National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for 0d 1d 2d

  1. Ligand-controlled assembly of Cd(II) coordination polymers based on mixed ligands of naphthalene-dicarboxylate and dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline: From 0D+1D cocrystal, 2D rectangular network (4,4), to 3D PtS-type architecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Guocheng; Chen Yongqiang; Wang Xiuli Chen Baokuan; Lin Hongyan

    2009-03-15

    Three novel Cd(II) coordination polymers, namely, [Cd(Dpq)(1,8-NDC)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][Cd(Dpq)(1,8-NDC)].2H{sub 2}O (1), [Cd(Dpq)(1,4-NDC)(H{sub 2}O)] (2), and [Cd(Dpq)(2,6-NDC)] (3) have been obtained from hydrothermal reactions of cadmium(II) nitrate with the mixed ligands dipyrido [3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (Dpq) and three structurally related naphthalene-dicarboxylate ligands [1,8-naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid (1,8-H{sub 2}NDC), 1,4-naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid (1,4-H{sub 2}NDC), and 2,6-naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid (2,6-H{sub 2}NDC)]. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the three polymers exhibit novel structures due to different naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid. Compound 1 is a novel cocrystal of left- and right-handed helical chains and binuclear complexes and ultimately packed into a 3D supramolecular structure through hydrogen bonds and {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions. Compound 2 shows a 2D rectangular network (4,4) bridged by 1,4-NDC with two kinds of coordination modes and ultimately packed into a 3D supramolecular structure through inter-layer {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions. Compound 3 is a new 3D coordination polymer with distorted PtS-type network. In addition, the title compounds exhibit blue/green emission in solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Three novel Cd(II) compounds have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions exhibiting a systematic variation of architecture by the employment of three structurally related naphthalene-dicarboxylate ligands.

  2. Spatially separated excitons in 2D and 1D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    separated excitons in 2D and 1D David Abergel March 10th, 2015 D.S.L. Abergel 3/10/15 1 / 24 Outline 1 Introduction 2 Spatially separated excitons in 2D - The role of disorder 3 Spatially separated excitons in 1D D.S.L. Abergel 3/10/15 2 / 24 Introduction D.S.L. Abergel 3/10/15 3 / 24 The fundamental idea Key ingredients: Independent contacts to each layer High degree of nesting of Fermi surfaces Low SP tunneling rate between layers Picture credit: Kharitonov et al., Phys. Rev. B 78 Phase

  3. supplemental_lists_1d-2d-3c_06-24-2011.xls | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lists1d-2d-3c06-24-2011.xls supplementallists1d-2d-3c06-24-2011.xls Office spreadsheet icon supplementallists1d-2d-3c06-24-2011.xls More Documents & Publications...

  4. Light and Fast: Probing Carriers and Vibrations in 1D and 2D Materials |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics and Fast: Probing Carriers and Vibrations in 1D and 2D Materials April 17, 2014 at 3pm/36-428 Paul McEuen Department of Physics, Cornell University mceuen_001 Abstract: Carbon nanotubes and 2D atomic membrane materials cut across many disciplines with their remarkable optical, thermal, mechanical, and electronic properties. In this talk we will examine cases when a combination of properties, e.g. optical and mechanical, are simultaneously important. First,

  5. Computational Study and Analysis of Structural Imperfections in 1D and 2D Photonic Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.R. Maskaly

    2005-06-01

    Dielectric reflectors that are periodic in one or two dimensions, also known as 1D and 2D photonic crystals, have been widely studied for many potential applications due to the presence of wavelength-tunable photonic bandgaps. However, the unique optical behavior of photonic crystals is based on theoretical models of perfect analogues. Little is known about the practical effects of dielectric imperfections on their technologically useful optical properties. In order to address this issue, a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code is employed to study the effect of three specific dielectric imperfections in 1D and 2D photonic crystals. The first imperfection investigated is dielectric interfacial roughness in quarter-wave tuned 1D photonic crystals at normal incidence. This study reveals that the reflectivity of some roughened photonic crystal configurations can change up to 50% at the center of the bandgap for RMS roughness values around 20% of the characteristic periodicity of the crystal. However, this reflectivity change can be mitigated by increasing the index contrast and/or the number of bilayers in the crystal. In order to explain these results, the homogenization approximation, which is usually applied to single rough surfaces, is applied to the quarter-wave stacks. The results of the homogenization approximation match the FDTD results extremely well, suggesting that the main role of the roughness features is to grade the refractive index profile of the interfaces in the photonic crystal rather than diffusely scatter the incoming light. This result also implies that the amount of incoherent reflection from the roughened quarterwave stacks is extremely small. This is confirmed through direct extraction of the amount of incoherent power from the FDTD calculations. Further FDTD studies are done on the entire normal incidence bandgap of roughened 1D photonic crystals. These results reveal a narrowing and red-shifting of the normal incidence bandgap with

  6. A New 2D-Transport, 1D-Diffusion Approximation of the Boltzmann Transport equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, Edward

    2013-06-17

    The work performed in this project consisted of the derivation, implementation, and testing of a new, computationally advantageous approximation to the 3D Boltz- mann transport equation. The solution of the Boltzmann equation is the neutron flux in nuclear reactor cores and shields, but solving this equation is difficult and costly. The new “2D/1D” approximation takes advantage of a special geometric feature of typical 3D reactors to approximate the neutron transport physics in a specific (ax- ial) direction, but not in the other two (radial) directions. The resulting equation is much less expensive to solve computationally, and its solutions are expected to be sufficiently accurate for many practical problems. In this project we formulated the new equation, discretized it using standard methods, developed a stable itera- tion scheme for solving the equation, implemented the new numerical scheme in the MPACT code, and tested the method on several realistic problems. All the hoped- for features of this new approximation were seen. For large, difficult problems, the resulting 2D/1D solution is highly accurate, and is calculated about 100 times faster than a 3D discrete ordinates simulation.

  7. A 2D/1D coupling neutron transport method based on the matrix MOC and NEM methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, H.; Zheng, Y.; Wu, H.; Cao, L.

    2013-07-01

    A new 2D/1D coupling method based on the matrix MOC method (MMOC) and nodal expansion method (NEM) is proposed for solving the three-dimensional heterogeneous neutron transport problem. The MMOC method, used for radial two-dimensional calculation, constructs a response matrix between source and flux with only one sweep and then solves the linear system by using the restarted GMRES algorithm instead of the traditional trajectory sweeping process during within-group iteration for angular flux update. Long characteristics are generated by using the customization of commercial software AutoCAD. A one-dimensional diffusion calculation is carried out in the axial direction by employing the NEM method. The 2D and ID solutions are coupled through the transverse leakage items. The 3D CMFD method is used to ensure the global neutron balance and adjust the different convergence properties of the radial and axial solvers. A computational code is developed based on these theories. Two benchmarks are calculated to verify the coupling method and the code. It is observed that the corresponding numerical results agree well with references, which indicates that the new method is capable of solving the 3D heterogeneous neutron transport problem directly. (authors)

  8. Probing structure-induced optical behavior in a new class of self-activated luminescent 0D/1D CaWO? metal oxide CdSe nanocrystal composite heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jinkyu; McBean, Coray; Wang, Lei; Hoy, Jessica; Jaye, Cherno; Liu, Haiqing; Li, Zhuo-Qun; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Fischer, Daniel A.; Taylor, Gordon T.; Misewich, James A.; Wong, Stanislaus S.

    2015-01-30

    In this report, we synthesize and characterize the structural and optical properties of novel heterostructures composed of (i) semiconducting nanocrystalline CdSe quantum dot (QDs) coupled with (ii) both one and zero-dimensional (1D and 0D) motifs of self-activated luminescence CaWO? metal oxides. Specifically, ~4 nm CdSe QDs have been anchored onto (i) high-aspect ratio 1D nanowires, measuring ~230 nm in diameter and ~3 ?m in length, as well as onto (ii) crystalline 0D nanoparticles (possessing an average diameter of ~ 80 nm) of CaWO? through the mediation of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a connecting linker. Composite formation was confirmed by complementary electron microscopy and spectroscopy (i.e. IR and Raman) data. In terms of luminescent properties, our results show that our 1D and 0D heterostructures evince photoluminescence (PL) quenching and shortened PL lifetimes of CaWO? as compared with unbound CaWO?. We propose that a photo-induced electron transfer process occurs from CaWO? to CdSe QDs, a scenario which has been confirmed by NEXAFS measurements and which highlights a decrease in the number of unoccupied orbitals in the conduction bands of CdSe QDs. By contrast, the PL signature and lifetimes of MPA-capped CdSe QDs within these heterostructures do not exhibit noticeable changes as compared with unbound MPA-capped CdSe QDs. The striking difference in optical behavior between CaWO? nanostructures and CdSe QDs within our heterostructures can be correlated with the relative positions of their conduction and valence energy band levels. In addition, the PL quenching behaviors for CaWO? within the heterostructure configuration were examined by systematically varying (i) the quantities and coverage densities of CdSe QDs as well as (ii) the intrinsic morphology (and by extension, the inherent crystallite size) of CaWO? itself.

  9. Probing structure-induced optical behavior in a new class of self-activated luminescent 0D/1D CaWO₄ metal oxide – CdSe nanocrystal composite heterostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Han, Jinkyu; McBean, Coray; Wang, Lei; Hoy, Jessica; Jaye, Cherno; Liu, Haiqing; Li, Zhuo-Qun; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Fischer, Daniel A.; Taylor, Gordon T.; et al

    2015-01-30

    In this report, we synthesize and characterize the structural and optical properties of novel heterostructures composed of (i) semiconducting nanocrystalline CdSe quantum dot (QDs) coupled with (ii) both one and zero-dimensional (1D and 0D) motifs of self-activated luminescence CaWO₄ metal oxides. Specifically, ~4 nm CdSe QDs have been anchored onto (i) high-aspect ratio 1D nanowires, measuring ~230 nm in diameter and ~3 μm in length, as well as onto (ii) crystalline 0D nanoparticles (possessing an average diameter of ~ 80 nm) of CaWO₄ through the mediation of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a connecting linker. Composite formation was confirmed by complementarymore » electron microscopy and spectroscopy (i.e. IR and Raman) data. In terms of luminescent properties, our results show that our 1D and 0D heterostructures evince photoluminescence (PL) quenching and shortened PL lifetimes of CaWO₄ as compared with unbound CaWO₄. We propose that a photo-induced electron transfer process occurs from CaWO₄ to CdSe QDs, a scenario which has been confirmed by NEXAFS measurements and which highlights a decrease in the number of unoccupied orbitals in the conduction bands of CdSe QDs. By contrast, the PL signature and lifetimes of MPA-capped CdSe QDs within these heterostructures do not exhibit noticeable changes as compared with unbound MPA-capped CdSe QDs. The striking difference in optical behavior between CaWO₄ nanostructures and CdSe QDs within our heterostructures can be correlated with the relative positions of their conduction and valence energy band levels. In addition, the PL quenching behaviors for CaWO₄ within the heterostructure configuration were examined by systematically varying (i) the quantities and coverage densities of CdSe QDs as well as (ii) the intrinsic morphology (and by extension, the inherent crystallite size) of CaWO₄ itself.« less

  10. One Dimensional(1D)-to-2D Crossover of Spin Correlations in the 3D Magnet ZnMn2O4

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Disseler, S. M.; Chen, Y.; Yeo, S.; Gasparovic, G.; Piccoli, P. M. B.; Schultz, A. J.; Qiu, Y.; Huang, Q.; Cheong, S. -W.; Ratcliff, W.

    2015-12-08

    In this paper we report on the intriguing evolution of the dynamical spin correlations of the frustrated spinel ZnMn2O4. Inelastic neutron scattering and magnetization studies reveal that the dynamical correlations at high temperatures are 1D. At lower temperature, these dynamical correlations become 2D. Surprisingly, the dynamical correlations condense into a quasi 2D Ising-like ordered state, making this a rare observation of two dimensional order on the spinel lattice. Remarkably, 3D ordering is not observed down to temperatures as low as 300 mK. This unprecedented dimensional crossover stems from frustrated exchange couplings due to the huge Jahn-Teller distortions around Mn3+ ionsmore » on the spinel lattice.« less

  11. One Dimensional(1D)-to-2D Crossover of Spin Correlations in the 3D Magnet ZnMn2O4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Disseler, S. M.; Chen, Y.; Yeo, S.; Gasparovic, G.; Piccoli, P. M. B.; Schultz, A. J.; Qiu, Y.; Huang, Q.; Cheong, S. -W.; Ratcliff, W.

    2015-12-08

    In this paper we report on the intriguing evolution of the dynamical spin correlations of the frustrated spinel ZnMn2O4. Inelastic neutron scattering and magnetization studies reveal that the dynamical correlations at high temperatures are 1D. At lower temperature, these dynamical correlations become 2D. Surprisingly, the dynamical correlations condense into a quasi 2D Ising-like ordered state, making this a rare observation of two dimensional order on the spinel lattice. Remarkably, 3D ordering is not observed down to temperatures as low as 300 mK. This unprecedented dimensional crossover stems from frustrated exchange couplings due to the huge Jahn-Teller distortions around Mn3+ ions on the spinel lattice.

  12. Simulation of decay heat removal by natural convection in a pool type fast reactor model-ramona-with coupled 1D/2D thermal hydraulic code system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasinathan, N.; Rajakumar, A.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Chetal, S.C.

    1995-09-01

    Post shutdown decay heat removal is an important safety requirement in any nuclear system. In order to improve the reliability of this function, Liquid metal (sodium) cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) are equipped with redundant hot pool dipped immersion coolers connected to natural draught air cooled heat exchangers through intermediate sodium circuits. During decay heat removal, flow through the core, immersion cooler primary side and in the intermediate sodium circuits are also through natural convection. In order to establish the viability and validate computer codes used in making predictions, a 1:20 scale experimental model called RAMONA with water as coolant has been built and experimental simulation of decay heat removal situation has been performed at KfK Karlsruhe. Results of two such experiments have been compiled and published as benchmarks. This paper brings out the results of the numerical simulation of one of the benchmark case through a 1D/2D coupled code system, DHDYN-1D/THYC-2D and the salient features of the comparisons. Brief description of the formulations of the codes are also included.

  13. PBE–DFT theoretical study of organic photovoltaic materials based on thiophene with 1D and 2D periodic boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saïl, K. Bassou, G.; Gafour, M. H.; Miloua, F.

    2015-12-15

    Conjugated organic systems such as thiophene are interesting topics in the field of organic solar cells. We theoretically investigate π-conjugated polymers constituted by n units (n = 1–11) based on the thiophene (Tn) molecule. The computations of the geometries and electronic structures of these compounds are performed using the density functional theory (DFT) at the 6–31 G(d, p) level of theory and the Perdew–Burke–Eenzerhof (PBE) formulation of the generalized gradient approximation with periodic boundary conditions (PBCs) in one (1D) and two (2D) dimensions. Moreover, the electronic properties (HOCO, LUCO, E{sub gap}, V{sub oc}, and V{sub bi}) are determined from 1D and 2D PBC to understand the effect of the number of rings in polythiophene. The absorption properties—excitation energies (E{sub ex}), the maximal absorption wavelength (λ{sub max}), oscillator strengths, and light harvesting—efficiency are studied using the time-dependent DFT method. Our studies show that changing the number of thiophene units can effectively modulate the electronic and optical properties. On the other hand, our work demonstrates the efficiency of theoretical calculation in the PBCs.

  14. Synthesis of compositionally-defined single-crystalline Eu?-activated molybdate-tungstate solid solution composite nanowires and observation of charge transfer in a novel class of 1D CaMoO?-CaWO?: Eu? 0D CdS/CdSe QD nanoscale heterostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Han, Jinkyi; McBean, Coray; Wang, Lei; Jaye, Cherno; Liu, Haiqing; Fischer, Daniel A.; Wong, Stanislaus S.

    2015-02-10

    As a first step, we have synthesized and optically characterized a systematic series of one-dimensional (1D) single-crystalline Eu?-activated alkaline-earth metal tungstate/molybdate solid solution composite CaW??xMoxO? (0 ? x ? 1) nanowires of controllable chemical composition using a modified template-directed methodology under ambient room-temperature conditions. Extensive characterization of the resulting nanowires has been performed using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and optical spectroscopy. The crystallite size and single crystallinity of as-prepared 1D CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (0 ? x ? 1) solid solution composite nanowires increase with increasing Mo component (x). We note a clear dependence of luminescence output upon nanowire chemical composition withmoreour 1D CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (0 ? x ? 1) evincing the highest photoluminescence (PL) output at x = 0.8, amongst samples tested. Subsequently, coupled with either zero-dimensional (0D) CdS or CdSe quantum dots (QDs), we successfully synthesized and observed charge transfer processes in 1D CaW1-xMoxO4: Eu3+ (x = 0.8) 0D QD composite nanoscale heterostructures. Our results show that CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (x = 0.8) nanowires give rise to PL quenching when CdSe QDs and CdS QDs are anchored onto the surfaces of 1D CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? nanowires. The observed PL quenching is especially pronounced in CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (x = 0.8) 0D CdSe QD heterostructures. Conversely, the PL output and lifetimes of CdSe and CdS QDs within these heterostructures are not noticeably altered as compared with unbound CdSe and CdS QDs. The difference in optical behavior between 1D Eu? activated tungstate and molybdate solid solution nanowires and the semiconducting 0D QDs within our heterostructures can be correlated with the relative positions of their conduction and valence energy band levels. We propose that the PL quenching can be attributed to a photo-induced electron transfer process from CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (x

  15. Synthesis of Compositionally Defined Single-Crystalline Eu 3+ -Activated MolybdateTungstate Solid-Solution Composite Nanowires and Observation of Charge Transfer in a Novel Class of 1D CaMoO 4 CaWO 4 :Eu 3+ 0D CdS/CdSe QD Nanoscale Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jinkyu; McBean, Coray; Wang, Lei; Jaye, Cherno; Liu, Haiqing; Fischer, Daniel A.; Wong, Stanislaus S.

    2015-02-10

    As a first step, we have synthesized and optically characterized a systematic series of one-dimensional (1D) single-crystalline Eu?-activated alkaline-earth metal tungstate/molybdate solid solution composite CaW??xMoxO? (0 ? x ? 1) nanowires of controllable chemical composition using a modified template-directed methodology under ambient room-temperature conditions. Extensive characterization of the resulting nanowires has been performed using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and optical spectroscopy. The crystallite size and single crystallinity of as-prepared 1D CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (0 ? x ? 1) solid solution composite nanowires increase with increasing Mo component (x). We note a clear dependence of luminescence output upon nanowire chemical composition with our 1D CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (0 ? x ? 1) evincing the highest photoluminescence (PL) output at x = 0.8, amongst samples tested. Subsequently, coupled with either zero-dimensional (0D) CdS or CdSe quantum dots (QDs), we successfully synthesized and observed charge transfer processes in 1D CaW1-xMoxO4: Eu3+ (x = 0.8) 0D QD composite nanoscale heterostructures. Our results show that CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (x = 0.8) nanowires give rise to PL quenching when CdSe QDs and CdS QDs are anchored onto the surfaces of 1D CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? nanowires. The observed PL quenching is especially pronounced in CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (x = 0.8) 0D CdSe QD heterostructures. Conversely, the PL output and lifetimes of CdSe and CdS QDs within these heterostructures are not noticeably altered as compared with unbound CdSe and CdS QDs. The difference in optical behavior between 1D Eu? activated tungstate and molybdate solid solution nanowires and the semiconducting 0D QDs within our heterostructures can be correlated with the relative positions of their conduction and valence energy band levels

  16. PIV, 2D-LIF and 1D-Raman measurements of flow field, composition and temperature in premixed gas turbine flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stopper, U.; Aigner, M.; Ax, H.; Meier, W.; Sadanandan, R.; Stoehr, M.; Bonaldo, A.

    2010-04-15

    Several laser diagnostic measurement techniques have been applied to study the lean premixed natural gas/air flames of an industrial swirl burner. This was made possible by equipping the burner with an optical combustion chamber that was installed in the high-pressure test rig facility at the DLR Institute of Combustion Technology in Stuttgart. The burner was operated with preheated air at various operating conditions with pressures up to p = 6 bar and a maximum thermal power of P = 1 MW. The instantaneous planar flow field inside the combustor was studied with particle image velocimetry (PIV). Planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) of OH radicals on a single-shot basis was used to determine the shape and the location of the flame front as well as the spatial distribution of reaction products. 1D laser Raman spectroscopy was successfully applied for the measurement of the temperature and the concentration of major species under realistic gas turbine conditions. Results of the flow field analysis show the shape and the size of the main flow regimes: the inflow region, the inner and the outer recirculation zone. The highly turbulent flow field of the inner shear layer is found to be dominated by small and medium sized vortices. High RMS fluctuations of the flow velocity in the exhaust gas indicate the existence of a rotating exhaust gas swirl. From the PLIF images it is seen that the primary reactions happened in the shear layers between inflow and the recirculation zones and that the appearance of the reaction zones changed with flame parameters. The results of the multiscalar Raman measurements show a strong variation of the local mixture fraction allowing conclusions to be drawn about the premix quality. Furthermore, mixing effects of unburnt fuel and air with fully reacted combustion products are studied giving insights into the processes of the turbulence-chemistry interaction. (author)

  17. Synthesis of Compositionally Defined Single-Crystalline Eu 3+ -Activated Molybdate–Tungstate Solid-Solution Composite Nanowires and Observation of Charge Transfer in a Novel Class of 1D CaMoO 4 –CaWO 4 :Eu 3+ –0D CdS/CdSe QD Nanoscale Heterostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Han, Jinkyu; McBean, Coray; Wang, Lei; Jaye, Cherno; Liu, Haiqing; Fischer, Daniel A.; Wong, Stanislaus S.

    2015-02-10

    As a first step, we have synthesized and optically characterized a systematic series of one-dimensional (1D) single-crystalline Eu³⁺-activated alkaline-earth metal tungstate/molybdate solid solution composite CaW₁₋xMoxO₄ (0 ≤ ‘x’ ≤ 1) nanowires of controllable chemical composition using a modified template-directed methodology under ambient room-temperature conditions. Extensive characterization of the resulting nanowires has been performed using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and optical spectroscopy. The crystallite size and single crystallinity of as-prepared 1D CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ (0 ≤ ‘x’ ≤ 1) solid solution composite nanowires increase with increasing Mo component (‘x’). We note a clear dependence of luminescence output upon nanowire chemical composition withmore » our 1D CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ (0 ≤ ‘x’ ≤ 1) evincing the highest photoluminescence (PL) output at ‘x’ = 0.8, amongst samples tested. Subsequently, coupled with either zero-dimensional (0D) CdS or CdSe quantum dots (QDs), we successfully synthesized and observed charge transfer processes in 1D CaW1-xMoxO4: Eu3+ (‘x’ = 0.8) – 0D QD composite nanoscale heterostructures. Our results show that CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ (‘x’ = 0.8) nanowires give rise to PL quenching when CdSe QDs and CdS QDs are anchored onto the surfaces of 1D CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ nanowires. The observed PL quenching is especially pronounced in CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ (‘x’ = 0.8) – 0D CdSe QD heterostructures. Conversely, the PL output and lifetimes of CdSe and CdS QDs within these heterostructures are not noticeably altered as compared with unbound CdSe and CdS QDs. The difference in optical behavior between 1D Eu³⁺ activated tungstate and molybdate solid solution nanowires and the semiconducting 0D QDs within our heterostructures can be correlated with the relative positions of their conduction and valence energy band levels. We propose that

  18. New coordination polymers from 1D chain, 2D layer to 3D framework constructed from 1,2-phenylenediacetic acid and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane flexible ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xin Lingyun; Liu Guangzhen; Wang Liya

    2011-06-15

    The hydrothermal reactions of Cd, Zn, or Cu(II) acetate salts with H{sub 2}PHDA and BPP flexible ligands afford three new coordination polymers, including [Cd(PHDA)(BPP)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}(1), [Zn(PHDA)(BPP)]{sub n}(2), and [Cu{sub 2}(PHDA){sub 2}(BPP)]{sub n}(3) (H{sub 2}PHDA=1,2-phenylenediacetic acid, BPP=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane). The single-crystal X-ray diffractions reveal that all three complexes feature various metal carboxylate subunits extended further by the BPP ligands to form a diverse range of structures, displaying a remarked structural sensitivity to metal(II) cation. Complex 1 containing PHDA-bridged binuclear cadmium generates 1D double-stranded chain, complex 2 results in 2D{yields}2D interpenetrated (4,4) grids, and complex 3 displays a 3D self-penetrated framework with 4{sup 8}6{sup 6}8 rob topology. In addition, fluorescent analyses show that both 1 and 2 exhibit intense blue-violet photoluminescence in the solid state. - Graphical Abstract: We show diverse supramolecular frameworks based on the same ligands (PHDA and BPP) and different metal acetate salts including 1D double-stranded chain, 2D {yields} 2D twofold interpenetrated layer, and 3D self-penetration networks. Highlights: > Three metal(II = 2 /* ROMAN ) coordination polymers were synthesized using H{sub 2}PHDA and BPP. > The diversity of structures show a remarked sensitivity to metal(II) center. > Complexes show the enhancement of fluorescence compared to that of free ligand.

  19. Spatially separated excitons in 2D and 1D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Fermi surfaces Low SP tunneling rate between layers Picture credit: Kharitonov et al., Phys. Rev. B 78 Phase coherence between the two layers Transport of excitons can be...

  20. A Novel Quasi-1D Topological Insulator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Novel Quasi-1D Topological Insulator A Novel Quasi-1D Topological Insulator Print Wednesday, 15 June 2016 00:00 Topological insulators (TIs) are materials with many exotic properties. Perhaps the most technologically salient is the suppression of electron scattering on their surfaces-a tantalizing path to energy-saving, ultralow-power electronics. This prospect has led to a vigorous search for optimal TIs, most of which have so far been layered, quasi-2D materials. Now, an international team

  1. Aniso2D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-07-01

    Aniso2d is a two-dimensional seismic forward modeling code. The earth is parameterized by an X-Z plane in which the seismic properties Can have monoclinic with x-z plane symmetry. The program uses a user define time-domain wavelet to produce synthetic seismograms anrwhere within the two-dimensional media.

  2. Mesh2d

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-12-31

    Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j0) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assignsmore » an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations.« less

  3. Order 580.1D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    580.1D Title: PERSONAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Owner: Thomas Wilson, Jr., Office of Institutional Operations Approving Official: Bradley J. Tomer, Chief Operating Officer, Office of ...

  4. ASSESSMENT OF THE 2D/1D IMPLEMENTATION IN MPACT (Conference)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: PHYSOR 2014, Kyoto, Japan, 20140928, 20141003 Research Org: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); ...

  5. Light and Fast: Probing Carriers and Vibrations in 1D and 2D...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next, we will discuss experiments where circularly polarized light creates a valley polarization in an MoS2 monolayer, leading to a Hall effect in the absence of a magnetic field. ...

  6. Order 580.1D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    580.1D Title: PERSONAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Owner: Thomas Wilson, Jr., Office of Institutional Operations Approving Official: Bradley J. Tomer, Chief Operating Officer, Office of the Director {signature} /s/ Bradley J. Tomer Approval Date: 8/3/12 Last Reviewed Date: 8/3/12 Cancellation: Order 580.1C, Personal Property Management TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. PURPOSE ..................................................................................................................................... 2 2.

  7. ARM - Datastreams - sonicwind2d

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : SONICWIND2D Horizontal wind speed and direction from ultrasonic wind sensor ...

  8. AnisWave 2D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-08-01

    AnisWave2D is a 2D finite-difference code for a simulating seismic wave propagation in fully anisotropic materials. The code is implemented to run in parallel over multiple processors and is fully portable. A mesh refinement algorithm has been utilized to allow the grid-spacing to be tailored to the velocity model, avoiding the over-sampling of high-velocity materials that usually occurs in fixed-grid schemes.

  9. An Azimuthal, Fourier Moment-Based Axial SN Solver for the 2D...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences and ... With these fundamentals in hand, Chapter 3 covers the 2D1D framework and provides a ...

  10. MOSS2D V1

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-01-31

    This software reduces the data from two-dimensional kSA MOS program, k-Space Associates, Ann Arbor, MI. Initial MOS data is recorded without headers in 38 columns, with one row of data per acquisition per lase beam tracked. The final MOSS 2d data file is reduced, graphed, and saved in a tab-delimited column format with headers that can be plotted in any graphing software.

  11. Evaluation of static pressure drops and PM10 and TSP emissions for modified 1D-3D cyclones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holt, G.A.; Baker, R.V.; Hughs, S.E.

    1999-12-01

    Five modifications of a standard 1D3D cyclone were tested and compared against the standard 1D3D design in the areas of particulate emissions and static pressure drop across the cyclone. The modifications to the 1D3D design included a 2D2D inlet, a 2D2D air outlet, a D/3 trash exit, an expansion chamber with a D/3 trash exit, and a tapered air outlet duct. The 1D3D modifications that exhibited a significant improvement in reducing both PM10 and total suspended particulate (TSP) emissions were the designs with the 2D2D inlet and air exhaust combined with either the conical D/3 tail cone or the expansion chamber. In reference to the standard 1D3D cyclone, the average reduction in PM10 emissions was 24 to 29% with a 29 to 35% reduction observed in TSP emissions. The modifications with the tapered air outlets did not show any significant improvements in controlling PM10 emissions. However, the modification with the tapered air outlet/expansion chamber combination exhibited statistical significance in reducing TSP emissions by 18% compared to the 1D3D cyclone. All modifications tested exhibited lower static pressure drops than the standard 1D3D.

  12. Pore-Controlled Formation of 0D Metal Complexes in Anionic 3D...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pore-Controlled Formation of 0D Metal Complexes in Anionic 3D Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List Muwei Zhang, Mathieu Boscha and Hong-Cai Zhou, Cryst. Eng. Comm, 17,...

  13. Pore-controlled formation of 0D metal complexes in anionic 3D...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Pore-controlled formation of 0D metal complexes in anionic 3D metal-organic frameworks Authors: Zhang, Muwei ; Bosch, Mathieu ; Zhou, Hong-Cai Publication Date: 2015-01-01 ...

  14. Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gentry, Stephen M.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.

    2006-02-07

    A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.

  15. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-07-15

    ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forcesmore » along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.« less

  16. Form 2D | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    D Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Permit ApplicationPermit Application: Form 2DLegal Abstract Form 2D: Application for Permit to...

  17. Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials Print Tuesday, 19 January 2016 09:57 In a crystal, collective excitations can be treated as if they are quasiparticles. For example, an excited electron and its associated hole are an exciton; oscillations of conduction electrons in a metal are plasmons; and different modes of lattice vibrations are phonons. Furthermore, when such excitations interact strongly with photons, a new form of quasiparticle emerges:

  18. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W. Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Tobias, B. J.

    2014-11-15

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  19. Parallel stitching of 2D materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ling, Xi; Wu, Lijun; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; et al

    2016-01-27

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal–semiconductor, semiconductor–semiconductor, and insulator–semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective “sowing” of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Lastly, the methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  20. MODELING RESONANCE INTERFERENCE BY 0-D SLOWING-DOWN SOLUTION WITH EMBEDDED SELF-SHIELDING METHOD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MODELING RESONANCE INTERFERENCE BY 0-D SLOWING-DOWN SOLUTION WITH EMBEDDED SELF-SHIELDING METHOD Yuxuan Liu and William Martin Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences University of Michigan 2355 Bonisteel Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 yuxuanl@umich.edu; wrm@umich.edu Kang-Seog Kim and Mark Williams Oak Ridge National Laboratory One Bethel Valley Road, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6172, USA kimk1@ornl.gov; williamsml@ornl.gov ABSTRACT The resonance integral table based

  1. A 1-D dusty plasma photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitu, M. L.; Ticoş, C. M.; Toader, D.; Banu, N.; Scurtu, A.; Department of Physics, University of Bucharest, 077125 Bucharest

    2013-09-21

    It is demonstrated numerically that a 1-D plasma crystal made of micron size cylindrical dust particles can, in principle, work as a photonic crystal for terahertz waves. The dust rods are parallel to each other and arranged in a linear string forming a periodic structure of dielectric-plasma regions. The dispersion equation is found by solving the waves equation with the boundary conditions at the dust-plasma interface and taking into account the dielectric permittivity of the dust material and plasma. The wavelength of the electromagnetic waves is in the range of a few hundred microns, close to the interparticle separation distance. The band gaps of the 1-D plasma crystal are numerically found for different types of dust materials, separation distances between the dust rods and rod diameters. The distance between levitated dust rods forming a string in rf plasma is shown experimentally to vary over a relatively wide range, from 650 μm to about 1350 μm, depending on the rf power fed into the discharge.

  2. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surfacemore » contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.« less

  3. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-08-07

    DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. Themore » isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.« less

  4. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-07

    DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.

  5. Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function ismore » explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows« less

  6. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surfacemorecontact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.less

  7. Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials Print In a crystal, collective excitations can be treated as if they are quasiparticles. For example, an excited electron and its associated hole are an exciton; oscillations of conduction electrons in a metal are plasmons; and different modes of lattice vibrations are phonons. Furthermore, when such excitations interact strongly with photons, a new form of quasiparticle emerges: the "polariton." The ability to excite and control polaritons in

  8. Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials Print In a crystal, collective excitations can be treated as if they are quasiparticles. For example, an excited electron and its associated hole are an exciton; oscillations of conduction electrons in a metal are plasmons; and different modes of lattice vibrations are phonons. Furthermore, when such excitations interact strongly with photons, a new form of quasiparticle emerges: the "polariton." The ability to excite and control polaritons in

  9. Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials Print In a crystal, collective excitations can be treated as if they are quasiparticles. For example, an excited electron and its associated hole are an exciton; oscillations of conduction electrons in a metal are plasmons; and different modes of lattice vibrations are phonons. Furthermore, when such excitations interact strongly with photons, a new form of quasiparticle emerges: the "polariton." The ability to excite and control polaritons in

  10. Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials Print In a crystal, collective excitations can be treated as if they are quasiparticles. For example, an excited electron and its associated hole are an exciton; oscillations of conduction electrons in a metal are plasmons; and different modes of lattice vibrations are phonons. Furthermore, when such excitations interact strongly with photons, a new form of quasiparticle emerges: the "polariton." The ability to excite and control polaritons in

  11. Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials Print In a crystal, collective excitations can be treated as if they are quasiparticles. For example, an excited electron and its associated hole are an exciton; oscillations of conduction electrons in a metal are plasmons; and different modes of lattice vibrations are phonons. Furthermore, when such excitations interact strongly with photons, a new form of quasiparticle emerges: the "polariton." The ability to excite and control polaritons in

  12. Thermopower Enhancement by Fractional Layer Control in 2D Oxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermopower Enhancement by Fractional Layer Control in 2D Oxide Superlattices Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermopower Enhancement by Fractional Layer Control in 2D ...

  13. Enhanced Absorption in 2D Materials Via Fano- Resonant Photonic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Enhanced Absorption in 2D Materials Via Fano- Resonant Photonic Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enhanced Absorption in 2D Materials Via Fano- Resonant Photonic ...

  14. Quantum Oscillations in an Interfacial 2D Electron Gas. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Quantum Oscillations in an Interfacial 2D Electron Gas. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quantum Oscillations in an Interfacial 2D Electron Gas. Abstract not provided....

  15. GBL-2D Version 1.0: a 2D geometry boolean library.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Yarberry, Victor R.; Meyers, Ray J. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT)

    2006-11-01

    This report describes version 1.0 of GBL-2D, a geometric Boolean library for 2D objects. The library is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes primarily represent geometric data and relationships. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edge uses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. The routines contain algorithms for geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations: Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. A variety of additional analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats are also provided. The GBL-2D library was originally developed as a geometric modeling engine for use with a separate software tool, called SummitView [1], that manipulates the 2D mask sets created by designers of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, many other practical applications for this type of software can be envisioned because the need to perform 2D Boolean operations can arise in many contexts.

  16. Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovács, Anikó Zsuzsa; Hartmann, Peter; Donkó, Zoltán

    2015-10-15

    We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates.

  17. Nonlinear 2-D effects in the control of magnetic Islands by ECCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazzaro, Enzo; Borgogno, Dario; Comisso, Luca; Grasso, Daniela

    2014-02-12

    The stabilization of tearing magnetic islands by means of localized current driven by electron cyclotron waves, requires optimizing the efficiency of the injected helical current. The problem is conventionally addressed using 0-D model of the (generalized) Rutherford equation to find the dependence in terms of the island width, wave beam width and deposition scale length, as well as phase tracking requirements. The use of a 2-D reconnection model shows that both the early time response of a tearing unstable system to ECCD and important nonlinear processes lead to irreversible modifications on the 2-D configuration, where 'phase' and 'width' of an island cease to be observable and controllable state variables. In particular the occurrence of a phase instability and of multiple axis and current sheets, may be a serious impediment for feedback control schemes.

  18. THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC DIFFUSION FOR EXAFLAG Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH ...

  19. THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC DIFFUSION FOR EXAFLAG Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH...

  20. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-07-15

    MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  1. 2d PDE Linear Symmetric Matrix Solver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1983-10-01

    ICCG2 (Incomplete Cholesky factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d symmetric problems) was developed to solve a linear symmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as resistive MHD, spatial diffusive transport, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These problems share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized withmore » finite-difference or finite-element methods,the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ICCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. The incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the linear symmetric matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For matrices lacking symmetry, ILUCG2 should be used. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less

  2. 2d PDE Linear Asymmetric Matrix Solver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1983-10-01

    ILUCG2 (Incomplete LU factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d problems) was developed to solve a linear asymmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as plasma diffusion, equilibria, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These equations share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized with finite-difference or finite-elementmore » methods, the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ILUCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. A generalization of the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For problems having a symmetric matrix ICCG2 should be used since it runs up to four times faster and uses approximately 30% less storage. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source, containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less

  3. 2-D Coda and Direct Wave Attenuation Tomography in Northern Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morasca, P; Mayeda, K; Gok, R; Phillips, W S; Malagnini, L

    2007-10-17

    A 1-D coda method was proposed by Mayeda et al. (2003) in order to obtain stable seismic source moment-rate spectra using narrowband coda envelope measurements. That study took advantage of the averaging nature of coda waves to derive stable amplitude measurements taking into account all propagation, site, and Sto-coda transfer function effects. Recently this methodology was applied to micro earthquake data sets from three sub-regions of northern Italy (i.e., western Alps, northern Apennines and eastern Alps). Since the study regions were small, ranging between local-to-near-regional distances, the simple 1-D path assumptions used in the coda method worked very well. The lateral complexity of this region would suggest, however, that a 2-D path correction might provide even better results if the datasets were combined, especially when paths traverse larger distances and complicated regions. The structural heterogeneity of northern Italy makes the region ideal to test the extent to which coda variance can be reduced further by using a 2-D Q tomography technique. The approach we use has been developed by Phillips et al. (2005) and is an extension of previous amplitude ratio techniques to remove source effects from the inversion. The method requires some assumptions such as isotropic source radiation which is generally true for coda waves. Our results are compared against direct Swave inversions for 1/Q and results from both share very similar attenuation features that coincide with known geologic structures. We compare our results with those derived from direct waves as well as some recent results from northern California obtained by Mayeda et al. (2005) which tested the same tomographic methodology applied in this study to invert for 1/Q. We find that 2-D coda path corrections for this region significantly improve upon the 1-D corrections, in contrast to California where only a marginal improvement was observed. We attribute this difference to stronger lateral

  4. Sensitivity Analysis and Parameter Optimization Using 1-D MHD...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Sensitivity Analysis and Parameter Optimization Using 1-D MHD Simulations of Magnetic Drive Experiments. Abstract not provided. Authors: Robbins, Joshua Publication Date: ...

  5. Transport in interacting 1D double quantum wires

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transport in interacting 1D double-- quantum wires Michael Lilly Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies Sandia National Laboratories Collaborators Dominique Laroche, Guillaume ...

  6. Brady 1D seismic velocity model ambient noise prelim

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mellors, Robert J.

    2013-10-25

    Preliminary 1D seismic velocity model derived from ambient noise correlation. 28 Green's functions filtered between 4-10 Hz for Vp, Vs, and Qs were calculated. 1D model estimated for each path. The final model is a median of the individual models. Resolution is best for the top 1 km. Poorly constrained with increasing depth.

  7. 2D 'Flat' Boron Yields a Superconducting Surprise

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2D 'Flat' Boron Yields a Superconducting Surprise 2D 'Flat' Boron Yields a Superconducting Surprise Simulations Run at NERSC Help Reveal Material's Superconducting Superpowers April 22, 2016 2Dboron Electrons with opposite momenta and spins pair up via lattice vibrations at low temperatures in 2D boron and give it superconducting properties. Image: Evgeni Penev, Rice University Density functional theory simulations run at NERSC helped Rice University researchers determine that two-dimensional

  8. A Geometric Boolean Library for 2D Objects

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-01-05

    The 2D Boolean Library is a collection of C++ classes -- which primarily represent 2D geometric data and relationships, and routines -- which contain algorithms for 2D geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edgeuses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. Various analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various filemore » formats, are also provided in the library.« less

  9. R2D Ingenierie SAS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: R2D Ingenierie SAS Place: Montpellier, France Product: French automation equipment manufacturer for PV cells and semiconductor chips. Coordinates:...

  10. AnisWave2D: User's Guide to the 2d Anisotropic Finite-DifferenceCode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toomey, Aoife

    2005-01-06

    This document describes a parallel finite-difference code for modeling wave propagation in 2D, fully anisotropic materials. The code utilizes a mesh refinement scheme to improve computational efficiency. Mesh refinement allows the grid spacing to be tailored to the velocity model, so that fine grid spacing can be used in low velocity zones where the seismic wavelength is short, and coarse grid spacing can be used in zones with higher material velocities. Over-sampling of the seismic wavefield in high velocity zones is therefore avoided. The code has been implemented to run in parallel over multiple processors and allows large-scale models and models with large velocity contrasts to be simulated with ease.

  11. Uranium(VI) coordination polymers with pyromellitate ligand: Unique 1D channel structures and diverse fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Bhadbhade, Mohan; Karatchevtseva, Inna; Price, Jason R.; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Zhaoming; Kong, Linggen; Čejka, Jiří; Lu, Kim; Lumpkin, Gregory R.

    2015-03-15

    Three new coordination polymers of uranium(VI) with pyromellitic acid (H{sub 4}btca) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. (ED)[(UO{sub 2})(btca)]·(DMSO)·3H{sub 2}O (1) (ED=ethylenediammonium; DMSO=dimethylsulfoxide) has a lamellar structure with intercalation of ED and DMSO. (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 6}O{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}(btca)]·~6H{sub 2}O (2) has a 3D framework built from 7-fold coordinated uranyl trinuclear units and btca ligands with 1D diamond-shaped channels (~8.5 Å×~8.6 Å). [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)(btca)]·4H{sub 2}O (3) has a 3D network constructed by two types of 7-fold coordinated uranium polyhedron. The unique μ{sub 5}-coordination mode of btca in 3 enables the formation of 1D olive-shaped large channels (~4.5 Å×~19 Å). Vibrational modes, thermal stabilities and fluorescence properties have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Table of content: three new uranium(VI) coordination polymers with pyromellitic acid (H{sub 4}btca) have been synthesized via room temperature and hydrothermal synthesis methods, and structurally characterized. Two to three dimensional (3D) frameworks are revealed. All 3D frameworks have unique 1D large channels. Their vibrational modes, thermal stabilities and photoluminescence properties have been investigated. - Highlights: • Three new coordination polymers of U(VI) with pyromellitic acid (H{sub 4}btca). • Structures from a 2D layer to 3D frameworks with unique 1D channels. • Unusual µ{sub 5}-(η{sub 1}:η{sub 2}:η{sub 1}:η{sub 2:}η{sub 1}) coordination mode of btca ligand. • Vibrational modes, thermal stabilities and luminescent properties reported.

  12. Order Module--DOE O 452.1D, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE AND WEAPON SURETY PROGRAM, DOE O 452.2D, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE SAFETY

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "To prevent accidents and inadvertent or unauthorized use of U.S. nuclear weapons and nuclear explosives. In conjunction with the Department of Defense (DoD), to protect the public health and...

  13. Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F.; Bosca, Ryan; ODaniel, Jennifer

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (evaluated dose distributions) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (reference dose distributions) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must be noted

  14. Technical Review of the UNET2D Hydraulic Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2009-05-18

    The Kansas City District of the US Army Corps of Engineers is engaged in a broad range of river management projects that require knowledge of spatially-varied hydraulic conditions such as velocities and water surface elevations. This information is needed to design new structures, improve existing operations, and assess aquatic habitat. Two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged numerical hydraulic models are a common tool that can be used to provide velocity and depth information. Kansas City District is currently using a speci?c 2D model, UNET2D, that has been developed to meet the needs of their river engineering applications. This report documents a tech- nical review of UNET2D.

  15. Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang -Kong; Dalvit, Diego A. R.

    2015-05-12

    We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. In conclusion, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials.

  16. Memo on Implementation of DOE O 414-1D | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on Implementation of DOE O 414-1D Memo on Implementation of DOE O 414-1D On October 20, ... PDF icon Memo on Implementation of DOE O 414-1D More Documents & Publications Memo ...

  17. Patterned Arrays of Lateral Heterojunctions within Monolayer 2D Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Lin, Ming-Wei; Wang, Kai; Lupini, Andrew R; Lee, Jaekwang; Basile Carrasco, Leonardo A; Rouleau, Christopher M; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Puretzky, Alexander A; Ivanov, Ilia N; Xiao, Kai; Yoon, Mina; Geohegan, David B

    2015-01-01

    The formation of semiconductor heterojunctions and their high density integration are foundations of modern electronics and optoelectronics. To enable two-dimensional (2D) crystalline semiconductors as building blocks in next generation electronics, developing methods to deterministically form lateral heterojunctions is crucial. Here we demonstrate a process strategy for the formation of lithographically-patterned lateral semiconducting heterojunctions within a single 2D crystal. E-beam lithography is used to pattern MoSe2 monolayer crystals with SiO2, and the exposed locations are selectively and totally converted to MoS2 using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of sulfur in order to form MoSe2/MoS2 heterojunctions in predefined patterns. The junctions and conversion process are characterized by atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. This demonstration of lateral semiconductor heterojunction arrays within a single 2D crystal is an essential step for the lateral integration of 2D semiconductor building blocks with different electronic and optoelectronic properties for high-density, ultrathin circuitry.

  18. ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.

    2001-03-22

    The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research.

  19. Patterned Arrays of Lateral Heterojunctions within Monolayer 2D Semiconductors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Lin, Ming-Wei; Wang, Kai; Lupini, Andrew R; Lee, Jaekwang; Basile Carrasco, Leonardo A; Rouleau, Christopher M; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Puretzky, Alexander A; Ivanov, Ilia N; et al

    2015-01-01

    The formation of semiconductor heterojunctions and their high density integration are foundations of modern electronics and optoelectronics. To enable two-dimensional (2D) crystalline semiconductors as building blocks in next generation electronics, developing methods to deterministically form lateral heterojunctions is crucial. Here we demonstrate a process strategy for the formation of lithographically-patterned lateral semiconducting heterojunctions within a single 2D crystal. E-beam lithography is used to pattern MoSe2 monolayer crystals with SiO2, and the exposed locations are selectively and totally converted to MoS2 using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of sulfur in order to form MoSe2/MoS2 heterojunctions in predefined patterns. The junctions and conversionmoreprocess are characterized by atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. This demonstration of lateral semiconductor heterojunction arrays within a single 2D crystal is an essential step for the lateral integration of 2D semiconductor building blocks with different electronic and optoelectronic properties for high-density, ultrathin circuitry.less

  20. 2D FEM Heat Transfer & E&M Field Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-04-02

    TOPAZ and TOPAZ2D are two-dimensional implicit finite element computer codes for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ2D can also be used to solve electrostatic and magnetostatic problems. The programs solve for the steady-state or transient temperature or electrostatic and magnetostatic potential field on two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature or potential-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation.more » By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functional representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. The programs can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less

  1. 2D FEM Heat Transfer & E&M Field Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-04-02

    TOPAZ and TOPAZ2D are two-dimensional implicit finite element computer codes for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ2D can also be used to solve electrostatic and magnetostatic problems. The programs solve for the steady-state or transient temperature or electrostatic and magnetostatic potential field on two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature or potential-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation.moreBy implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functional representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. The programs can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.less

  2. 2D Monolayers Could Yield Thinnest Solar Cells Ever

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thinnest solar cells ever 2D Monolayers Could Yield Thinnest Solar Cells Ever October 21, 2013 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov Efforts to improve solar cells have historically focused on improving energy conversion efficiencies and lowering manufacturing costs. But new computer simulations have shown how using a different type of material could yield thinner, more lightweight solar panels that provide power densities - watts per kilogram of material - orders of

  3. 2D Gridded Surface Data Value-Added Product

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 2D Gridded Surface Data Value-Added Product Q Tang S Xie July 2015 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned

  4. 2D Seismic Reflection Data across Central Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    In a continuing collaboration with the Midwest Geologic Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) on the Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins project, Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco acquired two-dimensional (2D) seismic data in the Illinois Basin. This work included the design, acquisition and processing of approximately 125 miles of (2D) seismic reflection surveys running west to east in the central Illinois Basin. Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco oversaw the management of the field operations (including a pre-shoot planning, mobilization, acquisition and de-mobilization of the field personnel and equipment), procurement of the necessary permits to conduct the survey, post-shoot closure, processing of the raw data, and provided expert consultation as needed in the interpretation of the delivered product. Three 2D seismic lines were acquired across central Illinois during November and December 2010 and January 2011. Traversing the Illinois Basin, this 2D seismic survey was designed to image the stratigraphy of the Cambro-Ordovician sections and also to discern the basement topography. Prior to this survey, there were no regionally extensive 2D seismic data spanning this section of the Illinois Basin. Between the NW side of Morgan County and northwestern border of Douglas County, these seismic lines ran through very rural portions of the state. Starting in Morgan County, Line 101 was the longest at 93 miles in length and ended NE of Decatur, Illinois. Line 501 ran W-E from the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) site to northwestern Douglas County and was 25 miles in length. Line 601 was the shortest and ran N-S past the IBDP site and connected lines 101 and 501. All three lines are correlated to well logs at the IBDP site. Originally processed in 2011, the 2D seismic profiles exhibited a degradation of signal quality below ~400 millisecond (ms) which made

  5. Black liquor gasification phase 2D final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohl, A.L.; Stewart, A.E.

    1988-06-01

    This report covers work conducted by Rockwell International under Amendment 5 to Subcontract STR/DOE-12 of Cooperative Agreement DE-AC-05-80CS40341 between St. Regis Corporation (now Champion International) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The work has been designated Phase 2D of the overall program to differentiate it from prior work under the same subcontract. The overall program is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of and providing design data for the Rockwell process for gasifying Kraft black liquor. In this process, concentrated black liquor is converted into low-Btu fuel gas and reduced melt by reaction with air in a specially designed gasification reactor.

