 17. 3% 20. 2% 45. 2% 18 4o/(, SHRP ABM-1' 7. 1% 9, 0% 29 6% 52...

  16. Host-Guest Self-assembly in Block Copolymer Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Woon Ik

    Ultrafine, uniform nanostructures with excellent functionalities can be formed by self-assembly of block copolymer (BCP) thin films. However, extension of their geometric variability is not straightforward due to their ...

  17. anhydride ternary blend: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    may be used in analysis of the closed (total reflux) multivessel batch distillation column. An indirect level control strategy is implemented that eliminates Skogestad, Sigurd...

  18. Using prismatic microstructured films for image blending in OLEDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haenichen, Lukas (Anspach, DE); Pschenitzka, Florian (San Francisco, CA)

    2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a microstructured film disposed on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The microstructured film contains features which diffuse light emitted by said OLED device and increase the luminance of the device.

  19. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Infrastructure Pilot." General Motors News, May 11, 2010. Retrieved May 12, 2011: http:media.gm.commediausengmnews.detail.htmlcontentPagesnewsusen2010May051...

  20. A New Generation of Building Insulation by Foaming Polymer Blend...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    insulation technologies available on the market. Instead of hydroflurocarbon, it uses carbon dioxide as the blowing agent. This technology represents a highly valuable market...

  1. Achieving High Chilled Water Delta T Without Blending Station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z.; Wang, G.; Xu, K.; Yu, Y.; Liu, M.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . FACILITIES INFORMATION Figure 1 depicts a layout of three different buildings in Omaha. The miles in Figure 1 demonstrate the roughly pipeline distance between the central plant and the building. One common thing of the three buildings is that they have...

  2. Cracking blends of gas oil and residual oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, G.D.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a catalytic cracking process unit wherein a gas oil feed is cracked in a cracking zone at an elevated temperature in the presence of a cracking catalyst, the cracking catalyst is regenerated in a regeneration zone by burning coke of the catalyst, and catalyst is circulated between the cracking zone and the regeneration zone. The improvement is described for obtaining a naphtha product of improved octane number comprising introducing sufficient of a nickel and vanadium metals-containing heavy feedstock with the gas oil feed introduced into the cracking zone to deposit nickel and vanadium metals on the catalyst and raise the nickel and metals-content of the catalyst to a level ranging from about 1500 to about 6000 parts per million of the metals expressed as equivalent nickel, based on the weight of the catalyst, and maintaining the nickel and vanadium metals level on the catalyst by withdrawing high nickel and vanadium metals containing catalyst and adding low nickel and vanadium metals-containing catalyst to the regeneration zone.

  3. WENO and Blended BDF Discretizations for Option Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oosterlee, Cornelis W. "Kees"

    values does not only depend on the stock price, but also on other functions of the price development

  4. aluminate cement blended: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    early stage hydration of different classes of oilwell cement Bentz, Dale P. 185 NISTIR 7232 CEMHYD3D: A Three-Dimensional Cement Hydration Engineering Websites Summary: NISTIR...

  5. alternatives blending private: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Fuels? Alternative Fuels, the Smart Choice: Alternative fuels - biodiesel, electricity, ethanol (E85), natural gas 168 Low cost private education in India...

  6. Automated titration method for use on blended asphalts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pauli, Adam T. (Cheyenne, WY); Robertson, Raymond E. (Laramie, WY); Branthaver, Jan F. (Chatham, IL); Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY)

    2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for determining parameters and compatibility of a substance such as an asphalt or other petroleum substance uses titration to highly accurately determine one or more flocculation occurrences and is especially applicable to the determination or use of Heithaus parameters and optimal mixing of various asphalt stocks. In a preferred embodiment, automated titration in an oxygen gas exclusive system and further using spectrophotometric analysis (2-8) of solution turbidity is presented. A reversible titration technique enabling in-situ titration measurement of various solution concentrations is also presented.

  7. Legacy Vehicle Fuel System Testing with Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, G. W.; Hoff, C. J.; Borton, Z.; Ratcliff, M. A.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of E10 and E17 on legacy fuel system components from three common mid-1990s vintage vehicle models (Ford, GM, and Toyota) were studied. The fuel systems comprised a fuel sending unit with pump, a fuel rail and integrated pressure regulator, and the fuel injectors. The fuel system components were characterized and then installed and tested in sample aging test rigs to simulate the exposure and operation of the fuel system components in an operating vehicle. The fuel injectors were cycled with varying pulse widths during pump operation. Operational performance, such as fuel flow and pressure, was monitored during the aging tests. Both of the Toyota fuel pumps demonstrated some degradation in performance during testing. Six injectors were tested in each aging rig. The Ford and GM injectors showed little change over the aging tests. Overall, based on the results of both the fuel pump testing and the fuel injector testing, no major failures were observed that could be attributed to E17 exposure. The unknown fuel component histories add a large uncertainty to the aging tests. Acquiring fuel system components from operational legacy vehicles would reduce the uncertainty.