  6. Quantum Oscillations in an Interfacial 2D Electron Gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Bingop; Lu, Ping; Liu, Henan; Lin, Jiao; Ye, Zhenyu; Jaime, Marcelo; Balakirev, Fedor F.; Yuan, Huiqiu; Wu, Huizhen; Pan, Wei; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been predicted that topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) may exist in SnTe and Pb1-xSnxTe thin films [1]. To date, most studies on TCIs were carried out either in bulk crystals or thin films, and no research activity has been explored in heterostructures. We present here the results on electronic transport properties of the 2D electron gas (2DEG) realized at the interfaces of PbTe/ CdTe (111) heterostructures. Evidence of topological state in this interfacial 2DEG was observed.

  7. 110th Congress 2D Session H.R. 5746

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    VerDate Aug 31 2005 03:31 Apr 11, 2008 Jkt 069200 PO 00000 Frm 00001 Fmt 6652 Sfmt 6201 E:\BILLS\H5746.IH H5746 wwoods2 on PRODPC68 with BILLS I 110TH CONGRESS 2D SESSION H. R. 5746 To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to establish the infrastructure foundation for the hydrogen economy, and for other purposes. IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES APRIL 9, 2008 Mr. LARSON of Connecticut (for himself, Mr. DENT, Mr. WYNN, Mr. INGLIS of South Carolina, Ms. DELAURO, Mr. DOYLE, Mr. HOLDEN, Mr. WAMP,

  8. Transport Experiments on 2D Correlated Electron Physics in Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsui, Daniel

    2014-03-24

    This research project was designed to investigate experimentally the transport properties of the 2D electrons in Si and GaAs, two prototype semiconductors, in several new physical regimes that were previously inaccessible to experiments. The research focused on the strongly correlated electron physics in the dilute density limit, where the electron potential energy to kinetic energy ratio rs>>1, and on the fractional quantum Hall effect related physics in nuclear demagnetization refrigerator temperature range on samples with new levels of purity and controlled random disorder.

  9. 2D Gridded Surface Data Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Q; Xie, S

    2015-08-30

    This report describes the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Best Estimate (ARMBE) 2-dimensional (2D) gridded surface data (ARMBE2DGRID) value-added product. Spatial variability is critically important to many scientific studies, especially those that involve processes of great spatial variations at high temporal frequency (e.g., precipitation, clouds, radiation, etc.). High-density ARM sites deployed at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) allow us to observe the spatial patterns of variables of scientific interests. The upcoming megasite at SGP with its enhanced spatial density will facilitate the studies at even finer scales. Currently, however, data are reported only at individual site locations at different time resolutions for different datastreams. It is difficult for users to locate all the data they need and requires extra effort to synchronize the data. To address these problems, the ARMBE2DGRID value-added product merges key surface measurements at the ARM SGP sites and interpolates the data to a regular 2D grid to facilitate the data application.

  10. MESH2D GRID GENERATOR DESIGN AND USE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flach, G.; Smith, F.

    2012-01-20

    Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j{sub 0}) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assigns an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations. The overall mesh is constructed from grid zones that are typically then subdivided into a collection of smaller grid cells. The grid zones usually correspond to distinct materials or larger-scale geometric shapes. The structured grid zones are identified through uppercase indices (I,J). Subdivision of zonal regions into grid cells can be done uniformly, or nonuniformly using either a polynomial or geometric skewing algorithm. Grid cells may be concentrated backward, forward, or toward both ends. Figure 1 illustrates the above concepts in the context of a simple four zone grid.

  11. Spectra of atomic sulfur {sup 1}D in transitions to autoionizing Rydberg states in the region of 75 800-89 500 cm{sup -1}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, W.-C.; Chen, I-C.; Huang, T.-P.; Yuh, J.-Y.; Lee, Y.-Y.

    2008-10-07

    We recorded photoionization spectra of sulfur atoms in transitions from state {sup 1}D in the range of 75 800-89 500 cm{sup -1}. Dissociation of CS{sub 2} after photolysis at 193 nm produced these sulfur atoms in a singlet excited state; they were then ionized with synchrotron radiation (NSRRC, beamline U9CGM) at resolution of up to 3 cm{sup -1} and detected with a quadruple mass filter. Rydberg series 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 3}({sup 2}D{sub 3/2}{sup 0})nd[3/2] and 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 3}({sup 2}D{sub 5/2}{sup 0})ns[5/2] with n extending to 16 and 32, respectively, to limit {sup 2}D{sup 0} are assigned. New Rydberg series 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 3}({sup 2}D{sub 3/2}{sup 0})nd[1/2]{sub 1}, ({sup 2}D{sub 5/2}{sup 0})nd[5/2], and ({sup 2}D{sub 3/2}{sup 0})nd[5/2] with n from 5-9 for the former two series and 7-13 for the latter are assigned. A new Rydberg line at 85 335 cm{sup -1} is assigned to 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 3}({sup 2}D{sub 3/2}{sup 0})6d {sup 1}P.

  12. Interactive initialization of 2D/3D rigid registration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Ren Hui; Gler, zgr; Krkloglu, Mustafa; Lovejoy, John; Yaniv, Ziv

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Registration is one of the key technical components in an image-guided navigation system. A large number of 2D/3D registration algorithms have been previously proposed, but have not been able to transition into clinical practice. The authors identify the primary reason for the lack of adoption with the prerequisite for a sufficiently accurate initial transformation, mean target registration error of about 10 mm or less. In this paper, the authors present two interactive initialization approaches that provide the desired accuracy for x-ray/MR and x-ray/CT registration in the operating room setting. Methods: The authors have developed two interactive registration methods based on visual alignment of a preoperative image, MR, or CT to intraoperative x-rays. In the first approach, the operator uses a gesture based interface to align a volume rendering of the preoperative image to multiple x-rays. The second approach uses a tracked tool available as part of a navigation system. Preoperatively, a virtual replica of the tool is positioned next to the anatomical structures visible in the volumetric data. Intraoperatively, the physical tool is positioned in a similar manner and subsequently used to align a volume rendering to the x-ray images using an augmented reality (AR) approach. Both methods were assessed using three publicly available reference data sets for 2D/3D registration evaluation. Results: In the authors' experiments, the authors show that for x-ray/MR registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mean target registration error (mTRE) of 9.3 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 146.3 73.0 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 7.2 3.2 mm with interaction times of 44 32 s. For x-ray/CT registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mTRE of 7.4 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 132.1 66.4 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 8.3 5.0 mm with interaction times of 58 52 s. Conclusions: Based on the authors

  13. (3+1)D hydrodynamic simulation of relativistic heavy-ion collisions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (3+1)D hydrodynamic simulation of relativistic heavy-ion collisions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: (3+1)D hydrodynamic simulation of relativistic heavy-ion collisions ...

  14. Data:Ae277b8a-06b7-4666-8b14-8019b0d7753c | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ae277b8a-06b7-4666-8b14-8019b0d7753c No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading......

  15. Data:F3d511d9-6321-49ce-b5b2-a0d21fd28d52 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    d9-6321-49ce-b5b2-a0d21fd28d52 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1....

  16. Retrospective analysis of 2D patient-specific IMRT verifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childress, Nathan L.; White, R. Allen; Bloch, Charles; Salehpour, Mohammad; Dong, Lei; Rosen, Isaac I.

    2005-04-01

    We performed 858 two-dimensional (2D) patient-specific intensity modulated radiotherapy verifications over a period of 18 months. Multifield, composite treatment plans were measured in phantom using calibrated Kodak EDR2 film and compared with the calculated dose extracted from two treatment planning systems. This research summarizes our findings using the normalized agreement test (NAT) index and the percent of pixels failing the gamma index as metrics to represent the agreement between measured and computed dose distributions. An in-house dose comparison software package was used to register and compare all verifications. We found it was important to use an automatic positioning algorithm to achieve maximum registration accuracy, and that our automatic algorithm agreed well with anticipated results from known phantom geometries. We also measured absolute dose for each case using an ion chamber. Because the computed distributions agreed with ion chamber measurements better than the EDR2 film doses, we normalized EDR2 data to the computed distributions. The distributions of both the NAT indices and the percentage of pixels failing the gamma index were found to be exponential distributions. We continue to use both the NAT index and percent of pixels failing gamma with 5%/3 mm criteria to evaluate future verifications, as these two metrics were found to be complementary. Our data showed that using 2%/2 mm or 3%/3 mm criteria produces results similar to those using 5%/3 mm criteria. Normalized comparisons that have a NAT index greater than 45 and/or more than 20% of the pixels failing gamma for 5%/3 mm criteria represent outliers from our clinical data set and require further analysis. Because our QA verification results were exponentially distributed, rather than a tight grouping of similar results, we continue to perform patient-specific QA in order to identify and correct outliers in our verifications. The data from this work could be useful as a reference for

  17. 2D/3D registration algorithm for lung brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zvonarev, P. S.; Farrell, T. J.; Hunter, R.; Wierzbicki, M.; Hayward, J. E.; Sur, R. K.

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: A 2D/3D registration algorithm is proposed for registering orthogonal x-ray images with a diagnostic CT volume for high dose rate (HDR) lung brachytherapy. Methods: The algorithm utilizes a rigid registration model based on a pixel/voxel intensity matching approach. To achieve accurate registration, a robust similarity measure combining normalized mutual information, image gradient, and intensity difference was developed. The algorithm was validated using a simple body and anthropomorphic phantoms. Transfer catheters were placed inside the phantoms to simulate the unique image features observed during treatment. The algorithm sensitivity to various degrees of initial misregistration and to the presence of foreign objects, such as ECG leads, was evaluated. Results: The mean registration error was 2.2 and 1.9 mm for the simple body and anthropomorphic phantoms, respectively. The error was comparable to the interoperator catheter digitization error of 1.6 mm. Preliminary analysis of data acquired from four patients indicated a mean registration error of 4.2 mm. Conclusions: Results obtained using the proposed algorithm are clinically acceptable especially considering the complications normally encountered when imaging during lung HDR brachytherapy.

  18. Image Appraisal for 2D and 3D Electromagnetic Inversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alumbaugh, D.L.; Newman, G.A.

    1999-01-28

    Linearized methods are presented for appraising image resolution and parameter accuracy in images generated with two and three dimensional non-linear electromagnetic inversion schemes. When direct matrix inversion is employed, the model resolution and posterior model covariance matrices can be directly calculated. A method to examine how the horizontal and vertical resolution varies spatially within the electromagnetic property image is developed by examining the columns of the model resolution matrix. Plotting the square root of the diagonal of the model covariance matrix yields an estimate of how errors in the inversion process such as data noise and incorrect a priori assumptions about the imaged model map into parameter error. This type of image is shown to be useful in analyzing spatial variations in the image sensitivity to the data. A method is analyzed for statistically estimating the model covariance matrix when the conjugate gradient method is employed rather than a direct inversion technique (for example in 3D inversion). A method for calculating individual columns of the model resolution matrix using the conjugate gradient method is also developed. Examples of the image analysis techniques are provided on 2D and 3D synthetic cross well EM data sets, as well as a field data set collected at the Lost Hills Oil Field in Central California.

  19. Design of wheel motor using Maxwell 2D simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G.H.; Tseng, K.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a high efficiency direct wheel motor drive for electric vehicles (EVs). The proposed motor is a permanent magnet square-wave motor whose rotor with rare earth magnets forms the outside of the motor to be set within each rear wheel tire to realize the direct drive. The inner stator with its windings is rigidly linked to the suspension and frame structure of the vehicle. In order to achieve the direct drive without any mechanical transmission for EVs, the wheel motor has been designed as a low-speed high-torque motor. The design and optimization of the motor was done with the aid of finite element electromagnetic field analysis using the Maxwell 2D Simulator software. The motor parameters and characteristics can be accurately calculated and predicted in terms of field computation and analysis results. The design procedure of the 6.6 kW, 1,000 rpm wheel motor and its technical data are given in this paper.

  20. 2-D and 3-D Models of Convective Turbulence and Oscillations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2-D and 3-D Models of Convective Turbulence and Oscillations in Intermediate-Mass Main-Sequence Stars Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 2-D and 3-D Models of Convective ...

  1. A 2D Radiation Transport Package with Mimetic Diffusion for ExaFlag...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A 2D Radiation Transport Package with Mimetic Diffusion for ExaFlag Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A 2D Radiation Transport Package with Mimetic Diffusion for ExaFlag ...

  2. A 2D Radiation Transport Package with Mimetic Diffusion for ExaFlag...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A 2D Radiation Transport Package with Mimetic Diffusion for ExaFlag Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A 2D Radiation Transport Package with Mimetic Diffusion for ExaFlag...

  3. Examination of 1D Solar Cell Model Limitations Using 3D SPICE Modeling: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, W. E.; Olson, J. M.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.

    2012-06-01

    To examine the limitations of one-dimensional (1D) solar cell modeling, 3D SPICE-based modeling is used to examine in detail the validity of the 1D assumptions as a function of sheet resistance for a model cell. The internal voltages and current densities produced by this modeling give additional insight into the differences between the 1D and 3D models.

  4. EIA Energy Efficiency-Table 1d. Nonfuel Consumption (Site Energy...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    d Page Last Modified: May 2010 Table 1d. Nonfuel Consumption (Site Energy) for Selected Industries, 1998, 2002, and 2006 (Trillion Btu) MECS Survey Years NAICS Subsector and...

  5. DRAFT - DOE O 460.1D, Hazardous Materials Packaging and Transportation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    60.1D, Hazardous Materials Packaging and Transportation Safety by Website Administrator The Order establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of...

  6. eodd0d4.tmp

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ,. .,', , !, , '! " ,, /1' ., 1 ., ,' , I ,, ,' I ,. ,, ', ,' 1, 'I, ,, ,' ~s documcot was pmpmed ss an abcmmt of wofi" spomssr&Iby the Uni&l''Statcs ", ,,, , ' G@nrwnL Whik this doourncntis Imlkved to con+n Wrect information, rreithq' ,, 'the United States, Governnknt nor aoy agency thereof, ~or The Regents of tbe ' , ~,, ), 's \ I Un@ersity of California not any of their.pnrploycc.$. * ~)' warranty,qress Ot . . impfkd, or assumes any fc~l responsibility, for @rcaccuracy,

  7. asjc0d2.tmp

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... al. (1997) for 1951-1 995. Annual mean station pressure was found to have increased ... over several specific areas of China (Fig. id): the northwest, the extreme south (the ...

  8. NREL Theory Establishes a Path to High-Performance 2D Semiconductor Devices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - News Releases | NREL Theory Establishes a Path to High-Performance 2D Semiconductor Devices April 22, 2016 Researchers at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have uncovered a way to overcome a principal obstacle in using two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors in electronic and optoelectronic devices. 2D semiconductors such as molybdenum disulfide are only a few layers thick and are considered promising candidates for next-generation devices. Scientists first

  9. Order Module--DOE O 425.1D, VERIFICATION OF READINESS TO START UP OR

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RESTART NUCLEAR FACILITIES | Department of Energy 5.1D, VERIFICATION OF READINESS TO START UP OR RESTART NUCLEAR FACILITIES Order Module--DOE O 425.1D, VERIFICATION OF READINESS TO START UP OR RESTART NUCLEAR FACILITIES "The familiar level of this module is divided into three sections. In the first section we will discuss the purpose of DOE O 425.1D and the requirements for 1) determining the level of readiness review (RR), 2) determining the startup authorization authority (SAA), and

  10. D{sup 0}, D{sup +}, D{sub s}{sup +}, and {lambda}{sub c}{sup +} fragmentation functions from CERN LEP1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kniehl, Bernd A.; Kramer, Gustav

    2005-05-01

    We present new sets of nonperturbative fragmentation functions for D{sup 0}, D{sup +}, and D{sub s}{sup +} mesons as well as for {lambda}{sub c}{sup +} baryons, both at leading and next-to-leading order in the MS factorization scheme with five massless quark flavors. They are determined by fitting data of e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation taken by the OPAL Collaboration at CERN LEP1. We take the charm-quark fragmentation function to be of the form proposed by Peterson et al. and thus obtain new values of the {epsilon}{sub c} parameter, which are specific for our choice of factorization scheme.

  11. Measurement of Time-Dependent CP Asymmetries and the CP-Odd Fraction in the Decay B0->D*+D*-

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2005-07-06

    We present an updated measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries and the CP-odd fraction in the decay B{sup 0} D*{sup +}D*{sup -} using 232 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory. We determine the CP-odd fraction to be 0.125 {+-} 0.044(stat) {+-} 0.007(syst). The time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters C{sub +} and S{sub +} are determined to be 0.06 {+-} 0.17(stat) {+-} 0.03(syst) and -0.75 {+-} 0.25(stat) {+-} 0.03(syst), respectively. The Standard Model predicts these parameters to be 0 and -sin2{beta}, respectively, in the absence of penguin amplitude contributions.

  12. BOXER: Fine-flux Cross Section Condensation, 2D Few Group Diffusion and Transport Burnup Calculations

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-02-01

    Neutron transport, calculation of multiplication factor and neutron fluxes in 2-D configurations: cell calculations, 2-D diffusion and transport, and burnup. Preparation of a cross section library for the code BOXER from a basic library in ENDF/B format (ETOBOX).

  13. 110th Congress 2D Session H.R. 5746 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    10th Congress 2D Session H.R. 5746 110th Congress 2D Session H.R. 5746 To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to establish the infrastructure hr_5746.pdf (60.24 KB) More Documents & Publications ENERGY POLICY ACT OF 2005 Energy Policy Act of 2005 Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act - December 17, 2004

  14. Order Module--DOE O 425.1D, VERIFICATION OF READINESS TO START...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In the first section we will discuss the purpose of DOE O 425.1D and the requirements for 1) determining the level of readiness review (RR), 2) determining the startup ...

  15. Structural resistance of chemically modified 1-D nanostructured titanates in inorganic acid environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinkovic, Bojan A.; Fredholm, Yann C.; Morgado, Edisson

    2010-10-15

    Sodium containing one-dimensional nanostructured layered titanates (1-D NSLT) were produced both from commercial anatase powder and Brazilian natural rutile mineral sands by alkali hydrothermal process. The 1-D NSLT were chemically modified with proton, cobalt or iron via ionic exchange and all products were additionally submitted to intensive inorganic acid aging (pH = 0.5) for 28 days. The morphology and crystal structure transformations of chemically modified 1-D NSLT were followed by transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, selected area electron diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy. It was found that the original sodium rich 1-D NSLT and cobalt substituted 1-D NSLT were completely converted to rutile nanoparticles, while the protonated form was transformed in a 70%-30% (by weight) anatase-rutile nanoparticles mixture, very similar to that of the well-known TiO{sub 2}-photocatalyst P25 (Degussa). The iron substituted 1-D NSLT presented better acid resistance as 13% of the original structure and morphology remained, the rest being converted in rutile. A significant amount of remaining 1-D NSLT was also observed after the acid treatment of the product obtained from rutile sand. The results showed that phase transformation of NSLT into titanium dioxide polymorph in inorganic acid conditions were controllable by varying the exchanged cations. Finally, the possibility to transform, through acid aging, 1-D NSLT obtained from Brazilian natural rutile sand into TiO{sub 2}-polymorphs was demonstrated for the first time to the best of authors' knowledge, opening path for producing TiO{sub 2}-nanoproducts with different morphologies through a simple process and from a low cost precursor.

  16. Order Module--DOE O 414.1D, QUALITY ASSURANCE | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    14.1D, QUALITY ASSURANCE Order Module--DOE O 414.1D, QUALITY ASSURANCE "To ensure that DOE, including NNSA, products and services meet or exceed customers' requirements and expectations. To achieve quality for all work based upon the following principles: All work, as defined in this Order, is conducted through an integrated and effective management system. Management support for planning, organization, resources, direction, and control is essential to quality assurance (QA). Performance

  17. GEO2D - Two-Dimensional Computer Model of a Ground Source Heat Pump System

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    James Menart

    2013-06-07

    This file contains a zipped file that contains many files required to run GEO2D. GEO2D is a computer code for simulating ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems in two-dimensions. GEO2D performs a detailed finite difference simulation of the heat transfer occurring within the working fluid, the tube wall, the grout, and the ground. Both horizontal and vertical wells can be simulated with this program, but it should be noted that the vertical wall is modeled as a single tube. This program also models the heat pump in conjunction with the heat transfer occurring. GEO2D simulates the heat pump and ground loop as a system. Many results are produced by GEO2D as a function of time and position, such as heat transfer rates, temperatures and heat pump performance. On top of this information from an economic comparison between the geothermal system simulated and a comparable air heat pump systems or a comparable gas, oil or propane heating systems with a vapor compression air conditioner. The version of GEO2D in the attached file has been coupled to the DOE heating and cooling load software called ENERGYPLUS. This is a great convenience for the user because heating and cooling loads are an input to GEO2D. GEO2D is a user friendly program that uses a graphical user interface for inputs and outputs. These make entering data simple and they produce many plotted results that are easy to understand. In order to run GEO2D access to MATLAB is required. If this program is not available on your computer you can download the program MCRInstaller.exe, the 64 bit version, from the MATLAB website or from this geothermal depository. This is a free download which will enable you to run GEO2D..

  18. TOPAZ2D heat transfer code users manual and thermal property data base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, A.B.; Edwards, A.L.

    1990-05-01

    TOPAZ2D is a two dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. This user's manual provides information on the structure of a TOPAZ2D input file. Also included is a material thermal property data base. This manual is supplemented with The TOPAZ2D Theoretical Manual and the TOPAZ2D Verification Manual. TOPAZ2D has been implemented on the CRAY, SUN, and VAX computers. TOPAZ2D can be used to solve for the steady state or transient temperature field on two dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. Time or temperature dependent internal heat generation can be defined locally be element or globally by material. TOPAZ2D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermally controlled reactive chemical mixtures, thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluid flow, phase change, and energy balances. Thermal stresses can be calculated using the solid mechanics code NIKE2D which reads the temperature state data calculated by TOPAZ2D. A three dimensional version of the code, TOPAZ3D is available. The material thermal property data base, Chapter 4, included in this manual was originally published in 1969 by Art Edwards for use with his TRUMP finite difference heat transfer code. The format of the data has been altered to be compatible with TOPAZ2D. Bob Bailey is responsible for adding the high explosive thermal property data.

  19. KIVA: a comprehensive model for 2D and 3D engine simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amsden, A.A.; Butler, T.D.; O'Rourke, P.J.; Ramshaw, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes a comprehensive numerical model that represents the spray dynamics, fluid flow, species transport, mixing, chemical reactions, and accompanying heat release that occur inside the cylinder of an internal combustion engine. The model is embodied in the KIVA computer code. The code calculates both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) situations. It is an outgrowth of the earlier 2D CONCHAS-SPRAY computer program. Sample numerical calculations are presented to indicate the level of detail that is available from these simulations. These calculations are for a direct injection stratified charge engine with swirl. Both a 2D and a 3D example are shown.

  20. 2D electron density profile measurement in tokamak by laser-accelerated ion-beam probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y. H.; Yang, X. Y.; Lin, C. E-mail: cjxiao@pku.edu.cn; Wang, X. G.; Xiao, C. J. E-mail: cjxiao@pku.edu.cn; Wang, L.; Xu, M.

    2014-11-15

    A new concept of Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic has been proposed, of which the key is to replace the electrostatic accelerator of traditional HIBP by a laser-driven ion accelerator. Due to the large energy spread of ions, the laser-accelerated HIBP can measure the two-dimensional (2D) electron density profile of tokamak plasma. In a preliminary simulation, a 2D density profile was reconstructed with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm, and with the error below 15% in the core region. Diagnostics of 2D density fluctuation is also discussed.

  1. Application of 2D VSP Imaging Technology to the Targeting of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    phones on a fiber optic wireline system coupled to a high-volume data acquisition system. A vibroseis source will be recorded along the 2D profiles with offsets up to...

  2. Small-Angle Shubnikov-de Haas Measurements in a 2D Electron System...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Small-Angle Shubnikov-de Haas Measurements in a 2D Electron System: The Effect of a Strong ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ...

  3. Fabrication and applications of sub-micron 2D and 3D periodic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In-Document Search Title: Fabrication and applications of sub-micron 2D and 3D periodic carbon structures. Abstract not provided. Authors: Burckel, David Bruce ; Polsky, Ronen ;...

  4. Ti3CrCu4: A possible 2-D ferromagnetic spin fluctuating system...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ti3CrCu4: A possible 2-D ferromagnetic spin fluctuating system Title: Ti3CrCu4: A possible ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Free ...

  5. A New Family Member for 2D Nanomaterials | U.S. DOE Office of...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    ... Unlike other 2D materials, the hybrid perovskite sheets have an unusual atomic-scale ... Source (grazing-incidence wide-angle x-ray scattering), DOE Office of Science User ...

  6. Status Update on Action 2d: Discussion of DEAR ISM Clause in DOE Contracts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Status Update on Action 2d: Discussion of DEAR ISM Clause in DOE Contracts Status Update on Action 2d: Discussion of DEAR ISM Clause in DOE Contracts Addthis Description Slide Presentation by Patricia Worthington, PhD, Director Office of Health and Safety, Office of Health Safety and Security. Regulatory Aspects of ISM--Evaluating current ISM clause in DOE Contracts

  7. Caffeine increases striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the human brain

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G. -J.; Logan, J.; Alexoff, D.; Fowler, J. S.; Thanos, P. K.; Wong, C.; Casado, V.; Ferre, S.; Tomasi, D.

    2015-04-14

    Caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, is used to promote wakefulness and enhance alertness. Like other wake-promoting drugs (stimulants and modafinil), caffeine enhances dopamine (DA) signaling in the brain, which it does predominantly by antagonizing adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). However, it is unclear if caffeine, at the doses consumed by humans, increases DA release or whether it modulates the functions of postsynaptic DA receptors through its interaction with adenosine receptors, which modulate them. We used positron emission tomography and [11C]raclopride (DA D2/D3 receptor radioligand sensitive to endogenous DA) to assess if caffeine increased DA release inmore » striatum in 20 healthy controls. Caffeine (300mg p.o.) significantly increased the availability of D2/D3 receptors in putamen and ventral striatum, but not in caudate, when compared with placebo. In addition, caffeine-induced increases in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum were associated with caffeine-induced increases in alertness. Our findings indicate that in the human brain, caffeine, at doses typically consumed, increases the availability of DA D2/D3 receptors, which indicates that caffeine does not increase DA in the striatum for this would have decreased D2/D3 receptor availability. Instead, we interpret our findings to reflect an increase in D2/D3 receptor levels in striatum with caffeine (or changes in affinity). Furthermore, the association between increases in D2/D3 receptor availability in ventral striatum and alertness suggests that caffeine might enhance arousal, in part, by upregulating D2/D3 receptors.« less

  8. SENSIT-2D: a two-dimensional cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty analysis code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Embrechts, M.J.

    1982-10-01

    SENSIT-2D is a computer program that calculates the sensitivity and/or uncertainty for an integral response (e.g., heating, radiation damage), obtained from the two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport code TRIDENT-CTR, to the cross sections and cross-section uncertainties. A design-sensitivity option allows one to calculate the integral response when the cross sections in certain regions are changed. A secondary-energy-distribution sensitivity- and uncertainty-analysis capability is included. SENSIT-2D incorporates all the essential features of TRIDENT-CTR (r,z geometry option, triangular mesh, nonorthogonal boundaries, group-dependent quadrature sets) and is aimed at the needs of the fusion community. The structure of SENSIT-2D is similar to the structure of the SENSIT code, a one-dimensional sensitivity- and uncertainty-analysis code. This report covers the theory used in SENSIT-2D, outlines the code structure, and gives detailed input specifications. Where appropriate, parts of the SENSIT report are taken over in this write-up. Two sample problems which illustrate the use of SENSIT-2D are explained.

  9. The Benefits of 3D vs. 2D Analysis | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Benefits of 3D vs. 2D Analysis Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) The Benefits of 3D vs. 2D Analysis Vin Smentkowski 2015.05.20 I am a research chemist and my field of research is surface characterization using a technique called Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). About a decade ago,

  10. PROJECT PROFILE: 2D Materials for Low Cost Epitaxial Growth of Single Sun

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Photovoltaics | Department of Energy 2D Materials for Low Cost Epitaxial Growth of Single Sun Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Photovoltaics PROJECT PROFILE: 2D Materials for Low Cost Epitaxial Growth of Single Sun Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Photovoltaics Funding Opportunity: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Photovoltaics Location: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO SunShot Award Amount: $125,000 Low-cost III-V cells will result in a breakthrough in photovoltaic (PV)

  11. 2D numerical simulation of the MEP energy-transport model with a finite difference scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romano, V. . E-mail: romano@dmi.unict.it

    2007-02-10

    A finite difference scheme of Scharfetter-Gummel type is used to simulate a consistent energy-transport model for electron transport in semiconductors devices, free of any fitting parameters, formulated on the basis of the maximum entropy principle. Simulations of silicon n{sup +}-n-n{sup +} diodes, 2D-MESFET and 2D-MOSFET and comparisons with the results obtained by a direct simulation of the Boltzmann transport equation and with other energy-transport models, known in the literature, show the validity of the model and the robustness of the numerical scheme.

  12. Preliminary 3d depth migration of a network of 2d seismic lines for fault

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    imaging at a Pyramid Lake, Nevada geothermal prospect (Conference) | SciTech Connect Preliminary 3d depth migration of a network of 2d seismic lines for fault imaging at a Pyramid Lake, Nevada geothermal prospect Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preliminary 3d depth migration of a network of 2d seismic lines for fault imaging at a Pyramid Lake, Nevada geothermal prospect Roxanna Frary, John N. Louie, Sathish Pullammanappallil, Amy Eisses, 2011, Preliminary 3d depth migration of a

  13. 1-D seismic velocity model and hypocenter relocation using double difference method around West Papua region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabtaji, Agung E-mail: agung.sabtaji@bmkg.go.id; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-24

    West Papua region has fairly high of seismicity activities due to tectonic setting and many inland faults. In addition, the region has a unique and complex tectonic conditions and this situation lead to high potency of seismic hazard in the region. The precise earthquake hypocenter location is very important, which could provide high quality of earthquake parameter information and the subsurface structure in this region to the society. We conducted 1-D P-wave velocity using earthquake data catalog from BMKG for April, 2009 up to March, 2014 around West Papua region. The obtained 1-D seismic velocity then was used as input for improving hypocenter location using double-difference method. The relocated hypocenter location shows fairly clearly the pattern of intraslab earthquake beneath New Guinea Trench (NGT). The relocated hypocenters related to the inland fault are also observed more focus in location around the fault.

  14. Slice imaging of nitric acid photodissociation: The O({sup 1}D) + HONO channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herath, Nuradhika; Everhart, Stephanie C.; Suits, Arthur G.; Vasyuntinskii, Oleg S.

    2011-01-21

    We report an imaging study of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) photodissociation near 204 nm with detection of O({sup 1}D), one of the major decomposition products in this region. The images show structure reflecting the vibrational distribution of the HONO coproduct and significant angular anisotropy that varies with recoil speed. The images also show substantial alignment of the O({sup 1}D) orbital, which is analyzed using an approximate treatment that reveals that the polarization is dominated by incoherent, high order contributions. The results offer additional insight into the dynamics of the dissociation of nitric acid through the S{sub 3} (2 {sup 1}A{sup '}) excited state, resolving an inconsistency in previously reported angular distributions, and pointing the way to future studies of the angular momentum polarization.

  15. Membranes having aligned 1-D nanoparticles in a matrix layer for improved fluid separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Revanur, Ravindra; Lulevich, Valentin; Roh, Il Juhn; Klare, Jennifer E.; Kim, Sangil; Noy, Aleksandr; Bakajin, Olgica

    2015-12-22

    Membranes for fluid separation are disclosed. These membranes have a matrix layer sandwiched between an active layer and a porous support layer. The matrix layer includes 1-D nanoparticles that are vertically aligned in a porous polymer matrix, and which substantially extend through the matrix layer. The active layer provides species-specific transport, while the support layer provides mechanical support. A matrix layer of this type has favorable surface morphology for forming the active layer. Furthermore, the pores that form in the matrix layer tend to be smaller and more evenly distributed as a result of the presence of aligned 1-D nanoparticles. Improved performance of separation membranes of this type is attributed to these effects.

  16. Software Quality Assurance Guide for Use with DOE O 414.1D, Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-02-04

    The revision to DOE G 414.1-4 will conform to the revised DOE O 414.1D and incorporate new information and lessons learned since 2005, including information gained as a result of the February 2011, Government Accountability Office (GAO) report, GAO-11-143 NUCLEAR WASTE: DOE Needs a Comprehensive Strategy and Guidance on Computer Models that Support Environmental Cleanup Decisions.

  17. Development of a hybrid deterministic/stochastic method for 1D nuclear reactor kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terlizzi, Stefano; Dulla, Sandra; Ravetto, Piero; Rahnema, Farzad; Zhang, Dingkang

    2015-12-31

    A new method has been implemented for solving the time-dependent neutron transport equation efficiently and accurately. This is accomplished by coupling the hybrid stochastic-deterministic steady-state coarse-mesh radiation transport (COMET) method [1,2] with the new predictor-corrector quasi-static method (PCQM) developed at Politecnico di Torino [3]. In this paper, the coupled method is implemented and tested in 1D slab geometry.

  18. Intercalation of organic molecules in 2D copper (II) nitroprusside: Intermolecular interactions and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osiry, H.; Cano, A.; Lemus-Santana, A.A.; Rodríguez, A.; Carbonio, R.E.; Reguera, E.

    2015-10-15

    This contribution discusses the intercalation of imidazole and its 2-ethyl derivative, and pyridine in 2D copper nitroprusside. In the interlayer region, neighboring molecules remain interacting throu gh their dipole and quadrupole moments, which supports the solid 3D crystal structure. The crystal structure of this series of intercalation compounds was solved and refined from powder X-ray diffraction patterns complemented with spectroscopic information. The intermolecular interactions were studied from the refined crystal structures and low temperature magnetic measurements. Due to strong attractive forces between neighboring molecules, the resulting π–π cloud overlapping enables the ferromagnetic coupling between metal centers on neighboring layers, which was actually observed for the solids containing imidazole and pyridine as intercalated molecules. For these two solids, the magnetic data were properly described with a model of six neighbors. For the solid containing 2-ethylimidazole and for 2D copper nitroprusside, a model of four neighbors in a plane is sufficient to obtain a reliable data fitting. - Highlights: • Intercalation of organic molecules in 2D copper (II) nitroprusside. • Molecular properties of intercalation compounds of 2D copper (II) nitroprusside. • Magnetic properties of hybrid inorganic–organic solids. • Hybrid inorganic–organic 3D framework.

  19. 2D-Raman-THz spectroscopy: A sensitive test of polarizable water models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamm, Peter

    2014-11-14

    In a recent paper, the experimental 2D-Raman-THz response of liquid water at ambient conditions has been presented [J. Savolainen, S. Ahmed, and P. Hamm, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110, 20402 (2013)]. Here, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations are performed with the goal to reproduce the experimental results. To that end, the molecular response functions are calculated in a first step, and are then convoluted with the laser pulses in order to enable a direct comparison with the experimental results. The molecular dynamics simulation are performed with several different water models: TIP4P/2005, SWM4-NDP, and TL4P. As polarizability is essential to describe the 2D-Raman-THz response, the TIP4P/2005 water molecules are amended with either an isotropic or a anisotropic polarizability a posteriori after the molecular dynamics simulation. In contrast, SWM4-NDP and TL4P are intrinsically polarizable, and hence the 2D-Raman-THz response can be calculated in a self-consistent way, using the same force field as during the molecular dynamics simulation. It is found that the 2D-Raman-THz response depends extremely sensitively on details of the water model, and in particular on details of the description of polarizability. Despite the limited time resolution of the experiment, it could easily distinguish between various water models. Albeit not perfect, the overall best agreement with the experimental data is obtained for the TL4P water model.

  20. Inspection design using 2D phased array, TFM and cueMAP software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGilp, Ailidh; Dziewierz, Jerzy; Lardner, Tim; Mackersie, John; Gachagan, Anthony

    2014-02-18

    A simulation suite, cueMAP, has been developed to facilitate the design of inspection processes and sparse 2D array configurations. At the core of cueMAP is a Total Focusing Method (TFM) imaging algorithm that enables computer assisted design of ultrasonic inspection scenarios, including the design of bespoke array configurations to match the inspection criteria. This in-house developed TFM code allows for interactive evaluation of image quality indicators of ultrasonic imaging performance when utilizing a 2D phased array working in FMC/TFM mode. The cueMAP software uses a series of TFM images to build a map of resolution, contrast and sensitivity of imaging performance of a simulated reflector, swept across the inspection volume. The software takes into account probe properties, wedge or water standoff, and effects of specimen curvature. In the validation process of this new software package, two 2D arrays have been evaluated on 304n stainless steel samples, typical of the primary circuit in nuclear plants. Thick section samples have been inspected using a 1MHz 2D matrix array. Due to the processing efficiency of the software, the data collected from these array configurations has been used to investigate the influence sub-aperture operation on inspection performance.

  1. Probing the Quantum State of a 1D Bose Gas Using Off-Resonant Light Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sykes, A. G.; Ballagh, R. J.

    2011-12-30

    We present a theoretical treatment of coherent light scattering from an interacting 1D Bose gas at finite temperatures. We show how this can provide a nondestructive measurement of the atomic system states. The equilibrium states are determined by the temperature and interaction strength, and are characterized by the spatial density-density correlation function. We show how this correlation function is encoded in the angular distribution of the fluctuations of the scattered light intensity, thus providing a sensitive, quantitative probe of the density-density correlation function and therefore the quantum state of the gas.

  2. Exponentially-convergent Monte Carlo for the 1-D transport equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, J. R.; Morel, J. E.; Ragusa, J. C.

    2013-07-01

    We define a new exponentially-convergent Monte Carlo method for solving the one-speed 1-D slab-geometry transport equation. This method is based upon the use of a linear discontinuous finite-element trial space in space and direction to represent the transport solution. A space-direction h-adaptive algorithm is employed to restore exponential convergence after stagnation occurs due to inadequate trial-space resolution. This methods uses jumps in the solution at cell interfaces as an error indicator. Computational results are presented demonstrating the efficacy of the new approach. (authors)

  3. Thermal Conductivity and Thermopower near the 2D Metal-Insulator transition, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SARACHIK, MYRIAM P

    2015-02-20

    STUDIES OF STRONGLY-INTERACTING 2D ELECTRON SYSTEMS – There is a great deal of current interest in the properties of systems in which the interaction between electrons (their potential energy) is large compared to their kinetic energy. We have investigated an apparent, unexpected metal-insulator transition inferred from the behavior of the temperature-dependence of the resistivity; moreover, detailed analysis of the behavior of the magnetoresistance suggests that the electrons’ effective mass diverges, supporting this scenario. Whether this is a true phase transition or crossover behavior has been strenuously debated over the past 20 years. Our measurements have now shown that the thermoelectric power of these 2D materials diverges at a finite density, providing clear evidence that this is, in fact, a phase transition to a new low-density phase which may be a precursor or a direct transition to the long sought-after electronic crystal predicted by Eugene Wigner in 1934.

  4. Fano-type coupling of a bound paramagnetic state with 2D continuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozhansky, I. V.; Averkiev, N. S.; Lhderanta, E.

    2013-12-04

    We analyze an effect of a bound impurity state located at a tunnel distance from a quantum well (QW). The study is focused on the resonance case when the bound state energy lies within the continuum of the QW states. Using the developed theory we calculate spin polarization of 2D holes induced by paramagnetic (Mn) delta-layer in the vicinity of the QW and indirect exchange interaction between two impurities located at a tunnel distance from electron gas.

  5. Digital Transfer Growth of Patterned 2D Metal Chalcogenides by Confined Nanoparticle Evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Tian, Mengkun; Wang, Kai; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; McGuire, Michael A.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Xiao, Kai; Eres, Gyula; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David B.

    2014-10-19

    Developing methods for the facile synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) metal chalcogenides and other layered materials is crucial for emerging applications in functional devices. Controlling the stoichiometry, number of the layers, crystallite size, growth location, and areal uniformity is challenging in conventional vapor phase synthesis. Here, we demonstrate a new route to control these parameters in the growth of metal chalcogenide (GaSe) and dichalcogenide (MoSe2) 2D crystals by precisely defining the mass and location of the source materials in a confined transfer growth system. A uniform and precise amount of stoichiometric nanoparticles are first synthesized and deposited onto a substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature. This source substrate is then covered with a receiver substrate to form a confined vapor transport growth (VTG) system. By simply heating the source substrate in an inert background gas, a natural temperature gradient is formed that evaporates the confined nanoparticles to grow large, crystalline 2D nanosheets on the cooler receiver substrate, the temperature of which is controlled by the background gas pressure. Large monolayer crystalline domains (~ 100 m lateral sizes) of GaSe and MoSe2 are demonstrated, as well as continuous monolayer films through the deposition of additional precursor materials. This novel PLD-VTG synthesis and processing method offers a unique approach for the controlled growth of large-area, metal chalcogenides with a controlled number of layers in patterned growth locations for optoelectronics and energy related applications.

  6. Low-dimensional systems investigated by x-ray absorption spectroscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Low-dimensional systems investigated by x-ray absorption spectroscopy: a selection of 2D, 1D and 0D cases Authors: Mino, Lorenzo ; Agostini, Giovanni ; Borfecchia, Elisa ; ...

  7. Lysophospholipid presentation by CD1d and recognition by a human Natural Killer T-cell receptor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    López-Sagaseta, Jacinto; Sibener, Leah V.; Kung, Jennifer E.; Gumperz, Jenny; Adams, Erin J.

    2014-10-02

    Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells use highly restricted {alpha}{beta} T cell receptors (TCRs) to probe the repertoire of lipids presented by CD1d molecules. Here, we describe our studies of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) presentation by human CD1d and its recognition by a native, LPC-specific iNKT TCR. Human CD1d presenting LPC adopts an altered conformation from that of CD1d presenting glycolipid antigens, with a shifted {alpha}1 helix resulting in an open A pocket. Binding of the iNKT TCR requires a 7-{angstrom} displacement of the LPC headgroup but stabilizes the CD1d-LPC complex in a closed conformation. The iNKT TCR CDR loop footprint on CD1d-LPC is anchored by the conserved positioning of the CDR3{alpha} loop, whereas the remaining CDR loops are shifted, due in part to amino-acid differences in the CDR3{beta} and J{beta} segment used by this iNKT TCR. These findings provide insight into how lysophospholipids are presented by human CD1d molecules and how this complex is recognized by some, but not all, human iNKT cells.

  8. Markov Chain Monte Carlo Sampling Methods for 1D Seismic and EM Data Inversion

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-09-22

    This software provides several Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling methods for the Bayesian model developed for inverting 1D marine seismic and controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data. The current software can be used for individual inversion of seismic AVO and CSEM data and for joint inversion of both seismic and EM data sets. The structure of the software is very general and flexible, and it allows users to incorporate their own forward simulation codes and rockmore » physics model codes easily into this software. Although the softwae was developed using C and C++ computer languages, the user-supplied codes can be written in C, C++, or various versions of Fortran languages. The software provides clear interfaces for users to plug in their own codes. The output of this software is in the format that the R free software CODA can directly read to build MCMC objects.« less

  9. (p,. cap alpha. ) reactions on 1p, 2s-1d shell nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pellegrini, F.; Trivisonno, D.; Avon, S.; Bianchin, R.; Rui, R.

    1983-07-01

    The /sup 12/C(p,..cap alpha..)/sup 9/B and /sup 32/S(p,..cap alpha..)/sup 29/P reactions have been studied at incident energies of 42.77 and 41.9 MeV, respectively. The experimental (p,..cap alpha..) relative cross sections are well reproduced by distorted wave direct pickup calculations with a semimicroscopic form factor and current shell model wave functions. A comparison between (p,..cap alpha..) and (/sup 3/He,d) spectra on 1p and 2s-1d shell nuclei, leading to the same final nucleus, shows a clear evidence of a dominant pickup process over the knockout mechanism in the dynamics of the (p,..cap alpha..) reaction.

  10. Survey of Multi-Material Closure Models in 1D Lagrangian Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maeng, Jungyeoul Brad; Hyde, David Andrew Bulloch

    2015-07-28

    Accurately treating the coupled sub-cell thermodynamics of computational cells containing multiple materials is an inevitable problem in hydrodynamics simulations, whether due to initial configurations or evolutions of the materials and computational mesh. When solving the hydrodynamics equations within a multi-material cell, we make the assumption of a single velocity field for the entire computational domain, which necessitates the addition of a closure model to attempt to resolve the behavior of the multi-material cells’ constituents. In conjunction with a 1D Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, we present a variety of both the popular as well as more recently proposed multi-material closure models and survey their performances across a spectrum of examples. We consider standard verification tests as well as practical examples using combinations of fluid, solid, and composite constituents within multi-material mixtures. Our survey provides insights into the advantages and disadvantages of various multi-material closure models in different problem configurations.

  11. 1D GAS-DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF SHOCK-WAVE PROCESSES VIA INTERNET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khishchenko, K. V.; Levashov, P. R.; Povarnitsyn, M. E.; Zakharenkov, A. S.

    2009-12-28

    We present a Web-interface for 1D simulation of different shock-wave experiments. The choosing of initial parameters, the modeling itself and output data treatment can be made directly via the Internet. The interface is based upon the expert system on shock-wave data and equations of state and contains both the Eulerian and Lagrangian Godunov hydrocodes. The availability of equations of state for a broad set of substances makes this system a useful tool for planning and interpretation of shock-wave experiments. As an example of simulation with the system, results of modeling of multistep shock loading of potassium between polytetrafluoroethylene and stainless steel plates are presented in comparison with experimental data from Shakhray et al.(2005).

  12. Characterization and thermal stability of cobalt-modified 1-D nanostructured trititanates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgado, Edisson; Abreu, Marco A.S. de

    2009-01-15

    One-dimensional (1-D) nanostructured sodium trititanates were obtained via alkali hydrothermal method and modified with cobalt via ion exchange at different Co concentrations. The resulting cobalt-modified trititanate nanostructures (Co-TTNS) were characterized by TGA, XRD, TEM/SAED, DRS-UV-Vis and N{sub 2} adsorption techniques. Their general chemical formula was estimated as Na{sub x}Co{sub y/2}H{sub 2-x-y}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}.nH{sub 2}O and they maintained the same nanostructured and multilayered nature of the sodium precursor, with the growth direction of nanowires and nanotubes along [010]. As a consequence of the Co{sup 2+} incorporation replacing sodium between trititanate layers, two new diffraction lines became prominent and the interlayer distance was reduced with respect to that of the precursor sodium trititanate. Surface area was slightly increased with cobalt intake whereas pore size distribution was hardly affected. Besides, Co{sup 2+} incorporation in trititanate crystal structure also resulted in enhanced visible light photon absorption as indicated by a strong band-gap narrowing. Morphological and structural thermal transformations of Co-TTNS started nearly 400 deg. C in air and the final products after calcination at 800 deg. C were found to be composed of TiO{sub 2}-rutile, CoTiO{sub 3} and a bronze-like phase with general formula Na{sub 2x}Ti{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}O{sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: Co{sup 2+} incorporation in 1D-trititanate crystal nanostructure (Co-TTNS) causes reduction in interlayer distance by comparison with its sodium precursor (Na-TTNS) and leads to enhanced visible light photon absorption efficiency due to a strong band-gap narrowing.