  8. Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Alleman, T. L.; Waynick, J. A.; Westbrook, S. R.; Porter, S.

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is an interim report for a study of biodiesel oxidative stability. It describes characterization and accelerated stability test results for 19 B100 samples and six diesel fuels.

  9. On-Road Use of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel Clark; Mridul Gautam; Donald Lyons; Chris Atkinson; Wenwei Xie; Paul Norton; Keith Vertin; Stephen Goguen; James Eberhardt

    1999-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Alternative compression ignition engine fuels are of interest both to reduce emissions and to reduce U.S. petroleum fuel demand. A Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid fuel was compared with California No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from over the road Class 8 tractors with Caterpillar 3176 engines, using a chassis dynamometer and full scale dilution tunnel. The 5-Mile route was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 42,000 lb. Levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) were reduced by an average of 12% and particulate matter (PM) by 25% for the Fischer-Tropsch fuel over the California diesel fuel. Another distillate fuel produced catalytically from Fischer-Tropsch products originally derived from natural gas by Mossgas was also compared with 49-state No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from Detroit Diesel 6V-92 powered transit buses, three of them equipped with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, and three without. The CBD cycle was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 33,050 lb. For those buses with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, NO x was reduced by 8% and PM was reduced by 31% on average, while for those buses without, NO x was reduced by 5% and PM was reduced by 20% on average. It is concluded that advanced compression ignition fuels from non-petroleum sources can offer environmental advantages in typical line haul and city transit applications.

  10. EffectsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 Federal Register / Vol.6: RecordJune-YearEffect ofof Energy

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group current C3EDepartmentDepartment(GATE) | Department of Energy

  12. Corrosion protection mechanism of polyaniline blended organic coating on steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathiyanarayanan, S.; Jeyaram, R.; Muthukrishnan, S.; Venkatachari, G. [Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikkudi (India)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Epoxy-coal tar coatings are widely used to protect steel structures exposed to marine atmosphere due to their good barrier property. However, the presence of micropores and microcracks formed during the coating formation leads to failure of the coating due to permeation of corrosive ions. In recent years, it has been established that the coatings containing polyaniline (PANI) is able to protect pinholes and defects due to its passivating ability. Hence, a study has been made on the effect of polyaniline content (1 and 3%) in epoxy-coal tar coating on the corrosion protection of steel in 3% NaCl solution by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies. Both phosphate- and chloride-doped polyanilines were prepared by a chemical oxidative polymerization method. From EIS studies, it has been found that the resistance value of the coatings containing 1 and 3% phosphate-doped polyaniline and 3% chloride-doped polyaniline pigmented coatings are similar to 10{sup 9} {Omega} cm{sup 2} even after 90 days exposure to NaCl solution, which are two orders high in comparison to that of conventional coal tar epoxy coatings. Besides, the conducting state of polyaniline has been found to be decreased after exposure to NaCl solution due to redox property of PANI. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have shown that polyaniline forms a complex layer with iron beneath the coating along with iron oxide.

  13. APSEC Keynote, Dec 2012, BG Ryder Blended Program Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryder, Barbara G.

    , without running the program § Allows checking of specific program properties § Dynamic program analysis, property validation, program understanding, test case generation... § Dynamic Analysis § Input: trace/ components § E.g., personal financial managers, e-commerce applications, information records managers

  14. Fact Sheet: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan| Department of.pdf6-OPAMDepartment6 FY Fact Sheet: DOE/NationalofEffects

  15. Performance of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEWResponse(Expired) |CERCLACompensation »PercussiveGuidePerformance

  16. Mid-Level Ethanol Blends | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagement of the National 93-4 AcquisitionO 231.1B ChgMicrosoft

  17. Conductive Polymer/Fullerene Blend Thin Films with Honeycomb Framework -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would like submitCollector/Receiver Characterization We useEnergy Innovation

  18. Sandia Energy - Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic Liquids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand RequirementsCoatings Initiated at PNNL's Sequim Bay Coatings Initiated atEffective

  19. Performance of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1 TermoelectricaPaving the pathPeople'sTransientFleet in theof

  20. Intermediate Ethanol Blends: Plans and Status | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of BlytheDepartmentEnergyDemonstrationInteragency TaskMD,Department

  1. DPF Performance with Biodiesel Blends | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197 This work was performed under theDOE/EA-1994Performance

  2. Detailed HCCI Exhaust Speciation - ORNL Reference Fuel Blends | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H I E L DBypassDesulfurizationof Energy

  3. Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric Vehicle and03/02Report |to 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in

  4. Effect of Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisory Board Contributionsreduction systemParticulate Filters |Biodiesel

  5. EffectsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisory Board ContributionsreductionRefineriesDepartment of

  6. Report on intermediate ethanol blends research published | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Technical s o Freiberge s 3 % A PB 2 7 7 2 x> -anManagementFinal

  7. Microsoft Word - Int_blends_Rpt1_Updated.doc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311,Official File UnitedTo UnitedDocument -the

  8. Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandardGeneration |10 DOEGoalsEvaluation Report:fromApplications

  9. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy Chinaof EnergyImpactOn July 2, 2014 in theGroup Report |ofM AofEnergyDepartment

  10. Improving Ethanol-Gasoline Blends by Addition of Higher Alcohols |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),EnergyImprovement of the Lost FoamCooling and

  11. Quality Assessment of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012 Qualified Energy Conservation Bond (QECB)Quality Assessment

  12. Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel Blends | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012 Qualified Energy Conservation BondEnergyQuality

  13. Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012 Qualified Energy Conservation

  14. Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012 Qualified Energy ConservationDepartment of Energy 0 DOE

  15. Quality, Stability, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel Blends |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012 Qualified Energy ConservationDepartment of Energy 0

  16. The Effects of Electricity Tariff Structure on Distributed Generation Adoption in New York State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    59 Microturbinefor volumetric electricity rate variation and microturbinefor volumetric electricity rate variation and microturbine

  17. Study of instabilities and quasi-two-dimensional turbulence in volumetrically heated magnetohydrodynamic flows in a vertical rectangular duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    magnetohydrodynamic flows in a vertical rectangular duct N. Vetcha, S. Smolentsev, M. Abdou, and R. Moreau Citation in a vertical rectangular duct N. Vetcha,1 S. Smolentsev,1,a) M. Abdou,1 and R. Moreau2 1 Mechanical

  18. Volumetric Curvature and Coherency Assisted Fault Mapping and Fracture Prediction of Carbonate Reservoir Huabei Field, North China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Allen

    2014-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    in carbonates, and are thus the focus of my investigation. With a 3D dataset and well data from the Huabei Field in North China, a carbonate reservoir is identified and interpreted through the field. We use the reservoir top depth to narrow our window...

  19. A study of the determination of the end-point in volumetric analysis by means of the dielectric constant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mosesman, Max Abe

    1938-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aotho4, sa4 ihs rosea- aaso asthog . The aeeuraep ef ths aothe4s vsrp, ss4 their syyl1eat1oa l 1s oftea lla1te4 by tho yhpslosl stats of ths substease whose 41eloo- trlo eeastNlt 1s to bo 4stowKLaego The 4usstiea of tho 41elootrle eoastaais ef...) tho ostsbllshasat of ohEclesl theer1oo for ths sacaeleus behavior of seas ~ olatloas) (S) the 4otoraiaat1oa of tho rslstfoa betweea tho 1oalalag (I) Solo ~ Ngcyortweatal oa4 Thseret1esl 3Elootro ohoaletrygw + lgg ff? power sa4 gleleotrlo eoastcat...

  20. Adaptive Geometric Tessellation For 3D Reconstruction of Anisotropically Developing Cells In Multilayer Tissues From Sparse Volumetric Microscopy Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakraborty, Anirban; Perales, Mariano Manuel; Reddy, Venugopala Gonehal; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sparse confocal stacks of SAM images we show that this modelcell pair between two SAM slice images using local graphthe boundary of the image slice for each SAM cross section,

  1. Equilibrium and volumetric data and model development of coal fluids. [Quarterly report], January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, R.L. Jr.; Gasem, K.A.M.; Park, J.