  13. Designing of sparse 2D arrays for Lamb wave imaging using coarray concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ambrozi?ski, ?ukasz Stepinski, Tadeusz Uhl, Tadeusz

    2015-03-31

    2D ultrasonic arrays have considerable application potential in Lamb wave based SHM systems, since they enable equivocal damage imaging and even in some cases wave-mode selection. Recently, it has been shown that the 2D arrays can be used in SHM applications in a synthetic focusing (SF) mode, which is much more effective than the classical phase array mode commonly used in NDT. The SF mode assumes a single element excitation of subsequent transmitters and off-line processing the acquired data. In the simplest implementation of the technique, only single multiplexed input and output channels are required, which results in significant hardware simplification. Application of the SF mode for 2D arrays creates additional degrees of freedom during the design of the array topology, which complicates the array design process, however, it enables sparse array designs with performance similar to that of the fully populated dense arrays. In this paper we present the coarray concept to facilitate synthesis process of an arrays aperture used in the multistatic synthetic focusing approach in Lamb waves-based imaging systems. In the coherent imaging, performed in the transmit/receive mode, the sum coarray is a morphological convolution of the transmit/receive sub-arrays. It can be calculated as the set of sums of the individual sub-arrays elements locations. The coarray framework will be presented here using a an example of a star-shaped array. The approach will be discussed in terms of beampatterns of the resulting imaging systems. Both simulated and experimental results will be included.

  14. Digital Transfer Growth of Patterned 2D Metal Chalcogenides by Confined Nanoparticle Evaporation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Tian, Mengkun; Wang, Kai; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; McGuire, Michael A.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Xiao, Kai; Eres, Gyula; et al

    2014-10-19

    Developing methods for the facile synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) metal chalcogenides and other layered materials is crucial for emerging applications in functional devices. Controlling the stoichiometry, number of the layers, crystallite size, growth location, and areal uniformity is challenging in conventional vapor phase synthesis. Here, we demonstrate a new route to control these parameters in the growth of metal chalcogenide (GaSe) and dichalcogenide (MoSe2) 2D crystals by precisely defining the mass and location of the source materials in a confined transfer growth system. A uniform and precise amount of stoichiometric nanoparticles are first synthesized and deposited onto a substrate bymore » pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature. This source substrate is then covered with a receiver substrate to form a confined vapor transport growth (VTG) system. By simply heating the source substrate in an inert background gas, a natural temperature gradient is formed that evaporates the confined nanoparticles to grow large, crystalline 2D nanosheets on the cooler receiver substrate, the temperature of which is controlled by the background gas pressure. Large monolayer crystalline domains (~ 100 m lateral sizes) of GaSe and MoSe2 are demonstrated, as well as continuous monolayer films through the deposition of additional precursor materials. This novel PLD-VTG synthesis and processing method offers a unique approach for the controlled growth of large-area, metal chalcogenides with a controlled number of layers in patterned growth locations for optoelectronics and energy related applications.« less

  15. Ground-Based and Airborne (PMS 2-D Probe Canister-Mounted) 183 GHz Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vapor Radiometer Ground-Based and Airborne (PMS 2-D Probe Canister-Mounted) 183 GHz Water Vapor Radiometer Pazmany, Andrew ProSensing Inc. Category: Instruments ProSensing Inc. has developed a G-band (183 GHz, 1.5 mm wavelength) water vapor radiometer (GVR) for the measurement of low concentrations of atmospheric water vapor and liquid water. The instrument's precipitable water vapor measurement precision is approximately 0.01 mm in dry (<2 mm vapor column) conditions. The ground-based

  16. Optical properties of GaAs 2D hexagonal and cubic photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arab, F. Assali, A.; Grain, R.; Kanouni, F.

    2015-03-30

    In this paper we present our theoretical study of 2D hexagonal and cubic rods GaAs in air, with plan wave expansion (PWE) and finite difference time domain (FDTD) by using BandSOLVE and FullWAVE of Rsoft photonic CAD package. In order to investigate the effect of symmetry and radius, we performed calculations of the band structures for both TM and TE polarization, contour and electromagnetic propagation and transmission spectra. Our calculations show that the hexagonal structure gives a largest band gaps compare to cubic one for a same filling factor.

  17. Takes Electric or Magnetic field data through Inversion process a 2D Distributon

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-05-01

    Program images 2D distributions in electrical conductivity for geophysical applications. The program can treat surface based and cross well measurement geometries, including inductive and grounded source antennas in the quasi-static limit. The algorithm using Krylov iterative methods to solve for the predicted data and model sensitivities. The model update is achieved using a Gauss-newton optimization process for stability. A new line search capability is now included in the algorithm to insure global convergence of themore » inversion iteration.« less

  18. Magnetic helicity signature produced by cross-field 2D turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markovskii, S. A.; Vasquez, Bernard J.

    2013-06-13

    Hybrid numerical simulations of freely decaying 2D turbulence are presented. The background magnetic field is perpendicular to the simulation plane, which eliminates linear kinetic Alfven waves from the system. The normalized magnetic helicity of the initial large-scale fluctuations is zero, while the normalized cross-helicity is not. As the turbulence evolves, it develops nonzero magnetic helicity at smaller scales, in the proton kinetic range. In the quasi-steady state of evolution, the magnetic helicity spectrum has a peak consistent with the solar wind observations.

  19. U-152: OpenSSL "asn1_d2i_read_bio()" DER Format Data Processing Vulnerability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The vulnerability is caused due to a type casting error in the "asn1_d2i_read_bio()" function when processing DER format data and can be exploited to cause a heap-based buffer overflow.

  20. Optimizing the transverse thermal conductivity of 2D-SiCf/SiC composites, II. Experimental

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngblood, Gerald E; Senor, David J; Jones, Russell H; Kowbel, W

    2002-12-31

    Model predictions of the transverse thermal conductivity (Keff) are compared to experimentally determined values as a function of temperature for a commercial 2D-SiCf/SiC made by DuPont from plain weave Hi-Nicalon fabric and with an ICVI-SiC matrix. Two versions of the DuPont composite were examined: one with a “thin” and one with a “thick” pyrolytic carbon coating of thickness 0.110 m and 1.044 m, respectively. Generally good agreement of the model predictions with measured values of Keff suggest that these models can be used to predict Keff for composites with various “non-ideal” fiber, interphase and matrix structures. Importantly, the models make it possible to separate the relative component contributions to Keff so that individual component degradation mechanisms can be examined in detail. Then, based on specific knowledge of the component degradation, the models can used to predict Keff-values for composites subjected to irradiation, oxidation, thermal cycling, or other thermal or mechanical stress treatments. Finally, model predictions were examined to suggest specific design and/or development efforts directed to optimize the overall thermal transport performance of 2D-SiCf/SiC.

  1. Nanoscale elastic changes in 2D Ti3C2Tx (MXene) pseudocapacitive electrodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Come, Jeremy; Xie, Yu; Naguib, Michael; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Gogotsi, Yury; Kent, Paul R. C.; Balke, Nina

    2016-02-01

    Designing sustainable electrodes for next generation energy storage devices relies on the understanding of their fundamental properties at the nanoscale, including the comprehension of ions insertion into the electrode and their interactions with the active material. One consequence of ion storage is the change in the electrode volume resulting in mechanical strain and stress that can strongly affect the cycle life. Therefore, it is important to understand the changes of dimensions and mechanical properties occurring during electrochemical reactions. While the characterization of mechanical properties via macroscopic measurements is well documented, in-situ characterization of their evolution has never been achieved atmore » the nanoscale. Two dimensional (2D) carbides, known as MXenes, are promising materials for supercapacitors and various kinds of batteries, and understating the coupling between their mechanical and electrochemical properties is therefore necessary. Here we report on in-situ imaging, combined with density functional theory of the elastic changes, of a 2D titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) electrode in direction normal to the basal plane during cation intercalation. The results show a strong correlation between the Li+ ions content and the elastic modulus, whereas little effects of K+ ions are observed. Moreover, this strategy enables identifying the preferential intercalation pathways within a single particle.« less

  2. Optimizing the transverse thermal conductivity of 2D-SiCf/SiC composites, I. Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngblood, Gerald E.; Senor, David J.; Jones, Russell H.

    2002-12-31

    For potential fusion applications, considerable fabrication efforts have been directed to obtaining transverse thermal conductivity (Keff) values in excess of 30 W/mK (unirradiated) in the 800-1000°C temperature range for 2D-SiCf/SiC composites. To gain insight into the factors affecting Keff, at PNNL we have tested three different analytic models for predicting Keff in terms of constituent (fiber, matrix and interphase) properties. The tested models were: the Hasselman-Johnson (H-J) “2-Cylinder” model, which examines the effects of fiber-matrix (f/m) thermal barriers; the Markworth “3-Cylinder” model, which specifically examines the effects of interphase thickness and thermal conductivity; and a newly-developed Anisotropic “3-Square” model, which examines the potential effect of introducing a fiber coating with anisotropic properties to enhance (or diminish) f/m thermal coupling. The first two models are effective medium models, while the third model is a simple combination of parallel and series conductances. Model predictions suggest specific designs and/or development efforts directed to optimize the overall thermal transport performance of 2D-SiCf/SiC.

  3. Enhanced Absorption in 2D Materials Via Fano- Resonant Photonic Crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Wenyi; Klotz, Andrey; Yang, Yuanmu; Li, Wei; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Briggs, Dayrl P.; Bolotin, Kirill; Valentine, Jason

    2015-05-01

    The use of two-dimensional (2D) materials in optoelectronics has attracted much attention due to their fascinating optical and electrical properties. For instance, graphenebased devices have been employed for applications such as ultrafast and broadband photodetectors and modulators while transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) based photodetectors can be used for ultrasensitive photodetection. However, the low optical absorption of 2D materials arising from their atomic thickness limits the maximum attainable external quantum efficiency. For example, in the visible and NIR regimes monolayer MoS2 and graphene absorb only ~10% and 2.3% of incoming light, respectively. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the use of Fano-resonant photonicmore » crystals to significantly boost absorption in atomically thin materials. Using graphene as a test bed, we demonstrate that absorption in the monolayer thick material can be enhanced to 77% within the telecommunications band, the highest value reported to date. We also show that the absorption in the Fano-resonant structure is non-local, with light propagating up to 16 μm within the structure. This property is particularly beneficial in harvesting light from large areas in field-effect-transistor based graphene photodetectors in which separation of photo-generated carriers only occurs ~0.2 μm adjacent to the graphene/electrode interface.« less

  4. Use of finite volume radiation for predicting the Knudsen minimum in 2D channel flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malhotra, Chetan P.; Mahajan, Roop L.

    2014-12-09

    In an earlier paper we employed an analogy between surface-to-surface radiation and free-molecular flow to model Knudsen flow through tubes and onto planes. In the current paper we extend the analogy between thermal radiation and molecular flow to model the flow of a gas in a 2D channel across all regimes of rarefaction. To accomplish this, we break down the problem of gaseous flow into three sub-problems (self-diffusion, mass-motion and generation of pressure gradient) and use the finite volume method for modeling radiation through participating media to model the transport in each sub-problem as a radiation problem. We first model molecular self-diffusion in the stationary gas by modeling the transport of the molecular number density through the gas starting from the analytical asymptote for free-molecular flow to the kinetic theory limit of gaseous self-diffusion. We then model the transport of momentum through the gas at unit pressure gradient to predict Poiseuille flow and slip flow in the 2D gas. Lastly, we predict the generation of pressure gradient within the gas due to molecular collisions by modeling the transport of the forces generated due to collisions per unit volume of gas. We then proceed to combine the three radiation problems to predict flow of the gas over the entire Knudsen number regime from free-molecular to transition to continuum flow and successfully capture the Knudsen minimum at Kn ? 1.

  5. Results of 0D batch simulations

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... ascent routes for deep-seated gases (Ennis-King and ... L., 2000. Reservoir engineering issues in the geological ... acid gases: modelling of water- rock reactions for ...

  6. Experimental method for laser-driven flyer plates for 1-D shocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D. L.; Luo, S. N.; Swift, D. C.; Loomis, E.; Johnson, R.; Greenfield, S.; Peralta, P.; Koskelo, A.; Tonks, D.

    2007-12-12

    One-dimensional shocks can be generated by impacting flyer plates accelerated to terminal velocities by a confined laser-ablated plasma. Over the past few years, we have developed this capability with our facility-size laser, TRIDENT, capable of {>=}500 Joules at multi-microsecond pulse lengths to accelerate 1-D flyer plates, 8-mm diameter by 0.1-2 mm thick. Plates have been accelerated to terminal velocities of 100 to {>=}500 m/s, with full recovery of the flyer and target for post mortem metallography. By properly tailoring the laser temporal and spatial profile, the expanding confined plasma accelerates the plate away from the transparent sapphire substrate, and decouples the laser parameters from shock pressure profile resulting from the plate impact on a target. Since the flyer plate is in free flight on impact with the target, minimal collateral damage occurs to either. The experimental method to launch these plates to terminal velocity, ancillary diagnostics, and representative experimental data is presented.

  7. Adaptive multi-grid method for a periodic heterogeneous medium in 1-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fish, J.; Belsky, V.

    1995-12-31

    A multi-grid method for a periodic heterogeneous medium in 1-D is presented. Based on the homogenization theory special intergrid connection operators have been developed to imitate a low frequency response of the differential equations with oscillatory coefficients. The proposed multi-grid method has been proved to have a fast rate of convergence governed by the ratio q/(4-q), where o

  8. Exfoliation of self-assembled 2D organic-inorganic perovskite semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu, Wendy Baumberg, Jeremy J.; Eiden, Anna; Vijaya Prakash, G.

    2014-04-28

    Ultra-thin flakes of 2D organic-inorganic perovskite (C{sub 6}H{sub 9}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbI{sub 4} are produced using micromechanical exfoliation. Mono- and few-layer areas are identified using optical and atomic force microscopy, with an interlayer spacing of 1.6?nm. Refractive indices extracted from the optical spectra reveal a sample thickness dependence due to the charge transfer between organic and inorganic layers. These measurements demonstrate a clear difference in the exciton properties between bulk (>15 layers) and very thin (<8 layer) regions as a result of the structural rearrangement of organic molecules around the inorganic sheets.

  9. The low frequency 2D vibration sensor based on flat coil element

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djamal, Mitra; Sanjaya, Edi; Islahudin; Ramli

    2012-06-20

    Vibration like an earthquake is a phenomenon of physics. The characteristics of these vibrations can be used as an early warning system so as to reduce the loss or damage caused by earthquakes. In this paper, we introduced a new type of low frequency 2D vibration sensor based on flat coil element that we have developed. Its working principle is based on position change of a seismic mass that put in front of a flat coil element. The flat coil is a part of a LC oscillator; therefore, the change of seismic mass position will change its resonance frequency. The results of measurements of low frequency vibration sensor in the direction of the x axis and y axis gives the frequency range between 0.2 to 1.0 Hz.

  10. Explicitly correlated Gaussian calculations of the {sup 2}D Rydberg states of the boron atom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharkey, Keeper L.; Bubin, Sergiy; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2012-08-14

    Accurate non-relativistic variational calculations are performed for the seven lowest members of the {sup 2}D Rydberg series (1s{sup 2}2s2p{sup 2}, and 1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}nd, n= 3, Horizontal-Ellipsis , 8) of the boron atom. The wave functions of the states are expanded in terms of all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian basis functions and the effect of the finite nuclear mass is directly included in the calculations allowing for determining the isotopic shifts of the energy levels. The Gaussian basis is optimized independently for each state with the aid of the analytic energy gradient with respect to the Gaussian parameters. The calculations represent the highest accuracy level currently achievable for the considered states. The computed energies are compared with the available experimental data.

  11. Models Ion Trajectories in 2D and 3D Electrostatic and Magnetic Fields

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-02-21

    SIMION3D7.0REV is a C based ion optics simulation program that can model complex problems using Laplace equation solutions for potential fields. The program uses an ion optics workbench that can hold up to 200 2D and/or 3D electrostatic/magnetic potential arrays. Arrays can have up to 50,000,000 points. SIMION3D7.0''s 32 bit virtual Graphics User Interface provides a highly interactive advanced user environment. All potential arrays are visualized as 3D objects that the user can cut awaymore » to inspect ion trajectories and potential energy surfaces. User programs allow the user to customize the program for specific simulations. A geometry file option supports the definition of highly complex array geometry. Algorithm modifications have improved this version''s computational speed and accuracy.« less

  12. Disentangling Redshift-Space Distortions and Nonlinear Bias using the 2D Power Spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, Elise; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2015-08-07

    We present the nonlinear 2D galaxy power spectrum, P(k, µ), in redshift space, measured from the Dark Sky simulations, using galaxy catalogs constructed with both halo occupation distribution and subhalo abundance matching methods, chosen to represent an intermediate redshift sample of luminous red galaxies. We find that the information content in individual µ (cosine of the angle to the line of sight) bins is substantially richer then multipole moments, and show that this can be used to isolate the impact of nonlinear growth and redshift space distortion (RSD) effects. Using the µ < 0.2 simulation data, which we show is not impacted by RSD effects, we can successfully measure the nonlinear bias to an accuracy of ~ 5% at k < 0.6hMpc-1 . This use of individual µ bins to extract the nonlinear bias successfully removes a large parameter degeneracy when constraining the linear growth rate of structure. We carry out a joint parameter estimation, using the low µ simulation data to constrain the nonlinear bias, and µ > 0.2 to constrain the growth rate and show that f can be constrained to ~ 26(22)% to a kmax < 0.4(0.6)hMpc-1 from clustering alone using a simple dispersion model, for a range of galaxy models. Our analysis of individual µ bins also reveals interesting physical effects which arise simply from different methods of populating halos with galaxies. We also find a prominent turnaround scale, at which RSD damping effects are greater then the nonlinear growth, which differs not only for each µ bin but also for each galaxy model. These features may provide unique signatures which could be used to shed light on the galaxy–dark matter connection. Furthermore, the idea of separating nonlinear growth and RSD effects making use of the full information in the 2D galaxy power spectrum yields significant improvements in constraining cosmological parameters and may be a promising probe of galaxy formation models.

  13. Delivery of human NKG2D-IL-15 fusion gene by chitosan nanoparticles to enhance antitumor immunity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Chen; Jie, Leng; Yongqi, Wang; Weiming, Xiao; Juqun, Xi; Yanbing, Ding; Li, Qian; Xingyuan, Pan; Mingchun, Ji; Weijuan, Gong

    2015-07-31

    Nanoparticles are becoming promising carriers for gene delivery because of their high capacity in gene loading and low cell cytotoxicity. In this study, a chitosan-based nanoparticle encapsulated within a recombinant pcDNA3.1-dsNKG2D-IL-15 plasmid was generated. The fused dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene fragment consisted of double extracellular domains of NKG2D with IL-15 gene at downstream. The average diameter of the gene nanoparticles ranged from 200 nm to 400 nm, with mean zeta potential value of 53.8 ± 6.56 mV. The nanoparticles which were loaded with the dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene were uptaken by tumor cells with low cytotoxicity. Tumor cells pre-transfected by gene nanopartilces stimulated NK and T cells in vitro. Intramuscular injection of gene nanoparticles suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice through activation of NK and CD8{sup +} T cells. Thus, chitosan-based nanoparticle delivery of dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene vaccine can be potentially used for tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Generation of a nanoparticle for delivery of dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene. • Characterization of the gene nanoparticle. • Antitumor activity mediated by the gene nanoparticle.

  14. Quality assurance of asymmetric jaw alignment using 2D diode array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sun Mo; Yeung, Ivan W. T.; Moseley, Douglas J.; Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: A method using a 2D diode array is proposed to measure the junction gap (or overlap) and dose with high precision for routine quality assurance of the asymmetric jaw alignment.Methods: The central axis (CAX) of the radiation field was determined with a 15 15 cm{sup 2} photon field at four cardinal collimator angles so that the junction gap (or overlap) can be measured with respect to the CAX. Two abutting fields having a field size of 15 cm (length along the axis parallel to the junction) 7.5 cm (width along the axis perpendicular to the junction) were used to irradiate the 2D diode array (MapCHECK2) with 100 MU delivered at the photon energy of 6 MV. The collimator was slightly rotated at 15 with respect to the beam central axis to increase the number of diodes effective on the measurement of junction gap. The junction gap and dose measured in high spatial resolution were compared to the conventional methods using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) and radiochromic film, respectively. In addition, the reproducibility and sensitivity of the proposed method to the measurements of junction gap and dose were investigated.Results: The junction gap (or overlap) and dose measured by MapCHECK2 agreed well to those measured by the conventional methods of EPID and film (the differences ranged from ?0.01 to 0 cm and from ?1.34% to 0.6% for the gap and dose, respectively). No variation in the repeat measurements of the junction gap was found whereas the measurements of junction dose were found to vary in quite a small range over the days of measurement (0.21%0.35%). While the sensitivity of the measured junction gap to the actual junction gap applied was the ideal value of 1 cm/cm as expected, the sensitivity of the junction dose to the actual junction gap increased as the junction gap (or overlap) decreased (maximum sensitivity: 201.7%/cm).Conclusions: The initial results suggest that the method is applicable for a comprehensive quality assurance of

  15. Disentangling Redshift-Space Distortions and Nonlinear Bias using the 2D Power Spectrum

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jennings, Elise; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2015-08-07

    We present the nonlinear 2D galaxy power spectrum, P(k, µ), in redshift space, measured from the Dark Sky simulations, using galaxy catalogs constructed with both halo occupation distribution and subhalo abundance matching methods, chosen to represent an intermediate redshift sample of luminous red galaxies. We find that the information content in individual µ (cosine of the angle to the line of sight) bins is substantially richer then multipole moments, and show that this can be used to isolate the impact of nonlinear growth and redshift space distortion (RSD) effects. Using the µ < 0.2 simulation data, which we show ismore » not impacted by RSD effects, we can successfully measure the nonlinear bias to an accuracy of ~ 5% at k < 0.6hMpc-1 . This use of individual µ bins to extract the nonlinear bias successfully removes a large parameter degeneracy when constraining the linear growth rate of structure. We carry out a joint parameter estimation, using the low µ simulation data to constrain the nonlinear bias, and µ > 0.2 to constrain the growth rate and show that f can be constrained to ~ 26(22)% to a kmax < 0.4(0.6)hMpc-1 from clustering alone using a simple dispersion model, for a range of galaxy models. Our analysis of individual µ bins also reveals interesting physical effects which arise simply from different methods of populating halos with galaxies. We also find a prominent turnaround scale, at which RSD damping effects are greater then the nonlinear growth, which differs not only for each µ bin but also for each galaxy model. These features may provide unique signatures which could be used to shed light on the galaxy–dark matter connection. Furthermore, the idea of separating nonlinear growth and RSD effects making use of the full information in the 2D galaxy power spectrum yields significant improvements in constraining cosmological parameters and may be a promising probe of galaxy formation models.« less

  16. Control of electronic properties of 2D carbides (MXenes) by manipulating their transition metal layers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anasori, Babak; Shi, Chenyang; Moon, Eun Ju; Xie, Yu; Voigt, Cooper A.; Kent, Paul R. C.; May, Steven J.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Barsoum, Michel W.; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-02-24

    In this paper, a transition from metallic to semiconducting-like behavior has been demonstrated in two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides by replacing titanium with molybdenum in the outer transition metal (M) layers of M3C2 and M4C3 MXenes. The MXene structure consists of n + 1 layers of near-close packed M layers with C or N occupying the octahedral site between them in an [MX]nM arrangement. Recently, two new families of ordered 2D double transition metal carbides MXenes were discovered, M'2M"C2 and M'2M"2C3 – where M' and M" are two different early transition metals, such as Mo, Cr, Ta, Nb, V, andmore » Ti. The M' atoms only occupy the outer layers and the M" atoms fill the middle layers. In other words, M' atomic layers sandwich the middle M"–C layers. Using X-ray atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis on Mo2TiC2 and Mo2Ti2C3 MXenes, we present the first quantitative analysis of structures of these novel materials and experimentally confirm that Mo atoms are in the outer layers of the [MC]nM structures. The electronic properties of these Mo-containing MXenes are compared with their Ti3C2 counterparts, and are found to be no longer metallic-like conductors; instead the resistance increases mildly with decreasing temperatures. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that OH terminated Mo–Ti MXenes are semiconductors with narrow band gaps. Measurements of the temperature dependencies of conductivities and magnetoresistances have confirmed that Mo2TiC2Tx exhibits semiconductor-like transport behavior, while Ti3C2Tx is a metal. Finally, this finding opens new avenues for the control of the electronic and optical applications of MXenes and for exploring new applications, in which semiconducting properties are required.« less

  17. Thermally induced formation of 2D hexagonal BN nanoplates with tunable characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nersisyan, Hayk; Lee, Tae-Hyuk; Lee, Kap-Ho; Jeong, Seong-Uk; Kang, Kyung-Soo; Bae, Ki-Kwang; Lee, Jong-Hyeon

    2015-05-15

    We have investigated a thermally induced combustion route for preparing 2D hexagonal BN nanoplates from B{sub 2}O{sub 3}+(3+0.5k)Mg+kNH{sub 4}Cl solid system, for k=1–4 interval. Temperature–time profiles recorded by thermocouples indicated the existence of two sequential exothermic processes in the combustion wave leading to the BN nanoplates formation. The resulting BN nanoplates were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy, PL spectrometry, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis. It was found that B{sub 2}O{sub 3} was converted into BN completely (by XRD) at 1450–1930 °C within tens of seconds in a single-step synthesis process. The BN prepared at a k=1–4 interval comprised well-shaped nanoplates with an average edge length ranging from 50 nm to several micrometer and thickness from 5 to 100 nm. The specific surface area of BN nanoplates was 13.7 g/m{sup 2} for k=2 and 28.4 m{sup 2}/g for k=4. - Graphical abstract: 2D hexagonal BN nanoplates with an average edge length ranging from 50 nm to several micrometer and thickness from 5 to 100 nm were prepared by combustion of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}+(3+0.5k)Mg+kNH{sub 4}Cl solid mixture in nitrogen atmosphere. - Highlights: • Thermally induced combustion route was developed for synthesizing BN nanoplates from B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Mg was used as reductive agent and NH{sub 4}Cl as an effective nitrogen source. • Temperature–time profiles and the combustion parameters were recorded and discussed. • BN with an average edge length from 50 nm to several micrometer and thickness from 5 to 100 nm were prepared. • Our study clarifies the formation mechanism of BN in the combustion wave.

  18. PRONTO 2D: A two-dimensional transient solid dynamics program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, L.M.; Flanagan, D.P.

    1987-03-01

    PRONTO 2D is a two-dimensional transient solid dynamics code for analyzing large deformations of highly nonlinear materials subjected to extremely high strain rates. This Lagrangian finite element program uses an explicit time integration operator to integrate the equations of motion. Four node uniform strain quadrilateral elements are used in the finite element formulation. A number of new numerical algorithms which have been developed for the code are described in this report. An adaptive time step control algorithm is described which greatly improves stability as well as performance in plasticity problems. A robust hourglass control scheme which eliminates hourglass distortions without disturbing the finite element solution is included. All constitutive models in PRONTO are cast in an unrotated configuration defined using the rotation determined from the polar decomposition of the deformation gradient. An accurate incremental algorithm was developed to determine this rotation and is described in detail. A robust contact algorithm was developed which allows for the impact and interaction of deforming contact surfaces of quite general geometry. A number of numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the utility of these algorithms. 41 refs., 51 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Test Problem: Tilted Rayleigh-Taylor for 2-D Mixing Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, Malcolm J.; Livescu, Daniel; Youngs, David L.

    2012-08-14

    reasonable quality photographic data. The photographs in Figure 2 also reveal the appearance of a boundary layer at the left and right walls; this boundary layer has not been included in the test problem as preliminary calculations suggested it had a negligible effect on plume penetration and RT mixing. The significance of this test problem is that, unlike planar RT experiments such as the Rocket-Rig (Youngs, 1984), Linear Electric Motor - LEM (Dimonte, 1990), or the Water Tunnel (Andrews, 1992), the Tilted-Rig is a unique two-dimensional RT mixing experiment that has experimental data and now (in this TP) Direct Numerical Simulation data from Livescu and Wei. The availability of DNS data for the tilted-rig has made this TP viable as it provides detailed results for comparison purposes. The purpose of the test problem is to provide 3D simulation results, validated by comparison with experiment, which can be used for the development and validation of 2D RANS models. When such models are applied to 2D flows, various physics issues are raised such as double counting, combined buoyancy and shear, and 2-D strain, which have not yet been adequately addressed. The current objective of the test problem is to compare key results, which are needed for RANS model validation, obtained from high-Reynolds number DNS, high-resolution ILES or LES with explicit sub-grid-scale models. The experiment is incompressible and so is directly suitable for algorithms that are designed for incompressible flows (e.g. pressure correction algorithms with multi-grid); however, we have extended the TP so that compressible algorithms, run at low Mach number, may also be used if careful consideration is given to initial pressure fields. Thus, this TP serves as a useful tool for incompressible and compressible simulation codes, and mathematical models. In the remainder of this TP we provide a detailed specification; the next section provides the underlying assumptions for the TP, fluids, geometry details

  20. OECD/MCCI 2-D Core Concrete Interaction (CCI) tests : final report February 28, 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    reactor material database for dry cavity conditions is solely one-dimensional. Although the MACE Scoping Test was carried out with a two-dimensional concrete cavity, the interaction was flooded soon after ablation was initiated to investigate debris coolability. Moreover, due to the scoping nature of this test, the apparatus was minimally instrumented and therefore the results are of limited value from the code validation viewpoint. Aside from the MACE program, the COTELS test series also investigated 2-D CCI under flooded cavity conditions. However, the input power density for these tests was quite high relative to the prototypic case. Finally, the BETA test series provided valuable data on 2-D core concrete interaction under dry cavity conditions, but these tests focused on investigating the interaction of the metallic (steel) phase with concrete. Due to these limitations, there is significant uncertainty in the partition of energy dissipated for the ablation of concrete in the lateral and axial directions under dry cavity conditions for the case of a core oxide melt. Accurate knowledge of this 'power split' is important in the evaluation of the consequences of an ex-vessel severe accident; e.g., lateral erosion can undermine containment structures, while axial erosion can penetrate the basemat, leading to ground contamination and/or possible containment bypass. As a result of this uncertainty, there are still substantial differences among computer codes in the prediction of 2-D cavity erosion behavior under both wet and dry cavity conditions. In light of the above issues, the OECD-sponsored Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction (MCCI) program was initiated at Argonne National Laboratory. The project conducted reactor materials experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following technical objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focused on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability

  1. 2D Rotational Angiography for Fast and Standardized Evaluation of Peripheral and Visceral Artery Stenoses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katoh, Marcus Opitz, Armin; Minko, Peter; Massmann, Alexander; Berlich, Joachim; Buecker, Arno

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the value of rotational digital subtraction angiography (rDSA) for evaluation of peripheral and visceral artery stenoses compared to conventional digital subtraction angiography (cDSA). Methods: A phantom study was performed comparing the radiation dose of cDSA with two projections and rDSA by means of the 2D Dynavision technique (Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany). Subsequently, 33 consecutive patients (18 women, 15 men; mean {+-} SD age 67 {+-} 15 years) were examined by both techniques. In total, 63 vessel segments were analyzed by two observers with respect to stenoses, image contrast, and vessel sharpness. Results: Radiation dose was significantly lower with rDSA. cDSA and rDSA revealed 21 and 24 flow-relevant stenotic lesions and vessel occlusions (70-100%), respectively. The same stenosis grade was assessed in 45 segments. By means of rDSA, 10 lesions were judged to have a higher and 8 lesions a lower stenosis grade compared to cDSA. rDSA yielded additive information regarding the vessel anatomy and pathology in 29 segments. However, a tendency toward better image quality and sharper vessel visualization was seen with cDSA. Conclusion: rDSA allows for multiprojection assessment of peripheral and visceral arteries and provides additional clinically relevant information after a single bolus of contrast medium. At the same time, radiation dose can be significantly reduced compared to cDSA.

  2. Quasi-Optimal Elimination Trees for 2D Grids with Singularities

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Paszyńska, A.; Paszyński, M.; Jopek, K.; Woźniak, M.; Goik, D.; Gurgul, P.; AbouEisha, H.; Moshkov, M.; Calo, V. M.; Lenharth, A.; et al

    2015-01-01

    We consmore » truct quasi-optimal elimination trees for 2D finite element meshes with singularities. These trees minimize the complexity of the solution of the discrete system. The computational cost estimates of the elimination process model the execution of the multifrontal algorithms in serial and in parallel shared-memory executions. Since the meshes considered are a subspace of all possible mesh partitions, we call these minimizers quasi-optimal. We minimize the cost functionals using dynamic programming. Finding these minimizers is more computationally expensive than solving the original algebraic system. Nevertheless, from the insights provided by the analysis of the dynamic programming minima, we propose a heuristic construction of the elimination trees that has cost O N e log ⁡ N e , where N e is the number of elements in the mesh. We show that this heuristic ordering has similar computational cost to the quasi-optimal elimination trees found with dynamic programming and outperforms state-of-the-art alternatives in our numerical experiments.« less

  3. Ionic Liquid–Solute Interactions Studied by 2D NOE NMR Spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khatun, Sufia; Castner, Edward W.

    2014-11-26

    Intermolecular interactions between a Ru²⁺(bpy)₃ solute and the anions and cations of four different ionic liquids (ILs) are investigated by 2D NMR nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) techniques, including {¹H-¹⁹F} HOESY and {¹H-¹H} ROESY. Four ILs are studied, each having the same bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide anion in common. Two of the ILs have aliphatic 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cations, while the other two ILs have aromatic 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations. ILs with both shorter (butyl) and longer (octyl or decyl) cationic alkyl substituents are studied. NOE NMR results suggest that the local environment of IL anions and cations near the Ru²⁺(bpy)₃ solute is rather different from the bulkmore » IL structure. The solute-anion and solute-cation interactions are significantly different both for ILs with short vs long alkyl tails and for ILs with aliphatic vs aromatic cation polar head groups. In particular, the solute-anion interactions are observed to be about 3 times stronger for the cations with shorter alkyl tails relative to the ILs with longer alkyl tails. The Ru²⁺(bpy)₃ solute interacts with both the polar head and the nonpolar tail groups of the 1- butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cation but only with the nonpolar tail groups of the 1-decyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cation.« less

  4. Task Parallel Incomplete Cholesky Factorization using 2D Partitioned-Block Layout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Kyungjoo; Rajamanickam, Sivasankaran; Stelle, George Widgery; Edwards, Harold C.; Olivier, Stephen Lecler

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a task-parallel algorithm for sparse incomplete Cholesky factorization that utilizes a 2D sparse partitioned-block layout of a matrix. Our factorization algorithm follows the idea of algorithms-by-blocks by using the block layout. The algorithm-byblocks approach induces a task graph for the factorization. These tasks are inter-related to each other through their data dependences in the factorization algorithm. To process the tasks on various manycore architectures in a portable manner, we also present a portable tasking API that incorporates different tasking backends and device-specific features using an open-source framework for manycore platforms i.e., Kokkos. A performance evaluation is presented on both Intel Sandybridge and Xeon Phi platforms for matrices from the University of Florida sparse matrix collection to illustrate merits of the proposed task-based factorization. Experimental results demonstrate that our task-parallel implementation delivers about 26.6x speedup (geometric mean) over single-threaded incomplete Choleskyby- blocks and 19.2x speedup over serial Cholesky performance which does not carry tasking overhead using 56 threads on the Intel Xeon Phi processor for sparse matrices arising from various application problems.

  5. Ionic Liquid–Solute Interactions Studied by 2D NOE NMR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khatun, Sufia; Castner, Edward W.

    2014-11-26

    Intermolecular interactions between a Ru²⁺(bpy)₃ solute and the anions and cations of four different ionic liquids (ILs) are investigated by 2D NMR nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) techniques, including {¹H-¹⁹F} HOESY and {¹H-¹H} ROESY. Four ILs are studied, each having the same bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide anion in common. Two of the ILs have aliphatic 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cations, while the other two ILs have aromatic 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations. ILs with both shorter (butyl) and longer (octyl or decyl) cationic alkyl substituents are studied. NOE NMR results suggest that the local environment of IL anions and cations near the Ru²⁺(bpy)₃ solute is rather different from the bulk IL structure. The solute-anion and solute-cation interactions are significantly different both for ILs with short vs long alkyl tails and for ILs with aliphatic vs aromatic cation polar head groups. In particular, the solute-anion interactions are observed to be about 3 times stronger for the cations with shorter alkyl tails relative to the ILs with longer alkyl tails. The Ru²⁺(bpy)₃ solute interacts with both the polar head and the nonpolar tail groups of the 1- butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cation but only with the nonpolar tail groups of the 1-decyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cation.

  6. 2D X-ray scanner and its uses in laboratory reservoir characterization measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maloney, D.; Doggett, K.

    1997-08-01

    X-ray techniques are used in petroleum laboratories for a variety of reservoir characterization measurements. This paper describes the configuration of a 2D X-ray scanner and many of the ways in which it simplifies and improves accuracy`s of laboratory measurements. Linear X-ray scanners are most often used to provide descriptions of fluid saturations within core plugs during flow tests. We configured our linear scanner for both horizontal and vertical movement. Samples can be scanned horizontally, vertically, or according to horizontal and vertical grids. X-ray measurements are fast, allowing measurements of two- and three-phase fluid saturations during both steady- and unsteady-state flow processes. Rock samples can be scanned while they are subjected to stress, pore pressure, and temperature conditions simulating those of a petroleum reservoir. Many types of measurements are possible by selecting appropriate X-ray power settings, dopes, filters, and collimator configurations. The scanner has been used for a variety of applications besides fluid saturation measurements. It is useful for measuring porosity distributions in rocks, concentrations of X-ray dopes within flow streams during tracer tests, gap widths in fracture flow cells, fluid interface levels in PVT cells and fluid separators, and other features and phenomena.

  7. 2d Affine XY-Spin Model/4d Gauge Theory Duality and Deconfinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anber, Mohamed M.; Poppitz, Erich; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /San Francisco State U.

    2012-08-16

    We introduce a duality between two-dimensional XY-spin models with symmetry-breaking perturbations and certain four-dimensional SU(2) and SU(2) = Z{sub 2} gauge theories, compactified on a small spatial circle R{sup 1,2} x S{sup 1}, and considered at temperatures near the deconfinement transition. In a Euclidean set up, the theory is defined on R{sup 2} x T{sup 2}. Similarly, thermal gauge theories of higher rank are dual to new families of 'affine' XY-spin models with perturbations. For rank two, these are related to models used to describe the melting of a 2d crystal with a triangular lattice. The connection is made through a multi-component electric-magnetic Coulomb gas representation for both systems. Perturbations in the spin system map to topological defects in the gauge theory, such as monopole-instantons or magnetic bions, and the vortices in the spin system map to the electrically charged W-bosons in field theory (or vice versa, depending on the duality frame). The duality permits one to use the two-dimensional technology of spin systems to study the thermal deconfinement and discrete chiral transitions in four-dimensional SU(N{sub c}) gauge theories with n{sub f} {ge} 1 adjoint Weyl fermions.

  8. A Specification for a Godunov-type Eulerian 2-D Hydrocode, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nystrom, William D; Robey, Jonathan M

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this code specification is to describe an algorithm for solving the Euler equations of hydrodynamics in a 2D rectangular region in sufficient detail to allow a software developer to produce an implementation on their target platform using their programming language of choice without requiring detailed knowledge and experience in the field of computational fluid dynamics. It should be possible for a software developer who is proficient in the programming language of choice and is knowledgable of the target hardware to produce an efficient implementation of this specification if they also possess a thorough working knowledge of parallel programming and have some experience in scientific programming using fields and meshes. On modern architectures, it will be important to focus on issues related to the exploitation of the fine grain parallelism and data locality present in this algorithm. This specification aims to make that task easier by presenting the essential details of the algorithm in a systematic and language neutral manner while also avoiding the inclusion of implementation details that would likely be specific to a particular type of programming paradigm or platform architecture.

  9. Decay-ratio calculation in the frequency domain with the LAPUR code using 1D-kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munoz-Cobo, J. L.; Escriva, A.; Garcia, C.; Berna, C.

    2012-07-01

    This paper deals with the problem of computing the Decay Ratio in the frequency domain codes as the LAPUR code. First, it is explained how to calculate the feedback reactivity in the frequency domain using slab-geometry i.e. 1D kinetics, also we show how to perform the coupling of the 1D kinetics with the thermal-hydraulic part of the LAPUR code in order to obtain the reactivity feedback coefficients for the different channels. In addition, we show how to obtain the reactivity variation in the complex domain by solving the eigenvalue equation in the frequency domain and we compare this result with the reactivity variation obtained in first order perturbation theory using the 1D neutron fluxes of the base case. Because LAPUR works in the linear regime, it is assumed that in general the perturbations are small. There is also a section devoted to the reactivity weighting factors used to couple the reactivity contribution from the different channels to the reactivity of the entire reactor core in point kinetics and 1D kinetics. Finally we analyze the effects of the different approaches on the DR value. (authors)

  10. A sequential partly iterative approach for multicomponent reactive transport with CORE2D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samper, J.; Xu, T.; Yang, C.

    2008-11-01

    CORE{sup 2D} V4 is a finite element code for modeling partly or fully saturated water flow, heat transport and multicomponent reactive solute transport under both local chemical equilibrium and kinetic conditions. It can handle coupled microbial processes and geochemical reactions such as acid-base, aqueous complexation, redox, mineral dissolution/precipitation, gas dissolution/exsolution, ion exchange, sorption via linear and nonlinear isotherms, sorption via surface complexation. Hydraulic parameters may change due to mineral precipitation/dissolution reactions. Coupled transport and chemical equations are solved by using sequential iterative approaches. A sequential partly-iterative approach (SPIA) is presented which improves the accuracy of the traditional sequential noniterative approach (SNIA) and is more efficient than the general sequential iterative approach (SIA). While SNIA leads to a substantial saving of computing time, it introduces numerical errors which are especially large for cation exchange reactions. SPIA improves the efficiency of SIA because the iteration between transport and chemical equations is only performed in nodes with a large mass transfer between solid and liquid phases. The efficiency and accuracy of SPIA are compared to those of SIA and SNIA using synthetic examples and a case study of reactive transport through the Llobregat Delta aquitard in Spain. SPIA is found to be as accurate as SIA while requiring significantly less CPU time. In addition, SPIA is much more accurate than SNIA with only a minor increase in computing time. A further enhancement of the efficiency of SPIA is achieved by improving the efficiency of the Newton-Raphson method used for solving chemical equations. Such an improvement is obtained by working with increments of log-concentrations and ignoring the terms of the Jacobian matrix containing derivatives of activity coefficients. A proof is given for the symmetry and non-singularity of the Jacobian matrix

  11. Diesel combustion and emissions formation using multiple 2-D imaging diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dec, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    Understanding how emissions are formed during diesel combustion is central to developing new engines that can comply with increasingly stringent emission standards while maintaining or improving performance levels. Laser-based planar imaging diagnostics are uniquely capable of providing the temporally and spatially resolved information required for this understanding. Using an optically accessible research engine, a variety of two-dimensional (2-D) imaging diagnostics have been applied to investigators of direct-injection (DI) diesel combustion and emissions formation. These optical measurements have included the following laser-sheet imaging data: Mie scattering to determine liquid-phase fuel distributions, Rayleigh scattering for quantitative vapor-phase-fuel/air mixture images, laser induced incandescence (LII) for relative soot concentrations, simultaneous LII and Rayleigh scattering for relative soot particle-size distributions, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) to obtain early PAH (polyaromatic hydrocarbon) distributions, PLIF images of the OH radical that show the diffusion flame structure, and PLIF images of the NO radical showing the onset of NO{sub x} production. In addition, natural-emission chemiluminescence images were obtained to investigate autoignition. The experimental setup is described, and the image data showing the most relevant results are presented. Then the conceptual model of diesel combustion is summarized in a series of idealized schematics depicting the temporal and spatial evolution of a reacting diesel fuel jet during the time period investigated. Finally, recent PLIF images of the NO distribution are presented and shown to support the timing and location of NO formation hypothesized from the conceptual model.

  12. SU-E-T-291: Sensitivity of a Simple 2D EPID in Vivo Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peca, S; Brown, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: As radiotherapy (RT) increases in complexity, so does motivation for in vivo dosimetry (IVD), which may detect errors such as: setup, beam shaping and dose delivered. We have recently developed an easy-toimplement method for two-dimensional IVD based on images taken with the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) in cine mode during treatment. The purpose of this work is to characterize its sensitivity to possible RT delivery errors. Methods: We introduced a series of modifications to a simple RT field (1010, 100MU, 300RR, 20cm homogeneous phantom) to simulate errors. These modifications included multi-leaf collimator (MLC) position, number of MUs, and collimator angle. We quantified the sensitivity to inhomogeneities by inserting variable amounts of solid lung and bone. Finally we delivered realistic fields to an anthropomorphic phantom to estimate sensitivity to gantry angle and setup errors. Results: Our EPIDIVD is sensitive to MLC positioning errors of 1mm and 3mm in the closed and open directions respectively, and to 3% MU variations. Sensitivity to collimator angle depends on field shape irregularity; in the case of a 10x10 field, we are sensitive to errors of 0.8. The sensitivity to inhomogeneities is limited by the nature of MV imaging: approximately 1% signal change is noted when switching 5cm of water to equal amounts of bone or lung. This suggests that the EPID-IVD is likely not sensitive to small setup or gantry angle errors, as confirmed by anthropomorphic tests. Conclusion: We have characterized a simple method of 2D dose reconstruction at isocenter depth inside the patient, which is sensitive to possible RT delivery errors. This method may be useful as a secondary safety check, to prevent large errors from being carried on to following fractions, and to record delivered dose. By using readily available hardware, it is easily implemented and may prove especially useful in centers with limited resources.

  13. Simultaneous 3D–2D image registration and C-arm calibration: Application to endovascular image-guided interventions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitrović, Uroš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan; Špiclin, Žiga

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Three-dimensional to two-dimensional (3D–2D) image registration is a key to fusion and simultaneous visualization of valuable information contained in 3D pre-interventional and 2D intra-interventional images with the final goal of image guidance of a procedure. In this paper, the authors focus on 3D–2D image registration within the context of intracranial endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGIs), where the 3D and 2D images are generally acquired with the same C-arm system. The accuracy and robustness of any 3D–2D registration method, to be used in a clinical setting, is influenced by (1) the method itself, (2) uncertainty of initial pose of the 3D image from which registration starts, (3) uncertainty of C-arm’s geometry and pose, and (4) the number of 2D intra-interventional images used for registration, which is generally one and at most two. The study of these influences requires rigorous and objective validation of any 3D–2D registration method against a highly accurate reference or “gold standard” registration, performed on clinical image datasets acquired in the context of the intervention. Methods: The registration process is split into two sequential, i.e., initial and final, registration stages. The initial stage is either machine-based or template matching. The latter aims to reduce possibly large in-plane translation errors by matching a projection of the 3D vessel model and 2D image. In the final registration stage, four state-of-the-art intrinsic image-based 3D–2D registration methods, which involve simultaneous refinement of rigid-body and C-arm parameters, are evaluated. For objective validation, the authors acquired an image database of 15 patients undergoing cerebral EIGI, for which accurate gold standard registrations were established by fiducial marker coregistration. Results: Based on target registration error, the obtained success rates of 3D to a single 2D image registration after initial machine-based and

  14. Mercury (I) nitroprusside: A 2D structure supported on homometallic interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osiry, H.; Cano, A.; Reguera, L.; Lemus-Santana, A.A.; Reguera, E.

    2015-01-15

    The pentacyanonitrosylferrate complex anion, [Fe(CN){sub 5}NO]{sup 2−}, forms an insoluble solid with Hg(I) ion, of formula unit Hg{sub 2}[Fe(CN){sub 5}NO]·2H{sub 2}O, whose crystal structure and related properties are unknown. This contribution reports the preparation of that compound by the precipitation method and its structural study from X-ray powder patterns complemented with spectroscopic information from IR, Raman, and UV–vis techniques. The crystal structure was solved ab initio and then refined using the Rietveld method. The solid crystallizes with a triclinic unit cell, in the P−1 space group, with cell parameters a=10.1202(12), b=10.1000(13), c=7.4704(11) Å; α=110.664(10), β=110.114(10), γ=104.724(8) °. Within the unit cell, two formula units are accommodated (Z=2). It adopts a layered structure related with the coordination of the equatorial CN groups at their N end to the Hg atoms while the axial CN ligand remains unlinked. Within the layers neighboring Hg{sub 2}[Fe(CN){sub 5}NO] building units remain linked through four relatively strong Hg–Hg interactions, with an interatomic distance of 2.549(3) Å. The charge donation from the equatorial CN groups through their 5σ orbitals results into an increase for the electron density on the Hg atoms, which strengths the Hg–Hg bond. In the Raman spectrum, that metal–metal bond is detected as a stretching vibration band at 167 cm{sup −1}. The available free volume between neighboring layers accommodates two water molecules, which are stabilized within the framework through hydrogen bonds with the N end of the unlinked axial CN group. The removal of these weakly bonded water molecules results in structural disorder for the material 3D framework. - Graphical abstract: Assembling of Hg{sub 2}[Fe(CN){sub 5}NO] units through Hg–Hg interactions. - Highlights: • Homometallic Hg–Hg interactions in metal nitroprusside. • 2D structure supported on metal–metal interactions. • Crystal

  15. Accurate quantum dynamics calculations of vibrational spectrum of dideuteromethane CH{sub 2}D{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2015-05-21

    We report a rigorous variational study of the infrared (IR) vibrational spectra of both CH{sub 2}D{sub 2} and {sup 13}CH{sub 2}D{sub 2} isotopomers using an exact molecular Hamiltonian. Calculations are carried out using a recently developed multi-layer Lanczos algorithm based on the accurate refined Wang and Carrington potential energy surface of methane and the low-order truncated ab initio dipole moment surface of Yurchenko et al. [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 291, 69 (2013)]. All well converged 357 vibrational energy levels up to 6100 cm{sup ?1} of CH{sub 2}D{sub 2} are obtained, together with a comparison to previous calculations and 91 experimental bands available. The calculated frequencies are in excellent agreement with the experimental results and give a root-mean-square error of 0.67?cm{sup ?1}. In particular, we also compute the transition intensities from the vibrational ground state for both isotopomers. Based on the theoretical results, 20 experimental bands are suggested to be re-assigned. Surprisingly, an anomalous C isotopic effect is discovered in the n?{sub 5} modes of CH{sub 2}D{sub 2}. The predicted IR spectra provide useful information for understanding those unknown bands.