    1992-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The long term goal of our efforts is to develop accurate predictive methods for description of equilibrium phase properties for a variety of types of mixtures and operating conditions. The specific objectives of the work specified herein include: (1) development of an experimental facility having the capability to provide data on equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) and liquid densities, and doing so with greater accuracy and speed than our previous facility, (2) measurement of equilibrium phase properties for systematically-selected mixtures-specifically those containing important solute gases (such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethane, carbonyl sulfide, ammonia) in a series of heavy paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic solvents (e.g., n-decane, n-eicosane, n-octacosane, n-hexatriacontane, cyclohexane, Decalin, perhydrophenanthrene, perhydropyrene, benzene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene), (3) testing/development of correlation frameworks for representing the phase behavior of fluids of the type encountered in coal conversion processes, and (4) generalization of parameters in the correlation frameworks to enable accurate predictions for systems of the type studied, permitting predictions to be made for systems and conditions other than those for which experimental data are available.

  2. Prospective Assessment of Optimal Individual Position (Prone Versus Supine) for Breast Radiotherapy: Volumetric and Dosimetric Correlations in 100 Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lymberis, Stella C.; Wyngaert, John Keith de; Parhar, Preeti; Chhabra, Arpit M.; Fenton-Kerimian, Maria; Chang Jengwha [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Hochman, Tsivia [Division of Biostatistics, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States) [Division of Biostatistics, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Guth, Amber; Roses, Daniel [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldberg, Judith D. [Division of Biostatistics, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States) [Division of Biostatistics, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Formenti, Silvia C., E-mail: silvia.formenti@nyumc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Damage to heart and lung from breast radiotherapy is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and lung cancer development. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate which position is best to spare lung and heart from radiotherapy exposure. Methods and Materials: One hundred consecutive Stage 0-IIA breast cancer patients consented to participate in a research trial that required two computed tomography simulation scans for planning both supine and prone positions. The optimal position was defined as that which best covered the contoured breast and tumor bed while it minimized critical organ irradiation, as quantified by the in-field heart and lung volume. The trial was designed to plan the first 100 patients in each position to study correlations between in-field volumes of organs at risk and dose. Results: Fifty-three left and 47 right breast cancer patients were consecutively accrued to the trial. In all patients, the prone position was optimal for sparing lung volume compared to the supine setup (mean lung volume reduction was 93.5 cc for right and 103.6 cc for left breast cancer patients). In 46/53 (87%) left breast cancer patients best treated prone, in-field heart volume was reduced by a mean of 12 cc and by 1.8 cc for the other 7/53 (13%) patients best treated supine. As predicted, supine-prone differences in in-field volume and mean dose of heart and lung were highly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient for left breast cancer patients was 0.90 for heart and 0.94 for lung and 0.92 for right breast cancer patients for lung). Conclusions: Prone setup reduced the amount of irradiated lung in all patients and reduced the amount of heart volume irradiated in 87% of left breast cancer patients. In-field organ volume is a valid surrogate for predicting dose; the trial continued to the planned target of 400.

  3. Volumetric 3D Modeling of the X-ray Emission Region within the Planetary Nebula BD+303639

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dewey, Daniel

    of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel 4.4. Senior NPP Fellow, Code 662, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, GSenior NPP Fellow, Code 662, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD20771reenbelt, MD20771 Fig. 1 Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (LETG/ACIS). - We used ISIS** to construct a series of APED** plasma

  4. Using Decline Curve Analysis, Volumetric Analysis, and Bayesian Methodology to Quantify Uncertainty in Shale Gas Reserve Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez Jimenez, Raul 1988-

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    . [ ( ) ] .................................................................................. (4) In Eq. (4), ? is a dimensionless exponent parameter and ? is the characteristic time parameter, months. Can and Kabir (2012) analyzed production data from 820 wells from three different shale formations (220 wells in the Bakken oil shale...

  5. A Covalent Organic Framework that Exceeds the DOE 2015 Volumetric Target for H2 Uptake at 298 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    bar compared with 60 g/L (4.2 wt % excess) for COF-301- PdCl2. SECTION: Energy Conversion and Storage of energy is the difficulty of storage at operational temperatures. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has Center for Reticular Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los

  6. Adsorption and Co-adsorption of Ethylene and Carbon Monoxide on Silica-Supported Monodisperse Pt Nanoparticles: Volumetric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    on the poisoning of the heterogeneously catalyzed conversion of hydrocarbons. 1. Introduction Lateral interactions conventional theory, such as Langmuir-Hinshelwood hetero- geneous kinetics.1,2 Interactions between adsorbates roughness (nano- particle size) on adsorbate-adsorbate interactions is important. Conventional theories

  7. DECREASE IN OVALBUMIN-INDUCED PULMONARY ALLERGIC RESPONSE BY BENZALDEHYDE BUT NOT ACETALDEHYDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    for other aldehydes indicate that another 5 to 10 percent of the total aldehyde burden is acrolein, which

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Blend Definition An ethanol blend is defined as a blended motor fuel containing ethyl alcohol that is at least 99% pure, derived from agricultural products, and blended exclusively...