  16. Modeling the Transverse Thermal Conductivity of 2-D SiCf/SiC Composites Made with Woven Fabric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngblood, Gerald E.; Senor, David J.; Jones, Russell H.

    2004-06-30

    The hierarchical two-layer (H2L) model was developed to describe the effective transverse thermal conductivity, Keff, of a 2D-SiCf/SiC composite made from stacked and infiltrated woven fabric layers in terms of constituent properties and microstructural and architectural variables. The H2L model includes the expected effects of fiber-matrix interfacial conductance as well as the effects of high fiber packing fractions within individual tows and the non-uniform nature of 2D-fabric layers that usually include a significant amount of interlayer porosity. Previously, H2L model predictions were compared to measured values of Keff for two versions of DuPont 2D-Hi NicalonÔ/PyC/ICVI-SiC composite, one with a “thin” (0.110 μm) and the other with a “thick” (1.040 μm) pyrocarbon (PyC) fiber coating, and for a 2D-TyrannoÔ SA/”thin” PyC/FCVI-SIC composite made by ORNL. In this study, H2L model predictions are compared to measured Keff-values for a 2D-SiCf/SiC composite made by GE Power Systems (formerly DuPont Lanxide) using the ICVI-process with Hi-NicalonÔ type S fabric. The values of Keff determined for the composite made with the Hi-NicalonÔ type S fabric were significantly greater than Keff-values determined for the composites made with either the Hi-NicalonÔor the TyrannoÔ SA fabrics. Differences in Keff-values were expected for using different fiber types, but major differences also were due to observed microstructural variations between the systems, and as predicted by the H2L model.

  17. 2D Optical Streaking for Ultra-Short Electron Beam Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Y.T.; Huang, Z.; Wang, L.; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    field ionization, which occurs in plasma case, gases species with high field ionization threshold should be considered. For a linear polarized laser, the kick to the ionized electrons depends on the phase of the laser when the electrons are born and the unknown timing jitter between the electron beam and laser beam makes the data analysis very difficult. Here we propose to use a circular polarized laser to do a 2-dimensional (2D) streaking (both x and y) and measure the bunch length from the angular distribution on the screen, where the phase jitter causes only a rotation of the image on the screen without changing of the relative angular distribution. Also we only need to know the laser wavelength for calibration. A similar circular RF deflecting mode was used to measure long bunches. We developed a numerical particle-in-Cell (PIC) code to study the dynamics of ionization electrons with the high energy beam and the laser beam.

  18. A One-Dimensional (1-D) Three-Region Model for a Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Adsorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Andrew; Miller, David C.

    2012-01-01

    A general one-dimensional (1-D), three-region model for a bubbling fluidized-bed adsorber with internal heat exchangers has been developed. The model can predict the hydrodynamics of the bed and provides axial profiles for all temperatures, concentrations, and velocities. The model is computationally fast and flexible and allows for any system of adsorption and desorption reactions to be modeled, making the model applicable to any adsorption process. The model has been implemented in both gPROMS and Aspen Custom Modeler, and the behavior of the model has been verified.

  19. The effect of magnetic field on bistability in 1D photonic crystal doped by magnetized plasma and coupled nonlinear defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehdian, H.; Mohammadzahery, Z.; Hasanbeigi, A. [Department of Physics and Institute for Plasma Research, Kharazmi University, 49 Dr Mofatteh Avenue, Tehran 15614 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics and Institute for Plasma Research, Kharazmi University, 49 Dr Mofatteh Avenue, Tehran 15614 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    In this work, we study the defect mode and bistability behavior of 1-D photonic band gap structure with magnetized plasma and coupled nonlinear defects. The transfer matrix method has been employed to investigate the magnetic field effect on defect mode frequency and bistability threshold. The obtained results show that the frequency of defect mode and bistability threshold can be altered, without changing the structure of the photonic multilayer. Therefore, the bistability behavior of the subjected structure in the presence of magnetized plasma can be utilized in manufacturing wide frequency range devices.

  20. The first astrophysical detection, terahertz spectrum, and database for the monodeuterated species of methyl formate HCOOCH{sub 2}D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coudert, L. H.; Drouin, B. J.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Guillemin, J.-C.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.

    2013-12-20

    Based on new measurements carried out in the laboratory from 0.77 to 1.2 THz and on a line-frequency analysis of these new data, along with previously published data, we build a line list for HCOOCH{sub 2}D that leads to its first detection in the Orion KL nebula. The observed lines, both in space and in the laboratory, involve the cis D-in-plane and trans D-out-of-plane conformations of HCOOCH{sub 2}D and the two tunneling states arising from the large-amplitude motion connecting the two trans configurations. The model used in the line position calculation accounts for both cis and trans conformations, as well as the large-amplitude motion.

  1. 2D PIC-MCC Code for Electron-Hydrogen Gas Interaction Study in H- Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benmeziane, Karim; Ferdinand, Robin; Gobin, Raphael; Sherman, Joseph D.

    2005-04-06

    In order to make a reliable H- ion source, a hybrid PIC 2D MCC 3D fluid code has been developed. The aim of the code is to study the effect of electron injection into a cylindrical gas chamber. This new version takes into account the 2D space charge distribution. Thus, it is possible to calculate the H- ion distribution everywhere in the plasma chamber. Many results have been brought as well as the best injected energy and the electron penetration length efficiency. Moreover, the calculations explain why it is more problematic to get an efficient volume production at high pressure (100 mTorr) than at low pressure (6 mTorr). The temporal H- production evolution is finally discussed.

  2. Computation of neutron fluxes in clusters of fuel pins arranged in hexagonal assemblies (2D and 3D)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prabha, H.; Marleau, G.

    2012-07-01

    For computations of fluxes, we have used Carvik's method of collision probabilities. This method requires tracking algorithms. An algorithm to compute tracks (in 2D and 3D) has been developed for seven hexagonal geometries with cluster of fuel pins. This has been implemented in the NXT module of the code DRAGON. The flux distribution in cluster of pins has been computed by using this code. For testing the results, they are compared when possible with the EXCELT module of the code DRAGON. Tracks are plotted in the NXT module by using MATLAB, these plots are also presented here. Results are presented with increasing number of lines to show the convergence of these results. We have numerically computed volumes, surface areas and the percentage errors in these computations. These results show that 2D results converge faster than 3D results. The accuracy on the computation of fluxes up to second decimal is achieved with fewer lines. (authors)

  3. Differences in growth properties of endometrial cancer in three dimensional (3D) culture and 2D cell monolayer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chitcholtan, Kenny; Asselin, Eric; Parent, Sophie; Sykes, Peter H.; Evans, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models have an invaluable role in understanding the behaviour of tumour cells in a well defined microenvironment. This is because some aspects of tumour characteristics cannot be fully recapitulated in a cell monolayer (2D). In the present study, we compared growth patterns, expression of signalling molecules, and metabolism-associated proteins of endometrial cancer cell lines in 3D and 2D cell cultures. Cancer cells formed spherical structures in 3D reconstituted basement membrane (3D rBM), and the morphological appearance was cell line dependent. Cell differentiation was observed after 8 days in the 3D rBM. There was reduced proliferation, detected by less expression of PCNA in 3D rBM than in 2D cell monolayers. The addition of exogenous epidermal growth factor (EGF) to cancer cells induced phosphorylation of EGFR and Akt in both cell culture conditions. The uptake of glucose was selectively altered in the 3D rBM, but there was a lack of association with Glut-1 expression. The secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) was selectively altered in 3D rBM, and it was cell line dependent. Our data demonstrated that 3D rBM as an in vitro model can influence proliferation and metabolism of endometrial cancer cell behaviour compared to 2D cell monolayer. Changes are specific to individual cell types. The use of 3D rBM is, therefore, important in the in vitro study of targeted anticancer therapies.

  4. SU-D-12A-04: Investigation of a 2D Antiscatter Grid for Flat Panel Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altunbas, C; Kavanagh, B; Miften, M; Zhong, Y; Shaw, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To improve CT number accuracy and contrast sensitivity, a novel 2D antiscatter grid (ASG) for flat panel detector (FPD) based CBCT imaging was evaluated. Experiments were performed to characterize the scatter rejection and contrast sensitivity performance of ASG. The reduction in primary transmission for various ASG geometries was also evaluated by a computational model. Methods: The 2D ASG design was based on multi-hole collimators used in Nuclear Medicine. It consisted of abutted hexagon shaped apertures with 2.5 mm pitch and 32 mm height, and separated by 0.25 mm thick lead septa. Scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and mean primary transmission were measured using a benchtop FPD/x-ray source system. Acrylic slabs of varying thicknesses were imaged with a contrast-detail phantom to measure CNR and SPR under different scatter conditions. Primary transmission was also measured by averaging pixel values in flood field images without the phantom. We additionally explored variation of primary transmission with pitch and septum thickness using a computational model of our ASG. Results: Our 2D ASG reduced the SPR from 3.3 to 0.12, and improved CNR by 50% in 20 cm thick slab phantom projections acquired at 120 kVp. While the measured primary transmission was 72.8%, our simulations show that primary transmission can be increased to 86% by reducing the septum thickness to 0.1 mm. Primary transmission further increases to 93% if septum thickness of 0.1 mm is used in conjunction with an increased pitch of 4 mm. Conclusion: The 2D ASG appears to be a promising scatter rejection device, offering both superior scatter rejection and improved contrast sensitivity. Though its lead footprint reduced primary transmission, our work shows that optimization of aperture pitch and septum thickness can significantly improve the primary transmission.

  5. Application of a solar wind model driven by turbulence dissipation to a 2D magnetic field configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lionello, Roberto; Downs, Cooper; Linker, Jon A.; Miki?, Zoran; Velli, Marco E-mail: cdowns@predsci.com E-mail: mikic@predsci.com

    2014-12-01

    Although it is widely accepted that photospheric motions provide the energy source and that the magnetic field must play a key role in the process, the detailed mechanisms responsible for heating the Sun's corona and accelerating the solar wind are still not fully understood. Cranmer et al. developed a sophisticated, one-dimensional (1D), time-steady model of the solar wind with turbulence dissipation. By varying the coronal magnetic field, they obtain, for a single choice of wave properties, a realistic range of slow and fast wind conditions with a sharp latitudinal transition between the two streams. Using a 1D, time-dependent model of the solar wind of Lionello et al., which incorporates turbulent dissipation of Alfvn waves to provide heating and acceleration of the plasma, we have explored a similar configuration, obtaining qualitatively equivalent results. However, our calculations suggest that the rapid transition between slow and fast wind suggested by this 1D model may be disrupted in multidimensional MHD simulations by the requirement of transverse force balance.

  6. Characterization and use of a 2D-array of ion chambers for brachytherapy dosimetric quality assurance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yewondwossen, Mammo

    2012-10-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) ionization chamber array MatriXX Evolution is one of the 2D ionization chamber arrays developed by IBA Dosimetry (IBA Dosimetry, Germany) for megavoltage real-time absolute 2D dosimetry and verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The purpose of this study was to (1) evaluate the performance of ion chamber array for submegavoltage range brachytherapy beam dose verification and quality assurance (QA) and (2) use the end-to-end dosimetric evaluation that mimics a patient treatment procedure and confirm the primary source strength calibration agrees in both the treatment planning system (TPS) and treatment delivery console computers. The dose linearity and energy dependence of the 2D ion chamber array was studied using kilovoltage X-ray beams (100, 180 and 300 kVp). The detector calibration factor was determined using 300 kVp X-ray beams so that we can use the same calibration factor for dosimetric verification of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. The phantom used for this measurement consists of multiple catheters, the IBA MatriXX detector, and water-equivalent slab of RW3 to provide full scattering conditions. The treatment planning system (TPS) (Oncentra brachy version 3.3, Nucletron BV, Veenendaal, the Netherlands) dose distribution was calculated on the computed tomography (CT) scan of this phantom. The measured and TPS calculated distributions were compared in IBA Dosimetry OmniPro-I'mRT software. The quality of agreement was quantified by the gamma ({gamma}) index (with 3% delta dose and distance criterion of 2 mm) for 9 sets of plans. Using a dedicated phantom capable of receiving 5 brachytherapy intralumenal catheters a QA procedure was developed for end-to-end dosimetric evaluation for routine QA checks. The 2D ion chamber array dose dependence was found to be linear for 100-300 kVp and the detector response (k{sub user}) showed strong energy dependence for 100-300 kVp energy range. For the Ir-192 brachytherapy

  7. Simultaneous 2D single-shot imaging of OH concentrations and temperature fields in an SI engine simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orth, A.; Sick, V.; Wolfrum, J.; Maly, R.R.; Zahn, M.

    1994-12-31

    Two-dimensional (2D) temperature measurements in engines are required for the detailed understanding of the combustion process. Because of the unsteady and turbulent nature of engine combustion, these measurements must be performed on a single-shot basis to obtain cycle-resolved results. Details of the flame front structure are also important to know for the numerical modeling of internal combustion processes. Simultaneous measurements of temperature and hydroxyl radical distributions provide such data sets. The combustion of methane in a fully transparent square piston engine was studied with a combination of 2D laser-induced fluorescence of hydroxyl radicals and 2D Rayleigh scattering. A tunable KrF excimer laser at 248 nm was used for the measurements. The wavelength of the laser was tuned to excite the P{sub 2}(8) transition in the OH (3,0) band of the A-X system. Spectral filtering of the resulting fluorescence to detect solely the fluorescence from the (3,2) band significantly reduces the effect of collisional quenching imposed to the fluorescence of the predissociating v{prime} = 3 level by vibrational energy transfer (VET) to lower vibrational levels. Using a second camera, which only records the Rayleigh signals after appropriate filtering, allows the simultaneous measurement of temperature fields with a single laser. The analysis of corresponding OH and temperature images allowed the decision that the combustion conditions are in a regime where the flamelet approach for modeling is appropriate. Good agreement with model predictions has been achieved for the peak temperatures.

  8. Simulations of the infrared, Raman, and 2D-IR photon echo spectra of water in nanoscale silica pores

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burris, Paul C.; Laage, Damien; Thompson, Ward H.

    2016-05-20

    Vibrational spectroscopy is frequently used to characterize nanoconfined liquids and probe the effect of the confining framework on the liquid structure and dynamics relative to the corresponding bulk fluid. However, it is still unclear what molecular-level information can be obtained from such measurements. In this Paper, we address this question by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to reproduce the linear infrared (IR), Raman, and two-dimensional IR (2D-IR) photon echo spectra for water confined within hydrophilic (hydroxyl-terminated) silica mesopores. To simplify the spectra the OH stretching region of isotopically dilute HOD in D2O is considered. An empirical mapping approach is usedmore » to obtain the OH vibrational frequencies, transition dipoles, and transition polarizabilities from the MD simulations. The simulated linear IR and Raman spectra are in good general agreement with measured spectra of water in mesoporous silica reported in the literature. The key effect of confinement on the water spectrum is a vibrational blueshift for OH groups that are closest to the pore interface. The blueshift can be attributed to the weaker hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) formed between the OH groups and silica oxygen acceptors. Non-Condon effects greatly diminish the contribution of these OH moieties to the linear IR spectrum, but these weaker H-bonds are readily apparent in the Raman spectrum. The 2D-IR spectra have not yet been measured and thus the present results represent a prediction. Lastly, the simulated spectra indicate that it should be possible to probe the slower spectral diffusion of confined water compared to the bulk liquid by analysis of the 2D-IR spectra.« less

  9. revealing H{sub 2}D{sup +} depletion and compact structure in starless and protostellar cores with ALMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, R. K.; Di Francesco, J.; Bourke, T. L.; Caselli, P.; Jrgensen, J. K.; Pineda, J. E.; Wong, M.

    2014-12-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the submillimeter dust continuum and H{sub 2}D{sup +} 1{sub 10}-1{sub 11} emission toward two evolved, potentially protostellar cores within the Ophiuchus molecular cloud, Oph A SM1 and SM1N. The data reveal small-scale condensations within both cores, with mass upper limits of M ? 0.02 M {sub ?} (?20 M {sub Jup}). The SM1 condensation is consistent with a nearly symmetric Gaussian source with a width of only 37 AU. The SM1N condensation is elongated and extends 500 AU along its major axis. No evidence for substructure is seen in either source. A Jeans analysis indicates that these sources are unlikely to fragment, suggesting that both will form single stars. H{sub 2}D{sup +} is only detected toward SM1N, offset from the continuum peak by ?150-200 AU. This offset may be due to either heating from an undetected, young, low-luminosity protostellar source or first hydrostatic core, or HD (and consequently H{sub 2}D{sup +}) depletion in the cold center of the condensation. We propose that SM1 is protostellar and that the condensation detected by ALMA is a warm (T ? 30-50 K) accretion disk. The less concentrated emission of the SM1N condensation suggests that it is still starless, but we cannot rule out the presence of a low-luminosity source, perhaps surrounded by a pseudodisk. These data observationally reveal the earliest stages of the formation of circumstellar accretion regions and agree with theoretical predictions that disk formation can occur very early in the star formation process, coeval with or just after the formation of a first hydrostatic core or protostar.

  10. Spin-orbit interaction and novel shell structure for multi-electron system confined in 2D QD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yokozuka, Takahiro; Ido, Kouta; Clark, Richard; Takeda, Kyozaburo

    2013-12-04

    By implementing Pauli’s spin-orbit (s/o) coupling and Darwin’s relativistic correction, we study how relativistic terms affect the Schrödinger picture of electrons in a 2D quantum dot (QD). The competition between electron confinement and Pauli’s s/o coupling produces a novel shell structure at Ω{sub 0} = 4mc{sup 2}/ħ, and the inclusion of these relativistic terms is strictly restricted in the Schrödinger picture to ω < Ω{sub 0}.

  11. A convergent 2D finite-difference scheme for the Dirac–Poisson system and the simulation of graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, D.; Heitzinger, C.; Markowich, P.A.

    2014-01-15

    We present a convergent finite-difference scheme of second order in both space and time for the 2D electromagnetic Dirac equation. We apply this method in the self-consistent Dirac–Poisson system to the simulation of graphene. The model is justified for low energies, where the particles have wave vectors sufficiently close to the Dirac points. In particular, we demonstrate that our method can be used to calculate solutions of the Dirac–Poisson system where potentials act as beam splitters or Veselago lenses.

  12. Synthesis and structure of a 2D → 3D framework with coexistence of hydrogen bonds and polythreading character

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ming-Dao Zhuang, Qi-Fan; Xu, Jing; Cao, Hui

    2015-12-15

    The title complex, ([Co(BPPA)(5-OH-bdc)] · (H{sub 2}O)){sub n} was prepared under hydrothermal conditions based on two ligands, namely, bis(4-(pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)amine (BPPA) and 5-hydroxyisophthalic acid (5-OH-H{sub 2}bdc). 5-OH-bdc{sup 2–} anions coordinated to Co atoms to give layers in crystal. BPPA ligands coordinate to Co atoms and thread into the adjacent layers. There are hydrogen bonds between adjacent layers, giving rise to a 2D → 3D framework.

  13. Data:0b6a60c8-651f-4edd-9c97-e71fbf811c1d | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    edd-9c97-e71fbf811c1d No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic...

  14. Data:80c4b163-4218-4bba-b1e5-536338a1d458 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    bba-b1e5-536338a1d458 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic...

  15. A Fast Parallel Algorithm for Selected Inversion of Structured Sparse Matrices with Application to 2D Electronic Structure Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Lin; Yang, Chao; Lu, Jiangfeng; Ying, Lexing; E, Weinan

    2009-09-25

    We present an efficient parallel algorithm and its implementation for computing the diagonal of $H^-1$ where $H$ is a 2D Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian discretized on a rectangular domain using a standard second order finite difference scheme. This type of calculation can be used to obtain an accurate approximation to the diagonal of a Fermi-Dirac function of $H$ through a recently developed pole-expansion technique \\cite{LinLuYingE2009}. The diagonal elements are needed in electronic structure calculations for quantum mechanical systems \\citeHohenbergKohn1964, KohnSham 1965,DreizlerGross1990. We show how elimination tree is used to organize the parallel computation and how synchronization overhead is reduced by passing data level by level along this tree using the technique of local buffers and relative indices. We analyze the performance of our implementation by examining its load balance and communication overhead. We show that our implementation exhibits an excellent weak scaling on a large-scale high performance distributed parallel machine. When compared with standard approach for evaluating the diagonal a Fermi-Dirac function of a Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian associated a 2D electron quantum dot, the new pole-expansion technique that uses our algorithm to compute the diagonal of $(H-z_i I)^-1$ for a small number of poles $z_i$ is much faster, especially when the quantum dot contains many electrons.

  16. Characterization of responses of 2d array seven29 detector and its combined use with octavius phantom for the patient-specific quality assurance in rapidarc treatment delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syamkumar, S.A.; Padmanabhan, Sriram; Sukumar, Prabakar; Nagarajan, Vivekanandan

    2012-04-01

    A commercial 2D array seven29 detector has been characterized and its performance has been evaluated. 2D array ionization chamber equipped with 729 ionization chambers uniformly arranged in a 27 Multiplication-Sign 27 matrix with an active area of 27 Multiplication-Sign 27 cm{sup 2} was used for the study. An octagon-shaped phantom (Octavius Phantom) with a central cavity is used to insert the 2D ion chamber array. All measurements were done with a linear accelerator. The detector dose linearity, reproducibility, output factors, dose rate, source to surface distance (SSD), and directional dependency has been studied. The performance of the 2D array, when measuring clinical dose maps, was also investigated. For pretreatment quality assurance, 10 different RapidArc plans conforming to the clinical standards were selected. The 2D array demonstrates an excellent short-term output reproducibility. The long-term reproducibility was found to be within {+-}1% over a period of 5 months. Output factor measurements for the central chamber of the array showed no considerable deviation from ion chamber measurements. We found that the 2D array exhibits directional dependency for static fields. Measurement of beam profiles and wedge-modulated fields with the 2D array matched very well with the ion chamber measurements in the water phantom. The study shows that 2D array seven29 is a reliable and accurate dosimeter and a useful tool for quality assurance. The combination of the 2D array with the Octavius phantom proved to be a fast and reliable method for pretreatment verification of rotational treatments.

  17. NUBOW-2D Inelastic

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-01-31

    This program solves the two-dimensional mechanical equilbrium configuration of a core restraint system, which is subjected to radial temperature and flux gradients, on a time increment basis. At each time increment, the code calculates the irradiation creep and swelling strains for each duct from user-specified creep and swelling correlations. Using the calculated thermal bowing, inelastic bowing and the duct dilation, the corresponding equilibrium forces, beam deflections, total beam displacements, and structural reactivity changes are calculated.

  18. A 2-D Test Problem for CFD Modeling Heat Transfer in Spent Fuel Transfer Cask Neutron Shields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zigh, Ghani; Solis, Jorge; Fort, James A.

    2011-01-14

    In the United States, commercial spent nuclear fuel is typically moved from spent fuel pools to outdoor dry storage pads within a transfer cask system that provides radiation shielding to protect personnel and the surrounding environment. The transfer casks are cylindrical steel enclosures with integral gamma and neutron radiation shields. Since the transfer cask system must be passively cooled, decay heat removal from spent nuclear fuel canister is limited by the rate of heat transfer through the cask components, and natural convection from the transfer cask surface. The primary mode of heat transfer within the transfer cask system is conduction, but some cask designs incorporate a liquid neutron shield tank surrounding the transfer cask structural shell. In these systems, accurate prediction of natural convection within the neutron shield tank is an important part of assessing the overall thermal performance of the transfer cask system. The large-scale geometry of the neutron shield tank, which is typically an annulus approximately 2 meters in diameter but only 5-10 cm in thickness, and the relatively small scale velocities (typically less than 5 cm/s) represent a wide range of spatial and temporal scales that contribute to making this a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Relevant experimental data at these scales are not available in the literature, but some recent modeling studies offer insights into numerical issues and solutions; however, the geometries in these studies, and for the experimental data in the literature at smaller scales, all have large annular gaps that are not prototypic of the transfer cask neutron shield. This paper presents results for a simple 2-D problem that is an effective numerical analog for the neutron shield application. Because it is 2-D, solutions can be obtained relatively quickly allowing a comparison and assessment of sensitivity to model parameter changes. Turbulence models are considered as

  19. MagicPlate-512: A 2D silicon detector array for quality assurance of stereotactic motion adaptive radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petasecca, M. Newall, M. K.; Aldosari, A. H.; Fuduli, I.; Espinoza, A. A.; Porumb, C. S.; Guatelli, S.; Metcalfe, P.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Booth, J. T.; Colvill, E.; Duncan, M.; Cammarano, D.; Carolan, M.; Oborn, B.; Perevertaylo, V.; Keall, P. J.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Spatial and temporal resolutions are two of the most important features for quality assurance instrumentation of motion adaptive radiotherapy modalities. The goal of this work is to characterize the performance of the 2D high spatial resolution monolithic silicon diode array named “MagicPlate-512” for quality assurance of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) combined with a dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking technique for motion compensation. Methods: MagicPlate-512 is used in combination with the movable platform HexaMotion and a research version of radiofrequency tracking system Calypso driving MLC tracking software. The authors reconstruct 2D dose distributions of small field square beams in three modalities: in static conditions, mimicking the temporal movement pattern of a lung tumor and tracking the moving target while the MLC compensates almost instantaneously for the tumor displacement. Use of Calypso in combination with MagicPlate-512 requires a proper radiofrequency interference shielding. Impact of the shielding on dosimetry has been simulated by GEANT4 and verified experimentally. Temporal and spatial resolutions of the dosimetry system allow also for accurate verification of segments of complex stereotactic radiotherapy plans with identification of the instant and location where a certain dose is delivered. This feature allows for retrospective temporal reconstruction of the delivery process and easy identification of error in the tracking or the multileaf collimator driving systems. A sliding MLC wedge combined with the lung motion pattern has been measured. The ability of the MagicPlate-512 (MP512) in 2D dose mapping in all three modes of operation was benchmarked by EBT3 film. Results: Full width at half maximum and penumbra of the moving and stationary dose profiles measured by EBT3 film and MagicPlate-512 confirm that motion has a significant impact on the dose distribution. Motion

  20. Verification Test Suite (VERTS) For Rail Gun Applications using ALE3D: 2-D Hydrodynamics & Thermal Cases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najjar, F M; Solberg, J; White, D

    2008-04-17

    A verification test suite has been assessed with primary focus on low reynolds number flow of liquid metals. This is representative of the interface between the armature and rail in gun applications. The computational multiphysics framework, ALE3D, is used. The main objective of the current study is to provide guidance and gain confidence in the results obtained with ALE3D. A verification test suite based on 2-D cases is proposed and includes the lid-driven cavity and the Couette flow are investigated. The hydro and thermal fields are assumed to be steady and laminar in nature. Results are compared with analytical solutions and previously published data. Mesh resolution studies are performed along with various models for the equation of state.

  1. Note: Reliable and non-contact 6D motion tracking system based on 2D laser scanners for cargo transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Young-Keun; Kim, Kyung-Soo

    2014-10-15

    Maritime transportation demands an accurate measurement system to track the motion of oscillating container boxes in real time. However, it is a challenge to design a sensor system that can provide both reliable and non-contact methods of 6-DOF motion measurements of a remote object for outdoor applications. In the paper, a sensor system based on two 2D laser scanners is proposed for detecting the relative 6-DOF motion of a crane load in real time. Even without implementing a camera, the proposed system can detect the motion of a remote object using four laser beam points. Because it is a laser-based sensor, the system is expected to be highly robust to sea weather conditions.

  2. Renormalization group flow and fixed point of the lattice topological charge in the 2D O(3) {sigma} model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DElia, M.; Farchioni, F.; Papa, A.

    1997-02-01

    We study the renormalization group evolution up to the fixed point of the lattice topological susceptibility in the 2D O(3) nonlinear {sigma} model. We start with a discretization of the continuum topological charge by a local charge density polynomial in the lattice fields. Among the different choices we propose also a Symanzik-improved lattice topological charge. We check step by step in the renormalization group iteration the progressive dumping of quantum fluctuations, which are responsible for the additive and multiplicative renormalizations of the lattice topological susceptibility with respect to the continuum definition. We find that already after three iterations these renormalizations are negligible and an excellent approximation of the fixed point is achieved. We also check by an explicit calculation that the assumption of slowly varying fields in iterating the renormalization group does not lead to a good approximation of the fixed point charge operator. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. 2D image of local density and magnetic fluctuations from line-integrated interferometry-polarimetry measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, L. Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.

    2014-11-15

    Combined polarimetry-interferometry capability permits simultaneous measurement of line-integrated density and Faraday effect with fast time response (∼1 μs) and high sensitivity. Faraday effect fluctuations with phase shift of order 0.05° associated with global tearing modes are resolved with an uncertainty ∼0.01°. For physics investigations, local density fluctuations are obtained by inverting the line-integrated interferometry data. The local magnetic and current density fluctuations are then reconstructed using a parameterized fit of the polarimetry data. Reconstructed 2D images of density and magnetic field fluctuations in a poloidal cross section exhibit significantly different spatial structure. Combined with their relative phase, the magnetic-fluctuation-induced particle transport flux and its spatial distribution are resolved.

  4. Formation mechanisms of oxygen atoms in the O({sup 1}D{sub 2}) state from the 157 nm photoirradiation of amorphous water ice at 90 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hama, Tetsuya; Yabushita, Akihiro; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Watanabe, Naoki

    2009-09-21

    Vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of water ice in the first absorption band was studied at 157 nm. Translational and internal energy distributions of the desorbed species, O({sup 1}D) and OH(v=0,1), were directly measured with resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization method. Two different mechanisms are discussed for desorption of electronically excited O({sup 1}D) atoms from the ice surface. One is unimolecular dissociation of H{sub 2}O to H{sub 2}+O({sup 1}D) as a primary photoprocess. The other is the surface recombination reaction of hot OH radicals that are produced from photodissociation of hydrogen peroxide as a secondary photoprocess. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is one of the major photoproducts in the vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of water ice.

  5. An implicit energy-conservative 2D Fokker-Planck algorithm -- 2. Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov solver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chacon, L.; Barnes, D.C.; Knoll, D.A.; Miley, G.H.

    2000-01-20

    Energy-conservative implicit integration schemes for the Fokker-Planck transport equation in multidimensional geometries require inverting a dense, non-symmetric matrix (Jacobian), which is very expensive to store and solve using standard solvers. However, these limitations can be overcome with Newton-Krylov iterative techniques, since they can be implemented Jacobian-free (the Jacobian matrix from Newton's algorithm is never formed nor stored to proceed with the iteration), and their convergence can be accelerated by preconditioning the original problem. In this document, the efficient numerical implementation of an implicit energy-conservative scheme for multidimensional Fokker-Planck problems using multigrid-preconditioned Krylov methods is discussed. Results show that multigrid preconditioning is very effective in speeding convergence and decreasing CPU requirements, particularly in fine meshes. The solver is demonstrated on grids up to 128 x 128 points in a 2D cylindrical velocity space ({upsilon}{sub r}, {upsilon}{sub p}) with implicit time steps of the order of the collisional time scale of the problem, {tau}. The method preserves particles exactly, and energy conservation is improved over alternative approaches, particularly in coarse meshes. Typical errors in the total energy over a time period of 10{tau} remain below a percent.

  6. Alloy Engineering of Defect Properties in Semiconductors: Suppression of Deep Levels in 2D Transition-metal Dichalcogenides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Bing; Yoon, Mina; Sumpter, Bobby G; Wei, Su-Huai; Liu, Feng

    2015-09-18

    Developing practical approaches to effectively reduce the deep defect levels in semiconductors is critical for their use in electronic and optoelectronic devices, but this is still a very challenging task. In this Letter, we propose that specific alloying can provide an effective means to suppress the deep defect levels in semiconductors while maintaining their basic electronic properties. Specifically, we demonstrate that for such 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides as MoSe2 and WSe2, in which the most abundant defects that can induce deep levels are anion vacancies, the deep levels can be effectively suppressed in Mo1-xWxSe2 alloys at low W concentrations. This surprising phenomenon is associated with the fact that the global alloy concentration can substantially tune the band edge energies, whereas the preferred locations of Se vacancies around W atoms control the defect level locally. Our findings illustrate a new concept of alloy engineering and provide a promising approach to control the defect properties of semiconductors.

  7. Presentation of the MERC work-flow for the computation of a 2D radial reflector in a PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clerc, T.; Hebert, A.; Leroyer, H.; Argaud, J. P.; Poncot, A.; Bouriquet, B.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a work-flow for computing an equivalent 2D radial reflector in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) core, in adequacy with a reference power distribution, computed with the method of characteristics (MOC) of the lattice code APOLLO2. The Multi-modelling Equivalent Reflector Computation (MERC) work-flow is a coherent association of the lattice code APOLLO2 and the core code COCAGNE, structured around the ADAO (Assimilation de Donnees et Aide a l'Optimisation) module of the SALOME platform, based on the data assimilation theory. This study leads to the computation of equivalent few-groups reflectors, that can be spatially heterogeneous, which have been compared to those obtained with the OPTEX similar methodology developed with the core code DONJON, as a first validation step. Subsequently, the MERC work-flow is used to compute the most accurate reflector in consistency with all the R and D choices made at Electricite de France (EDF) for the core modelling, in terms of number of energy groups and simplified transport solvers. We observe important reductions of the power discrepancies distribution over the core when using equivalent reflectors obtained with the MERC work-flow. (authors)

  8. Alloy Engineering of Defect Properties in Semiconductors: Suppression of Deep Levels in 2D Transition-metal Dichalcogenides

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Bing; Yoon, Mina; Sumpter, Bobby G; Wei, Su-Huai; Liu, Feng

    2015-09-18

    Developing practical approaches to effectively reduce the deep defect levels in semiconductors is critical for their use in electronic and optoelectronic devices, but this is still a very challenging task. In this Letter, we propose that specific alloying can provide an effective means to suppress the deep defect levels in semiconductors while maintaining their basic electronic properties. Specifically, we demonstrate that for such 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides as MoSe2 and WSe2, in which the most abundant defects that can induce deep levels are anion vacancies, the deep levels can be effectively suppressed in Mo1-xWxSe2 alloys at low W concentrations. This surprisingmore » phenomenon is associated with the fact that the global alloy concentration can substantially tune the band edge energies, whereas the preferred locations of Se vacancies around W atoms control the defect level locally. Our findings illustrate a new concept of alloy engineering and provide a promising approach to control the defect properties of semiconductors.« less

  9. Data:Eac1dd3a-0268-4e5c-b1d1-ed9feeb2a12a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Eac1dd3a-0268-4e5c-b1d1-ed9feeb2a12a No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading......

  10. Data:873baff3-174f-491f-a4c4-7c1d016cc484 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    baff3-174f-491f-a4c4-7c1d016cc484 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1....

  11. Rapid estimation of 4DCT motion-artifact severity based on 1D breathing-surrogate periodicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Guang Caraveo, Marshall; Wei, Jie; Rimner, Andreas; Wu, Abraham J.; Goodman, Karyn A.; Yorke, Ellen

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Motion artifacts are common in patient four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) images, leading to an ill-defined tumor volume with large variations for radiotherapy treatment and a poor foundation with low imaging fidelity for studying respiratory motion. The authors developed a method to estimate 4DCT image quality by establishing a correlation between the severity of motion artifacts in 4DCT images and the periodicity of the corresponding 1D respiratory waveform (1DRW) used for phase binning in 4DCT reconstruction. Methods: Discrete Fourier transformation (DFT) was applied to analyze 1DRW periodicity. The breathing periodicity index (BPI) was defined as the sum of the largest five Fourier coefficients, ranging from 0 to 1. Distortional motion artifacts (excluding blurring) of cine-scan 4DCT at the junctions of adjacent couch positions around the diaphragm were classified in three categories: incomplete, overlapping, and duplicate anatomies. To quantify these artifacts, discontinuity of the diaphragm at the junctions was measured in distance and averaged along six directions in three orthogonal views. Artifacts per junction (APJ) across the entire diaphragm were calculated in each breathing phase and phase-averaged APJ{sup }, defined as motion-artifact severity (MAS), was obtained for each patient. To make MAS independent of patient-specific motion amplitude, two new MAS quantities were defined: MAS{sup D} is normalized to the maximum diaphragmatic displacement and MAS{sup V} is normalized to the mean diaphragmatic velocity (the breathing period was obtained from DFT analysis of 1DRW). Twenty-six patients free-breathing 4DCT images and corresponding 1DRW data were studied. Results: Higher APJ values were found around midventilation and full inhalation while the lowest APJ values were around full exhalation. The distribution of MAS is close to Poisson distribution with a mean of 2.2 mm. The BPI among the 26 patients was calculated with a value

  12. SU-E-T-430: Modeling MLC Leaf End in 2D for Sliding Window IMRT and Arc Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, X; Zhu, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a 2D geometric model for MLC accounting for leaf end dose leakage for dynamic IMRT and Rapidarc therapy. Methods: Leaf-end dose leakage is one of the problems for MLC dose calculation and modeling. Dosimetric leaf gap used to model the MLC and to count for leakage in dose calculation, but may not be accurate for smaller leaf gaps. We propose another geometric modeling method to compensate for the MLC round-shape leaf ends dose leakage, and improve the accuracy of dose calculation and dose verification. A triangular function is used to geometrically model the MLC leaf end leakage in the leaf motion direction, and a step function is used in the perpendicular direction. Dose measurements with different leaf gap, different window width, and different window height were conducted, and the results were used to fit the analytical model to get the model parameters. Results: Analytical models have been obtained for stop-and-shoot and dynamic modes for MLC motion. Parameters a=0.4, lw'=5.0 mm for 6X and a=0.54, lw'=4.1 mm for 15x were obtained from the fitting process. The proposed MLC leaf end model improves the dose profile at the two ends of the sliding window opening. This improvement is especially significant for smaller sliding window openings, which are commonly used for highly modulated IMRT plans and arc therapy plans. Conclusion: This work models the MLC round leaf end shape and movement pattern for IMRT dose calculation. The theory, as well as the results in this work provides a useful tool for photon beam IMRT dose calculation and verification.

  13. SU-E-T-65: Characterization of a 2D Array for QA and Pretreatment Plan Verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anvari, A; Aghamiri, S; Mahdavi, S; Alaei, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The OCTAVIUS detector729 is a 2D array of 729 air vented cubic plane parallel ion chambers used for pretreatment verification and QA. In this study we investigated dosimetric characteristics of this system for clinical photon beam dosimetry. Methods: Detector performance evaluation included determination of the location of the effective point of measurement (EPM), sensitivity, linearity, and reproducibility of detector response, as well as output factor, dose rate, and source to surface distance (SSD) dependence. Finally, assessment of wedge modulated fields was carried out. All the evaluations were performed five times for low and high photon energies. For reference measurements, a 0.6 cc ionization chamber was used. Data analysis and comparison of the OCTAVIUS detector with reference ion chamber data was performed using the VeriSoft patient plan verification software. Results: The reproducibility and stability of the measurements are excellent, the detector showed same signal with a maximum deviation of less than 0.5% in short and long term. Results of sensitivity test showed same signal with a maximum deviation of approximately 0.1%. As the detector 729 response is linear with dose and dose rate, it can be used for the measurement at regions of high dose gradient effectively. The detector agrees with the ionization chamber measurement to within 1% for SSD range of 75 to 125 cm. Also, its measured wedge modulated profiles matched very well with ion chamber dose profiles acquired in a water tank. Conclusions: As the response of the detector 729 is linear with dose and dose rate, it can be used for the measurements in the areas of dose gradients effectively. Based on the measurements and comparisons performed, this system is a reliable and accurate dosimeter for QA and pretreatment plan verification in radiotherapy.

  14. 2D heterodyne-detected sum frequency generation study on the ultrafast vibrational dynamics of H{sub 2}O and HOD water at charged interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inoue, Ken-ichi; Singh, Prashant C.; Nihonyanagi, Satoshi; Tahara, Tahei; Yamaguchi, Shoichi

    2015-06-07

    Two-dimensional heterodyne-detected vibrational sum-frequency generation (2D HD-VSFG) spectroscopy is applied to study the ultrafast vibrational dynamics of water at positively charged aqueous interfaces, and 2D HD-VSFG spectra of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)/water interfaces in the whole hydrogen-bonded OH stretch region (3000 cm{sup ?1} ? ?{sub pump} ? 3600 cm{sup ?1}) are measured. 2D HD-VSFG spectrum of the CTAB/isotopically diluted water (HOD-D{sub 2}O) interface exhibits a diagonally elongated bleaching lobe immediately after excitation, which becomes round with a time constant of ?0.3 ps due to spectral diffusion. In contrast, 2D HD-VSFG spectrum of the CTAB/H{sub 2}O interface at 0.0 ps clearly shows two diagonal peaks and their cross peaks in the bleaching region, corresponding to the double peaks observed at 3230 cm{sup ?1} and 3420 cm{sup ?1} in the steady-state HD-VSFG spectrum. Horizontal slices of the 2D spectrum show that the relative intensity of the two peaks of the bleaching at the CTAB/H{sub 2}O interface gradually change with the change of the pump frequency. We simulate the pump-frequency dependence of the bleaching feature using a model that takes account of the Fermi resonance and inhomogeneity of the OH stretch vibration, and the simulated spectra reproduce the essential features of the 2D HD-VSFG spectra of the CTAB/H{sub 2}O interface. The present study demonstrates that heterodyne detection of the time-resolved VSFG is critically important for studying the ultrafast dynamics of water interfaces and for unveiling the underlying mechanism.

  15. OECD MCCI project long-term 2-D molten core concrete interaction test design report, Rev. 0. September 30, 2002.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschliman, R. W.; Basu, S. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (NRC)

    2011-05-23

    experiments to address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten core-concrete interaction. In particular, for both wet and dry cavity conditions, there is uncertainty insofar as evaluating the lateral vs. axial power split during a core-concrete interaction due to a lack of experiment data. As a result, there are differences in the 2-D cavity erosion predicted by codes such as MELCOR, WECHSL, and COSACO. The first step towards generating this data is to produce a test plan for review by the Project Review Group (PRG). The purpose of this document is to provide this plan.

  16. Dihydrogen activation by mixed platinum- and palladium-gold cluster compounds. Homogeneous catalytic H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} equilibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aubart, M.A.; Chandler, B.D.; Gould, R.A.T.

    1994-08-17

    Platinum- and palladium-gold cluster compounds were evaluated with respect to their ability to catalyze H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} equilibration. In addition, these phosphine-stabilized complexes were structurally characterized. Mechanistic studies for this reaction were performed by kinetic and spectroscopic analysis. The catalytic reaction appears to occur in three steps, which were determined.

  17. Lifetime measurement of the metastable 4d {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} state in {sup 88}Sr{sup +} using a single trapped ion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letchumanan, V.; Wilson, M.A.; Gill, P.; Sinclair, A.G.

    2005-07-15

    The natural lifetime of the metastable 4d {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} state in {sup 88}Sr{sup +} has been measured using a single laser-cooled, trapped ion. The ion was prepared in the 4d {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} state by laser excitation of the 5s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-4d {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} quadrupole transition at 674 nm. The decay time was measured by using Dehmelt's electron shelving method to monitor the ion's electronic state. Two separate investigations were conducted under slightly different experimental conditions. 160 000 decay times from the 4d {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} state were observed in total, and two different methods for determining the statistical value of the measured lifetime have been compared. Systematic effects have also been estimated, and including these effects yields a value of {tau}=390.8(1.6) ms (1{sigma} uncertainty) for the natural lifetime.

  18. Application of 2D VSP Imaging Technology to the Targeting of Exploration and Production Wells in a Basin and Range Geothermal System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: A novel 2D VSP imaging technology and patented processing techniques will be used to create accurate, high-resolution reflection images of a classic Basin and Range fault system in a fraction of previous compute times.

  19. SU-E-T-77: Comparison of 2D and 3D Gamma Analysis in Patient-Specific QA for Prostate VMAT Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clemente, F; Perez, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Patient-specific QA procedures for IMRT and VMAT are traditionally performed by comparing TPS calculations with measured single point values and plane dose distributions by means of gamma analysis. New QA devices permit us to calculate 3D dose distributions on patient anatomy as redundant secondary check and reconstruct it from measurements taken with 2D and 3D detector arrays. 3D dose calculations allow us to perform DVH-based comparisons with clinical relevance, as well as 3D gamma analysis. One of these systems (Compass, IBA Dosimetry) combines traditional 2D with new anatomical-based 3D gamma analysis. This work shows the ability of this system by comparing 2D and 3D gamma analysis in pre-treatment QA for several VMAT prostate plans. Methods: Compass is capable of calculating dose as secondary check from DICOM TPS data and reconstructing it from measurements taken by a 2D ion chamber array (MatriXX Evolution, IBA Dosimetry). Both 2D and 3D gamma tests are available to compare calculated and reconstructed dose in Compass with TPS RT Dose. Results: 15 VMAT prostate plans have been measured with Compass. Dose is reconstructed with Compass for these plans. 2D gamma comparisons can be done for any plane from dose matrix. Mean gamma passing rates for isocenter planes (axial, coronal, sagittal) are (99.70.2)%, (99.90.1)%, (99.90.1)% for reconstructed dose planes. 3D mean gamma passing rates are (98.51.7)% for PTVs, (99.11.5)% for rectum, (100.00.0)% for bladder, (99.60.7)% for femoral heads and (98.14.1)% for penile bulb. Conclusion: Compass is a powerful tool to perform a complete pre-treatment QA analysis, from 2D techniques to 3D DVH-based techniques with clinical relevance. All reported values for VMAT prostate plans are in good agreement with TPS values. This system permits us to ensure the accuracy in the delivery of VMAT treatments completing a full patient-specific QA program.

  20. Holdup Measurement System 4 V1.0d

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-05-31

    HMS4 is a software package for performing and documenting holdup measurements. HMS4 includes two sets of programs; the main program that runs on a host personal computer (PC), and the other ones that run on a handheld mobile computer or portable PC. The main host computer program performs setup and calibration of multichannel analyzer/detector pairs, loads the controllers with operational parameters, receives measurement data from the controllers, maintains measurements and derived results in databases, andmore » prints reports.« less

  1. Ice Concentration Retrieval in Stratiform Mixed-phase Clouds Using Cloud Radar Reflectivity Measurements and 1D Ice Growth Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Damao; Wang, Zhien; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Fan, Jiwen; Luo, Tao

    2014-10-01

    Measurement of ice number concentration in clouds is important but still challenging. Stratiform mixed-phase clouds (SMCs) provide a simple scenario for retrieving ice number concentration from remote sensing measurements. The simple ice generation and growth pattern in SMCs offers opportunities to use cloud radar reflectivity (Ze) measurements and other cloud properties to infer ice number concentration quantitatively. To understand the strong temperature dependency of ice habit and growth rate quantitatively, we develop a 1-D ice growth model to calculate the ice diffusional growth along its falling trajectory in SMCs. The radar reflectivity and fall velocity profiles of ice crystals calculated from the 1-D ice growth model are evaluated with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) ground-based high vertical resolution radar measurements. Combining Ze measurements and 1-D ice growth model simulations, we develop a method to retrieve the ice number concentrations in SMCs at given cloud top temperature (CTT) and liquid water path (LWP). The retrieved ice concentrations in SMCs are evaluated with in situ measurements and with a three-dimensional cloud-resolving model simulation with a bin microphysical scheme. These comparisons show that the retrieved ice number concentrations are within an uncertainty of a factor of 2, statistically.

  2. 2D?3D polycatenated and 3D?3D interpenetrated metalorganic frameworks constructed from thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate and rigid bis(imidazole) ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erer, Hakan; Ye?ilel, Okan Zafer; Ar?c?, Mrsel; Keskin, Seda; Bykgngr, Orhan

    2014-02-15

    Hydrothermal reactions of rigid 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)benzene (dib) and 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)-2,5-dimethylbenzene (dimb) with deprotonated thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}tdc) in the presence of Zn(II) and Cd(II) salts in H{sub 2}O produced three new metalorganic frameworks, namely, [Zn(-tdc)(H{sub 2}O)(-dib)]{sub n} (1), [Cd(-tdc)(H{sub 2}O)(-dib)]{sub n} (2), and ([Cd{sub 2}({sub 3}-tdc){sub 2}(-dimb){sub 2}](H{sub 2}O)){sub n}(3). These MOFs were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, elemental, thermal (TG, DTA, DTG and DSC), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Isomorphous complexes 1 and 2 reveal polycatenated 2D+2D?3D framework based on an undulated (4,4)-sql layer. Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework with the point symbol of 6{sup 6}. Molecular simulations were used to assess the potentials of the complexes for H{sub 2} storage application. Moreover, these coordination polymers exhibit blue fluorescent emission bands in the solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: In this study, hydrothermal reactions of rigid 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)benzene (dib) and 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)-2,5-dimethylbenzene (dimb) with deprotonated thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}tdc) in the presence of Zn(II) and Cd(II) salts in H{sub 2}O produced three new metalorganic frameworks. Isomorphous complexes 1 and 2 reveal polycatenated 2D+2D?3D framework based on an undulated (4,4)-sql layer. Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework with the point symbol of 6{sup 6}. Molecular simulations were used to assess the potentials of the complexes for H{sub 2} storage application. These coordination polymers exhibit blue fluorescent emission bands in the solid state at room temperature. Display Omitted - Highlights: Complexes 1 and 2 display polycatenated 2D+2D?3D framework. Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework. Complex 1 adsorbs the highest amount of H{sub 2} at 100 bar and

  3. SU-E-T-644: Evaluation of Angular Dependence Correction for 2D Array Detector Using for Quality Assurance of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karthikeyan, N; Ganesh, K M; Vikraman, S; Shariff, MH

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the angular dependence correction for Matrix Evolution 2D array detector in quality assurance of volumetric modulated arc therapy(VMAT). Methods: Total ten patients comprising of different sites were planned for VMAT and taken for the study. Each plan was exposed on Matrix Evolution 2D array detector with Omnipro IMRT software based on the following three different methods using 6MV photon beams from Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. First method, VMAT plan was delivered on Matrix Evolution detector as it gantry mounted with dedicated holder with build-up of 2.3cm. Second, the VMAT plan was delivered with the static gantry angle on to the table mounted setup. Third, the VMAT plan was delivered with actual gantry angle on Matrix Evolution detector fixed in Multicube phantom with gantry angle sensor and angular dependence correction were applied to quantify the plan quality. For all these methods, the corresponding QA plans were generated in TPS and the dose verification was done for both point and 2D fluence analysis with pass criteria of 3% dose difference and 3mm distance to agreement. Results: The measured point dose variation for the first method was observed as 1.580.6% of mean and SD with TPS calculated. For second and third method, the mean and standard deviation(SD) was observed as 1.670.7% and 1.850.8% respectively. The 2D fluence analysis of measured and TPS calculated has the mean and SD of 97.91.1%, 97.881.2% and 97.551.3% for first, second and third methods respectively. The calculated two-tailed Pvalue for point dose and 2D fluence analysis shows the insignificance with values of 0.9316 and 0.9015 respectively, among the different methods of QA. Conclusion: The qualitative evaluation of angular dependence correction for Matrix Evolution 2D array detector shows its competency in accuracy of quality assurance measurement of composite dose distribution of volumetric modulated arc therapy.

  4. Results of an attempt to measure increased rates of the reaction D-2 + D-2 yields He-3 + n in a nonelectrochemical cold fusion experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fralick, G.C.; Decker, A.J.; Blue, J.W.

    1989-12-01

    An experiment was performed to look for evidence of deuterium fusion in palladium. The experiment, which involved introducing deuterium into the palladium filter of a hydrogen purifier, was designed to detect neutrons produced in the reaction D-2 + D-2 yields He-3 + n as well as heat production. The neutron counts for deuterium did not differ significantly from background or from the counts for a hydrogen control. Heat production was detected when deuterium, but not hydrogen, was pumped from the purifier.

  5. SU-E-P-35: Real-Time Patient Transit Dose Verification of Volumetric Modulated Arc Radiotherapy by a 2D Ionization Chamber Array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, X

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the real-time dose verification method in volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) with a 2D array ion chamber array. Methods: The 2D ion chamber array was fixed on the panel of electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Source-detector distance (SDD)was 140cm. 8mm RW3 solid water was added to the detector panel to achieve maximum readings.The patient plans for esophageal, prostate and liver cancers were selected to deliver on the cylindrical Cheese phantom 5 times in order to validate the reproducibility of doses. Real-time patient transit dose measurements were performed at each fraction. Dose distributions wereevaluated using gamma index criteria of 3mm DTA and 3% dose difference referred to the firsttime Result. Results: The gamma index pass rate in the Cheese phantom were about 98%; The gamma index pass rate for esophageal, liver and prostate cancer patient were about 92%,94%, and 92%, respectively; Gamma pass rate for all single fraction were more than 90%. Conclusion: The 2D array is capable of monitoring the real time transit doses during VMAT delivery. It is helpful to improve the treatment accuracy.

  6. Two Keggin-type heteropolytungstates with transition metal as a central atom: Crystal structure and magnetic study with 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chai, Feng [Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Chen, YiPing, E-mail: ypchen007@sina.com [Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); You, ZhuChai; Xia, ZeMin; Ge, SuZhi; Sun, YanQiong; Huang, BiHua [Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

    2013-06-01

    Two Keggin-type heteropolytungstates, [Co(phen)?]?[CoW??O??]9H?O 1 (phen=1,10-phenanthroline) and [Fe(phen)?]?[FeW??O??]H?OH?O 2, have been synthesized via the hydrothermal technique and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, IR, XPS, TG analysis, UVDRS, XRD, thermal-dependent and magnetic-dependent 2D-COS IR (two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy). Crystal structure analysis reveals that the polyanions in compound 1 are linked into 3D supramolecule through hydrogen bonding interactions between lattice water molecules and terminal oxygen atoms of polyanion units, and [Co(phen)?]? cations distributed in the polyanion framework with many hydrogen bonding interactions. The XPS spectra indicate that all the Co atoms in 1 are +2 oxidation state, the Fe atoms in 2 existing with +2 and +3 mixed oxidation states. - Graphical abstract: The magnetic-dependent synchronous 2D correlation IR spectra of 1 (a), 2 (b) over 050 mT in the range of 6001000 cm?, the obvious response indicate two Keggin polyanions skeleton susceptible to applied magnetic field. Highlights: Two Keggin-type heteropolytungstates with transition metal as a central atom has been obtained. Compound 1 forms into 3D supramolecular architecture through hydrogen bonding between water molecules and polyanions. Magnetic-dependent 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy was introduced to discuss the magnetism of polyoxometalate.

  7. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-05: Preliminary Results On a 2D Dosimetry System Based On the Optically Stimulated Luminescence of Al2O3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, M; Eller, S; Yukihara, E; Schnell, E; Ahmad, S; Akselrod, M; Hanson, O

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a precise 2D dose mapping technique based on the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films for medical applications. Methods: A 2D laser scanning reader was developed using fast F{sup +}-center (lifetime of <7 ns) and slow F-center (lifetime of 35 ms) OSL emission from newly developed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films (Landauer Inc.). An algorithm was developed to correct images for both material and system properties. Since greater contribution of the F??-center emission in the recorded signal increases the readout efficiency and robustness of image corrections, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C,Mg film samples are being investigated in addition to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C samples. Preliminary investigations include exposure of the films to a 6 MV photon beam at 10 cm depth in solid water phantom with an SSD of 100 cm, using a 10 cm × 10 cm flat field or a 4 cm × 4 cm field with a 60° wedge filter. Kodak EDR2 radiographic film and EBT2 Gafchromic film were also exposed for comparison. Results: The results indicate that the algorithm is able to correct images and calculate 2D dose. For the wedge field irradiation, the calculated dose at the center of the field was 0.9 Gy for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C and 0.87 Gy for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C,Mg, whereas, the delivered dose was 0.95 Gy. A good qualitative agreement of the dose profiles was obtained between the OSL films and EDR2 and EBT2 films. Laboratory tests using a beta source suggest that a large dynamic range (10{sup −2}−10{sup 2} Gy) can be achieved using this technique. Conclusion: A 2D dosimetry system and an in-house image correction algorithm were developed for 2D film dosimetry in medical applications. The system is in the preliminary stage of development, but the data demonstrates the feasibility of this approach. This work was supported by Landauer, Inc.

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    4 In response to requirements of Executive Order 13287, Preserve America Office of History and Heritage Resources Office of the Executive Secretariat U.S. Department of Energy September 2014 An Assessment of Historic Properties and Preservation Activities at the U.S. Department of Energy Table of Contents Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 3 Part I. Background and Overview

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    Site Operations Division, Office of Institutional Operations Approving Official: Bradley J. Tomer, Chief Operating Officer, Office of the Director signature s Bradley J....

  10. Position tracking of moving liver lesion based on real-time registration between 2D ultrasound and 3D preoperative images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weon, Chijun; Hyun Nam, Woo; Lee, Duhgoon; Ra, Jong Beom; Lee, Jae Young

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Registration between 2D ultrasound (US) and 3D preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) (or computed tomography, CT) images has been studied recently for US-guided intervention. However, the existing techniques have some limits, either in the registration speed or the performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a real-time and fully automatic registration system between two intermodal images of the liver, and subsequently an indirect lesion positioning/tracking algorithm based on the registration result, for image-guided interventions. Methods: The proposed position tracking system consists of three stages. In the preoperative stage, the authors acquire several 3D preoperative MR (or CT) images at different respiratory phases. Based on the transformations obtained from nonrigid registration of the acquired 3D images, they then generate a 4D preoperative image along the respiratory phase. In the intraoperative preparatory stage, they properly attach a 3D US transducer to the patient’s body and fix its pose using a holding mechanism. They then acquire a couple of respiratory-controlled 3D US images. Via the rigid registration of these US images to the 3D preoperative images in the 4D image, the pose information of the fixed-pose 3D US transducer is determined with respect to the preoperative image coordinates. As feature(s) to use for the rigid registration, they may choose either internal liver vessels or the inferior vena cava. Since the latter is especially useful in patients with a diffuse liver disease, the authors newly propose using it. In the intraoperative real-time stage, they acquire 2D US images in real-time from the fixed-pose transducer. For each US image, they select candidates for its corresponding 2D preoperative slice from the 4D preoperative MR (or CT) image, based on the predetermined pose information of the transducer. The correct corresponding image is then found among those candidates via real-time 2D registration based on a

  11. Feasibility of vibro-acoustography with a quasi-2D ultrasound array transducer for detection and localizing of permanent prostate brachytherapy seeds: A pilot ex vivo study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Kinnick, Randall R.; Fatemi, Mostafa; Alizad, Azra; Davis, Brian J.

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Effective permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) requires precise placement of radioactive seeds in and around the prostate. The impetus for this research is to examine a new ultrasound-based imaging modality, vibro-acoustography (VA), which may serve to provide a high rate of PPB seed detection while also effecting enhanced prostate imaging. The authors investigate the ability of VA, implemented on a clinical ultrasound (US) scanner and equipped with a quasi-2D (Q2D) array US transducer, to detect and localize PPB seeds in excised prostate specimens. Methods: Nonradioactive brachytherapy seeds were implanted into four excised cadaver prostates. A clinical US scanner equipped with a Q2D array US transducer was customized to acquire both US and C-scan VA images at various depths. The VA images were then used to detect and localize the implanted seeds in prostate tissue. To validate the VA results, computed tomography (CT) images of the same tissue samples were obtained to serve as the reference by which to evaluate the performance of VA in PPB seed detection. Results: The results indicate that VA is capable of accurately identifying the presence and distribution of PPB seeds with a high imaging contrast. Moreover, a large ratio of the PPB seeds implanted into prostate tissue samples could be detected through acquired VA images. Using CT-based seed identification as the standard, VA was capable of detecting 74%–92% of the implanted seeds. Additionally, the angular independency of VA in detecting PPB seeds was demonstrated through a well-controlled phantom experiment. Conclusions: Q2DVA detected a substantial portion of the seeds by using a 2D array US transducer in excised prostate tissue specimens. While VA has inherent advantages associated with conventional US imaging, it has the additional advantage of permitting detection of PPB seeds independent of their orientation. These results suggest the potential of VA as a method for PPB imaging that

  12. Novel 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n}: Synthesis, structure, magnetic properties and thermal behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fomina, Irina; Dobrokhotova, Zhanna; Aleksandrov, Grygory; Emelina, Anna; Bykov, Mikhail; Bogomyakov, Artem; Puntus, Lada; Novotortsev, Vladimir; Eremenko, Igor

    2012-01-15

    The new 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} (1), where Piv=OOCBu{sup t-}, was synthesized in high yield (>95%) by the reaction of thulium acetate with pivalic acid in air at 100 Degree-Sign S. According to the X-ray diffraction data, the metal atoms in compound 1 are in an octahedral ligand environment unusual for lanthanides. The magnetic and luminescence properties of polymer 1, it's the solid-phase thermal decomposition in air and under argon, and the thermal behavior in the temperature range of -50 Horizontal-Ellipsis +50 Degree-Sign S were investigated. The vaporization process of complex 1 was studied by the Knudsen effusion method combined with mass-spectrometric analysis of the gas-phase composition in the temperature range of 570-680 K. - Graphical Abstract: Novel 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} was synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction. The magnetic, luminescence properties, the thermal behavior and the volatility for the compound {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} were investigated. Black-Small-Square Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized the coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tm atoms in polymer have the coordination number 6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer exhibits blue-color emission at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer shows high thermal stability and volatility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer has no phase transitions in the range of -50 Horizontal-Ellipsis +50 Degree-Sign S.

  13. Crystal structure and antiferromagnetic ordering of quasi-2D [Cu(HF{sub 2})(pyz){sub 2}]TaF{sub 6} (pyz = pyrazine).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manson, J. L.; Schlueter, J. A.; McDonald, R. D.; Singleton, J.; Materials Science Division; Eastern Washington Univ.; LANL

    2010-04-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound was determined by X-ray diffraction at 90 and 295 K. Copper(II) ions are coordinated to four bridging pyz ligands to form square layers in the ab-plane. Bridging HF{sub 2}{sup -} ligands join the layers together along the c-axis to afford a tetragonal, three-dimensional (3D) framework that contains Taf{sub 6}{sup -} anions in every cavity. At 295 K, the pyz rings lie exactly perpendicular to the layers and cooling to 90 K induces a canting of those rings. Magnetically, the compound exhibits 2D antiferromagnetic correlations within the 2D layers with an exchange interaction of -13.1(1) K. Weak interlayer interactions, as mediated by Cu-F-H-F-Cu, leads to long-range magnetic order below 4.2 K. Pulsed-field magnetization data at 0.5 K show a concave curvature with increasing B and reveal a saturation magnetization at 35.4 T.

  14. Micro-patterning of ionic reservoirs within a double bilayer lipid membrane to fabricate a 2D array of ion-channel switch based electrochemical biosensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sansinena, J. M.; Yee, C. K.; Sapuri, A.; Swanson, Basil I.; Redondo, A.; Parikh, A. N.

    2004-01-01

    We present a simple approach for the design of ionic reservoir arrays within a double phospholipid bilayer to ultimately develop a 2D array of ion-channel switch based electrochemical biosensors. As a first step, a primary bilayer lipid membrane is deposited onto an array of electrodes patterned onto a substrate surface. Subsequently, an array of microvoids is created within the bilayer by a wet photolithographic patterning of phospholipid bilayers using a deep UV light source and a quartz/chrome photomask. To ensure registry, the photomask used to pattern bilayers is designed to match up the microvoids within the primary bilayer with the array of electrodes on the substrate surface. The deposition of a secondary bilayer lipid membrane onto the primary bilayer that spans across the patterned microvoids leads to the formation of the array of ionic reservoirs within the double phospholipid bilayer. This is accomplished using giant unilamellar vesicles and by exploiting membrane electrostatics. The use of ion-channels incorporated into the secondary bilayer that covers the individual ionic reservoirs allows the construction of a 2D array of ion-channel switch based electrochemical biosensors that are able to recognize different target-agents simultaneously.

  15. A pseudo-spectral method for the simulation of poro-elastic seismic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates using domain decomposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sidler, Rolf, E-mail: rsidler@gmail.com [Center for Research of the Terrestrial Environment, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] [Center for Research of the Terrestrial Environment, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Carcione, Jos M. [Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), Borgo Grotta Gigante 42c, 34010 Sgonico, Trieste (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), Borgo Grotta Gigante 42c, 34010 Sgonico, Trieste (Italy); Holliger, Klaus [Center for Research of the Terrestrial Environment, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] [Center for Research of the Terrestrial Environment, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    We present a novel numerical approach for the comprehensive, flexible, and accurate simulation of poro-elastic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates. An important application of this method and its extensions will be the modeling of complex seismic wave phenomena in fluid-filled boreholes, which represents a major, and as of yet largely unresolved, computational problem in exploration geophysics. In view of this, we consider a numerical mesh, which can be arbitrarily heterogeneous, consisting of two or more concentric rings representing the fluid in the center and the surrounding porous medium. The spatial discretization is based on a Chebyshev expansion in the radial direction and a Fourier expansion in the azimuthal direction and a RungeKutta integration scheme for the time evolution. A domain decomposition method is used to match the fluidsolid boundary conditions based on the method of characteristics. This multi-domain approach allows for significant reductions of the number of grid points in the azimuthal direction for the inner grid domain and thus for corresponding increases of the time step and enhancements of computational efficiency. The viability and accuracy of the proposed method has been rigorously tested and verified through comparisons with analytical solutions as well as with the results obtained with a corresponding, previously published, and independently benchmarked solution for 2D Cartesian coordinates. Finally, the proposed numerical solution also satisfies the reciprocity theorem, which indicates that the inherent singularity associated with the origin of the polar coordinate system is adequately handled.

  16. Self-assembly of 2D sandwich-structured MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene composites for high-performance lithium storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Songmei Wang, Bo; Li, Bin; Liu, Jianhua; Yu, Mei; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • MFO/GN composites were synthesized by a facile in situ solvothermal approach. • The MFO microspheres are sandwiched between the graphene layers. • Each MFO microsphere is an interstitial cluster of nanoparticles. • The MFO/GN electrode exhibits an enhanced cyclability for Li-ion batteries anodes. - Abstract: In this study, two-dimensional (2D) sandwich-structured MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene (MFO/GN) composites are synthesized by a facile in situ solvothermal approach, using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as cationic surfactant. As a consequence, the nanocomposites of MFO/GN self-assembled into a 2D sandwich structure, in which the interstitial cluster structure of microsphere-type MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is sandwiched between the graphene layers. This special structure of the MFO/GN composites used as anodes for lithium-ion batteries will be favorable for the maximum accessible surface of electroactive materials, fast diffusion of lithium ions and migration of electron, and elastomeric space to accommodate volume changes during the discharge–charge processes. The as-synthesized MFO/GN composites deliver a high specific reversible capacity of 987.95 mA h g{sup −1} at a current density of 200 mA g{sup −1}, a good capacity retention of 69.27% after 80 cycles and excellent rate performance for lithium storage.

  17. Analysis of the rotational structure in the high-resolution infrared spectra of trans-hexatriene-2-d1 and -3-d1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, Norman C.; Chen, Yihui; van Besien, Herman; Blake, Thomas A.

    2014-09-01

    The 2-d1 and 3-d1 isotopologues of trans-hexatriene have been synthesized, and their high-resolution (0.0015 cm-1) IR spectra have been recorded. For each of the isotopologues the rotational structure in four C-type bands for out-of-plane vibrational modes has been analyzed, and the ground state combination differences (GSCDs) have been pooled. Ground state rotational constants have been fitted to the GSCDs. For the 2-d species, A0, B0, and C0 values of 0.7837254(5), 0.0442806(3), and 0.0419299(2) cm-1 were fitted to 2450 GSCDs. For the 3-d species, A0, B0, and C0 values of 0.7952226(8), 0.0446149(7), and 0.0422661(4) cm-1 were fitted to 2234 GSCDs. For the eleven out-of-plane modes of the two isotopologues, predictions of anharmonic wavenumbers and harmonic intensities have been computed and compared with experiment where possible.

  18. Branching Fraction Measurements of the Color-Suppressed Decays B0bar to D(*)0 pi0, D(*)0 eta, D(*)0 omega, and D(*)0 eta_prime and Measurement of the Polarization in the Decay B0bar to D*0 omega

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Milanes, D.A.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; McKenna, J.A.; ,

    2012-02-14

    We report updated branching fraction measurements of the color-suppressed decays {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, D*{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, D{sup 0}{eta}, D*{sup 0}{eta}, D{sup 0}{omega}, D*{sup 0}{omega}, D{sup 0}{eta}', and D*{sup 0}{eta}'. We measure the branching fractions (x10{sup -4}): {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}) = 2.69 {+-} 0.09 {+-} 0.13, {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}) = 3.05 {+-} 0.14 {+-} 0.28, {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup 0}{eta}) = 2.53 {+-} 0.09 {+-} 0.11, {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0}{eta}) = 2.69 {+-} 0.14 {+-} 0.23, {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup 0}{omega}) = 2.57 {+-} 0.11 {+-} 0.14, {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0}{omega}) = 4.55 {+-} 0.24 {+-} 0.39, {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup 0}{eta}') = 1.48 {+-} 0.13 {+-} 0.07, and {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0}{eta}') = 1.49 {+-} 0.22 {+-} 0.15. We also present the first measurement of the longitudinal polarization fraction of the decay channel D*{sup 0}{omega}, f{sub L} = (66.5 {+-} 4.7 {+-} 1.5)%. In the above, the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The results are based on a sample of (454 {+-} 5) x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance, with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage rings at SLAC. The measurements are the most precise determinations of these quantities from a single experiment. They are compared to theoretical predictions obtained by factorization, Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) and perturbative QCD (pQCD). We find that the presence of final state interactions is favored and the measurements are in better agreement with SCET than with pQCD.

  19. mylc2d4.tmp

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    , , Laser Beam Shaping Techniques 9m Q%Q Fred M. Dickey,* Louis S. Weichrnan, Richard N. ... A common requirement is a laser profile that is uniform over some cross-section. Such ...

  20. mylc2d4.tmp

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... 1. Their approach is geometrical optics, which assumes a large P. The design ... From a ray optics perspective, these sources produce a wavefront incident over a range of ...

  1. Comparison of 2D and 3D Imaging and Treatment Planning for Postoperative Vaginal Apex High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Endometrial Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, James K.; Armeson, Kent E.; Richardson, Susan

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate bladder and rectal doses using two-dimensional (2D) and 3D treatment planning for vaginal cuff high-dose rate (HDR) in endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: Ninety-one consecutive patients treated between 2000 and 2007 were evaluated. Seventy-one and 20 patients underwent 2D and 3D planning, respectively. Each patient received six fractions prescribed at 0.5 cm to the superior 3 cm of the vagina. International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) doses were calculated for 2D patients. Maximum and 2-cc doses were calculated for 3D patients. Organ doses were normalized to prescription dose. Results: Bladder maximum doses were 178% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were no different than ICRU doses (p = 0.22). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 59% of maximum doses (p < 0.0001). Rectal maximum doses were 137% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 87% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 64% of maximum doses (p < 0.0001). Using the first 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 fractions, we predicted the final bladder dose to within 10% for 44%, 59%, 83%, 82%, and 89% of patients by using the ICRU dose, and for 45%, 55%, 80%, 85%, and 85% of patients by using the maximum dose, and for 37%, 68%, 79%, 79%, and 84% of patients by using the 2-cc dose. Using the first 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 fractions, we predicted the final rectal dose to within 10% for 100%, 100%, 100%, 100%, and 100% of patients by using the ICRU dose, and for 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, and 75% of patients by using the maximum dose, and for 68%, 95%, 84%, 84%, and 84% of patients by using the 2-cc dose. Conclusions: Doses to organs at risk vary depending on the calculation method. In some cases, final dose accuracy appears to plateau after the third fraction, indicating that simulation and planning may not be necessary in all fractions. A clinically relevant level of accuracy should be determined and further research conducted to address

  2. ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR MEASURING TOTAL PROTIUM AND TOTAL DEUTERIUM IN A GAS MIXTURE CONTAINING H2, D2,AND HD VIA GAS CHAROMATOGRAPHY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sessions, H

    2007-08-07

    The most common analytical method of identifying and quantifying non-radioactive isotopic species of hydrogen is mass spectrometry. A low mass, high resolution mass spectrometer with adequate sensitivity and stability to identify and quantify hydrogen isotopes in the low ppm range is an expensive, complex instrument. A new analytical technique has been developed that measures both total protium (H) and total deuterium (D) in a gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, and HD using an inexpensive micro gas chromatograph (GC) with two molecular sieve columns. One column uses D{sub 2} as the carrier gas and the other uses H{sub 2} as the carrier gas. Laboratory tests have shown that when used in this configuration the GC can measure both total protium and total deuterium each with a detection and quantification limit of less than 20 ppm.

  3. Stratigraphic analysis of 3-D and 2-D seismic data to delineate porous carbonate debris flow in permian strata along the northwestern margin of the Midlan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pacht, J.A.; Brooks, L.; Messa, F.

    1995-12-31

    Carbonate debris flow are very important plays in Leonard strata along the northwestern margin of the Midland Basin. Delineation of these strata, however, is difficult and detailed stratigraphic analysis of both 2D and 3D seismic data is important in reducing risk. Porous debris flows are best developed during lowstand time. When sea-level falls to a point at or below the shelf margin, sand to boulder-sized clasts created by reef-front erosion are funneled through slope gullies onto the base of the slope. Large debris flows exhibit well-defined mounds which downlap onto the sequence boundary. Many of these flows, however, are too thin to exhibit discrete reflections. 3D seismic data are used to define subtle changes in amplitude and frequency which suggest presence of porous strata. Along the northwest shelf, porous debris flows exhibit lower amplitude (dim spots) and lower frequency than surrounding strata. They are commonly developed immediately downdip of major slump scars.

  4. Forest-atmosphere BVOC exchange in diverse and structurally complex canopies: 1-D modeling of a mid-successional forest in northern Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, Alexander M.; Cheng, Susan J.; Ashworth, Kirsti; Guenther, Alex B.; Hardiman, Brady; Bohrer, Gil; Steiner, A. L.

    2015-11-01

    Foliar emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC)dimportant precursors of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosolsdvary widely by vegetation type. Modeling studies to date typi-cally represent the canopy as a single dominant tree type or a blend of tree types, yet many forests are diverse with trees of varying height. To assess the sensitivity of biogenic emissions to tree height vari-ation, we compare two 1-D canopy model simulations in which BVOC emission potentials are homo-geneous or heterogeneous with canopy depth. The heterogeneous canopy emulates the mid-successional forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS). In this case, high-isoprene-emitting fo-liage (e.g., aspen and oak) is constrained to the upper canopy, where higher sunlight availability increases the light-dependent isoprene emission, leading to 34% more isoprene and its oxidation products as compared to the homogeneous simulation. Isoprene declines from aspen mortality are 10% larger when heterogeneity is considered. Overall, our results highlight the importance of adequately representing complexities of forest canopy structure when simulating light-dependent BVOC emissions and chemistry.

  5. Effect of antisymmetric CH stretching excitation on the dynamics of O({sup 1}D) + CH{sub 4} ? OH + CH{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Huilin; Yang, Jiayue; Zhang, Dong; Shuai, Quan; Jiang, Bo [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, Liaoning 116023 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, Liaoning 116023 (China); Dai, Dongxu; Wu, Guorong, E-mail: wugr@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: xmyang@dicp.ac.cn; Yang, Xueming, E-mail: wugr@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: xmyang@dicp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, Liaoning 116023 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, Liaoning 116023 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-04-21

    The effect of antisymmetric CH stretching excitation of CH{sub 4} on the dynamics and reactivity of the O({sup 1}D) + CH{sub 4} ? OH + CD{sub 3} reaction at the collision energy of 6.10 kcal/mol has been investigated using the crossed-beam and time-sliced velocity map imaging techniques. The antisymmetric CH stretching mode excited CH{sub 4} molecule was prepared by direct infrared excitation. From the measured images of the CH{sub 3} products with the infrared laser on and off, the product translational energy and angular distributions were derived for both the ground and vibrationally excited reactions. Experimental results show that the vibrational energy of the antisymmetric stretching excited CH{sub 4} reagent is channeled exclusively into the vibrational energy of the OH co-products and, hence, the OH products from the excited-state reaction are about one vibrational quantum hotter than those from the ground-state reaction, and the product angular distributions are barely affected by the vibrational excitation of the CH{sub 4} reagent. The reactivity was found to be suppressed by the antisymmetric stretching excitation of CH{sub 4} for all observed CH{sub 3} vibrational states. The degree of suppression is different for different CH{sub 3} vibrational states: the suppression is about 40%60% for the ground state and the umbrella mode excited CH{sub 3} products, while for the CH{sub 3} products with one quantum symmetric stretching mode excitation, the suppression is much less pronounced. In consequence, the vibrational state distribution of the CH{sub 3} product from the excited-state reaction is considerably different from that of the ground-state reaction.

  6. Electronic structures and magnetic stabilities of 2D Mn-doped GaAs nanosheets: The role of long-range exchange interactions and doping strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lan, Mu; Xiang, Gang Zhang, Xi

    2014-08-28

    We investigate the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Mn atoms doped two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal GaAs nanosheets (GaAsNSs) using both first-principle calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. The first-principle molecular dynamics is first used to test the structural stability of Mn-doped GaAsNS ((Ga,Mn)AsNS). The analysis of spin-resolved electronic structures and determination of magnetic exchange interactions based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveals the existence of long-range exchange interaction in the system. Finally, Metropolis Monte Carlo simulation is employed to estimate Curie temperatures (T{sub C}s) of (Ga,Mn)AsNSs with different doping concentrations by different doping strategies. The results indicate that a T{sub C} up to 82 K can be obtained in regularly-doped (Ga,Mn)AsNSs and doping strategies have prominent impact on T{sub C}s of the systems, which emphasizes the importance of both long-range interactions and doping strategies in reduced dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs)

  7. Super-radiant plasmon mode is more efficient for SERS than the sub-radiant mode in highly packed 2D gold nanocube arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud A.

    2015-08-21

    The field coupling in highly packed plasmonic nanoparticle arrays is not localized due to the energy transport via the sub-radiant plasmon modes, which is formed in addition to the regular super-radiant plasmon mode. Unlike the sub-radiant mode, the plasmon field of the super-radiant mode cannot extend over long distances since it decays radiatively with a shorter lifetime. The coupling of the plasmon fields of gold nanocubes (AuNCs) when organized into highly packed 2D arrays was examined experimentally. Multiple plasmon resonance optical peaks are observed for the AuNC arrays and are compared to those calculated using the discrete dipole approximation. The calculated electromagnetic plasmon fields of the arrays displayed high field intensity for the nanocubes located in the center of the arrays for the lower energy super-radiant mode, while the higher energy sub-radiant plasmon mode displayed high field intensity at the edges of the arrays. The Raman signal enhancement by the super-radiant plasmon mode was found to be one hundred fold greater than that by sub-radiant plasmon mode because the super-radiant mode has higher scattering and stronger plasmon field intensity relative to the sub-radiant mode.

  8. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James R. Wood; T.J. Bornhorst; William B. Harrison; W. Quinlan

    2002-04-01

    The fault study continues to find more faults and develop new techniques to visualize them. Data from the Dundee Formation has been used to document 11 major faults in the Michigan Basin which have now been verified using data from other horizons. These faults control the locations of many of the large anticlinal structures in the Michigan Basin and likely controlled fluid movements as well. The surface geochemistry program is also moving along well with emphasis on measuring samples collected last sampling season. The new GC laboratory is now functional and has been fully staffed as of December. The annual project review was held March 7-9 in Tampa, Florida. Contracts are being prepared for drilling the Bower's prospects in Isabella County, Michigan, this spring or summer. A request was made to extend the scope of the project to include the Willison Basin. A demonstration well has been suggested in Burke County, N. Dakota, following a review of 2D seismic and surface geochem. A 3D seismic survey is scheduled for the prospect.

  9. Dynamics-based selective 2D {sup 1}H/{sup 1}H chemical shift correlation spectroscopy under ultrafast MAS conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Rongchun; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-05-28

    Dynamics plays important roles in determining the physical, chemical, and functional properties of a variety of chemical and biological materials. However, a material (such as a polymer) generally has mobile and rigid regions in order to have high strength and toughness at the same time. Therefore, it is difficult to measure the role of mobile phase without being affected by the rigid components. Herein, we propose a highly sensitive solid-state NMR approach that utilizes a dipolar-coupling based filter (composed of 12 equally spaced 90° RF pulses) to selectively measure the correlation of {sup 1}H chemical shifts from the mobile regions of a material. It is interesting to find that the rotor-synchronized dipolar filter strength decreases with increasing inter-pulse delay between the 90° pulses, whereas the dipolar filter strength increases with increasing inter-pulse delay under static conditions. In this study, we also demonstrate the unique advantages of proton-detection under ultrafast magic-angle-spinning conditions to enhance the spectral resolution and sensitivity for studies on small molecules as well as multi-phase polymers. Our results further demonstrate the use of finite-pulse radio-frequency driven recoupling pulse sequence to efficiently recouple weak proton-proton dipolar couplings in the dynamic regions of a molecule and to facilitate the fast acquisition of {sup 1}H/{sup 1}H correlation spectrum compared to the traditional 2D NOESY (Nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy) experiment. We believe that the proposed approach is beneficial to study mobile components in multi-phase systems, such as block copolymers, polymer blends, nanocomposites, heterogeneous amyloid mixture of oligomers and fibers, and other materials.

  10. SU-E-J-13: Six Degree of Freedom Image Fusion Accuracy for Cranial Target Localization On the Varian Edge Stereotactic Radiosurgery System: Comparison Between 2D/3D and KV CBCT Image Registration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, H; Song, K; Chetty, I; Kim, J; Wen, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the 6 degree of freedom systematic deviations between 2D/3D and CBCT image registration with various imaging setups and fusion algorithms on the Varian Edge Linac. Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom with radio opaque targets embedded was scanned with CT slice thicknesses of 0.8, 1, 2, and 3mm. The 6 DOF systematic errors were assessed by comparing 2D/3D (kV/MV with CT) with 3D/3D (CBCT with CT) image registrations with different offset positions, similarity measures, image filters, and CBCT slice thicknesses (1 and 2 mm). The 2D/3D registration accuracy of 51 fractions for 26 cranial SRS patients was also evaluated by analyzing 2D/3D pre-treatment verification taken after 3D/3D image registrations. Results: The systematic deviations of 2D/3D image registration using kV- kV, MV-kV and MV-MV image pairs were within ±0.3mm and ±0.3° for translations and rotations with 95% confidence interval (CI) for a reference CT with 0.8 mm slice thickness. No significant difference (P>0.05) on target localization was observed between 0.8mm, 1mm, and 2mm CT slice thicknesses with CBCT slice thicknesses of 1mm and 2mm. With 3mm CT slice thickness, both 2D/3D and 3D/3D registrations performed less accurately in longitudinal direction than thinner CT slice thickness (0.60±0.12mm and 0.63±0.07mm off, respectively). Using content filter and using similarity measure of pattern intensity instead of mutual information, improved the 2D/3D registration accuracy significantly (P=0.02 and P=0.01, respectively). For the patient study, means and standard deviations of residual errors were 0.09±0.32mm, −0.22±0.51mm and −0.07±0.32mm in VRT, LNG and LAT directions, respectively, and 0.12°±0.46°, −0.12°±0.39° and 0.06°±0.28° in RTN, PITCH, and ROLL directions, respectively. 95% CI of translational and rotational deviations were comparable to those in phantom study. Conclusion: 2D/3D image registration provided on the Varian Edge radiosurgery, 6 DOF

  11. OECD MCCI project 2-D Core Concrete Interaction (CCI) tests : CCI-3 test data report-thermalhydraulic results. Rev. 0 October 15, 2005.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core-concrete interaction when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. As a follow-on program to MACE, The Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction Experiments (MCCI) project is conducting reactor material experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focuses on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability mechanisms identified in MACE integral effects tests, and (2) address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten core-concrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. Achievement of these two program objectives will demonstrate the efficacy of severe accident management guidelines for existing plants, and provide the technical basis for better containment designs for future plants. In terms of satisfying these objectives, the Management Board (MB) approved the conduct of a third long-term 2-D Core-Concrete Interaction (CCI) experiment designed to provide information in several areas, including: (i) lateral vs. axial power split during dry core-concrete interaction, (ii) integral debris coolability data following late phase flooding, and (iii) data regarding the nature and extent of the cooling transient following breach of the crust formed at the melt-water interface. This data report provides thermal hydraulic test results from the CCI-3 experiment, which was conducted on September 22, 2005. Test specifications for CCI-3 are provided in Table 1-1. This experiment investigated the interaction of a fully oxidized 375

  12. OECD MCCI 2-D Core Concrete Interaction (CCI) tests : CCI-2 test data report-thermalhydraulic results, Rev. 0 October 15, 2004.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core-concrete interaction when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. As a follow-on program to MACE, The Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction Experiments (MCCI) project is conducting reactor material experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focuses on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability mechanisms identified in MACE integral effects tests, and (2) address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten core-concrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. Achievement of these two program objectives will demonstrate the efficacy of severe accident management guidelines for existing plants, and provide the technical basis for better containment designs for future plants. In terms of satisfying these objectives, the Management Board (MB) approved the conduct of two long-term 2-D Core-Concrete Interaction (CCI) experiments designed to provide information in several areas, including: (i) lateral vs. axial power split during dry core-concrete interaction, (ii) integral debris coolability data following late phase flooding, and (iii) data regarding the nature and extent of the cooling transient following breach of the crust formed at the melt-water interface. This data report provides thermal hydraulic test results from the CCI-2 experiment, which was conducted on August 24, 2004. Test specifications for CCI-2 are provided in Table 1-1. This experiment investigated the interaction of a fully oxidized 400 kg

  13. OECD MMCI 2-D Core Concrete Interaction (CCI) tests : CCCI-1 test data report-thermalhydraulic results. Rev 0 January 31, 2004.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core-concrete interaction when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. As a follow-on program to MACE, The Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction Experiments (MCCI) project is conducting reactor material experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focuses on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability mechanisms identified in MACE integral effects tests, and (2) address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten coreconcrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. Achievement of these two program objectives will demonstrate the efficacy of severe accident management guidelines for existing plants, and provide the technical basis for better containment designs for future plants. In terms of satisfying these objectives, the Management Board (MB) approved the conduct of two long-term 2-D Core-Concrete Interaction (CCI) experiments designed to provide information in several areas, including: (i) lateral vs. axial power split during dry core-concrete interaction, (ii) integral debris coolability data following late phase flooding, and (iii) data regarding the nature and extent of the cooling transient following breach of the crust formed at the melt-water interface. This data report provides thermal hydraulic test results from the CCI-1 experiment, which was conducted on December 19, 2003. Test specifications for CCI-1 are provided in Table 1-1. This experiment investigated the interaction of a fully oxidized 400 kg

  14. Data:Fa413ec1-68e5-4f5e-a367-f60cd2d56c38 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fa413ec1-68e5-4f5e-a367-f60cd2d56c38 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading......

  15. Laser spectroscopy of the 4s4p {sup 3}P{sub 2} - 4s3d {sup 1}D{sub 2} transition on magnetically trapped calcium atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dammalapati, U.; Norris, I.; Burrows, C.; Riis, E.

    2011-06-15

    Laser excitation of the 4s4p {sup 3}P{sub 2} - 4s3d {sup 1}D{sub 2} transition in atomic calcium has been observed and the wavelength determined to 1530.5298(6) nm. The metastable 4s4p {sup 3}P{sub 2} atoms were magnetically trapped in the quadrupole magnetic field of a magneto-optical trap. This state represents the only ''loss'' channel for the calcium atoms when laser cooled on the 4s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sub 0} - 4s4p {sup 1}P{sub 1} transition. A rate equation model shows that an order of magnitude more atoms are trapped in this state compared with those taking part in the main cooling cycle. Excitation of the {sup 3}P{sub 2} atoms back up to the 4s3d {sup 1}D{sub 2} state provides a means of accessing these atoms. Efficient repumping is achieved if the 1530-nm laser is used in conjunction with a 672-nm laser driving the 4s3d {sup 1}D{sub 2} - 4s5p {sup 1}P{sub 1} transition. In the present experiment, we detected about 4.5x10{sup 4} trapped {sup 3}P{sub 2} atoms, a relatively low atom density, and measured a lifetime of approximately 1 s, which is limited by background collisions.

  16. State-to-state photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide ({nu}{sub 2}=0,1|JlM). II. The effect of initial bending on coherence of S({sup 1}D{sub 2}) polarization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brom, Alrik J. van den; Rakitzis, T. Peter; Janssen, Maurice H. M. [Laser Center and Department of Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics, University of Crete, Heraklion 71110, Greece and Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser of the Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (IESL-FORTH), P.O. Box 1527, 71110 Heraklion (Greece); Laser Center and Department of Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-10-22

    Photodissociation studies using ion imaging are reported, measuring the coherence of the polarization of the S({sup 1}D{sub 2}) fragment from the photolysis of single-quantum state-selected carbonyl sulfide (OCS) at 223 and 230 nm. A hexapole state-selector focuses a molecular beam of OCS parent molecules in the ground state ({nu}{sub 2}=0 vertical bar JM=10) or in the first excited bending state ({nu}{sub 2}=1 vertical bar JlM=111). At 230 nm photolysis the Im[a{sub 1}{sup (1p}{sub arallel}{sup ,perpendicular})] moment for the fast S({sup 1}D{sub 2}) channel increases by about 50% when the initial OCS parent state changes from the vibrationless ground state to the first excited bending state. No dependence on the initial bending state is found for photolysis at 223 nm. We observe separate rings in the slow channel of the velocity distribution of S({sup 1}D{sub 2}) correlating to single CO(J) rotational states. The additional available energy for photolysis at 223 nm is found to be channeled mostly into the CO(J) rotational motion. An improved value for the OC-S bond energy D{sub 0}=4.292 eV is reported.

  17. The CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS instrument – Part 2: Raman scattering probability measurements and retrieval of aerosol optical properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ortega, Ivan; Coburn, Sean; Berg, Larry K.; Lantz, Kathy; Michalsky, Joseph; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-08-23

    The multiannual global mean of aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550) over land is ∼ 0.19, and that over oceans is ∼ 0.13. About 45 % of the Earth surface shows AOD550 smaller than 0.1. There is a need for measurement techniques that are optimized to measure aerosol optical properties under low AOD conditions. We present an inherently calibrated retrieval (i.e., no need for radiance calibration) to simultaneously measure AOD and the aerosol phase function parameter, g, based on measurements of azimuth distributions of the Raman scattering probability (RSP), the near-absolute rotational Raman scattering (RRS) intensity. We employ radiative transfer model simulations tomore » show that for solar azimuth RSP measurements at solar elevation and solar zenith angle (SZA) smaller than 80°, RSP is insensitive to the vertical distribution of aerosols and maximally sensitive to changes in AOD and g under near-molecular scattering conditions. The University of Colorado two-dimensional Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument was deployed as part of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) at Cape Cod, MA, during the summer of 2012 to measure direct sun spectra and RSP from scattered light spectra at solar relative azimuth angles (SRAAs) between 5 and 170°. During two case study days with (1) high aerosol load (17 July, 0.3  <  AOD430 < 0.6) and (2) near-molecular scattering conditions (22 July, AOD430 < 0.13) we compare RSP-based retrievals of AOD430 and g with data from a co-located CIMEL sun photometer, Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), and an airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2). The average difference (relative to DOAS) for AOD430 is +0.012 ± 0.023 (CIMEL), −0.012 ± 0.024 (MFRSR), −0.011 ± 0.014 (HSRL-2), and +0.023 ± 0.013 (CIMELAOD − MFRSRAOD) and yields the following expressions for correlations between different instruments

  18. Prediction of {sup 2}D Rydberg energy levels of {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li based on very accurate quantum mechanical calculations performed with explicitly correlated Gaussian functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bubin, Sergiy; Sharkey, Keeper L.; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2013-04-28

    Very accurate variational nonrelativistic finite-nuclear-mass calculations employing all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian basis functions are carried out for six Rydberg {sup 2}D states (1s{sup 2}nd, n= 6, Horizontal-Ellipsis , 11) of the {sup 7}Li and {sup 6}Li isotopes. The exponential parameters of the Gaussian functions are optimized using the variational method with the aid of the analytical energy gradient determined with respect to these parameters. The experimental results for the lower states (n= 3, Horizontal-Ellipsis , 6) and the calculated results for the higher states (n= 7, Horizontal-Ellipsis , 11) fitted with quantum-defect-like formulas are used to predict the energies of {sup 2}D 1s{sup 2}nd states for {sup 7}Li and {sup 6}Li with n up to 30.

  19. A novel polythreading Ag(I) coordination polymer with blue photoluminescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Xian-Ying; Yao, Jing; Lu, Chang-Sheng; Meng, Qing-Jin

    2013-04-15

    One new compound, [Ag(p-bix)]{sub 3}[Ag(Hbtc){sub 2}]·2H{sub 2}O (H{sub 3}btc=1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylate, p-bix=1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-benzene), has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, PXRD, luminescent analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. X-ray structural analysis revealed that 0-D unit [Ag(Hbtc){sub 2}]{sup 3−} and two kinds of 1-D linear chain [Ag(p-bix)]{sub ∞}{sup +}, can be found within the crystal structure. The combination of 0-D [Ag(Hbtc){sub 2}]{sup 3−} unit and 1-D undulated chain [Ag1(p{sub 1}-bix)]{sub ∞}{sup +} through weak Ag–O bond gave rise to 2-D anionic supramolecular doublelayer. Then the grids of the 2-D layer are threaded by 1-D linear cationic chain [Ag2(p{sub 2}-bix)]{sub ∞}{sup +} to generate entangled 3-D architecture with unusual poly(pseudo-rotaxane)-type arrangements. Luminescent properties of the title complex were also studied in this paper. - Graphical abstract: Novel 3D polythreading supramolecular architecture was constructed, in which 1D linear cationic chains [Ag(p{sub 2}-bix)]{sub ∞}{sup +} threaded into the grid of weak Ag–O bonded anionic 2D sheet. Highlights: ► Novel 1D{sup +}+2D{sup −}→3D polythreading coordination complex was reported. ► Diverse conformations of p-bix result in different 1D [Ag(p-bix)]{sub ∞}{sup +} chains. ► The title complex displayed blue photoluminescence at room temperature.

  20. Diagnostics from a 1-D atmospheric column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flatley, J.M.; Mace, G.

    1996-04-01

    Various diagnostics were computed from an array of radiosondes during an intensive field operation arranged by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. The network data was centered around the site at Lamont, Oklahoma. The apparent heat source and apparent moisture sink were computed and compared to the kinematic vertical velocity for both real data and the mesoscale analysis and prediction system. Three different case studies of various weathe regimes were examined.

  1. Electron-impact excitation of the (2p{sup 2}) {sup 1}D and (2s2p) {sup 1}P{sup o} autoionizing states of helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sise, Omer; Dogan, Mevlut; Okur, Ibrahim; Crowe, Albert

    2011-08-15

    An experimental study of the excitation of the (2p{sup 2}) {sup 1}D and (2s2p) {sup 1}P{sup o} autoionizing states of helium by 250-eV electron impact is presented. The ejected-electron angular distributions and energy spectra are measured in coincidence with the corresponding scattered electrons for a scattering angle of -13 deg. and for a range of ejected-electron angles in both the forward and backward directions. Resonance profiles are analyzed in terms of the Shore-Balashov parametrization to obtain the resonance asymmetry A{sub {mu}} and yield B{sub {mu}} parameters and the direct ionization cross section f. The spectra and their parameters are compared to the previous measurements of Lower and Weigold [J. Phys. B. 23, 2819 (1990)] and McDonald and Crowe [J. Phys. B 26, 2887 (1993)]. Comparison is also made with the recent theoretical triply differential cross-section calculations based on the first and second Born approximations. In general, good qualitative agreement is found between the experimental results. Some differences are found at the forward and backward directions. These differences in the shape and magnitude of the cross sections are attributed to the different incoming electron energies used in the experiments. The second Born approximation with inclusion of the three-body Coulomb interaction in the final state agrees reasonably well with experiments in the binary region. However, the {sup 1}P{sup o} resonance yield parameter B{sub {mu}} is significantly overestimated at the recoil region, giving a relatively large recoil peak, in contradiction to the experiment. There is also a discrepancy between the two theories available for the {sup 1}D resonance yield parameter B{sub {mu}} in this region. Remaining discrepancies between theories and experiments are also discussed.

  2. Absolute Frequency Measurement of the {sup 40}Ca{sup +} 4s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-3d {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} Clock Transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chwalla, M.; Kim, K.; Monz, T.; Riebe, M.; Schindler, P.; Villar, A. S.; Haensel, W.; Benhelm, J.; Kirchmair, G.; Roos, C. F.; Blatt, R.; Abgrall, M.; Santarelli, G.; Rovera, G. D.; Laurent, Ph.

    2009-01-16

    We report on the first absolute transition frequency measurement at the 10{sup -15} level with a single, laser-cooled {sup 40}Ca{sup +} ion in a linear Paul trap. For this measurement, a frequency comb is referenced to the transportable Cs atomic fountain clock of LNE-SYRTE and is used to measure the {sup 40}Ca{sup +} 4s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-3d {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} electric-quadrupole transition frequency. After the correction of systematic shifts, the clock transition frequency {nu}{sub Ca{sup +}}=411 042 129 776 393.2(1.0) Hz is obtained, which corresponds to a fractional uncertainty within a factor of 3 of the Cs standard. In addition, we determine the Landeg factor of the 3d{sup 2}D{sub 5/2} level to be g{sub 5/2}=1.200 334 0(3)

  3. Pore-Controlled Formation of 0D Metal Complexes in Anionic 3D...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anionic MOFs and their trapped counterions was investigated by single crystal XRD. The PCN-514 series contains crystallographically identifiable metal complexes trapped in the...