  9. Characterization of montmorillonite doped PVA/SA blends using X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemalatha, K.; Somashekarappa, H. [Department of Physics, Yuvaraja's College, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570005 (India); Mahadevaiah,; Somashekar, R., E-mail: rs@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570006 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    PVA films doped with Montmorillonite was prepared by slow evaporation technique. These films have been used to record X-ray patterns at room temperature. Correlation lengths and microstructural parameters were computed using in-house program employing X-ray data. Results show that correlation lengths as well as crystallite size increases with increase in the concentration of Montmorillonite which is inconformity with the conductivity studies.

  10. A Data-Driven Approach to Hue-Preserving Color-Blending Lars Kuhne, Joachim Giesen,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Klaus

    -mail: Lars.Kuehne@uni-jena.de and Joachim.Giesen@uni-jena.de. · Zhiyuan Zhang, Sungsoo Ha, and Klaus Mueller

  11. Cathodic disbondment resistance with reactive ethylene terpolymer blends and composite coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Love, Corey T.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Res. 17 (1978) 42. [63] ASTM G8-96 Standard Test Methods forLinings 14 (1997) [20] ASTM G8-96 Standard Test Methods foror some variation of ASTM G8-96 Standard Test Method for

  12. Biomaterials 23 (2002) 44834492 A novel porous cells scaffold made of polylactidedextran blend by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Jian

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -casting and particle-leaching [19,20], phase-separation [21], emulsion freeze dry- ing [22], gas-foaming [23] and 3D-printing

  13. REPORT ON ATOMIZATION TESTS FOR PROJECT TITLED - BIODIESEL BLENDS IN MICROTURBINE.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRISHNA,C.R.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The injectors for the Capstone turbine have the general design shown in figure 1 below. It consists of an airblast atomizer with a cylindrical fuel nozzle and an annular air passage surrounding it. The airblast atomizer is surrounded by a 'mixing tube' with circular holes just downstream of the atomizer outlet and swirler holes further downstream. During operation, these holes bring 'hot' air/gases to help vaporize and provide premixed fuel and air for combustion downstream of the 'mixing' tube.

  14. Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends for Heavy and Light-Duty Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for use by internal combustion engines. The rate of supplementation ranges between 30 and 50% by volume $ Criteria for achieving ultra-low exhaust emissions $ With internal combustion piston engines 89502 Abstract NRG Tech is developing engine technology that is applicable for use in heavy-duty vehicle

  15. An Experimental Investigation of Microexplosion in Emulsified Vegetable-Methanol Blend

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nam, Hyungseok

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    of shock waves characteristic of explosions at larger scales. However, little is known about how emulsion composition and droplet size affect the micro-explosion process. Through this research, methanol-in-vegetable oil emulsion has been studied from...

  16. Operating Experience and Teardown Analysis for Engines Operated on Biodiesel Blends (B20)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraer, R.; Dinh, H.; Proc, K.; McCormick, R. L.; Chandler, K.; Buchholz, B.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, eight engines and fuel systems were removed from trucks operating on B20 or diesel. Results indicate little difference in operational and maintenance costs between the B20- and diesel.

  17. Advancing Biorefining of Distillers Grain and Corn Stover Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet summarizes a U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program research and development project.

  18. NREL UL E15 Fuel Dispensing Infrastructure Intermediate Blends Performance Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, K.; Clark, W.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation provides an overview of NREL's project to determine compatibility and safe performance of installed fuel dispensing infrastructure with E15.

  19. Turbocharged engine operations using knock resistant fuel blends for engine efficiency improvements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jo, Young Suk

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Engine downsizing with a turbocharger has become popular these days in automotive industries. Downsizing the engine lets the engine operate in a more efficient region, and the engine boosting compensates for the power loss ...

  20. Characterization of Multiphase Biogenic Polymer Blends from Poly(L-lactide) and Poly(methyl methacrylate)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Center, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA 2 Department of Physics, Washington and Lee University fillers and scaffolds, where the biodegradability of PLLA will enable the integration of native tissue