  4. A comprehensive study of the reaction gammad --> pi0d above 500 MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yordanka Ilieva

    2006-07-01

    Here we present differential cross sections for coherent pion photoproduction on the deuteron for photon energies between 0.5 and 2.0 GeV and pion center-of-mass angles between 50 ? and 150?. Our analysis shows that around the eta-photoproduction threshold the reaction is sensitive to intermediate eta formation and rescattering through N* (1535) excitation. At large pion angles, our scaled invariant cross sections s13((d sigma)/dt) vary about a constant value as a function of s. In a limited kinematic range, at high s and t, the invariant amplitude can be factorized in terms of deuteron and nucleon form factors, and the elementary amplitude for pion production on the free nucleon.

  5. Measurement of D0-D?0 mixing and search for CP violation in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2016-02-01 OSTI Identifier: 1230070 Type: Published Article Journal Name: Physics Letters. Section B Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 753; Journal Issue: C;...

  6. 2D Wavefront Sensor Analysis and Control

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-02-19

    This software is designed for data acquisition and analysis of two dimensional wavefront sensors. The software includes data acquisition and control functions for an EPIX frame grabber to acquire data from a computer and all the appropriate analysis functions necessary to produce and display intensity and phase information. This software is written in Visual Basic for windows.

  7. 2-D Multi-Group Diffusion Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-07-21

    The multigroup, two-dimensional neutron diffusion equations are solved in x-y, r-z, or r-theta geometry.

  8. 2-D Finite Element Heat Conduction

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-10-30

    AYER is a finite element program which implicitly solves the general two-dimensional equation of thermal conduction for plane or axisymmetric bodies. AYER takes into account the effects of time (transient problems), in-plane anisotropic thermal conductivity, a three-dimensional velocity distribution, and interface thermal contact resistance. Geometry and material distributions are arbitrary, and input is via subroutines provided by the user. As a result, boundary conditions, material properties, velocity distributions, and internal power generation may be mademore » functions of, e.g., time, temperature, location, and heat flux.« less

  9. Recrystallization of a 2D Plasma Crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapek, C. A.; Samsonov, D.; Zhdanov, S.; Konopka, U.; Morfill, G. E.

    2007-01-05

    A monolayer plasma crystal consisting of micron-sized particles levitated in the sheath of a rf discharge was melted by applying a short electric pulse to two parallel wires located at the height of the particles. Structural properties and the particle temperature were examined during the stage of recrystallization. A liquidlike phase was followed by a transient state characterized by energy release and the restoring of long range translational order while the defect fraction was low. No long range orientational order was found, though highly ordered domains formed locally. Numerical simulations revealed the same regimes of recrystallization as those observed in the experiment.

  10. Nonlinear Heat Transfer 2d Structure

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1987-09-01

    DOT-BPMD is a general-purpose, finite-element, heat-transfer program used to predict thermal environments. The code considers linear and nonlinear transient or steady-state heat conduction in two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric representations of structures. Capabilities are provided for modeling anisotropic heterogeneous materials with temperature-dependent thermal properties and time-dependent temperature, heat flux, convection and radiation boundary conditions, together with time-dependent internal heat generation. DOT-BPMD may be used in the evaluation of steady-state geothermal gradients as well as in themore » transient heat conduction analysis of repository and waste package subsystems. Strengths of DOT-BPMD include its ability to account for a wide range of possible boundary conditions, nonlinear material properties, and its efficient equation solution algorithm. Limitations include the lack of a three-dimensional analysis capability, no radiative or convective internal heat transfer, and the need to maintain a constant time-step in each program execution.« less

  11. 2D MODIFICATION OF A CONTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 3. EFFECTIVE DATE (M/D/Y) See Block 16C 4. REQUISITION/PURCHASE REQ. NO. 27-09RV14136.003 5. PROJECT NO. (If applicable) 6. ISSUED BY CODE 7. ADMINISTERED BY (If other than Item 6) CODE U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection P. O. Box 450, MS H6-60 Richland, WA 99352 8. NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTRACTOR (No., street, county, State and ZIP code) 9A. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION NO. Bechtel National, Inc. 2435 Stevens Center Place 9B. DATED (SEE ITEM 11) Richland, WA 99352 10A.

  12. 2D MODIFICATION OF A CONTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 2. AMENDMENT/MODIFICATION NO. M145 3. EFFECTIVE DATE (M/D/Y) See Block 16C 4. REQUISITION/PURCHASE REQ. NO. N/A 5. PROJECT NO. (If applicable) 6. ISSUED BY CODE 7. ADMINISTERED BY (If other than Item 6) CODE U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection P. O. Box 450, MS H6-60 Richland, WA 99352 8. NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTRACTOR (No., street, county, State and ZIP code) 9A. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION NO. Bechtel National, Inc. 2435 Stevens Center Place 9B. DATED (SEE ITEM 11) Richland,

  13. 2D MODIFICATION OF A CONTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A150 3. EFFECTIVE DATE (M/D/Y) See Block 16C 4. REQUISITION/PURCHASE REQ. NO. 27-09RV14136.004 5. PROJECT NO. (If applicable) 6. ISSUED BY CODE 7. ADMINISTERED BY (If other than Item 6) CODE U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection P. O. Box 450, MS H6-60 Richland, WA 99352 8. NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTRACTOR (No., street, county, State and ZIP code) 9A. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION NO. Bechtel National, Inc. 50 Beale St. 9B. DATED (SEE ITEM 11) San Francisco, CA 94105 10A. MODIFICATION

  14. 2D MODIFICATION OF A CONTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 3. EFFECTIVE DATE (M/D/Y) See Block 16C 4. REQUISITION/PURCHASE REQ. NO. 04RV14136.006 5. PROJECT NO. (If applicable) 6. ISSUED BY CODE 7. ADMINISTERED BY (If other than Item 6) CODE U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection P. O. Box 450, MS H6-60 Richland, WA 99352 8. NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTRACTOR (No., street, county, State and ZIP code) 9A. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION NO. Bechtel National, Inc. 2435 Stevens Center Place 9B. DATED (SEE ITEM 11) Richland, WA 99352 10A. MODIFICATION

  15. 2D MODIFICATION OF A CONTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 3. EFFECTIVE DATE (M/D/Y) See Block 16C 4. REQUISITION/PURCHASE REQ. NO. 04RV14136.006 5. PROJECT NO. (If applicable) 6. ISSUED BY CODE 7. ADMINISTERED BY (If other than Item 6) CODE U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection P. O. Box 450, MS H6-60 Richland, WA 99352 8. NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTRACTOR (No., street, county, State and ZIP code) 9A. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION NO. Bechtel National, Inc. 2435 Stevens Center Place 9B. DATED (SEE ITEM 11) Richland, WA 99352 10A. MODIFICATION

  16. 2D MODIFICATION OF A CONTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 3. EFFECTIVE DATE (M/D/Y) See Block 16C 4. REQUISITION/PURCHASE REQ. NO. 04RV14136.006 5. PROJECT NO. (If applicable) 6. ISSUED BY CODE 7. ADMINISTERED BY (If other than Item 6) CODE U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection P. O. Box 450, MS H6-60 Richland, WA 99352 8. NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTRACTOR (No., street, county, State and ZIP code) 9A. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION NO. Bechtel National, Inc. 2435 Stevens Center Place 9B. DATED (SEE ITEM 11) Richland, WA 99352 10A. MODIFICATION

  17. 2D MODIFICATION OF A CONTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 3. EFFECTIVE DATE (M/D/Y) See Block 16C 4. REQUISITION/PURCHASE REQ. NO. 04RV14136.009 5. PROJECT NO. (If applicable) 6. ISSUED BY CODE 7. ADMINISTERED BY (If other than Item 6) CODE U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection P. O. Box 450, MS H6-60 Richland, WA 99352 8. NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTRACTOR (No., street, county, State and ZIP code) 9A. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION NO. Bechtel National, Inc. 2435 Stevens Center Place 9B. DATED (SEE ITEM 11) Richland, WA 99352 10A. MODIFICATION

  18. 2D MODIFICATION OF A CONTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 3. EFFECTIVE DATE (M/D/Y) See Block 16C 4. REQUISITION/PURCHASE REQ. NO. 05RV14136.001 5. PROJECT NO. (If applicable) 6. ISSUED BY CODE 7. ADMINISTERED BY (If other than Item 6) CODE U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection P. O. Box 450, MS H6-60 Richland, WA 99352 8. NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTRACTOR (No., street, county, State and ZIP code) 9A. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION NO. Bechtel National, Inc. 2435 Stevens Center Place 9B. DATED (SEE ITEM 11) Richland, WA 99352 10A. MODIFICATION

  19. 2D MODIFICATION OF A CONTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 3. EFFECTIVE DATE (M/D/Y) See Block 16C 4. REQUISITION/PURCHASE REQ. NO. 05RV14136.002 5. PROJECT NO. (If applicable) 6. ISSUED BY CODE 7. ADMINISTERED BY (If other than Item 6) CODE U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection P. O. Box 450, MS H6-60 Richland, WA 99352 8. NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTRACTOR (No., street, county, State and ZIP code) 9A. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION NO. Bechtel National, Inc. 2435 Stevens Center Place 9B. DATED (SEE ITEM 11) Richland, WA 99352 10A. MODIFICATION

  20. 2D MODIFICATION OF A CONTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 3. EFFECTIVE DATE (M/D/Y) See Block 16C 4. REQUISITION/PURCHASE REQ. NO. 05RV14136.003 5. PROJECT NO. (If applicable) 6. ISSUED BY CODE 7. ADMINISTERED BY (If other than Item 6) CODE U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection P. O. Box 450, MS H6-60 Richland, WA 99352 8. NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTRACTOR (No., street, county, State and ZIP code) 9A. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION NO. Bechtel National, Inc. 2435 Stevens Center Place 9B. DATED (SEE ITEM 11) Richland, WA 99352 10A. MODIFICATION

  1. 2D MODIFICATION OF A CONTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 3. EFFECTIVE DATE (M/D/Y) See Block 16C 4. REQUISITION/PURCHASE REQ. NO. See Block 14 5. PROJECT NO. (If applicable) 6. ISSUED BY CODE 7. ADMINISTERED BY (If other than Item 6) CODE U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection P. O. Box 450, MS H6-60 Richland, WA 99352 8. NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTRACTOR (No., street, county, State and ZIP code) 9A. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION NO. Bechtel National, Inc. 2435 Stevens Center Place 9B. DATED (SEE ITEM 11) Richland, WA 99352 10A. MODIFICATION

  2. 2D MODIFICATION OF A CONTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 3. EFFECTIVE DATE (M/D/Y) See Block 16C 4. REQUISITION/PURCHASE REQ. NO. 5. PROJECT NO. (If applicable) 6. ISSUED BY CODE 7. ADMINISTERED BY (If other than Item 6) CODE U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection P. O. Box 450, MS H6-60 Richland, WA 99352 8. NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTRACTOR (No., street, county, State and ZIP code) 9A. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION NO. Washington River Protection Solutions LLC P.O. Box 73 9B. DATED (SEE ITEM 11) 720 Park Blvd Boise, ID. 83729-0001 10A.

  3. 2D MODIFICATION OF A CONTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    17 2. AMENDMENT/MODIFICATION NO. A015 3. EFFECTIVE DATE (M/D/Y) 04/07/09 4. REQUISITION/PURCHASE REQ. NO. 5. PROJECT NO. (If applicable) 6. ISSUED BY CODE 7. ADMINISTERED BY (If other than Item 6) CODE U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection P. O. Box 450, MS H6-60 Richland, WA 99352 8. NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTRACTOR (No., street, county, State and ZIP code) 9A. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION NO. Washington River Protection Solutions LLC P.O. Box 73 9B. DATED (SEE ITEM 11) 720 Park Blvd

  4. 2D MODIFICATION OF A CONTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 3. EFFECTIVE DATE (M/D/Y) See Block 16C 4. REQUISITION/PURCHASE REQ. NO. 02RV14136.006 5. PROJECT NO. (If applicable) 6. ISSUED BY CODE 7. ADMINISTERED BY (If other than Item 6) CODE U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection P. O. Box 450, MS H6-60 Richland, WA 99352 8. NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTRACTOR (No., street, county, State and ZIP code) 9A. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION NO. Bechtel National, Inc. 3000 George Washington Way 9B. DATED (SEE ITEM 11) Richland, WA 99352 10A.

  5. 2D MODIFICATION OF A CONTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 3. EFFECTIVE DATE (M/D/Y) See Block 16C 4. REQUISITION/PURCHASE REQ. NO. 02RV14136.007 5. PROJECT NO. (If applicable) 6. ISSUED BY CODE 7. ADMINISTERED BY (If other than Item 6) CODE U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection P. O. Box 450, MS H6-60 Richland, WA 99352 8. NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTRACTOR (No., street, county, State and ZIP code) 9A. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION NO. Bechtel National, Inc. 3000 George Washington Way 9B. DATED (SEE ITEM 11) Richland, WA 99352 10A.

  6. 2D MODIFICATION OF A CONTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 3. EFFECTIVE DATE (M/D/Y) See Block 16C 4. REQUISITION/PURCHASE REQ. NO. 03RV14136.001 5. PROJECT NO. (If applicable) 6. ISSUED BY CODE 7. ADMINISTERED BY (If other than Item 6) CODE U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection P. O. Box 450, MS H6-60 Richland, WA 99352 8. NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTRACTOR (No., street, county, State and ZIP code) 9A. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION NO. Bechtel National, Inc. 3000 George Washington Way 9B. DATED (SEE ITEM 11) Richland, WA 99352 10A.

  7. 2D MODIFICATION OF A CONTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 3. EFFECTIVE DATE (M/D/Y) See Block 16C 4. REQUISITION/PURCHASE REQ. NO. 03RV14136.002 5. PROJECT NO. (If applicable) 6. ISSUED BY CODE 7. ADMINISTERED BY (If other than Item 6) CODE U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection P. O. Box 450, MS H6-60 Richland, WA 99352 8. NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTRACTOR (No., street, county, State and ZIP code) 9A. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION NO. Bechtel National, Inc. 3000 George Washington Way 9B. DATED (SEE ITEM 11) Richland, WA 99352 10A.

  8. 2D MODIFICATION OF A CONTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 3. EFFECTIVE DATE (M/D/Y) See Block 16C 4. REQUISITION/PURCHASE REQ. NO. 03RV14136.003 5. PROJECT NO. (If applicable) 6. ISSUED BY CODE 7. ADMINISTERED BY (If other than Item 6) CODE U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection P. O. Box 450, MS H6-60 Richland, WA 99352 8. NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTRACTOR (No., street, county, State and ZIP code) 9A. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION NO. Bechtel National, Inc. 3000 George Washington Way 9B. DATED (SEE ITEM 11) Richland, WA 99352 10A.

  9. 2D MODIFICATION OF A CONTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 3. EFFECTIVE DATE (M/D/Y) See Block 16C 4. REQUISITION/PURCHASE REQ. NO. 03RV14136.004 5. PROJECT NO. (If applicable) 6. ISSUED BY CODE 7. ADMINISTERED BY (If other than Item 6) CODE U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection P. O. Box 450, MS H6-60 Richland, WA 99352 8. NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTRACTOR (No., street, county, State and ZIP code) 9A. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION NO. Bechtel National, Inc. 3000 George Washington Way 9B. DATED (SEE ITEM 11) Richland, WA 99352 10A.

  10. 2D MODIFICATION OF A CONTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 3. EFFECTIVE DATE (M/D/Y) See Block 16C 4. REQUISITION/PURCHASE REQ. NO. 03RV14136.005 5. PROJECT NO. (If applicable) 6. ISSUED BY CODE 7. ADMINISTERED BY (If other than Item 6) CODE U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection P. O. Box 450, MS H6-60 Richland, WA 99352 8. NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTRACTOR (No., street, county, State and ZIP code) 9A. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION NO. Bechtel National, Inc. 2435 Stevens Center 9B. DATED (SEE ITEM 11) Richland, WA 99352 10A. MODIFICATION OF

  11. 2D MODIFICATION OF A CONTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    29 3. EFFECTIVE DATE (M/D/Y) See Block 16C 4. REQUISITION/PURCHASE REQ. NO. AN-NOPR 5. PROJECT NO. (If applicable) 6. ISSUED BY CODE 7. ADMINISTERED BY (If other than Item 6) COD U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection P. O. Box 450, MS H6-60 Richland, WA 99352 8. NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTRACTOR (No., street, county, State and ZIP code) 9A. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION NO. Bechtel National, Inc. 2435 Stevens Center Place 9B. DATED (SEE ITEM 11) Richland, WA 99352 10A. MODIFICATION OF

  12. 2D MODIFICATION OF A CONTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 3. EFFECTIVE DATE (M/D/Y) See Block 16C 4. REQUISITION/PURCHASE REQ. NO. 5. PROJECT NO. (If applicable) 6. ISSUED BY CODE 7. ADMINISTERED BY (If other than Item 6) CODE U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection P. O. Box 450, MS H6-60 Richland, WA 99352 8. NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTRACTOR (No., street, county, State and ZIP code) 9A. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION NO. Washington River Protection Solutions LLC P.O. Box 73 9B. DATED (SEE ITEM 11) 720 Park Blvd Boise, ID. 83729-0001 10A.

  13. 2D MODIFICATION OF A CONTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Conversion of Sprinkler System to Dry PipeNitrogen in LAB Hot Cell ... Align PO Value for Vessel Vent Caustic Scrubber - New Scope TN-24590-06-02443 Convert ...

  14. Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}CuOP{sub 2}O{sub 5} system: Two novel compounds built from the intergrowths oxocentered polycationic 1D-ribbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colmont, Marie; Endara, Diana; Aliev, Almaz; Terryn, Christine; Huv, Marielle; Mentr, Olivier

    2013-07-15

    Single crystals of two novel bismuth copper oxyphosphates were grown from a unique melt. They have been structurally characterized by means of single crystal X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Bi{sub 29.4}Cu{sub 9.29}O{sub 32}(PO{sub 4}){sub 16}Cu{sub 2.63} (1) is orthorhombic, space group Pca2{sub 1}, a=33.0549(2)A, b=11.6991(4)A and c=5.2902(2)A, R{sub 1}=0.059 and wR{sub 2}=0.061. Bi{sub 37.2}Cu{sub 18.8}O{sub 44}(PO{sub 4}){sub 24}Cu{sub 5} (2) is orthorhombic, space group Pna2{sub 1}, a=11.6010(3)A, b=47.4384(5)A and c=5.267(2)A, R{sub 1}=0.0940 and wR{sub 2}=0.0981. Both compounds are formed of similar 1D building units (BUs) organized into two different 3D regular intergrowths mediated by phosphate groups. Here, the so-called 1D-BUs are infinite ribbons formed by edge-sharing O(Bi,M){sub 4} tetrahedra with n=4 and n=3 tetrahedra-wide units. Both compounds were analyzed from the viewpoint of their relationship with the parent ?-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} fluorite-like structure, where phosphorus atoms substitutes for some Bi sites. A non-exhaustive review of the related structural types is given. We have checked by second harmonic generacy (SHG) microscopy that the two non-centrosymmetric structures (despite polar subunits) lead to SHG before the samples are irreversibly damaged. - Graphical abstract: This paper reports the crystal structure of two new bismuth oxophosphate compounds. Both are built on the association of n=3 and 4 building unit ribbons surrounded by isolated PO4 tetrahedra and tunnels hosting Cu{sup 2+} cations. They come in addition to the numerous Bi-based compounds already pointed out. Once more, this is the proof of the richness of this crystal system. - Highlights: Two new bismuth oxophosphates were synthesized. Crystal structure were solved thanks to single crystal X-Ray diffraction. They show two different associations of n=3 and 4 ribbons built on [O,(Bi,M){sub 4}] tetrahedral sharing edges and surrounded by isolated PO4 groups. SHG microscopy

  15. Temperature dependent structural variation from 2D supramolecular network to 3D interpenetrated metal–organic framework: In situ cleavage of S–S and C–S bonds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ugale, Bharat; Singh, Divyendu; Nagaraja, C.M.

    2015-03-15

    Two new Zn(II)–organic compounds, [Zn(muco)(dbds){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (1) and [Zn(muco)(dbs)] (2) (where, muco=trans, trans-muconate dianion, dbds=4,4′-dipyridyldisulfide and dbs=4,4′-dipyridylsulfide) have been synthesized from same precursors but at two different temperatures. Both the compounds have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis and photoluminescence studies. Compound 1 prepared at room temperature possesses a molecular structure extended to 2D supramolecular network through (H–O…H) hydrogen-bonding interactions. Compound 2, obtained at high temperature (100 °C) shows a 3-fold interpenetrating 3D framework constituted by an in situ generated dbs linker by the cleavage of S–S and C–S bonds of dbds linker. Thus, the influence of reaction temperature on the formation of two structural phases has been demonstrated. Both 1 and 2 exhibit ligand based luminescence emission owing to n→π⁎ and π→π⁎ transitions and also high thermal stabilities. - Graphical abstract: The influence of temperature on the formation of two structural phases, a 2D supramolecular network and a 3D 3-fold interpenetrating framework has been demonstrated and their luminescence emission is measured. - Highlights: • Two new Zn(II)–organic compounds were synthesized by tuning reaction temperatures. • Temperature induced in situ generation of dbs linker has been observed. • The compounds exhibit high thermal stability and luminescence emission properties. • The effect of temperature on structure, dimension and topology has been presented.

  16. Spectroscopy and isotope shifts of the 4s3d {sup 1}D{sub 2}-4s5p {sup 1}P{sub 1} repumping transition in magneto-optically trapped calcium atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dammalapati, U.; Norris, I.; Burrows, C.; Arnold, A. S.; Riis, E.

    2010-02-15

    We investigate a repumping scheme for magneto-optically trapped calcium atoms. It is based on excitation of the 4s3d{sup 1}D{sub 2}-4s5p{sup 1}P{sub 1} transition at 672 nm with an extended cavity diode laser. The effect of the repumping is approximately a factor of three increase in trap lifetime and a doubling of the trapping efficiency from a Zeeman slowed thermal beam. Added to this, the 672-nm laser repumps atoms from an otherwise dark state to yield an overall increase in detected fluorescence signal from the magneto-optic trap (MOT) of more than an order of magnitude. Furthermore, we report isotope shift measurements of the 672-nm transition, for the first time, for four naturally occurring even isotopes. Using available charge radii data, the observed shifts, extending up to 4.3 GHz, display the expected linear dependence in a King plot analysis. The measured shifts are used to determine the isotope shifts of the remaining {sup 41,43,46}Ca isotopes. These might be of interest where less abundant isotopes are used enabling isotope selective repumping, resulting in enhanced trapping and detection efficiencies.

  17. Quantum mechanical differential and integral cross sections for the C({sup 1}D) + H{sub 2}(ν = 0, j = 0) → CH(ν′, j′) + H reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Zhitao; Cao, Jianwei; Bian, Wensheng

    2015-04-28

    Accurate quantum dynamics calculations for the C({sup 1}D) + H{sub 2} reaction are performed using a real wave packet approach with full Coriolis coupling. The newly constructed ZMB-a ab initio potential energy surface [Zhang et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 234301 (2014)] is used. The integral cross sections (ICSs), differential cross sections (DCSs), and product state distributions are obtained over a wide range of collision energies. In contrast to previous accurate quantum dynamics calculations on the reproducing kernel Hilbert space potential energy surface, the present total ICS is much larger at low collision energies, yielding larger rate coefficients in better agreement with experiment and with slight inverse temperature dependence. Meanwhile, interesting nonstatistical behaviors in the DCSs are revealed. In particular, the DCSs display strong oscillations with the collision energy; forward biased product angular distribution appears when only small J partial wave contributions are included; alternate forward and backward biases emerge with very small increments of collision energy; and the rotational state-resolved DCSs show strong oscillations with the scattering angle. Nevertheless, the total DCSs can be roughly regarded as backward–forward symmetric over the whole energy range and are in reasonably good agreement with the available experimental measurements.

  18. 1D-1D Coulomb Drag Signature of a Luttinger Liquid. (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Nature Physics; Related Information: Proposed for publication in Nature Physics. Research Org: Sandia National ...

  19. Determination of the absolute configuration of (-)-(2R)-succinic-2-d acid by neutron diffraction study: Unambiguous proof of the absolute stereochemistry of the NAD/sup +//NADH interconversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, H.S.H.; Stevens, R.C.; Fujita, S.; Watkins, M.I.; Koetzle, T.F.; Bau, R.

    1988-05-01

    The absolute configuration of the CHD group (D = deuterium) in (-)-(2R)-succinic-2-d acid, as prepared from (-)-(2S,3R)-malic-3-d acid, has been shown unambiguously to be R by the technique of single-crystal neutron diffraction. The optically active cation (+)-phenylethylammonium was used as the chiral reference. The structure of (C/sub 6/H/sub 5/CH/sub 3/CHNH/sub 3/)/sup +/(HOOCCH/sub 2/CHDCOOO)/sup -/ has been studied with x-ray diffraction at room temperature and neutron diffraction at room temperature and neutron diffraction at 100 K. Crystal data from the neutron diffraction analysis of the phenylethylammonium slat of the title compound at 100 K: space group P2/sub 1/; a = 8.407 /angstrom/, b = 8.300 /angstrom/, c = 8.614 /angstrom/, ..beta.. = 91.20/degrees/; unit cell volume = 600.9 /angstrom//sup 3/, Z = 2. The result confirms the stereochemistry of the malate/succinate transformation, as well as the NAD/sup +//NADH interconversion, and demonstrates the usefulness of the single-crystal neutron diffraction method for determining the absolute configuration of molecules having a chiral monodeuteriomethylene group.

  20. Pore-controlled formation of 0D metal complexes in anionic 3D metal-organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, MW; Bosch, M; Zhou, HC

    2015-01-01

    The host-guest chemistry between a series of anionic MOFs and their trapped counterions was investigated by single crystal XRD. The PCN-514 series contains crystallographically identifiable metal complexes trapped in the pores, where their formation is controlled by the size and shape of the MOF pores. A change in the structure and pore size of PCN-518 indicates that the existence of guest molecules may reciprocally affect the formation of host MOFs.

  1. A comprehensive study of the reaction {gamma}d {yields} {pi}0d above 500 MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilieva, Yordanka

    2006-07-11

    Here we present differential cross sections for coherent pion photoproduction on the deuteron for photon energies between 0.5 and 2.0 GeV and pion center-of-mass angles between 50 degree sign and 150 degree sign . Our analysis shows that around the {eta}-photoproduction threshold the reaction is sensitive to intermediate {eta} formation and rescattering through N* (1535) excitation. At large pion angles, our scaled invariant cross sections s{sup 13}(d{sigma}/dt) vary about a constant value as a function of s. In a limited kinematic range, at high s and t, the invariant amplitude can be factorized in terms of deuteron and nucleon form factors, and the elementary amplitude for pion production on the free nucleon.

  2. 1-D profiling using highly dispersive guided waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volker, Arno; Zon, Tim van

    2014-02-18

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Currently, inspections are conducted at regular intervals to ensure a sufficient integrity level of these assets. Cost reduction while maintaining a high level of reliability and safety of installations is a major challenge. There are many situations where the actual defect location is not accessible, e.g., a pipe support or a partially buried pipe. Guided wave tomography has been developed to reconstruct the wall thickness of steel pipes. In case of bottom of the line corrosion, i.e., a single corrosion pit, a simpler approach may be followed. Data is collected in a pitch-catch configuration at the 12 o'clock position using highly dispersive guided waves. After dispersion correction the data collapses to a short pulse, any residual dispersion indicates wall loss. The phase spectrum is used to invert for the wall thickness profile in the circumferential direction, assuming a Gaussian defect profile. The approach is evaluated on numerically simulated and on measured data. The method is intended for rapid, semi-quantitative screening of pipes.

  3. DOE O 551.1D Official Foreign Travel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department issued a Contractor Requirements Document (CRD) for the subject Directive on April 2, 2012.

  4. PC-1D installation manual and user's guide (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, but can be applied to any bipolar ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 99 ...

  5. Study of spin-polaron formation in 1D systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arredondo, Y.; Navarro, O.; Vallejo, E.

    2014-05-15

    We study numerically the formation of spin-polarons in low-dimensional systems. We consider a ferromagnetic Kondo lattice model with Hund coupling J{sub H} and localized spins interacting antiferromagnetically with coupling constant J. We investigate the ground state phase diagram as a function of the exchange couplings J{sub H} and J and as a function of the band filling, since it has been observed that doping either on the ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic regime lead to formation of magnetic domains [1]. We explore the quasi-particle formation and phase separation using the density-matrix renormalization group method, which is a highly efficient method to investigate quasi-one-dimensional strongly correlated systems.

  6. Memo on Implementation of DOE O 414-1D

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

  7. 1D profiling using highly dispersive guided waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volker, Arno; Zon, Tim van; Enthoven, Daniel; Verburg, Wesley

    2015-03-31

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Currently inspections are conducted at regular intervals to ensure a sufficient integrity level of these assets. Cost reduction while maintaining a high level of reliability and safety of installations is a major challenge. There are many situations where the actual defect location is not accessible, e.g., a pipe support or a partially buried pipe. Guided wave tomography has been developed to reconstruct the wall thickness. In case of bottom of the line corrosion, i.e., a single corrosion pit, a simpler approach may be followed. Data is collected in a pit-catch configuration at the 12 o'clock position using highly dispersive guided waves. The phase spectrum is used to invert for a wall thickness profile in the circumferential direction, assuming a Gaussian defect profile. An EMAT sensor design has been made to measure at the 12 o'clock position of a pipe. The concept is evaluated on measured data, showing good sizing capabilities on a variety simple defect profiles.

  8. Quantitative, contactless electrical characterization of 1D nanomateri...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  9. Microsoft PowerPoint - 1-D-2-Castillo.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Strakes *Generate shear and turbulence *Iterative design *Laser Cutter Experimental set ... Wind turbine models *Rotors - water jet cut + 3D print mold *DC motor *Improved proportions ...

  10. MHL 2D Wind/Wave | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    16 Bandwidth(kHz) 20 Cameras Yes Description of Camera Types Wide variety of analog & digital surface cameras; high speed above and underwater cameras Available Sensors...

  11. Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in 2D Organic Topological Insulators...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher: American Physical Society Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Free Publicly Accessible Full Text ...

  12. ARM: ARMBE 2D gridded surface dataset (Dataset) | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Country of Publication: United States Availability: ORNL Language: English Subject: 54 ...

  13. 2D Monolayers Could Yield Thinnest Solar Cells Ever

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    yield thinner, more lightweight solar panels that ... was how well do these materials absorb light," he said. "And that is ... The researchers also used the National Science ...

  14. System and method for 2D workpiece alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, William T.; Carlson, Charles T.; Smith, Scott A.; Beck, Michael A.; Webb, Aaron P.; Strassner, James D.; Gravell, Lawrence R.; Simmons, Michael C.

    2015-07-14

    A carrier capable of holding one or more workpieces is disclosed. The carrier includes movable projections located along the sides of each cell in the carrier. This carrier, in conjunction with a separate alignment apparatus, aligns each workpiece within its respective cell against several alignment pins, using a multiple step alignment process to guarantee proper positioning of the workpiece in the cell. First, the workpieces are moved toward one side of the cell. Once the workpieces have been aligned against this side, the workpieces are then moved toward an adjacent orthogonal side such that the workpieces are aligned to two sides of the cell. Once aligned, the workpiece is held in place by the projections located along each side of each cell. In addition, the alignment pins are also used to align the associated mask, thereby guaranteeing that the mask is properly aligned to the workpiece.

  15. Perfect 2-d quadrupole fields from permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, E.P.; Vella, M.

    1996-04-01

    Consider the 13-beam channel array shown in Figure 1. It is asserted that, under mathematically ideal assumptions, a pure quadrupole field is centered in each of the 13 beam channel boxes. An identical quadrupole field (for {bar H}, not {bar B}) is also centered in each of the 4 boxes containing 4 magnetic wedges located near the center of the system. An iron yoke ({mu} = {infinity}) with the displayed zig-zag shape provides a boundary condition (H{sub {parallel}} = 0) that makes the 13 channels equivalent to a portion of an infinite array. A similar array can be readily drawn for any number of beams. The quadrupole gradient in the beam channels is B{prime} = M{sub o}/2b, where M{sub o} is the remnant field of the magnetic wedges, and the channel diameter (wedge-to-wedge) is 2b. Note that a unit cell of the array, containing one beam, has diameter 2{radical}2 b (viewed from 45{degree} tilt) so its area is 8 b{sup 2}. A significant advantage of this design over those using dipolar blocks is the large fraction of cross section devoted to beam channels (50% vs 25%). Application to a heavy ion fusion driver is discussed.

  16. 2-D weighted least-squares phase unwrapping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghiglia, Dennis C.; Romero, Louis A.

    1995-01-01

    Weighted values of interferometric signals are unwrapped by determining the least squares solution of phase unwrapping for unweighted values of the interferometric signals; and then determining the least squares solution of phase unwrapping for weighted values of the interferometric signals by preconditioned conjugate gradient methods using the unweighted solutions as preconditioning values. An output is provided that is representative of the least squares solution of phase unwrapping for weighted values of the interferometric signals.

  17. 2-D weighted least-squares phase unwrapping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghiglia, D.C.; Romero, L.A.

    1995-06-13

    Weighted values of interferometric signals are unwrapped by determining the least squares solution of phase unwrapping for unweighted values of the interferometric signals; and then determining the least squares solution of phase unwrapping for weighted values of the interferometric signals by preconditioned conjugate gradient methods using the unweighted solutions as preconditioning values. An output is provided that is representative of the least squares solution of phase unwrapping for weighted values of the interferometric signals. 6 figs.

  18. Vacuum compatible, high-speed, 2-D mirror tilt stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Denham; Paul E.

    2007-09-25

    A compact and vacuum compatible magnetic-coil driven tiltable stage that is equipped with a high efficiency reflective coating can be employed as a scanner in EUV applications. The drive electronics for the scanner is fully in situ programmable and rapidly switchable.

  19. 2D barrier in a superconducting niobium square

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joya, Miryam R. Barba-ortega, J.; Sardella, Edson

    2014-11-05

    The presence of barriers changes the vortex structure in superconducting Nb square in presence of a uniform applied magnetic field. The Cooper pair configurations in a mesoscopics superconducting square of Nb with a barrier are calculated within the nonlinear Ginzburg Landau equations. We predict the nucleation of multi-vortex states into the sample and a soft entry of the magnetic field inside and around into the barrier. A novel and non-conventional vortex configurations occurs at determined magnetic field.

  20. 2-D image segmentation using minimum spanning trees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Y.; Uberbacher, E.C.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for partitioning a gray-level image into connected homogeneous regions. The novelty of this algorithm lies in the fact that by constructing a minimum spanning tree representation of a gray-level image, it reduces a region partitioning problem to a minimum spanning tree partitioning problem, and hence reduces the computational complexity of the region partitioning problem. The tree-partitioning algorithm, in essence, partitions a minimum spanning tree into subtrees, representing different homogeneous regions, by minimizing the sum of variations of gray levels over all subtrees under the constraints that each subtree should have at least a specified number of nodes, and two adjacent subtrees should have significantly different average gray-levels. Two (faster) heuristic implementations are also given for large-scale region partitioning problems. Test results have shown that the segmentation results are satisfactory and insensitive to noise.

  1. Universal Entanglement Entropy in 2D Conformal Quantum Critical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; CONFORMAL GROUPS; DIMERS; ENTROPY; WAVE FUNCTIONS; QUANTUM ...

  2. 2D Seismic Reflection Survey Crump Geyser Geothermal Prospect...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Additional Info Field Value Author Nevada Geothermal Power Company Maintainer Nicole Smith bureaucode 019:20 Catalog DOE harvestobjectid 80f3a9f1-e224-4a02-951b-229cd8e273fd...

  3. Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in 2D Organic Topological Insulators...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    American Physical Society Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Free Publicly Accessible Full Text Accepted...

  4. Universal Entanglement Entropy in 2D Conformal Quantum Critical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of the conformal structure of the wave function of these quantum critical systems. ... Resource Relation: Journal Name: Physical Review B Research Org: Stanford Linear ...

  5. Structural Properties and Melting of 2D-Plasma Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapek, C.; Samsonov, D.; Zhdanov, S.; Konopka, U.; Morfill, G.E.

    2005-10-31

    Melting of a monolayer plasma crystal was induced by an electric pulse. We investigated, how structural parameters like defect fraction and correlation lengths as well as dynamical properties like the particle kinetic energy changed during the recrystallisation. As an indication of the phase transition, the change of the Lindemann parameter and the Coulomb coupling parameter were considered.

  6. Structural design of 2D materials for electronic and optoelectronic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Homogenous and inhomogeneous elastic strain Nature Photonics 6 (2012) 866; MRS Bulletin 39 (2014) 108, bending ACS Nano 5 (2011) 3475, interlayer twist Nano Letters 14 (2014) ...

  7. Microscopic entropy of nondilatonic branes: A 2D approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadoni, Mariano; Serra, Nicola

    2004-12-15

    We investigate nondilatonic p-branes in the near-extremal, near-horizon regime. A two-dimensional gravity model, obtained from dimensional reduction, gives an effective description of the brane. We show that the AdS{sub p+2}/CFT{sub p+1} correspondence at finite temperature admits an effective description in terms of a AdS{sub 2}/CFT{sub 1} duality endowed with a scalar field, which breaks the conformal symmetry and generates a nonvanishing central charge. The entropy of the CFT{sub 1} is computed using Cardy formula. Fixing in a natural way a free, dimensionless, parameter introduced in the model by a renormalization procedure, we find exact agreement between the CFT{sub 1} entropy and the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the brane.

  8. Casting Process Simulator 2D Mold Fill and Solidification

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-05-06

    The CaPS software is a tool used to setup, simulate, and examine the results from two-dimensional filling and solidification of a sand casting.

  9. Observation by two-photon laser spectroscopy of the 4d{sup 10}5s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}{yields}4d{sup 9}5s{sup 2} {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} clock transition in atomic silver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badr, T.; Plimmer, M. D.; Juncar, P.; Himbert, M. E.; Louyer, Y.; Knight, D. J. E.

    2006-12-15

    We report the observation of the very narrow 4d{sup 10}5s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}{yields}4d{sup 9}5s{sup 2} {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} transition in atomic silver. The frequencies of the hyperfine components in {sup 107}Ag and {sup 109}Ag have been measured using Doppler-free two-photon laser spectroscopy of a thermal beam and heterodyne calibration with respect to the a{sub 1} component of the 62P(4-5) line in molecular iodine near 661 nm. For the center of gravity of a mixture of natural abundance, we deduce the value 906 641 295.77(19) MHz. For the isotope shift, we obtain {nu}({sup 109}Ag)-{nu}({sup 107}Ag)=564.15(37) MHz, from which we deduce the frequency and isotope shift of the 4d{sup 10}5s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}{yields}4d{sup 10}6p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} transition at 206 nm.

  10. 2D-network of inorganic-organic hybrid material built on Keggin type polyoxometallate and amino acid: [L-C{sub 2}H{sub 6}NO{sub 2}]{sub 3}[(PO{sub 4})Mo{sub 12}O{sub 36}].5H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alizadeh, M.H. Mirzaei, M.; Razavi, H.

    2008-03-04

    A new inorganic-organic hybrid material based on polyoxometallate, [L-C{sub 2}H{sub 6}NO{sub 2}]{sub 3}[(PO{sub 4})Mo{sub 12}O{sub 36}].5H{sub 2}O, has been successfully synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis, elemental analysis, infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance and differential thermal analysis techniques. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group, P2{sub 1}/c{sub ,} with a = 12.4938 (8) A, b = 19.9326 (12) A, c = 17.9270 (11) A, {beta} = 102.129 (1){sup o}, V = 4364.8 (5) A{sup 3}, Z = 4 and R{sub 1}(wR{sub 2}) = 0.0513, 0.0877. The most remarkable structural feature of this hybrid can be described as two-dimensional inorganic infinite plane-like (2D/{infinity} [(PO{sub 4})Mo{sub 12}O{sub 36}]{sup 3-}) which forming via weak Van der Waals interactions along the z axis. The characteristic band of the Keggin anion [(PO{sub 4})Mo{sub 12}O{sub 36}]{sup 3-} appears at 210 nm in the UV spectrum. Thermal analysis indicates that the Keggin anion skeleton begins to decompose at 520 deg. C.

  11. Determination of the Form Factors for the Decay B0 -> D*-l+nu_l and of the CKM Matrix Element |Vcb|

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aubert, B.

    2006-09-26

    The authors present a combined measurement of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element |V{sub cb}| and of the parameters {rho}{sup 2}, R{sub 1}, and R{sub 2}, which fully characterize the form factors of the B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup -}{ell}{sup +}{nu}{sub {ell}} decay in the framework of HQET, based on a sample of about 52,800 B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup -}{ell}{sup +}{nu}{sub {ell}} decays recorded by the BABAR detector. The kinematical information of the fully reconstructed decay is used to extract the following values for the parameters (where the first errors are statistical and the second systematic): {rho}{sup 2} = 1.156 {+-} 0.094 {+-} 0.028, R{sub 1} = 1.329 {+-} 0.131 {+-} 0.044, R{sub 2} = 0.859 {+-} 0.077 {+-} 0.022, F(1)|V{sub cb}| = (35.03 {+-} 0.39 {+-} 1.15) x 10{sup -3}. By combining these measurements with the previous BABAR measurements of the form factors which employs a different technique on a partial sample of the data, they improve the statistical accuracy of the measurement, obtaining: {rho}{sup 2} = 1.179 {+-} 0.048 {+-} 0.028, R{sub 1} = 1.417 {+-} 0.061 {+-} 0.044, R{sub 2}, = 0.836 {+-} 0.037 {+-} 0.022, and F(1)|V{sub cb}| = (34.68 {+-} 0.32 {+-} 1.15) x 10{sup -3}. Using the lattice calculations for the axial form factor F(1), they extract |V{sub cb}| = (37.74 {+-} 0.35 {+-} 1.25 {+-} {sub 1.44}{sup 1.23}) x 10{sup -3}, where the third error is due to the uncertainty in F(1).

  12. Measurement of the ratio of branching fractions b(bs --> ds- ds+) /b (b0 --> d- ds+) with the CDF detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iyutin, Boris; /MIT

    2007-03-01

    In this thesis they report the measurement of ratios of branching fractions: {Beta}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}), and {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}D{sub s}{sup +})/{Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}), using 355 pb{sup -1} of data collected by CDF detector at the Tevatron p{bar p} collider at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV.

  13. Analytical study of the propagation of acoustic waves in a 1D weakly disordered lattice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richoux, O. Morand, E.; Simon, L.

    2009-09-15

    This paper presents an analytical approach of the propagation of an acoustic wave through a normally distributed disordered lattice made up of Helmholtz resonators connected to a cylindrical duct. This approach allows to determine analytically the exact transmission coefficient of a weakly disordered lattice. Analytical results are compared to a well-known numerical method based on a matrix product. Furthermore, this approach gives an analytical expression of the localization length apart from the Bragg stopband which depends only on the standard deviation of the normal distribution disorder. This expression permits to study on one hand the localization length as a function of both disorder strength and frequency, and on the other hand, the propagation characteristics on the edges of two sorts of stopbands (Bragg and Helmholtz stopbands). Lastly, the value of the localization length inside the Helmholtz stopband is compared to the localization length in the Bragg stopband.

  14. A Gyrokinetic 1D Scrape-Off Layer Model of an ELM Heat Pulse

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rd, Princeton NJ, 08540, ktresemer@pppl.gov ITER is an international project under construction in France that will demonstrate nuclear fusion at a power plant-relevant scale. ...

  15. Gen Purpose 1-D Finite Element Network Fluid Flow Heat Transfer System Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-08-02

    SAFSIM (System Analysis Flow Simulator) is a FORTRAN computer program to simulate the integrated performance of systems involving fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and reactor dynamics. SAFSIM provides sufficient versatility to allow the engineering simulation of almost any system, from a backyard sprinkler system to a clustered nuclear reactor propulsion system. In addition to versatility, speed and robustness are primary SAFSIM development goals. SAFSIM contains three basic physics modules: (1) a one-dimensional finite element fluid mechanicsmore » module with multiple flow network capability; (2) a one-dimensional finite element structure heat transfer module with multiple convection and radiation exchange capability; and (3) a point reactor dynamics module with reactivity feedback and decay heat capability. SAFSIM can be used for compressible and incompressible, single-phase, multicomponent flow systems.« less

  16. APT Blanket System Model Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Integrated 1D TRAC System Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    This report documents the approaches taken in establishing a 1-dimensional integrated blanket system model using the TRAC code, developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  17. Structural and optical properties of Nd{sup 3+} doped gadolinium oxide 1D nanorods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boopathi, G. Mohan, R.; Raj, S. Gokul; Kumar, G. Ramesh

    2014-04-24

    Neodymium doped gadolinium hydroxide [Nd:Gd(OH)3] nanorods were successfully synthesized at 60 °C through co-precipitation method. The dopant percentage was maintained at 5% and calcination was done at 750 °C temperature for 1 hour to form the respective neodymium doped gadolinium oxide [Nd:Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}] nanorods. The as-formed and annealed products were investigated in detail by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDX), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectrophotometry.

  18. National Geothermal Data System Hub Deployment Timeline (Appendix E-1-d)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caudill, Christy

    2015-12-20

    Excel spreadsheet describing activity, spending, and development for the four data hubs (Arizona Geoloical Survey, Kentucky Geological Survey, Illinois Geological Survey, and Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology) serving data for the National Geothermal Data System under the State Contributions to the National Geothermal Data System Project.

  19. A stable 1D multigroup high-order low-order method

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yee, Ben Chung; Wollaber, Allan Benton; Haut, Terry Scot; Park, HyeongKae

    2016-07-13

    The high-order low-order (HOLO) method is a recently developed moment-based acceleration scheme for solving time-dependent thermal radiative transfer problems, and has been shown to exhibit orders of magnitude speedups over traditional time-stepping schemes. However, a linear stability analysis by Haut et al. (2015 Haut, T. S., Lowrie, R. B., Park, H., Rauenzahn, R. M., Wollaber, A. B. (2015). A linear stability analysis of the multigroup High-Order Low-Order (HOLO) method. In Proceedings of the Joint International Conference on Mathematics and Computation (M&C), Supercomputing in Nuclear Applications (SNA) and the Monte Carlo (MC) Method; Nashville, TN, April 19–23, 2015. American Nuclear Society.)more » revealed that the current formulation of the multigroup HOLO method was unstable in certain parameter regions. Since then, we have replaced the intensity-weighted opacity in the first angular moment equation of the low-order (LO) system with the Rosseland opacity. Furthermore, this results in a modified HOLO method (HOLO-R) that is significantly more stable.« less

  20. NEW - DOE O 551.1D Chg 1 (PgChg), Official Foreign Travel

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    The requirement to surrender official passports is considered burdensome to travelers and will be removed as a requirement and replaced with a process that requires travelers be responsible for safeguarding their own official passports. In conjunction with this revision, administrative changes will be made to update the title of the Office of Travel Management.

  1. Pressure-driven assembly of spherical nanoparticles and formation of 1D nanostructure arrays.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Huimeng

    2010-08-01

    External pressure was used to engineer nanoparticle assembly. Reversible manipulation of the unit-cell dimensions of a 3D ordered nanoparticle array under a hydrostatic pressure field enabled the fine-tuning of the interparticle distance. Under a uniaxial pressure field, nanoparticles were forced to contact and coalesce into nanorods or nanowires and ordered ultrahigh-density arrays (see picture; small arrows denote pressure).

  2. (3+1)D hydrodynamic simulation of relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenke, Bjoern; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2010-07-15

    We present music, an implementation of the Kurganov-Tadmor algorithm for relativistic 3+1 dimensional fluid dynamics in heavy-ion collision scenarios. This Riemann-solver-free, second-order, high-resolution scheme is characterized by a very small numerical viscosity and its ability to treat shocks and discontinuities very well. We also incorporate a sophisticated algorithm for the determination of the freeze-out surface using a three dimensional triangulation of the hypersurface. Implementing a recent lattice based equation of state, we compute p{sub T}-spectra and pseudorapidity distributions for Au+Au collisions at sq root(s)=200 GeV and present results for the anisotropic flow coefficients v{sub 2} and v{sub 4} as a function of both p{sub T} and pseudorapidity eta. We were able to determine v{sub 4} with high numerical precision, finding that it does not strongly depend on the choice of initial condition or equation of state.

  3. Transport of an interacting Bose gas in 1D disordered lattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Errico, C.; Chaudhuri, S.; Gori, L.; Kumar, A.; Lucioni, E.; Tanzi, L.; Inguscio, M.; Modugno, G.

    2014-08-20

    We use ultracold atoms in a quasiperiodic lattice to study two outstanding problems in the physics of disordered systems: a) the anomalous diffusion of a wavepacket in the presence of disorder, interactions and noise; b) the transport of a disordered superfluid. a) Our results show that the subdiffusion, observed when interaction alone is present, can be modelled with a nonlinear diffusion equation and the peculiar shape of the expanding density profiles can be connected to the microscopic nonlinear diffusion coefficients. Also when noise alone is present we can describe the observed normal diffusion dynamics by existing microscopic models. In the unexplored regime in which noise and interaction are combined, instead, we observe an anomalous diffusion, that we model with a generalized diffusion equation, where noise- and interaction-induced contributions add each other. b) We find that an instability appearing at relatively large momenta can be employed to locate the fluid-insulator crossover driven by disorder. By investigating the momentum-dependent transport, we observe a sharp crossover from a weakly dissipative regime to a strongly unstable one at a disorder-dependent critical momentum. The set of critical disorder and interaction strengths for which such critical momentum vanishes, can be identified with the separation between a fluid regime and an insulating one and can be related to the predicted zero-temperature superfluid-Bose glass transition.

  4. Higher flow harmonics from ( 3 + 1 ) D event-by-event viscous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publication Date: 2012-02-09 OSTI Identifier: 1099129 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review C Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 85; ...

  5. Second Draft - DOE O 251.1D, Departmental Directives Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    The order establishes directives as the primary means to set, communicate, and institutionalize policies, requirements, responsibilities, and procedures for Departmental elements and contractors. The second draft is submitted owing to extensive revisions to the first draft.

  6. DRAFT - DOE O 331.1D, Employee Performance and Recognition Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    The Order establishes requirements and responsibilities for the administration of performance management program for all non Senior Executive Service and Senior Professional or Technical employees.

  7. Detection and characterization of uranium-humic complexes during 1D transport studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesher, Emily K.; Honeyman, Bruce D.; Ranville, James F.

    2013-05-01

    The speciation and transport of uranium (VI) through porous media is highly dependent on solution conditions, the presence of complexing ligands, and the nature of the porous media. The dependency on many variables makes prediction of U transport in bench-scale experiments and in the field difficult. In particular, the identification of colloidal U phases poses a technical challenge. Transport of U in the presence and absence of natural organic matter (Suwannee River humic acid, SRHA) through silica sand and hematite coated silica sand was tested at pH 4 and 5 using static columns, where flow is controlled by gravity and residence time between advective pore volume exchanges can be strictly controlled. The column effluents were characterized by traditional techniques including ICPMS quantification of total [U] and [Fe], TOC analysis of [DOC], and pH analysis, and also by non-traditional techniques: flow field flow fractionation with online ICPMS detection (FlFFF-ICPMS) and specific UV absorbance (SUVA) characterization of effluent fractions. Key results include that the transport of U through the columns was enhanced by pre-equilibration with SRHA, and previously deposited U was remobilized by the addition of SRHA. The advanced techniques yielded important insights on the mechanisms of transport: FlFFF-ICPMS identified a U-SRHA complex as the mobile U species and directly quantified relative amounts of the complex, while specific UV absorbance (SUVA) measurements indicated a composition-based fractionation onto the porous media.

  8. Magnetostriction and thermal expansion on 1D quantum spin system azurite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fabris, Frederick W; Wolff-fabris, F; Francoual, S; Zapf, V; Jaime, M; Scott, B; Lacerda, A; Tozer, S; Hannahs, S; Murphy, T

    2008-01-01

    Recently the natural mineral Azurite has been proposed as model substance for the distorted S = 1/2 diamond chain in the spin fluid state. Azurite has alternating doublet monomers and singlet dimers along the chains yielding plateau-like features in the magnetization curves. Although Azurite was also reported to order antiferromagnetically at 1.86 K, the detailed phase diagram and its relationship to the 1/3 plateau is largely unknown. In the present paper, we report preliminary results from a dilatometry study on Azurite carried out in the 0.05--2.30 K temperature range at magnetic fields up to 31 T. It is shown that sizable structural distortions accompany the magnetic ordering and that at 100 mK the long range order between monomers is suppressed precisely at the transition field where the 1/3 plateau sets in.

  9. On the spectrum of the lattice spin-boson Hamiltonian for any coupling: 1D case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muminov, M.; Neidhardt, H.; Rasulov, T.

    2015-05-15

    A lattice model of radiative decay (so-called spin-boson model) of a two level atom and at most two photons is considered. The location of the essential spectrum is described. For any coupling constant, the finiteness of the number of eigenvalues below the bottom of its essential spectrum is proved. The results are obtained by considering a more general model H for which the lower bound of its essential spectrum is estimated. Conditions which guarantee the finiteness of the number of eigenvalues of H below the bottom of its essential spectrum are found. It is shown that the discrete spectrum might be infinite if the parameter functions are chosen in a special form.

  10. DRAFT - DOE O 460.1D, Hazardous Materials Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    The Order establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of offsite shipments and onsite transfers of radioactive and other hazardous materials, and for modal transportation.

  11. C:\DOCUME~1\d3k776\LOCALS~1\TEM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Talking About Climate at Schools in the Tropical Western Pacific (continued on page 3) Education Climate Update ARM News from the ARM Program for students and teachers about climate change studies IN THIS ISSUE TWP Classroom Visits Elder Knowledge Student Activity Critical Thinking ? WCS Conservation Teacher's Experience Dr. Bill Porch, ARM Science Programs Specialist W WINTER 2002 hen I visit the ARM sites at Manus Island, Papua New Guinea and the Island Nation of Nauru, I am often asked to

  12. Order Module--DOE O 452.1D, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE AND WEAPON SURETY...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the Department of Defense (DoD), to protect the public health and safety by providing dual-agency judgment and responsibility for the safety, security, and use control (surety)...

  13. Higher flow harmonics from ( 3 + 1 ) D event-by-event viscous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher: American Physical Society Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Free Publicly Accessible Full Text ...

  14. Notice of Intent to Develop a Page Change to DOE O 551.1D, Official...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    burdensome to travelers and will be removed as a requirement and replaced with a process that requires travelers be responsible for safeguarding their own official...

  15. DOE Order Self Study Modules - DOE O 425.1D, Verification of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... restart nuclear facilities in accordance with DOE O 226.1B, Implementation of Department of Energy Oversight Policy, and DOE-STD-3006, Planning and Conducting Readiness Reviews. ...

  16. Graphite Waste Tank Cleanup and Decontamination under the Marcoule UP1 D and D Program - 13166

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomasset, Philippe [AREVA D and D BU, Marcoule (France)] [AREVA D and D BU, Marcoule (France); Chabeuf, Jean-Michel [AREVA D and D BU, La Hague (France)] [AREVA D and D BU, La Hague (France); Thiebaut, Valerie [CEA/DEN/DAPD/CPUP, Marcoule (France)] [CEA/DEN/DAPD/CPUP, Marcoule (France); Chambon, Frederic [AREVA FEDERAL SERVICES, Columbia, MD (United States)] [AREVA FEDERAL SERVICES, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The UP1 plant in Marcoule reprocessed nearly 20,000 tons of used natural uranium gas cooled reactor fuel coming from the first generation of civil nuclear reactors in France. During more than 40 years, the decladding operations produced thousands of tons of processed waste, mainly magnesium and graphite fragments. In the absence of a French repository for the graphite waste, the graphite sludge content of the storage pits had to be retrieved and transferred into a newer and safer pit. After an extensive R and D program, the equipment and process necessary for retrieval operations were designed, built and tested. The innovative process is mainly based on the use of two pumps (one to capture and the other one to transfer the sludge) working one after the other and a robotic arm mounted on a telescopic mast. A dedicated process was also set up for the removal of the biggest fragments. The retrieval of the most irradiating fragments was a challenge. Today, the first pit is totally empty and its stainless steel walls have been decontaminated using gels. In the second pit, the sludge retrieval and transfer operations have been almost completed. Most of the non-pumpable graphite fragments has been removed and transferred to a new storage pit. After more than 6 years of operations in sludge retrieval, a lot of experience was acquired from which important 'lessons learned' could be shared. (authors)

  17. Analysis of instability growth and collisionless relaxation in thermionic converters using 1-D PIC simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreh, B.B.

    1994-12-01

    This work investigates the role that the beam-plasma instability may play in a thermionic converter. The traditional assumption of collisionally dominated relaxation is questioned, and the beam-plasma instability is proposed as a possible dominant relaxation mechanism. Theory is developed to describe the beam-plasma instability in the cold-plasma approximation, and the theory is tested with two common Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. The theory is first confirmed using an unbounded plasma PIC simulation employing periodic boundary conditions, ES1. The theoretically predicted growth rates are on the order of the plasma frequencies, and ES1 simulations verify these predictions within the order of 1%. For typical conditions encountered in thermionic converters, the resulting growth period is on the order of 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} seconds. The bounded plasma simulation PDP1 was used to evaluate the influence of finite geometry and the electrode boundaries. For this bounded plasma, a two-stream interaction was supported and resulting in nearly complete thermalization in approximately 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} seconds. Since the electron-electron collision rate of 10{sup 9} Hz and the electron atom collision rate of 10{sup 7} Hz are significantly slower than the rate of development of these instabilities, the instabilities appear to be an important relaxation mechanism.

  18. DOE Order Self Study Modules - DOE O 414.1D Quality Assurance

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... reuse; conduct engineering evaluations to be used ... Requirements for Nuclear Facilities Purpose ... It enables personnel to understand the fundamentals of the ...

  19. A New Family Member for 2D Nanomaterials | U.S. DOE Office of...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Popular in electronic devices including solar panels, silicon has its limits. Scientists are devising replacements to meet the technology demands of an energy-hungry nation. A team ...

  20. Development of process parameters for 22 nm PMOS using 2-D analytical modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maheran, A. H. Afifah; Menon, P. S.; Shaari, S.; Ahmad, I.; Faizah, Z. A. Noor

    2015-04-24

    The complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (CMOSFET) has become major challenge to scaling and integration. Innovation in transistor structures and integration of novel materials are necessary to sustain this performance trend. CMOS variability in the scaling technology becoming very important concern due to limitation of process control; over statistically variability related to the fundamental discreteness and materials. Minimizing the transistor variation through technology optimization and ensuring robust product functionality and performance is the major issue.In this article, the continuation study on process parameters variations is extended and delivered thoroughly in order to achieve a minimum leakage current (I{sub LEAK}) on PMOS planar transistor at 22?nm gate length. Several device parameters are varies significantly using Taguchi method to predict the optimum combination of process parameters fabrication. A combination of high permittivity material (high-k) and metal gate are utilized accordingly as gate structure where the materials include titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and tungsten silicide (WSi{sub x}). Then the L9 of the Taguchi Orthogonal array is used to analyze the device simulation where the results of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of Smaller-the-Better (STB) scheme are studied through the percentage influences of the process parameters. This is to achieve a minimum I{sub LEAK} where the maximum predicted I{sub LEAK} value by International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) 2011 is said to should not above 100 nA/m. Final results shows that the compensation implantation dose acts as the dominant factor with 68.49% contribution in lowering the devices leakage current. The absolute process parameters combination results in I{sub LEAK} mean value of 3.96821 nA/m where is far lower than the predicted value.

  1. 2-D Time-Dependent Fuel Element, Thermal Analysis Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-09-24

    Version 00 WREM-TOODEE2 is a two dimensional, time-dependent, fuel-element thermal analysis program. Its primary purpose is to evaluate fuel-element thermal response during post-LOCA refill and reflood in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). TOODEE2 calculations are carried out in a two-dimensional mesh region defined in slab or cylindrical geometry by orthogonal grid lines. Coordinates which form order pairs are labeled x-y in slab geometry, and those in cylindrical geometry are labeled r-z for the axisymmetric casemore » and r-theta for the polar case. Conduction and radiation are the only heat transfer mechanisms assumed within the boundaries of the mesh region. Convective and boiling heat transfer mechanisms are assumed at the boundaries. The program numerically solves the two-dimensional, time-dependent, heat conduction equation within the mesh region. KEYWORDS: FUEL MANAGEMENT; HEAT TRANSFER; LOCA; PWR« less

  2. Synthesis and structure of a 2D → 3D framework with coexistence...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Monitoring and Pollution Control, Collaborative Innovation ... Crystallography Reports; Journal Volume: 60; Journal Issue: ... Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency ...

  3. Mixed-RKDG Finite Element Methods for the 2-D Hydrodynamic Model for Semiconductor Device Simulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Zhangxin; Cockburn, Bernardo; Jerome, Joseph W.; Shu, Chi-Wang

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new method for numerically solving the equations of the hydrodynamic model for semiconductor devices in two space dimensions. The method combines a standard mixed finite element method, used to obtain directly an approximation to the electric field, with the so-called Runge-Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method, originally devised for numerically solving multi-dimensional hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, which is applied here to the convective part of the equations. Numerical simulations showing the performance of the new method are displayed, and the results compared with those obtained by using Essentially Nonoscillatory (ENO) finite difference schemes. Frommore » the perspective of device modeling, these methods are robust, since they are capable of encompassing broad parameter ranges, including those for which shock formation is possible. The simulations presented here are for Gallium Arsenide at room temperature, but we have tested them much more generally with considerable success.« less

  4. Dispersion relations of externally and thermally excited dust lattice modes in 2D complex plasma crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Xuefeng; Cui Jian; Zhang Yuan [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu Yue [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-07-15

    The dispersion relations of the externally and thermally (naturally) excited dust lattice modes (both longitudinal and transverse) in two-dimensional Debye-Yukawa complex plasma crystals are investigated. The dispersion relations are calculated numerically by taking the neutral gas damping effects into account and the numerical results are in agreement with the experimental data given by Nunomura et al.[Phys. Rev. E 65, 066402 (2002)]. It is found that for the mode excited by an external disturbance with a real frequency, the dispersion properties are changed at a critical frequency near where the group velocity of the mode goes to zero. Therefore, the high frequency branch with negative dispersion cannot be reached. In contrast, for the thermally excited mode, the dispersion curve can extend all the way to the negative dispersion region, while a 'cut-off' wave number exists at the long wavelength end of the dispersion in the transverse mode.

  5. Rayleigh surface wave interaction with the 2D exciton Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boev, M. V.; Kovalev, V. M.

    2015-06-15

    We describe the interaction of a Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW) traveling on the semiconductor substrate with the excitonic gas in a double quantum well located on the substrate surface. We study the SAW attenuation and its velocity renormalization due to the coupling to excitons. Both the deformation potential and piezoelectric mechanisms of the SAW-exciton interaction are considered. We focus on the frequency and excitonic density dependences of the SAW absorption coefficient and velocity renormalization at temperatures both above and well below the critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation of the excitonic gas. We demonstrate that the SAW attenuation and velocity renormalization are strongly different below and above the critical temperature.

  6. 2D Thermal Hydraulic Analysis and Benchmark in Support of HFIR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The primary goal of this phase of the research is to demonstrate, through verification and validation methods, that COMSOL is a viable simulation tool for thermal-hydraulic ...

  7. Identification of Methanococcus Jannaschii Proteins in 2-D Gel Electrophoresis Patterns by Mass Spectrometry

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Liang, X.

    1998-06-10

    The genome of Methanococcus jannaschii has been sequenced completely and has been found to contain approximately 1,770 predicted protein-coding regions. When these coding regions are expressed and how their expression is regulated, however, remain open questions. In this work, mass spectrometry was combined with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to identify which proteins the genes produce under different growth conditions, and thus investigate the regulation of genes responsible for functions characteristic of this thermophilic representative of the methanogenic Archaea.

  8. Deterministic algorithms for 2-d convex programming and 3-d online linear programming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, T.M.

    1997-06-01

    We present a deterministic algorithm for solving two-dimensional convex programs with a linear objective function. The algorithm requires O(k log k) primitive operations for k constraints; if a feasible point is given, the bound reduces to O(k log k/ log log k). As a consequence, we can decide whether k convex n-gons in the plane have a common intersection in O(k log n min (log k, log log n)) worst-case time. Furthermore, we can solve the three-dimensional online linear programming problem in o(log{sup 3} n) worst-case time per operation.

  9. DIRECT DISMANTLING OF REPROCESSING PLANT CELLS THE EUREX PLANT EXPERIENCEe2d12c

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gili, M.; Troiani, F.; Risoluti, P.

    2003-02-27

    After finishing the reprocessing campaigns in 1970-1983, the EUREX pilot reprocessing plant of ENEA Saluggia Research Center started into a new phase, aiming to materials and irradiated fuel systemation and radioactive wastes conditioning. In 1997 the project ''CORA'' for a vitrification plant for the high and intermediate liquid radioactive wastes started. The ''CORA'' plant will be hosted in some dismantled cells of the EUREX plant, reusing many of the EUREX plant auxiliary systems, duly refurbished, saving money and construction time and avoiding a new nuclear building in the site. Two of the cells that will be reused were part of the EUREX chemical process (solvent recovery and 2nd extraction cycle) and the components were obviously internally contaminated. In 2000 the direct (hands-on) dismantling of one of them started and has been completed in summer 2002; the second one will be dismantled in the next year and then the ''CORA'' plant will be assembled inside the cells. Special care w as taken to avoid spread of contamination in the cells, where ''CORA'' installation activities will start in the next years, during the dismantling process The analysis of data and results collected during the dismantling of the first cell shows that direct dismantling can be achieved with careful choice of tools, procedures and techniques, to reduce volumes of wastes to be disposed and radiological burden.

  10. Fano Resonance in GaAs 2D Photonic Crystal Nanocavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentim, P. T.; Guimaraes, P.S. S.; Luxmoore, I. J.; Szymanski, D.; Whittaker, D. M.; Fox, A. M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Vasco, J. P.; Vinck-Posada, H.

    2011-12-23

    We report the results of polarization resolved reflectivity experiments in GaAs air-bridge photonic crystals with L3 cavities. We show that the fundamental L3 cavity mode changes, in a controlled way, from a Lorentzian symmetrical lineshape to an asymmetrical form when the linear polarization of the incident light is rotated in the plane of the crystal. The different lineshapes are well fitted by the Fano asymmetric equation, implying that a Fano resonance is present in the reflectivity. We use the scattering matrix method to model the Fano interference between a localized discrete state (the cavity fundamental mode) and a background of continuum states (the light reflected from the crystal slab in the vicinity of the cavity) with very good agreement with the experimental data.

  11. V-226: HP StoreOnce D2D Backup Systems Denial of Service Vulnerability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to version 2.3.0 or 1.2.19. Addthis Related Articles U-226: Linux Kernel SFC Driver TCP MSS Option Handling Denial of Service Vulnerability V-062: Asterisk Two Denial of...

  12. 2D hybrid simulations of super-diffusion at the magnetopause...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    tsup alpha, where alpha > 1. Additionally, the probability distribution functions (PDF) of the 'jump lengths' the particles make over time are found to be non-gaussian. ...

  13. Optoelectronics of 2D Materials | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    July 11, 2016 EM&V Status and Opportunities: A Federal Perspective 2 Topics for Today * Background o Status of Energy Efficiency in the U.S. o EM&V Basics * Challenges for Standardizing EM&V o Key EM&V Issues o Varied EM&V Experience o Differing Policy Goal Implications o Barriers to Consistent, High-Quality EM&V * DOE and LBNL Efforts * EPA Efforts Background Status of Energy Efficiency in the United States EM&V Basics 3 Demand-side EE Strategies and Trends * States

  14. Polaris: A New 2-D Lattice Physics Analysis Capability for SCALE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PHYSOR 2014 - The Role of Reactor Physics toward a Sustainable Future The Westin Miyako, Kyoto, Japan, September 28 - October 3, 2014, on CD-ROM (2014) POLARIS: A NEW TWO-DIMENSIONAL LATTICE PHYSICS ANALYSIS CAPABILITY FOR THE SCALE CODE SYSTEM Matthew A. Jessee, William A. Wieselquist, Thomas M. Evans, Steven P. Hamilton, Joshua J. Jarrell, Kang Seog Kim, Jordan P. Lefebvre, Robert A. Lefebvre, Ugur Mertyurek, Adam B. Thompson, Mark L. Williams Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P. O. Box 2008, Oak

  15. Pyrolysis of 2D and 3D Interferometrically Patterned Resist Structures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI Identifier: 1123421 Report Number(s): SAND2010-3929J Journal ID: ISSN 1071-1023; 492229 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource ...

  16. An implicit energy-conservative 2D Fokker-Planck algorithm -- 1. Difference scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chacon, L.; Barnes, D.C.; Knoll, D.A.; Miley, G.H.

    2000-01-20

    Numerical energy conservation in Fokker-Planck problems requires the energy moment of the Fokker-Planck equation to cancel exactly. However, standard discretization techniques not only do not observe this requirement (thus precluding exact energy conservation), but they also demand very refined meshes to keep the energy error under control. In this paper, a new difference scheme for multidimensional Fokker-Planck problems that improves the numerical cancellation of the energy moment is proposed. Crucial to this new development is the reformulation of the friction term in the Fokker-Planck collision operator takes the form of a double divergence operating on a tensor, which is suitable for particle and energy conservative differencing. Numerical results show that the new discretization scheme improves the cancellation of the energy moment integral over standard approaches by at least an order of magnitude.

  17. Comparisons between tokamak fueling of gas puffing and supersonic molecular beam injection in 2D simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Y. L.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, X. Q.; Li, H. D.; Feng, H.; Sun, W. G.

    2015-01-15

    Plasma fueling with high efficiency and deep injection is very important to enable fusion power performance requirements. It is a powerful and efficient way to study neutral transport dynamics and find methods of improving the fueling performance by doing large scale simulations. Two basic fueling methods, gas puffing (GP) and supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), are simulated and compared in realistic divertor geometry of the HL-2A tokamak with a newly developed module, named trans-neut, within the framework of BOUT++ boundary plasma turbulence code [Z. H. Wang et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 043019 (2014)]. The physical model includes plasma density, heat and momentum transport equations along with neutral density, and momentum transport equations. Transport dynamics and profile evolutions of both plasma and neutrals are simulated and compared between GP and SMBI in both poloidal and radial directions, which are quite different from one and the other. It finds that the neutrals can penetrate about four centimeters inside the last closed (magnetic) flux surface during SMBI, while they are all deposited outside of the LCF during GP. It is the radial convection and larger inflowing flux which lead to the deeper penetration depth of SMBI and higher fueling efficiency compared to GP.

  18. Vlasov Fluid stability of a 2-D plasma with a linear magnetic field null

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Vlasov Fluid stability of a 2-dimensional plasma near an O type magnetic null is investigated. Specifically, an elongated Z-pinch is considered, and applied to Field Reversed Configurations at Los Alamos National Laboratory by making a cylindrical approximation of the compact torus. The orbits near an elliptical O type null are found to be very complicated; the orbits are large and some are stochastic. The kinetic corrections to magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are investigated by evaluating the expectation values of the growth rates of a Vlasov Fluid dispersion functional by using a set of trial functions based on ideal MHD. The dispersion functional involves fluid parts and orbit dependent parts. The latter involves phase integral of two time correlations. The phase integral is replaced by the time integral both for the regular and for the stochastic orbits. Two trial functions are used; one has a large displacement near the null and the other away from the null.

  19. 2D heterodyne-detected sum frequency generation study on the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    sum frequency generation study on the ultrafast vibrational dynamics of Hsub 2O and HOD water at charged interfaces Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  20. 2D stochastic-integral models for characterizing random grain noise in titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabbagh, Harold A.; Murphy, R. Kim; Sabbagh, Elias H.; Cherry, Matthew; Pilchak, Adam; Knopp, Jeremy S.; Blodgett, Mark P.

    2014-02-18

    We extend our previous work, in which we applied high-dimensional model representation (HDMR) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) concepts to the characterization of a metallic surface that has undergone a shot-peening treatment to reduce residual stresses, and has, therefore, become a random conductivity field. That example was treated as a onedimensional problem, because those were the only data available. In this study, we develop a more rigorous two-dimensional model for characterizing random, anisotropic grain noise in titanium alloys. Such a model is necessary if we are to accurately capture the 'clumping' of crystallites into long chains that appear during the processing of the metal into a finished product. The mathematical model starts with an application of the Karhunen-Love (K-L) expansion for the random Euler angles, ? and ?, that characterize the orientation of each crystallite in the sample. The random orientation of each crystallite then defines the stochastic nature of the electrical conductivity tensor of the metal. We study two possible covariances, Gaussian and double-exponential, which are the kernel of the K-L integral equation, and find that the double-exponential appears to satisfy measurements more closely of the two. Results based on data from a Ti-7Al sample will be given, and further applications of HDMR and ANOVA will be discussed.

  1. PROJECT PROFILE: 2D Materials for Low Cost Epitaxial Growth of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SunShot Award Amount: 125,000 Low-cost III-V cells will result in a breakthrough in photovoltaic (PV) market by enabling a lower levelized cost of energy. The project will develop ...

  2. Notice of Intent to Revise DOE O 452.2D, Nuclear Explosive Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-06-05

    NNSA is proposing revisions for the suite of directives in order to (1) revise requirements to improve NES processes and (2) align the directives with the requirements of DOE Order 251.1C, Departmental Directives Program.

  3. Numerical solution of 2D wet steam flow with non-equilibrium condensation and real thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hric, V.; Halama, J.

    2015-03-10

    An approach to modeling of wet steam flow with non-equilibrium condensation phenomenon is presented. The first part of our flow model is homogeneous Euler system of transport equations for mass, momentum and total energy of wet steam (mixture). The additional second part describes liquid phase via non-homogeneous system of transport equations for moments of droplets number distribution function and relies on corrected classical nucleation theory. Moment equations are closed by linearization of droplet growth rate model. All necessary relations for thermodynamic properties of steam are provided by IAPWS set of equations. However, properties of condensate are simply modeled by liquid saturation data. Two real equations of state are implemented. Recently developed CFD formulation for entropy (does not require iteration process) and so-called IAPWS special gas equation for Helmholtz energy (one iteration loop is necessary). Flow model is validated on converging-diverging supersonic nozzle with Barschdorff geometry. Simulations were performed by in-house CFD code based on finite volume method and stiff character of equations was solved by symmetrical time operator splitting. Achieved results satisfactorily agreed with experimental data.

  4. 2D laser-collision induced fluorescence in low-pressure argon discharges

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barnat, E. V.; Weatherford, B. R.

    2015-09-25

    Development and application of laser-collision induced fluorescence (LCIF) diagnostic technique is presented for the use of interrogating argon plasma discharges. Key atomic states of argon utilized for the LCIF method are identified. A simplified two-state collisional radiative model is then used to establish scaling relations between the LCIF, electron density, and reduced electric fields (E/N). The procedure used to generate, detect and calibrate the LCIF in controlled plasma environments is discussed in detail. LCIF emanating from an argon discharge is then presented for electron densities spanning 109 e cm–3 to 1012 e cm–3 and reduced electric fields spanning 0.1 Tdmore » to 40 Td. Lastly, application of the LCIF technique for measuring the spatial distribution of both electron densities and reduced electric field is demonstrated.« less

  5. Estimation of the curvature of an interface from a digital 2D image

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frette, O.I.; Virnovsky, G.; Silin, D.

    2008-10-15

    In this paper a method for the estimation of the curvature along a condensed phase interface is presented. In a previous paper in this journal [1] a mathematical relationship was established between this curvature and a template disk located at a given point along the interface. The portion of the computed area of the template disk covering one of the phases was shown to be asymptotically linear in the mean curvature. Instead of utilizing this relationship, an empirical approach was proposed in [1] in order to compensate for discrete uncertainties. In this paper, we show that this linear relationship can be used directly along the interface avoiding the empirical approach proposed earlier. Modifications of the algorithm are however needed, and with good data smoothing techniques, our method provides good quantitative curvature estimates.

  6. A transputer-based list mode parallel system for digital radiography with 2D silicon detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conti, M.; Russo, P.; Scarlatella, A. . Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche and INFN); Del Guerra, A. . Dipt. di Fisica and INFN); Mazzeo, A.; Mazzocca, N.; Russo, S. . Dipt. di Informatica e Sistemistica)

    1993-08-01

    The authors believe that a dedicated parallel computer system can represent an effective and flexible approach to the problem of list mode acquisition and reconstruction of digital radiographic images obtained with a double-sided silicon microstrip detector. They present a Transputer-based implementation of a parallel system for the data acquisition and image reconstruction from a silicon crystal with 200[mu]m read-out pitch. They are currently developing a prototype of the system connected to a detector with a 10mm[sup 2] sensitive area.

  7. Ti3CrCu4: A possible 2-D ferromagnetic spin fluctuating system...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Physics & Materials Science, T.I.F.R., Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai, 400005, India Department of Chemistry, ... Type: Published Article Journal Name: AIP Advances ...

  8. Month-Long 2D Cloud-Resolving Model Simulation and Resultant...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    parameterization of the warm rain processes and a modified version of the Koenig and Murray (1976) ice parameterization (Wu et al. 1999). The subgrid-scale mixing is...

  9. 2D Gridded Surface Data Value-Added Product (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-density ARM sites deployed at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) allow us to observe the spatial patterns of variables of scientific interests. The upcoming megasite at SGP with ...

  10. SIMS of organics—Advances in 2D and 3D imaging and future outlook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilmore, Ian S.

    2013-09-15

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has become a powerful technique for the label-free analysis of organics from cells to electronic devices. The development of cluster ion sources has revolutionized the field, increasing the sensitivity for organics by two or three orders of magnitude and for large clusters, such as C{sub 60} and argon clusters, allowing depth profiling of organics. The latter has provided the capability to generate stunning three dimensional images with depth resolutions of around 5 nm, simply unavailable by other techniques. Current state-of-the-art allows molecular images with a spatial resolution of around 500 nm to be achieved and future developments are likely to progress into the sub-100 nm regime. This review is intended to bring those with some familiarity with SIMS up-to-date with the latest developments for organics, the fundamental principles that underpin this and define the future progress. State-of-the-art examples are showcased and signposts to more in-depth reviews about specific topics given for the specialist.

  11. Magnetic Correlations in the Quasi-2D Semiconducting Ferromagnet CrSiTe3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Williams, Travis J.; Aczel, Adam A.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Nagler, Stephen E.; Stone, Matthew B.; Yan, Jiaqiang; Mandrus, D.

    2015-10-02

    Intrinsic, two-dimensional ferromagnetic semiconductors are an important class of materials for overcoming the limitations of dilute magnetic semiconductors for spintronics applications. CrSiTe3 is a particularly interesting member of this class, since it can likely be exfoliated down to single layers, where Tc is predicted to increase dramatically. Establishing the nature of the magnetism in the bulk is a necessary precursor to understanding the magnetic behavior in thin film samples and the possible applications of this material. In this work, we use elastic and inelastic neutron scattering to measure the magnetic properties of single crystalline CrSiTe3. We find that there ismorea very small single ion anisotropy favoring magnetic ordering along the c-axis and that the measured spin waves fit well to a model where the moments are only weakly coupled along that direction. Finally, we find that both static and dynamic correlations persist within the ab-plane up to at least 300 K, strong evidence of this material's two-dimensional characteristics that are relevant for future studies on thin film and monolayer samples.less

  12. Oxide 2D electron gases as a route for high carrier densities on (001) Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kornblum, Lior; Jin, Eric N.; Kumah, Divine P.; Walker, Fred J.; Ernst, Alexis T.; Broadbridge, Christine C.; Ahn, Charles H.

    2015-05-18

    Two dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) formed at the interfaces of oxide heterostructures draw considerable interest owing to their unique physics and potential applications. Growing such heterostructures on conventional semiconductors has the potential to integrate their functionality with semiconductor device technology. We demonstrate 2DEGs on a conventional semiconductor by growing GdTiO{sub 3}-SrTiO{sub 3} on silicon. Structural analysis confirms the epitaxial growth of heterostructures with abrupt interfaces and a high degree of crystallinity. Transport measurements show the conduction to be an interface effect, ∼9 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} electrons per interface. Good agreement is demonstrated between the electronic behavior of structures grown on Si and on an oxide substrate, validating the robustness of this approach to bridge between lab-scale samples to a scalable, technologically relevant materials system.

  13. 2D Thermal Hydraulic Analysis and Benchmark in Support of HFIR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A secondary goal of this two-dimensional phase of the research is to establish methodology and data base libraries that are also needed in the full three-dimensional COMSOL ...

  14. 2-D Magnetotellurics At The Geothermal Site At Soultz-Sous-Forets...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    D Magnetotellurics At The Geothermal Site At Soultz-Sous-Forets- Resistivity Distribution To About 3000 M Depth Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  15. Study of the electrical conductivity at finite temperature in 2D Si- MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Limouny, L. Kaaouachi, A. El Tata, O.; Daoudi, E.; Errai, M.; Dlimi, S.; Idrissi, H. El; Zatni, A.

    2014-01-27

    We investigate the low temperature density dependent conductivity of two dimensional electron systems in zero magnetic field for sample Si-15 MOSFETs. The first purpose of this paper is to establish that the knee of the conductivity ?{sub 0} (?{sub 0} is the T = 0.3 conductivity obtained by linear extrapolation of the curves of ? (T) for different values of electron density, n{sub s}) as a function of the carrier densities n{sub s} for T = 0.3 K, observed by Lai et al. and Limouny et al. in previous work for two different samples, is independent of temperature. The second aim is the determination of the critical density, n{sub c}, of the metal-insulator transition. Many methods are used in this investigation of n{sub c} which have been already used for other samples. The motivation behind this last study is the observation of many values of n{sub c} that have been obtained from different methods and that are slightly different. We will use in this study three methods with the intention to infer which one is more appropriate to obtain n{sub c}.

  16. 2-D and 3-D Models of Convective Turbulence and Oscillations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory Brigham Young University, Provo, UT Mount Allison, University, Sackville, New Brunswick, Canada Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL NASA ...

  17. 2D laser-collision induced fluorescence in low-pressure argon discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnat, E. V.; Weatherford, B. R.

    2015-09-25

    Development and application of laser-collision induced fluorescence (LCIF) diagnostic technique is presented for the use of interrogating argon plasma discharges. Key atomic states of argon utilized for the LCIF method are identified. A simplified two-state collisional radiative model is then used to establish scaling relations between the LCIF, electron density, and reduced electric fields (E/N). The procedure used to generate, detect and calibrate the LCIF in controlled plasma environments is discussed in detail. LCIF emanating from an argon discharge is then presented for electron densities spanning 109 e cm–3 to 1012 e cm–3 and reduced electric fields spanning 0.1 Td to 40 Td. Lastly, application of the LCIF technique for measuring the spatial distribution of both electron densities and reduced electric field is demonstrated.

  18. Truncated conformal space approach for 2D Landau-Ginzburg theories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coser, A.; Konik, R. M.; Beria, M.; Brandino, G. P.; Mussardo, G.

    2014-12-10

    We study the spectrum of LandauGinzburg theories in 1 + 1 dimensions using the truncated conformal space approach employing a compactified boson. We study these theories both in their broken and unbroken phases. We first demonstrate that we can reproduce the expected spectrum of a ? theory (i.e. a free massive boson) in this framework. We then turn to ?? in its unbroken phase and compare our numerical results with the predictions of two-loop perturbation theory, finding excellent agreement. We then analyze the broken phase of ?? where kink excitations together with their bound states are present. We confirm the semiclassical predictions for this model on the number of stable kink-antikink bound states. We also test the semiclassics in the double well phase of ?? Landau-Ginzburg theory, again finding agreement.

  19. New Nontoxic Process Promises Larger Ultrathin Sheets of 2D Nanomaterials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A team of scientists led by the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed a novel way to produce two-dimensional nanosheets by separating bulk materials with nontoxic liquid nitrogen. The environmentally friendly process generates a 20-fold increase in surface area per sheet, which could expand the nanomaterials’ commercial applications.

  20. Application of Compressed Sensing to 2-D Ultrasonic Propagation Imaging System data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mascarenas, David D.; Farrar, Charles R.; Chong, See Yenn; Lee, J.R.; Park, Gyu Hae; Flynn, Eric B.

    2012-06-29

    The Ultrasonic Propagation Imaging (UPI) System is a unique, non-contact, laser-based ultrasonic excitation and measurement system developed for structural health monitoring applications. The UPI system imparts laser-induced ultrasonic excitations at user-defined locations on a structure of interest. The response of these excitations is then measured by piezoelectric transducers. By using appropriate data reconstruction techniques, a time-evolving image of the response can be generated. A representative measurement of a plate might contain 800x800 spatial data measurement locations and each measurement location might be sampled at 500 instances in time. The result is a total of 640,000 measurement locations and 320,000,000 unique measurements. This is clearly a very large set of data to collect, store in memory and process. The value of these ultrasonic response images for structural health monitoring applications makes tackling these challenges worthwhile. Recently compressed sensing has presented itself as a candidate solution for directly collecting relevant information from sparse, high-dimensional measurements. The main idea behind compressed sensing is that by directly collecting a relatively small number of coefficients it is possible to reconstruct the original measurement. The coefficients are obtained from linear combinations of (what would have been the original direct) measurements. Often compressed sensing research is simulated by generating compressed coefficients from conventionally collected measurements. The simulation approach is necessary because the direct collection of compressed coefficients often requires compressed sensing analog front-ends that are currently not commercially available. The ability of the UPI system to make measurements at user-defined locations presents a unique capability on which compressed measurement techniques may be directly applied. The application of compressed sensing techniques on this data holds the potential to reduce the number of required measurement locations, reduce the time to make measurements, reduce the memory required to store the measurements, and possibly reduce the computational burden to classify the measurements. This work considers the appropriate selection of the signal dictionary used for signal reconstruction, and performs an evaluation of compressed sensing technique's ability to reconstruct ultrasonic images using fewer measurements than would be needed using traditional Nyquist-limited data collection techniques.

  1. Truncated conformal space approach for 2D Landau-Ginzburg theories

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Coser, A.; Konik, R. M.; Beria, M.; Brandino, G. P.; Mussardo, G.

    2014-12-10

    We study the spectrum of LandauGinzburg theories in 1 + 1 dimensions using the truncated conformal space approach employing a compactified boson. We study these theories both in their broken and unbroken phases. We first demonstrate that we can reproduce the expected spectrum of a ? theory (i.e. a free massive boson) in this framework. We then turn to ?? in its unbroken phase and compare our numerical results with the predictions of two-loop perturbation theory, finding excellent agreement. We then analyze the broken phase of ?? where kink excitations together with their bound states are present. We confirm themoresemiclassical predictions for this model on the number of stable kink-antikink bound states. We also test the semiclassics in the double well phase of ?? Landau-Ginzburg theory, again finding agreement.less

  2. 2D Joint Inversion Of Dc And Scalar Audio-Magnetotelluric Data...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    depends on the number and spacing of the AMT sites. The models obtained from experimental data display a low resistivity zone (< 20 Omega m) in the central part of the...

  3. 2-D Materials Group Meeting | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    December 4, 2015 at 12-2 pm/ Physics Duboc Room: 4-331

  4. 2-D Materials Group Meeting | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    November 13, 2015 at 12:30 - 3:00 PM/ RLE Haus Room 36-428

  5. Truncated conformal space approach for 2D Landau–Ginzburg theories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coser, A.; Beria, M.; Brandino, G. P.; Konik, R. M.; Mussardo, G.

    2014-12-10

    In this study, We examine the spectrum of Landau–Ginzburg theories in 1 + 1 dimensions using the truncated conformal space approach employing a compactified boson. We study these theories both in their broken and unbroken phases. We first demonstrate that we can reproduce the expected spectrum of a Φ² theory (i.e. a free massive boson) in this framework. We then turn to Φ⁴ in its unbroken phase and compare our numerical results with the predictions of two-loop perturbation theory, finding excellent agreement. We then analyze the broken phase of Φ⁴ where kink excitations together with their bound states are present. We confirm the semiclassical predictions for this model on the number of stable kink-antikink bound states. We also test the semiclassics in the double well phase of Φ⁶ Landau-Ginzburg theory, again finding agreement.

  6. MHK ISDB/Instruments/WINDSONIC1-L, 2-D Sonic Wind Sensor with...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Velocity Planar Measurement (Current), 3D Velocity Volumetric Measurement (Current), Density (Ice), Direction (Ice), Speed (Ice), Thickness (Ice), Pressure (Tidal), Sea Surface...

  7. Particle visualization in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering. I. 2D density mapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britun, Nikolay Palmucci, Maria; Konstantinidis, Stephanos; Snyders, Rony

    2015-04-28

    Time-resolved characterization of an Ar-Ti high-power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge has been performed. This paper deals with two-dimensional density mapping in the discharge volume obtained by laser-induced fluorescence imaging. The time-resolved density evolution of Ti neutrals, singly ionized Ti atoms (Ti{sup +}), and Ar metastable atoms (Ar{sup met}) in the area above the sputtered cathode is mapped for the first time in this type of discharges. The energetic characteristics of the discharge species are additionally studied by Doppler-shift laser-induced fluorescence imaging. The questions related to the propagation of both the neutral and ionized discharge particles, as well as to their spatial density distributions, are discussed.

  8. Truncated conformal space approach for 2D Landau–Ginzburg theories

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Coser, A.; Beria, M.; Brandino, G. P.; Konik, R. M.; Mussardo, G.

    2014-12-10

    In this study, We examine the spectrum of Landau–Ginzburg theories in 1 + 1 dimensions using the truncated conformal space approach employing a compactified boson. We study these theories both in their broken and unbroken phases. We first demonstrate that we can reproduce the expected spectrum of a Φ² theory (i.e. a free massive boson) in this framework. We then turn to Φ⁴ in its unbroken phase and compare our numerical results with the predictions of two-loop perturbation theory, finding excellent agreement. We then analyze the broken phase of Φ⁴ where kink excitations together with their bound states are present.more » We confirm the semiclassical predictions for this model on the number of stable kink-antikink bound states. We also test the semiclassics in the double well phase of Φ⁶ Landau-Ginzburg theory, again finding agreement.« less

  9. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The SPn Axial Transport Solver for 2D/1D in MPACT Shane G. Stimpson University of Michigan August 4, 2014 CASL-U-2014-0136-000 The SP n Axial Transport Solver for 2D/1D in MPACT Shane G. Stimpson - The University of Michigan Mentor: B. Collins With: M. Jessee Program: NESLS CASL, Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division * The 2D/1D scheme in MPACT, which decomposes 3D geometries into an axial stack of radial planes, has been used to successfully solve a number of challenge problems within CASL *

  10. Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Nonlinear optical techniques investigated in this program include time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, degenerate four-wave mixing, coherent 1D and 2D imaging ...

  11. PSPLINE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for 1D, 2D, and 3D datasets on rectilinear grids. PSPLINE now includes EZspline, a fortran-90 interface to the spline and Hermite routines with excellent ease of use features...

  12. MPACT Theory Manual

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for calculating the regional angular and scalar fluxes from the Boltzmann transport equation. In Chapter 3, the 2D1D methodology is described, together with the description of...

  13. Microsoft Word - appxd.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    RFSOG Appendix D, Page 1 D.1 Points of Compliance Appendix D, Page 2 D.2 Points of Evaluation Appendix D, Page 3 D.3 Area of Concern Wells, Boundary Wells, and SW018 Appendix D,...

  14. Three Dimensional Simulation of the Baneberry Nuclear Event ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Extensive geophysical investigations, coupled with a series of 1D and 2D computational studies were used to reconstruct the sequence of events that led to the catastrophic failure. ...

  15. Microsoft Word - appxd

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    the RFSOG Appendix D, Page 1 D.1 Points of Compliance Appendix D, Page 2 D.2 Points of Evaluation Appendix D, Page 3 D.3 Area of Concern Wells and SW018 Appendix D, Page 4 D.4...

  16. Efficient Evaluation of Partition Functions of Inhomogeneous Many-Body Spin Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murg, V.; Cirac, J.I.; Verstraete, F.

    2005-07-29

    We present a numerical method to evaluate partition functions and associated correlation functions of inhomogeneous 2D classical spin systems and 1D quantum spin systems. The method is scalable and has a controlled error. We illustrate the algorithm by calculating the finite-temperature properties of bosonic particles in 1D optical lattices, as realized in current experiments.

  17. 1 and 2-Dimensional Line Transfer Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1990-07-01

    LXF1D is a one dimensional steady-state line transfer package designed to handle: overlapping and or interacting lines, planar, cylindrical, spherical (and special) geometries, doppler shifts, complete redistribution (CRD), partial redistribution (PRD). PRD requires the use of REDIST or some other package to produce emission profiles. LXF2D is a two dimensional version of LXF1D for xy and rz geometries. Both LXF1D and LXF2D are designed to be added to existing non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) codes withmore » a minimum of effort.« less

  18. Nucleic acid sequences encoding D1 and D1/D2 domains of human coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2010-04-06

    The invention provides recombinant human CAR (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor) polypeptides which bind adenovirus. Specifically, polypeptides corresponding to adenovirus binding domain D1 and the entire extracellular domain of human CAR protein comprising D1 and D2 are provided. In another aspect, the invention provides nucleic acid sequences encoding these domains and expression vectors for producing the domains and bacterial cells containing such vectors. The invention also includes an isolated fusion protein comprised of the D1 polypeptide fused to a polypeptide which facilitates folding of D1 when expressed in bacteria. The functional D1 domain finds application in a therapeutic method for treating a patient infected with a CAR D1-binding virus, and also in a method for identifying an antiviral compound which interferes with viral attachment. The invention also provides a method for specifically targeting a cell for infection by a virus which binds to D1.

  19. Instabilities of an anisotropically expanding non-Abelian plasma: 1D+3V discretized hard-loop simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebhan, Anton; Attems, Maximilian; Strickland, Michael

    2008-08-15

    Non-Abelian plasma instabilities play a crucial role in the nonequilibrium dynamics of a weakly coupled quark-gluon plasma, and they importantly modify the standard perturbative bottom-up thermalization scenario in heavy-ion collisions. Using the auxiliary-field formulation of the hard-loop effective theory, we study numerically the real-time evolution of instabilities in an anisotropic collisionless Yang-Mills plasma undergoing longitudinal free-streaming expansion. In this first real-time lattice simulation we consider the most unstable modes, long-wavelength coherent color fields that are constant in transverse directions and which therefore are effectively 1+1 dimensional in space-time, except for the auxiliary fields which also depend on discretized momentum rapidity and transverse velocity components. We reproduce the semianalytical results obtained previously for the Abelian regime, and we determine the nonlinear effects which occur when the instabilities have grown such that non-Abelian interactions become important.

  20. Notice of Intent to Develop a Page Change to DOE O 551.1D, Official Foreign Travel

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-05-21

    The requirement to surrender official passports is considered burdensome to travelers and will be removed as a requirement and replaced with a process that requires travelers be responsible for safeguarding their own official passports. In conjunction with this revision, administrative changes will be made to update the title of the Office of Travel Management.

  1. A new time-dependent analytic model for radiation-induced photocurrent in finite 1D epitaxial diodes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verley, Jason C.; Axness, Carl L.; Hembree, Charles Edward; Keiter, Eric Richard; Kerr, Bert

    2012-04-01

    Photocurrent generated by ionizing radiation represents a threat to microelectronics in radiation environments. Circuit simulation tools such as SPICE [1] can be used to analyze these threats, and typically rely on compact models for individual electrical components such as transistors and diodes. Compact models consist of a handful of differential and/or algebraic equations, and are derived by making simplifying assumptions to any of the many semiconductor transport equations. Historically, many photocurrent compact models have suffered from accuracy issues due to the use of qualitative approximation, rather than mathematically correct solutions to the ambipolar diffusion equation. A practical consequence of this inaccuracy is that a given model calibration is trustworthy over only a narrow range of operating conditions. This report describes work to produce improved compact models for photocurrent. Specifically, an analytic model is developed for epitaxial diode structures that have a highly doped subcollector. The analytic model is compared with both numerical TCAD calculations, as well as the compact model described in reference [2]. The new analytic model compares well against TCAD over a wide range of operating conditions, and is shown to be superior to the compact model from reference [2].

  2. Plasmon-polariton and ⟨n⟨ = 0 non-Bragg gaps in 1D Cantor photonic superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meja-Salazar, J. R.; Porras-Montenegro, N.; Reyes-Gmez, E.; Cavalcanti, S. B.; Oliveira, L. E.

    2014-05-15

    We have used the transfer-matrix approach for one-dimensional Cantor photonic superlattices, and studied the plasmon-polariton modes for a multilayered system composed by alternating layers of positive and dispersive materials. Results indicate that the corresponding plasmon-polariton modes, which show up for oblique incidence, strongly depend on the Cantor step, and the plasmon-polariton subbands are associated with the number of metamaterial layers contained in the elementary cell. Moreover, we have studied the ⟨n⟩ = 0 non-Bragg gap in such fractal photonic superlattices and characterized its behavior as function of the steps of the Cantor series.

  3. Notice of Intent to Revise DOE O 452.1D, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-06-05

    NNSA is proposing revisions for the suite of directives in order to (1) revise requirements to improve NES processes and (2) align the directives with the requirements of DOE Order 251.1C, Departmental Directives Program.

  4. Model-Based Least Squares Reconstruction of Coded Source Neutron Radiographs: Integrating the ORNL HFIR CG1D Source Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Gregor, Jens; Bingham, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    At the present, neutron sources cannot be fabricated small and powerful enough in order to achieve high resolution radiography while maintaining an adequate flux. One solution is to employ computational imaging techniques such as a Magnified Coded Source Imaging (CSI) system. A coded-mask is placed between the neutron source and the object. The system resolution is increased by reducing the size of the mask holes and the flux is increased by increasing the size of the coded-mask and/or the number of holes. One limitation of such system is that the resolution of current state-of-the-art scintillator-based detectors caps around 50um. To overcome this challenge, the coded-mask and object are magnified by making the distance from the coded-mask to the object much smaller than the distance from object to detector. In previous work, we have shown via synthetic experiments that our least squares method outperforms other methods in image quality and reconstruction precision because of the modeling of the CSI system components. However, the validation experiments were limited to simplistic neutron sources. In this work, we aim to model the flux distribution of a real neutron source and incorporate such a model in our least squares computational system. We provide a full description of the methodology used to characterize the neutron source and validate the method with synthetic experiments.

  5. Solvation of fluoro-acetonitrile in water by 2D-IR spectroscopy: A combined experimental-computational study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cazade, Pierre-André; Das, Akshaya K.; Tran, Halina; Kläsi, Felix; Hamm, Peter; Bereau, Tristan; Meuwly, Markus

    2015-06-07

    The solvent dynamics around fluorinated acetonitrile is characterized by 2-dimensional infrared spectroscopy and atomistic simulations. The lineshape of the linear infrared spectrum is better captured by semiempirical (density functional tight binding) mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics simulations, whereas force field simulations with multipolar interactions yield lineshapes that are significantly too narrow. For the solvent dynamics, a relatively slow time scale of 2 ps is found from the experiments and supported by the mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics simulations. With multipolar force fields fitted to the available thermodynamical data, the time scale is considerably faster—on the 0.5 ps time scale. The simulations provide evidence for a well established CF–HOH hydrogen bond (population of 25%) which is found from the radial distribution function g(r) from both, force field and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations.

  6. Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2013-11-26

    The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300°C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what would be allowed for methanol synthesis alone. Aromatic-rich hydrocarbon liquid (C5+), containing a significant amount of methylated benzenes, was produced under these conditions. However, selectivity control to liquid hydrocarbons was difficult to achieve. Carbon dioxide and methane formation was problematic. Furthermore, saturation of the olefinic intermediates formed in the zeolite, and necessary for gasoline production, occurred over PdZnAl. Thus, yield to desirable hydrocarbon liquid product was limited. Evaluation of other oxygenate-producing catalysts could possibly lead to future advances. Potential exists with discovery of other types of catalysts that suppress carbon dioxide and light hydrocarbon formation. Comparative techno-economics for a single-step syngas-to-distillates process and a more conventional MTG-type process were investigated. Results suggest operating and capital cost savings could only modestly be achieved, given future improvements to catalyst performance. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increased single-pass yield to hydrocarbon liquid is a primary need for this process to achieve cost competiveness.

  7. Real-time ultrasound-tagging to track the 2D motion of the common carotid artery wall in vivo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zahnd, Guillaume; Salles, Sébastien; Liebgott, Hervé; Vray, Didier; Sérusclat, André; Moulin, Philippe

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Tracking the motion of biological tissues represents an important issue in the field of medical ultrasound imaging. However, the longitudinal component of the motion (i.e., perpendicular to the beam axis) remains more challenging to extract due to the rather coarse resolution cell of ultrasound scanners along this direction. The aim of this study is to introduce a real-time beamforming strategy dedicated to acquire tagged images featuring a distinct pattern in the objective to ease the tracking. Methods: Under the conditions of the Fraunhofer approximation, a specific apodization function was applied to the received raw channel data, in real-time during image acquisition, in order to introduce a periodic oscillations pattern along the longitudinal direction of the radio frequency signal. Analytic signals were then extracted from the tagged images, and subpixel motion tracking of the intima–media complex was subsequently performed offline, by means of a previously introduced bidimensional analytic phase-based estimator. Results: The authors’ framework was applied in vivo on the common carotid artery from 20 young healthy volunteers and 6 elderly patients with high atherosclerosis risk. Cine-loops of tagged images were acquired during three cardiac cycles. Evaluated against reference trajectories manually generated by three experienced analysts, the mean absolute tracking error was 98 ± 84 μm and 55 ± 44 μm in the longitudinal and axial directions, respectively. These errors corresponded to 28% ± 23% and 13% ± 9% of the longitudinal and axial amplitude of the assessed motion, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed framework enables tagged ultrasound images of in vivo tissues to be acquired in real-time. Such unconventional beamforming strategy contributes to improve tracking accuracy and could potentially benefit to the interpretation and diagnosis of biomedical images.

  8. Relative brightness of the O{sup +}({sup 2} D-{sup 2} P) doublets in low-energy aurorae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whiter, D. K.; Lanchester, B. S.; Gustavsson, B.; Jallo, N. I. B.; Jokiaho, O.; Dahlgren, H.; Ivchenko, N.

    2014-12-10

    The ratio of the emission line doublets from O{sup +} at 732.0 nm (I {sub 732}) and 733.0 nm (I {sub 733}) has been measured in auroral conditions of low-energy electron precipitation from Svalbard (78.°20 north, 15.°83 east). Accurate determination of R = I {sub 732}/I {sub 733} provides a powerful method for separating the density of the O{sup +} {sup 2} P{sub 1} {sub /2,3} {sub /2}{sup o} levels in modeling of the emissions from the doublets. A total of 383 spectra were included from the winter of 2003-2004. The value obtained is R = I {sub 732}/I {sub 733} = 1.38 ± 0.02, which is higher than theoretical values for thermal equilibrium in fully ionized plasma, but is lower than reported measurements by other authors in similar auroral conditions. The continuity equations for the densities of the two levels are solved for different conditions, in order to estimate the possible variations of R. The results suggest that the production of ions in the two levels from O ({sup 3} P {sub 1}) and O ({sup 3} P {sub 2}) does not follow the statistical weights, unlike astrophysical calculations for plasmas in nebulae. The physics of auroral impact ionization may account for this difference, and therefore for the raised value of R. In addition, the auroral solution of the densities of the ions, and thus of the value of R, is sensitive to the temperature of the neutral atmosphere. Although the present work is a statistical study, it shows that it is necessary to determine whether there are significant variations in the ratio resulting from non-equilibrium conditions, from auroral energy deposition, large electric fields, and changes in temperature and composition.

  9. Fault-tolerant quantum computation and communication on a distributed 2D array of small local systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujii, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Imoto, N.; Koashi, M.

    2014-12-04

    We propose a scheme for distributed quantum computation with small local systems connected via noisy quantum channels. We show that the proposed scheme tolerates errors with probabilities ∼30% and ∼ 0.1% in quantum channels and local operations, respectively, both of which are improved substantially compared to the previous works.

  10. C:\Documents and Settings\h00...3_%2D_%5B0808250253%5D[1].pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  11. Studies of minute quantities of natural abundance molecules using 2D heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy under 100kHz MAS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nishiyama, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Malon, M.; Singappuli-Arachchige, D.; Slowing, I. I.; Pruski, M.

    2015-02-16

    Two-dimensional 1H{13C} heteronuclear correlation solid-state NMR spectra of naturally abundant solid materials are presented, acquired using the 0.75-mm magic angle spinning (MAS) probe at spinning rates up to 100 kHz. In spite of the miniscule sample volume (290 nL), high-quality HSQC-type spectra of bulk samples as well as surface-bound molecules can be obtained within hours of experimental time. The experiments are compared with those carried out at 40 kHz MAS using a 1.6-mm probe, which offered higher overall sensitivity due to a larger rotor volume. The benefits of ultrafast MAS in such experiments include superior resolution in 1H dimensionmore » without resorting to 1H–1H homonuclear RF decoupling, easy optimization, and applicability to mass-limited samples. As a result, the HMQC spectra of surface-bound species can be also acquired under 100 kHz MAS, although the dephasing of transverse magnetization has significant effect on the efficiency transfer under MAS alone.« less

  12. Characterization of fatigue behavior of 2-D woven fabric reinforced ceramic matrix composite at elevated temperature. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groner, D.J.

    1994-12-01

    This study investigated the fatigue behavior and associated damage mechanisms in notched and unnotched enhanced SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite specimens at 1100 deg C. Stiffness degradation, strain variation, and hysteresis were evaluated to characterize material behavior. Microscopic examination was performed to characterize damage mechanisms. During high cycle/low stress fatigue tests, far less fiber/matrix interface debond was evident than in low cycle/high stress fatigue tests. Notched specimens exhibited minimal stress concentration during monotonic tensile testing and minimal notch sensitivity during fatigue testing. Damage mechanisms were also similar to unnotched.

  13. Numerical investigation of the flat band Bloch modes in a 2D photonic crystal with Dirac cones

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Peng; Fietz, Chris; Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.; Institute of Electronic Structure

    2015-04-14

    A numerical method combining complex-k band calculations and absorbing boundary conditions for Bloch waves is presented. We use this method to study photonic crystals with Dirac cones. We demonstrate that the photonic crystal behaves as a zero-index medium when excited at normal incidence, but that the zero-index behavior is lost at oblique incidence due to excitation of modes on the flat band. We also investigate the formation of monomodal and multimodal cavity resonances inside the photonic crystals, and the physical origins of their different line-shape features.

  14. 2-D computer modeling of oil generation and migration in a Transect of the Eastern Venezuela Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallango, O. ); Parnaud, F. )

    1993-02-01

    The aim of the study was a two-dimensional computer simulation of the basin evolution based on available geological, geophysical, geochemical, geothermal, and hydrodynamic data with the main purpose of determining the hydrocarbon generation and migration history. The modeling was done in two geological sections (platform and pre-thrusting) located along the Chacopata-Uverito Transect in the Eastern Venezuelan Basin. In the platform section an hypothetic source rock equivalent to the Gyayuta Group was considered in order to simulate the migration of hydrocarbons. The thermal history reconstruction of hypothetic source rock confirms that this source rock does not reach the oil window before the middle Miocene and that the maturity in this sector is due to the sedimentation of the Freites, La Pica, and Mesa-Las Piedras formations. The oil expulsion and migration from this hypothetic source rock began after middle Miocene time. The expulsion of the hydrocarbons took place mainly along the Oligocene-Miocene reservoir and do not reach at the present time zones located beyond of the Oritupano field, which imply that the oil accumulated in south part of the basin was generated by a source rock located to the north, in the actual deformation zone. Since 17 m.y. ago water migration pattern from north to south was observed in this section. In the pre-thrusting section the hydrocarbon expulsion started during the early Tertiary and took place mainly toward the lower Cretaceous (El Cantil and Barranquim formations). At the end of the passive margin the main migration occur across the Merecure reservoir, through which the hydrocarbon migrated forward to the Onado sector before the thrusting.

  15. An estimation method for echo signal energy of pipe inner surface longitudinal crack detection by 2-D energy coefficients integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Shiyuan Sun, Haoyu Xu, Chunguang Cao, Xiandong Cui, Liming Xiao, Dingguo

    2015-03-31

    The echo signal energy is directly affected by the incident sound beam eccentricity or angle for thick-walled pipes inner longitudinal cracks detection. A method for analyzing the relationship between echo signal energy between the values of incident eccentricity is brought forward, which can be used to estimate echo signal energy when testing inside wall longitudinal crack of pipe, using mode-transformed compression wave adaptation of shear wave with water-immersion method, by making a two-dimension integration of “energy coefficient” in both circumferential and axial directions. The calculation model is founded for cylinder sound beam case, in which the refraction and reflection energy coefficients of different rays in the whole sound beam are considered different. The echo signal energy is calculated for a particular cylinder sound beam testing different pipes: a beam with a diameter of 0.5 inch (12.7mm) testing a φ279.4mm pipe and a φ79.4mm one. As a comparison, both the results of two-dimension integration and one-dimension (circumferential direction) integration are listed, and only the former agrees well with experimental results. The estimation method proves to be valid and shows that the usual method of simplifying the sound beam as a single ray for estimating echo signal energy and choosing optimal incident eccentricity is not so appropriate.

  16. Elucidating structural characteristics of biomass using solution-state 2 D NMR with a mixture of deuterated dimethylsulfoxide and hexamethylphosphoramide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pu, Yunqiao; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yoo, Chang Geun; Li, Mi

    2016-04-26

    In recent developments of NMR methods for characterization of lignocellulosic biomass allow improved understanding of plant cell-wall structures with minimal deconstruction and modification of biomass. This study introduces a new NMR solvent system composed of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO-d6) and hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA-d18). HMPA as a co-solvent enhanced swelling and mobility of the biomass samples; thereby it allowed enhancing signals of NMR spectra. Moreover, the structural information of biomass was successfully analyzed by the proposed NMR solvent system (DMSO-d6/HMPA-d18; 4:1, v/v) with different biomass. The proposed bi-solvent system does not require derivatization or isolation of biomass, facilitating a facile sample preparation and involvingmore » with no signals overlapping with biomass peaks. Furthermore, it also allows analyzing biomass with a room-temperature NMR probe instead of cryo-probes, which are traditionally used for enhancing signal intensities.« less

  17. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    :RTM.P2.01 Milestone Presentation: Full-core 3D MOC Transport (2D/1D, Pin-resolved) Capability with T-H Coupling Thomas Downar, RTM/University of Michigan Brendan Kochunas, RTM/University of Michigan Robert Brewster, CD-adapco Emilio Baglietto, THM/CD-adapco June 30, 2011 CASL-U-2011-0075-000-a CASL-U-2011-0075-000-a RTM.P2.01: Full-core 3D MOC transport (2D/1D, pin-resolved) capability with T-H coupling Prof. Thomas Downar, RTM/University of Michigan Brendan Kochunas, RTM/University of Michigan

  18. Papua New Guinea MT: Looking where seismic is blind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoversten, G.M.

    1996-11-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration in the Papuan fold belt is made extremely difficult by mountainous terrain, equatorial jungle and thick karstified Miocene limestones at the surface. The high-velocity karstified limestones at or near the surface often render the seismic technique useless for imaging the subsurface. In such areas magnetotellurics (MT) provides a valuable capability for mapping subsurface structure. Numerical and field data examples are presented which demonstrate the severity of the 1D errors and the improvements in accuracy which can be achieved using a 2D inverse solution. Two MT lines over adjacent anticlines, both with well control and seismic data, are used to demonstrate the application of 1D and 2D inversions for structural models. The example over the Hides anticline illustrates a situation where 1D inversion of either TE or TM mode provides essentially the same depth to base of Darai as 2D inversion of both TE and TM. The example over the Angore anticline illustrates the inadequacy of 1D inversion in structurally complex geology complicated by electrical statics. Four MT lines along the Angore anticline have been interpreted using 2D inversion. Three-dimensional modelling has been used to simulate 3D statics in an otherwise 2D earth. These data were used to test the Groom-Bailey (GB) decomposition for possible benefits in reducing static effects and estimating geoelectric strike in the Papua New Guinea (PNG) field data. It has been found that the GB decomposition can provide improved regional 2D strike estimates in 3D contaminated data. However, in situations such as PNG, where the regional 2D strike is well established and hence can be fixed, the GB decomposition provides apparent resistivities identical to those simply rotated to strike.

  19. KINETIC MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS OF THE EFFECTS OF 1-D DEFECT TRANSPORT ON DEFECT REACTION KINETICS AND VOID LATTICE FORMATION DURING IRRADIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinisch, Howard L.; Singh, Bachu N.

    2003-03-01

    Within the last decade molecular dynamics simulations of displacement cascades have revealed that glissile clusters of self-interstitial crowdions are formed directly in cascades. Also, under various conditions, a crowdion cluster can change its Burgers vector and glide along a different close-packed direction. In order to incorporate the migration properties of crowdion clusters into analytical rate theory models, it is necessary to describe the reaction kinetics of defects that migrate one-dimensionally with occasional changes in their Burgers vector. To meet this requirement, atomic-scale kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations have been used to study the defect reaction kinetics of one-dimensionally migrating crowdion clusters as a function of the frequency of direction changes, specifically to determine the sink strengths for such one-dimensionally migrating defects. The KMC experiments are used to guide the development of analytical expressions for use in reaction rate theories and especially to test their validity. Excellent agreement is found between the results of KMC experiments and the analytical expressions derived for the transition from one-dimensional to three-dimensional reaction kinetics. Furthermore, KMC simulations have been performed to investigate the significant role of crowdion clusters in the formation and stability of void lattices. The necessity for both one-dimensional migration and Burgers vectors changes for achieving a stable void lattice is demonstrated.

  20. DOE O 414.1D Quality Assurance DOE O 226.1B Implementation of Department of Energy Oversight Policy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On April 25, 2011, the Department issued a Contractor Requirements Documents (CRD) to the above listed Directives.

  1. Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Functional Area Qualification Standard

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-05-27

    A Nuclear Explosive Safety Study (NESS) is performed on all DOE Nuclear Explosive Operations (NEOs) in accordance with DOE O 452.1D, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program; DOE O 452.2D, Nuclear Explosive Safety; and DOE M 452.2-2, Nuclear Explosive Safety Evaluation Processes.

  2. Solves the Multigroup Neutron Diffusion Equation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-06-23

    GNOMER is a program which solves the multigroup neutron diffusion equation in 1D, 2D and 3D cartesian geometry. The program is designed to calculate the global core power distributions (with thermohydraulic feedbacks), as well as power distribution and homogenized cross sections over a fuel assembly.

  3. Revealing origin of quasi-one dimensional current transport in defect rich two dimensional materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lotz, Mikkel R.; Boll, Mads; Bøggild, Peter; Petersen, Dirch H.; Hansen, Ole; Kjær, Daniel

    2014-08-04

    The presence of defects in graphene have for a long time been recognized as a bottleneck for its utilization in electronic and mechanical devices. We recently showed that micro four-point probes may be used to evaluate if a graphene film is truly 2D or if defects in proximity of the probe will lead to a non-uniform current flow characteristic of lower dimensionality. In this work, simulations based on a finite element method together with a Monte Carlo approach are used to establish the transition from 2D to quasi-1D current transport, when applying a micro four-point probe to measure on 2D conductors with an increasing amount of line-shaped defects. Clear 2D and 1D signatures are observed at low and high defect densities, respectively, and current density plots reveal the presence of current channels or branches in defect configurations yielding 1D current transport. A strong correlation is found between the density filling factor and the simulation yield, the fraction of cases with 1D transport and the mean sheet conductance. The upper transition limit is shown to agree with the percolation threshold for sticks. Finally, the conductance of a square sample evaluated with macroscopic edge contacts is compared to the micro four-point probe conductance measurements and we find that the micro four-point probe tends to measure a slightly higher conductance in samples containing defects.

  4. Nuclear Explosive Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-04-14

    This Department of Energy (DOE) Order establishes requirements to implement the nuclear explosive safety (NES) elements of DOE O 452.1D, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program, for routine and planned nuclear explosive operations (NEOs). Cancels DOE O 452.2C. Admin Chg 1, dated 7-10-13, cancels DOE O 452.2D.

  5. Effect of rare-earth doping in RCrSb3 (R = La, Pr, Sm, and Gd...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Alloying on the rare-earth site varies the de Gennes factor, DG (g-1)sup 2J(J+1), and dTsub C1d(DG) -2K, while dTsub C2d(DG) 5K. These ordering temperatures are found ...

  6. FORM EIA-846C

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Yes 2 D No |j 1 DYes 2 DNO 1 DYOS 2 DNO Copy to line 1 of section 3 ? 1 D Yes 2 DNO 1 1 . Wood chips, bark, and wood waste 8 1 0 12. Other solids 919 927 B. GASES 1 . Natural gas...

  7. Nanostructures having high performance thermoelectric properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Peidong; Majumdar, Arunava; Hochbaum, Allon I; Chen, Renkun; Delgado, Raul Diaz

    2014-05-20

    The invention provides for a nanostructure, or an array of such nanostructures, each comprising a rough surface, and a doped or undoped semiconductor. The nanostructure is an one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructure, such a nanowire, or a two-dimensional (2-D) nanostructure. The nanostructure can be placed between two electrodes and used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

  8. CX-011504: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    D-Area Ash Basins Closure (488-1D, 488-2D, 488-4D, 489-D) CX(s) Applied: B6.1 Date: 10/29/2013 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  9. Capacitively Coupled Radio Frequency Discharge Plasmas In Hydrogen: Particle Modeling and Negative Ion Kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diomede, P.; Longo, S.; Capitelli, M.

    2005-05-16

    We present a 1D(r)2D(v) particle code for capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge plasmas in hydrogen, which includes a rigorous kinetic modeling of ion transport and several solutions to speed up the convergence. In a test case the effect of surface atom recombination and molecule vibrational deactivation on H- concentration is investigated.

  10. Nanostructures having high performance thermoelectric properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong; Majumdar, Arunava; Hochbaum, Allon I.; Chen, Renkun; Delgado, Raul Diaz

    2015-12-22

    The invention provides for a nanostructure, or an array of such nanostructures, each comprising a rough surface, and a doped or undoped semiconductor. The nanostructure is an one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructure, such a nanowire, or a two-dimensional (2-D) nanostructure. The nanostructure can be placed between two electrodes and used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

  11. Measurements of Spatial Line Emission Profiles in the Main Scrape-Off Layer of the DIII-D Tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groth, M; Ellis, R; Brooks, N; Fenstermacher, M; Lasnier, C; Meyer, W; Moller, J

    2009-06-05

    A video camera system is described that measures the spatial distribution of visible line emission emitted from the main scrape-off layer (SOL) of plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak. A wide-angle lens installed on an equatorial port and an in-vessel mirror which intercepts part of the lens view provide simultaneous tangential views of the SOL on the low-field and high-field sides of the plasma's equatorial plane. Tomographic reconstruction techniques are used to calculate the 2-D poloidal profiles from the raw data, and 1-D poloidal profiles simulating chordal views of other optical diagnostics from the 2-D profiles. The 2-D profiles can be compared with SOL plasma simulations; the 1-D profiles with measurements from spectroscopic diagnostics. Sample results are presented which elucidate carbon transport in plasmas with toroidally uniform injection of methane and argon transport in disruption mitigation experiments with massive gas jet injection.

  12. Measurement of sigma(Lambda(b)0) / sigma(anti-B 0) x B(Lambda0(b) ---> Lambda+(c) pi-) / B(anti-B0 ---> D+ pi-) in p anti-p collisions at S**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abulencia, A.; Acosta, D.; Adelman, Jahred A.; Affolder, Anthony A.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /Argonne /Barcelona, IFAE /Baylor U. /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U. /Brandeis U. /UC, Davis /UCLA /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The authors present the first observation of the baryon decay {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {pi}{sup -} followed by {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -} {pi}{sup +} in 106 pb{sup -1} p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV in the CDF experiment. IN order to reduce systematic error, the measured rate for {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} decay is normalized to the kinematically similar meson decay {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}{pi}{sup -} followed by D{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}. They report the ratio of production cross sections ({sigma}) times the ratio of branching fractions ({Beta}) for the momentum region integrated above p{sub T} > 6 GeV/c and pseudorapidity range |{eta}| < 1.3: {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}X)/{sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} {bar B}{sup 0} X) x {Beta}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = 0.82 {+-} 0.08(stat) {+-} 0.11(syst) {+-} 0.22 ({Beta}({Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -} {pi}{sup +})).

  13. D

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    e s G o w - n m e ; t l '1 4 1 D e p a r tm e n t o f E n e r g y -- N E - 2 0 D e ... r i a te a u thority review, th e fo l l o w i n g p r o p e r tie s a r e b e i n g a u ...

  14. Table 11.2d Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Transportation Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    d Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Transportation Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Elec- tricity 7 Total 2 Biomass 2 Aviation Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Jet Fuel LPG 5 Lubricants Motor Gasoline 6 Residual Fuel Oil Total Fuel Ethanol 8 Biodiesel Total 1949 161 NA 12 30 NA (s) 4 306 91 443 6 611 NA NA NA 1950 146 7 14 35 NA (s) 5 332 95 481 6 640 NA NA NA 1951 129 11 18 42 NA (s) 6 360 102 529 7 675 NA NA NA

  15. Morphometric Comparison of Clavicle Outlines from 3D Bone Scans and 2D Chest Radiographs: A Short-listing Tool to Assist Radiographic Identification of Human Skeletons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephan, Carl N.; Amidan, Brett G.; Trease, Harold E.; Guyomarch, Pierre; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Byrd, John E.

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes a computerized clavicle identification system, primarily designed to resolve the identities of unaccounted for US soldiers who fought in the Korean War. Elliptical Fourier analysis is used to quantify the clavicle outline shape from skeletons and postero-anterior antemortem chest radiographs to rank individuals in terms of metric distance. Similar to leading fingerprint identification systems, shortlists of the top matching candidates are extracted for subsequent human visual assessment. Two independent tests of the computerized system using 17 field-recovered skeletons and 409 chest radiographs demonstrate that true positive matches are captured within the top 5% of the sample 75% of the time. These results are outstanding given the eroded state of some field-recovered skeletons and the faintness of the 1950’s photoflurographs. These methods enhance the capability to resolve several hundred cold cases for which little circumstantial information exists and current DNA and dental record technologies cannot be applied.

  16. Empirical correlation of equilibrium separation factors in the Pd-H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} system with temperature and composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, T.M.; Meyer, B.A.; Razani, A.

    2000-02-01

    The range of available data on separation factors ({alpha}) in the palladium-hydrogen/deuterium system has been extended in this study using a thermal conductivity detector. The thermal conductivity detector employed a matched pair of glass-coated bead thermistors to measure the gas-phase composition of hydrogen isotope mixtures. Separation factors ({alpha}) were measured in the {beta}-phase, over the temperature (T) and hydrogen mole fraction (x{sub H}) ranges T = 175 K to 389 K and x{sub H} = 0.195 to 0.785, respectively. These data were correlated with temperature (T) and hydrogen mole fraction in the palladium (x{sub H}) by {alpha} = exp[{minus}0.27 + B(x{sub H})(1,000/T){sup 0.75}] and B(x{sub H}) = 0.5155 {minus} 0.0569x{sub H} {minus} 0.12 x{sub H{sup 2}}, where B(x{sub H}) is an empirical function relating the dependence of the separation factor on composition.

  17. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James R. Wood; A. Wylie; W. Quinlan

    2004-04-01

    One of the main objectives of this demonstration project is to test surface geochemical techniques for detecting trace amounts of light hydrocarbons in pore gases as a means of reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration and production. As part of the project, several field demonstrations were undertaken to assess the validity and usefulness of the microbial surface geochemical technique. The important observations from each of these field demonstrations are briefly reviewed in this annual report. These demonstrations have been successful in identifying the presence or lack of hydrocarbons in the subsurface and can be summarized as follows: (1) The surface geochemistry data showed a fair-to-good microbial anomaly that may indicate the presence of a fault or stratigraphic facies change across the drilling path of the State Springdale & O'Driscoll No.16-16 horizontal demonstration well in Manistee County, Michigan. The well was put on production in December 2003. To date, the well is flowing nearly 100 barrels of liquid hydrocarbons per day plus gas, which is a good well in Michigan. Reserves have not been established yet. Two successful follow-up horizontal wells have also been drilled in the Springdale area. Additional geochemistry data will be collected in the Springdale area in 2004. (2) The surface geochemistry sampling in the Bear Lake demonstration site in Manistee County, Michigan was updated after the prospect was confirmed and production begun; the original subsurface and seismic interpretation used to guide the location of the geochemical survey for the Charlich Fauble re-entry was different than the interpretation used by the operator who ultimately drilled the well. As expected, the anomaly appears to be diminishing as the positive (apical) microbial anomaly is replaced by a negative (edge) anomaly, probably due to the pressure draw-down in the reservoir. (3) The geochemical sampling program over the Vernon Field, Isabella County, Michigan is now interpreted as a large negative anomaly associated with the entire field. The results of the State Smock horizontal well and the Bowers 4-25 well confirmed the lack of additional recoverable hydrocarbons in the Vernon Field. (4) The surface geochemistry data showed a strong anomaly in the Myrtle Beach, Burke County, North Dakota area that would justify drilling by itself and even more so in conjunction with the structural interpretation from the geological and geophysical data; the microbial values here were the highest we have observed. The Myrtle Beach geochemical survey indicated a good to excellent prospect which was confirmed by drilling, however, a pipeline has not yet been completed that would allow the wells to be placed into production. We also present in this annual report the results of recent efforts to map carbonate facies tracts in the middle Devonian Dundee and Rogers City Limestones using gamma ray, bulk density, and photoelectric effect geophysical well log amplitudes. This work was undertaken to identify fairways for exploration in the Dundee and Rogers City where surface geochemical techniques could then be used to screen potential leads.

  18. 2D potential measurements by applying automatic beam adjustment system to heavy ion beam probe diagnostic on the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimizu, A. Ido, T.; Kato, S.; Hamada, Y.; Kurachi, M.; Makino, R.; Nishiura, M.; Nishizawa, A.

    2014-11-15

    Two-dimensional potential profiles in the Large Helical Device (LHD) were measured with heavy ion beam probe (HIBP). To measure the two-dimensional profile, the probe beam energy has to be changed. However, this task is not easy, because the beam transport line of LHD-HIBP system is very long (∼20 m), and the required beam adjustment consumes much time. To reduce the probe beam energy adjustment time, an automatic beam adjustment system has been developed. Using this system, required time to change the probe beam energy is dramatically reduced, such that two-dimensional potential profiles were able to be successfully measured with HIBP by changing the probe beam energy shot to shot.

  19. Application of 2D VSP Imaging Technology to the Targeting of Exploration and Production Wells in a Basin and Range Geothermal System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    The Humboldt House-Rye Patch geothermal resource area (HH-RP) comprises approximately 12,000 acres along and west of the Humboldt Range, adjacent to the Rye Patch Reservoir (Figure 1). A Federal Geothermal Unit covers essentially all of the known shallow thermal anomaly at the site, and the Operator, Presco Energy, is in the process of completing wellfield development adjacent to the Rye Patch binary plant, a nominal 17-megawatt system in the southern Unit area (Figure 1). DOE award EE0002840, made under the auspices of the Geothermal Technologies Program, was originally approved in January of 2010, and used a VSP profiling technology to improve seismic imaging in the Basin and Range. Phase I field activities were conducted in the 3rd quarter of 2010, and both the Phase I report and a supplemental report were completed in March and April of 2011. Two targets were identified for tests of upflow structures, both using existing wellbores, originally the 51-21 and 52-28, in the Rye Patch wellfield. The Phase II validation was approved by DOE in May of 2011.

  20. Synchrotron X-ray 2D and 3D Elemental Imaging of CdSe/ZnS Quantum dot Nanoparticles in Daphnia Magna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, B.; Pace, H; Lanzirotti, A; Smith, R; Ranville, J

    2009-01-01

    The potential toxicity of nanoparticles to aquatic organisms is of interest given that increased commercialization will inevitably lead to some instances of inadvertent environmental exposures. Cadmium selenide quantum dots (QDs) capped with zinc sulfide are used in the semiconductor industry and in cellular imaging. Their small size (<10 nm) suggests that they may be readily assimilated by exposed organisms. We exposed Daphnia magna to both red and green QDs and used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence to study the distribution of Zn and Se in the organism over a time period of 36 h. The QDs appeared to be confined to the gut, and there was no evidence of further assimilation into the organism. Zinc and Se fluorescence signals were highly correlated, suggesting that the QDs had not dissolved to any extent. There was no apparent difference between red or green QDs, i.e., there was no effect of QD size. 3D tomography confirmed that the QDs were exclusively in the gut area of the organism. It is possible that the QDs aggregated and were therefore too large to cross the gut wall.

  1. Ultra-broadband 2D electronic spectroscopy of carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll interactions in the LH1 complex of a purple bacterium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiuri, Margherita; Rhault, Julien; Polli, Dario; Cerullo, Giulio; Carey, Anne-Marie; Hacking, Kirsty; Cogdell, Richard J.; Garavelli, Marco; Ler, Larry

    2015-06-07

    We investigate the excitation energy transfer (EET) pathways in the photosynthetic light harvesting 1 (LH1) complex of purple bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum with ultra-broadband two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES). We employ a 2DES apparatus in the partially collinear geometry, using a passive birefringent interferometer to generate the phase-locked pump pulse pair. This scheme easily lends itself to two-color operation, by coupling a sub-10 fs visible pulse with a sub-15-fs near-infrared pulse. This unique pulse combination allows us to simultaneously track with extremely high temporal resolution both the dynamics of the photoexcited carotenoid spirilloxanthin (Spx) in the visible range and the EET between the Spx and the B890 bacterio-chlorophyll (BChl), whose Q{sub x} and Q{sub y} transitions peak at 585 and 881 nm, respectively, in the near-infrared. Global analysis of the one-color and two-color 2DES maps unravels different relaxation mechanisms in the LH1 complex: (i) the initial events of the internal conversion process within the Spx, (ii) the parallel EET from the first bright state S{sub 2} of the Spx towards the Q{sub x} state of the B890, and (iii) the internal conversion from Q{sub x} to Q{sub y} within the B890.

  2. Going beyond 2D: following membrane diffusion and topography in the IgE-Fc[epsilon]RI system using 3-dimensional tracking microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, Nathan P; Lessard, Guillaume A; Phipps, Marry E; Goodwin, Peter M; Werner, James H; Lidke, Diane S; Wilson, Bridget S

    2008-01-01

    The ability to follow and observe single molecules as they function in live cells would represent a major milestone for molecular-cellular biology. Here we present a tracking microscope that is able to track quantum dots in 3 dimensions and simultaneously record time-resolved emission statistics from a single dot. This innovative microscopy approach is based on four spatial filters and closed loop feedback to constantly keep a single quantum dot in the focal spot. Using this microscope, we demonstrate the ability to follow quantum dot-labeled IgE antibodies bound to Fc{epsilon}Rl membrane receptors in live RBL-2H3 cells. The results are consistent with prior studies of 2 dimensional membrane diffusion (Andrews et al., Nat. Cell Biol., 10, 955, 2008). In addition, the microscope captures motion in the axial (Z) direction, which permits tracking of diffusing receptors relative the 'hills and valley' of the dynamically changing membrane landscape. Our novel approach is uniquely capable of following single-molecule dynamics on live cells with 3 dimensional spatial resolution.

  3. Prediction of residual stress field in mechanically expanded 0.750 inch diameter steam generator tube plugs. Part 1: 2-D solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, D.K.

    1996-12-01

    One of the most formidable classes of problems that arises in the commercial nuclear power industry is the determination of the residual stress field in steam generator tubes. As early as 1983, it was reported that primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 steam generator tubes had occurred at a low frequency. The degradation of steam generator tubing by PWSCC has resulted in unplanned nuclear plant outages and costly repair operations such as tube plugging and eventually steam generator replacement. Although the previous discussion centered around the PWSCC of the Inconel 600 tubes, the repair plugs which are intended to isolate the damaged tubes from the primary system, have also begun to show similar types of cracking in the rolled transitions. Plug severance is highly undesirable in the nuclear plant because the primary-to-secondary barrier would then be voided and radioactive fluid would escape to the non-radioactive feedwater system. At the present time, although the tube problems have been discussed extensively in the literature roll plugs and their associated SCC have yet to be fully addressed. In addition, roll plus present a different set of loads, expansion regions, discontinuities, and displacement boundary conditions to be analyzed. The method of solution to the subject roll expansion problem employs the use of a general purpose finite element program to mathematically simulate the expansion process. The hydraulic expansion simulation is accomplished by matching the final displacements of an installed plug for which field measurements are available. Because of the symmetry which exists in the geometry and loading, this problem is modeled and analyzed as an axisymmetric problem. The resulting stress field throughout the plug, and in particular, in the rolled transition region, is calculated.

  4. Using Recent Advances in 2D Seismic Technology and Surface Geochemistry to Economically Redevelop a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir: Vernon Field, Isabella County, M, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, James R.; Bornhorst, T.J.; Chittick, S.D.; Harrison, William B.; Tayjor, W. Quinlan

    2001-08-07

    In this project a consortium consisting of Cronus Exploration (Traverse City, MI), Michigan Technological University (Houghton, MI) and Western Michigan University (Kalamazoo, MI) proposed to develop and execute an economical and environmentally sensitive plan for recovery of hydrocarbons from an abandoned shallow-shelf carbonate field that is typical of many fields in the U.S. Midwest. This is a 5-year project that will use surface geochemistry as a tool to reduce risk in locating and producing hydrocarbons in Class II fields. The project will develop new techniques for measuring hydrocarbon gases in the soil horizon to locate new and bypassed oil in the shallow-shelf carbonate environments typified by the Dundee and Trenton Formations of the Michigan Basin (Fisher et. al., 1988). In Phase I of the project, the consortium proposes to re-develop the Vernon Oil field located in Vernon Twp, Isabella County, Michigan and produce both bypassed hydrocarbons from the original field and to locate and produce extensions of the original field.

  5. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James R. Wood; W. Quinlan

    2003-01-01

    Presented in this quarterly report is the Case History and Well Summary for the Vernon Field demonstration project in Isabella County, Michigan. This new case history and well summary format organizes and presents the technical and historical details of the Vernon Field demonstration, as well as the field demonstration results and the applicability of these results to other demonstration projects. This format could be duplicated for other demonstration projects and will be used on all subsequent field demonstrations as they near completion. Planning for the annual project meeting in Tampa, Florida has begun. This meeting will be held March 7-9, 2003 at the same site as the last three meetings. The goals of this project were to: (1) test the use of multi-lateral wells to recover bypassed hydrocarbons and (2) to access the potential of using surface geochemistry to reduce drilling risk. Two new demonstration wells, the State-Smock and the Bowers 4-25, were drilled to test the Dundee Formation at Vernon Field for bypassed oil. Neither well was commercial, although both produced hydrocarbon shows. An extensive geochemical survey in the vicinity of Vernon Field, covering much of Isabella County, has produced a base map for interpretation of anomalies in Michigan. Several potential new anomalies were discovered that could be further investigated.

  6. Documenting the Effectiveness of Cosorption of Airborne Contaminants by a Field-Installed Active Desiccant System: Final Report - Phase 2D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, J

    2003-01-23

    The final report for Phase 1 of this research effort (ORNL/SUB/94-SV004/1) concluded that a significant market opportunity would exist for active desiccant systems if it could be demonstrated that they can remove a significant proportion of common airborne contaminants while simultaneously performing the primary function of dehumidifying a stream of outdoor air or recirculated building air. If the engineering community begins to follow the intent of ASHRAE Standard 62, now part of all major building codes, the outdoor air in many major cities may need to be pre-cleaned before it is introduced into occupied spaces. Common air contaminant cosorption capability would provide a solution to three important aspects of the ASHRAE 62-89 standard that have yet to be effectively addressed by heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment manufacturers: (1) The ASHRAE standard defines acceptable outdoor air quality. If the outdoor air contains unacceptable levels of certain common outdoor air contaminants (e.g., sulfur dioxide, ozone), then the standard requires that these contaminants be removed from the outdoor air stream to reach compliance with the acceptable outdoor air quality guidelines. (2) Some engineers prefer to apply a filtration or prescriptive approach rather than a ventilation approach to solving indoor air quality problems. The ASHRAE standard recognizes this approach provided that the filtration technology exists to remove the gaseous contaminants encountered. The performance of current gaseous filtration technologies is not well documented, and they can be costly to maintain because the life of the filter is limited and the cost is high. Moreover, it is not easy to determine when the filters need changing. In such applications, an additional advantage provided by the active desiccant system would be that the same piece of equipment could control space humidity and provide filtration, even during unoccupied periods, if the active desiccant system were operated in a recirculation mode. (3) Almost all major medical, university, and research facilities face the dilemma that the air exhausted from a building exits near the intake of another building. As a result, contaminants exhausted outdoors are pulled back into the same or an adjacent building. The removal of contaminants from outdoor air that an active desiccant system offers would be attractive to applications in such cases. The primary objective of this research project was to quantify the ability of the SEMCO composite desiccant dehumidification wheel to purify outdoor and recirculated air streams by removing gaseous contaminants commonly encountered in actual applications. This contaminant removal is provided simultaneously with dehumidification (removing the latent load) of these air streams at conditions encountered in HVAC applications. This research builds upon initial seed work completed by the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) during 1993 (Bayer and Downing 1993).

  7. Recalculation of the Critical Size and Multiplication Constant of a Homogeneous UO{sub 2} - D{sub 2}O Mixtures

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Wigner, E. P.; Weinberg, A. M.; Stephenson, J.

    1944-02-11

    The multiplication constant and optimal concentration of a slurry pile is recalculated on the basis of Mitchell`s experiments on resonance absorption. The smallest chain reacting unit contains 45 to 55 m{sup 3}of D{sub 2}O. (auth)

  8. Recalculation of the Critical Size and Multiplication Constant of a Homogeneous UO{sub 2}-D{sub 2}O Mixtures

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Wigner, E. P.; Weinberg, A. M.; Stephenson, J.

    1944-02-11

    The multiplication constant and optimal concentration of a slurry pile is recalculated on the basis of Mitchell's experiments on resonance absorption. The smallest chain reacting unit contains 45 to 55 m{sup 3}of d{sub 2}O. (auth).

  9. Combined planar imaging of schlieren photography with OH-LIPF and spontaneous OH-emission in a 2-D valveless pulse combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishino, Yojiro; Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Shigeki; Ohiwa, Norio

    1999-07-01

    Using a novel optical system, simultaneous imaging of schlieren photography and laser induced predissociation fluorescence of OH radicals (OH-LIPF) have been carried out to examine combustion processes and flame structure in a two-dimensional valveless pulse combustor. Simultaneous imaging of schlieren photographs and spontaneous OH-emission have also been made, in order to obtain information on the behavior of the flame front during a cycle of pulsation. The pulse combustor used in this experiment consists of a combustion chamber of a volume of 125 cm{sup 3} and a tailpipe of a length of 976 mm, which is followed by an automobile muffler. The fuel used is commercial grade gaseous propane.

  10. Using Recent Advances in 2D Seismic Technology and Surface Geochemistry to Economically Redevelop a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir: Vernon Field, Isabella County, Class Revisit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, James R.; Bornhorst, T.J.; Harrison, William B.; Quinlan, W.

    2002-09-24

    Continued the fault study to find more faults and develop new techniques to visualize them. Data from the Dundee Formation was used to document 11 major faults in the Michigan Basin which have now been verified using data from other horizons. These faults control the locations of many of the large anticlinal structures in the Michigan Basin and likely controlled fluid movements as well.

  11. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James R. Wood; T.J. Bornhorst; S.D. Chittick; William B. Harrison; W. Quinlan

    2002-01-01

    In this reporting period, we extended the fault study to include more faults and developed new techniques to visualize the faults. We now have used data from the Dundee Formation to document 11 major faults in the Michigan Basin and are in the process of reviewing data from other horizons. These faults appear to control the locations of many of the large anticlinal structures in the Michigan Basin and likely controlled fluid movements as well. The surface geochemistry program is also moving along well with emphasis on measuring samples collected last sampling season. The new laboratory is now functional and has been fully staffed as of December. The annual project review has been set for March 7-9 in Tampa, Florida. Contracts are being prepared for drilling the Bower's prospects in Isabella County, Michigan, this spring or summer.

  12. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James R. Wood; W. Quinlan

    2003-04-01

    The principal objective of the study was to test a new analytical technique, Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME), for detecting trace amounts of light hydrocarbons in pore gases as a means of reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration and production. This involved measuring the effectiveness of SPME to extract hydrocarbons under controlled conditions in the laboratory. As part of the study, a field demonstration was undertaken to assess the validity and usefulness of the laboratory results. Presented in this quarterly report is the condensed version of the Case History and Well Summary for the Bear Lake area in Manistee County, Michigan. The full version will be in the annual report. The condensed case history presents the important technical details regarding the geochemistry and horizontal lateral for Bear Lake, as well as the field demonstration results and the applicability of these results to other demonstration projects. This format could be duplicated for other demonstration projects and will be used on all subsequent field demonstrations as they near completion.

  13. Data:6e9c2d62-8752-4ecd-8df5-cacbcd112c34 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    cacbcd112c34 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2....

  14. Kinetics of spin relaxation in quantum wires and channels: Boundary spin echo and formation of a persistent spin helix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slipko, Valeriy A.; Pershin, Yuriy V.

    2011-10-15

    In this paper we use a spin kinetic equation to study spin-polarization dynamics in one-dimensional (1D) wires and 2D channels. The spin kinetic equation is valid in both diffusive and ballistic spin transport regimes and therefore is more general than the usual spin drift-diffusion equations. In particular, we demonstrate that in infinite 1D wires with Rashba spin-orbit interaction the exponential spin-relaxation decay can be modulated by an oscillating function. In the case of spin relaxation in finite length 1D wires, it is shown that an initially homogeneous spin polarization spontaneously transforms into a persistent spin helix. We find that a propagating spin-polarization profile reflects from a system boundary and returns back to its initial position similarly to the reflectance of sound waves from an obstacle. The Green's function of the spin kinetic equation is derived for both finite and infinite 1D systems. Moreover, we demonstrate explicitly that the spin relaxation in specifically oriented 2D channels with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions of equal strength occurs similarly to that in 1D wires of finite length. Finally, a simple transformation mapping 1D spin kinetic equation into the Klein-Gordon equation with an imaginary mass is found thus establishing an interesting connection between semiconductor spintronics and relativistic quantum mechanics.

  15. Low-dimensional hyperthin FeS2 nanostructures for efficient and stable hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jasion, Daniel; Qiao, Qiao; Barforoush, Joseph M.; Zhu, Yimei; Ren, Shenqiang; Leonard, Kevin C.

    2015-10-05

    We report a scalable, solution-processing method for synthesizing low-dimensional hyperthin FeS2 nanostructures, and we show that 2D FeS2 disc nanostructures are an efficient and stable hydrogen evolution electrocatalyst. By changing the Fe:S ratio in the precursor solution, we were able to preferentially synthesize either 1D wire or 2D disc nanostructures. The 2D FeS2 disc structure has the highest electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction, comparable to platinum in neutral pH conditions. Moreover, the ability of the FeS2 nanostructures to generate hydrogen was confirmed by scanning electrochemical microscopy, and the 2D disc nanostructures were able to generate hydrogen for overmore » 125 h.« less

  16. Low-dimensional hyperthin FeS2 nanostructures for efficient and stable hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasion, Daniel; Qiao, Qiao; Barforoush, Joseph M.; Zhu, Yimei; Ren, Shenqiang; Leonard, Kevin C.

    2015-10-05

    We report a scalable, solution-processing method for synthesizing low-dimensional hyperthin FeS2 nanostructures, and we show that 2D FeS2 disc nanostructures are an efficient and stable hydrogen evolution electrocatalyst. By changing the Fe:S ratio in the precursor solution, we were able to preferentially synthesize either 1D wire or 2D disc nanostructures. The 2D FeS2 disc structure has the highest electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction, comparable to platinum in neutral pH conditions. Moreover, the ability of the FeS2 nanostructures to generate hydrogen was confirmed by scanning electrochemical microscopy, and the 2D disc nanostructures were able to generate hydrogen for over 125 h.

  17. Two-dimensional relativistic space charge limited current flow in the drift space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y. L.; Chen, S. H.; Koh, W. S.; Ang, L. K.

    2014-04-15

    Relativistic two-dimensional (2D) electrostatic (ES) formulations have been derived for studying the steady-state space charge limited (SCL) current flow of a finite width W in a drift space with a gap distance D. The theoretical analyses show that the 2D SCL current density in terms of the 1D SCL current density monotonically increases with D/W, and the theory recovers the 1D classical Child-Langmuir law in the drift space under the approximation of uniform charge density in the transverse direction. A 2D static model has also been constructed to study the dynamical behaviors of the current flow with current density exceeding the SCL current density, and the static theory for evaluating the transmitted current fraction and minimum potential position have been verified by using 2D ES particle-in-cell simulation. The results show the 2D SCL current density is mainly determined by the geometrical effects, but the dynamical behaviors of the current flow are mainly determined by the relativistic effect at the current density exceeding the SCL current density.

  18. RELAP-7 Development Updates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Zhao, Haihua; Gleicher, Frederick Nathan; DeHart, Mark David; Zou, Ling; Andrs, David; Martineau, Richard Charles

    2015-09-01

    RELAP-7 is a nuclear systems safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory, and is the next generation tool in the RELAP reactor safety/systems analysis application series. RELAP-7 development began in 2011 to support the Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program. The overall design goal of RELAP-7 is to take advantage of the previous thirty years of advancements in computer architecture, software design, numerical methods, and physical models in order to provide capabilities needed for the RISMC methodology and to support nuclear power safety analysis. The code is being developed based on Idaho National Laboratory’s modern scientific software development framework – MOOSE (the Multi-Physics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment). The initial development goal of the RELAP-7 approach focused primarily on the development of an implicit algorithm capable of strong (nonlinear) coupling of the dependent hydrodynamic variables contained in the 1-D/2-D flow models with the various 0-D system reactor components that compose various boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants (NPPs). During Fiscal Year (FY) 2015, the RELAP-7 code has been further improved with expanded capability to support boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor NPPs analysis. The accumulator model has been developed. The code has also been coupled with other MOOSE-based applications such as neutronics code RattleSnake and fuel performance code BISON to perform multiphysics analysis. A major design requirement for the implicit algorithm in RELAP-7 is that it is capable of second-order discretization accuracy in both space and time, which eliminates the traditional first-order approximation errors. The second-order temporal is achieved by a second-order backward temporal difference, and the one-dimensional second-order accurate spatial discretization

  19. Chemical Routes to Colloidal Chalcogenide Nanosheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaak, Raymond

    2015-02-19

    Se nanosheets and a post-synthetic method for selectively leaching excess selenium from chalcogen-rich Fe-Se samples to precisely target the desired superconducting FeSe polymorph. The insights into FeSe nanosheet formation were applied to other metal chalcogenide systems, including SnSe, SnS, GeSe, and GeS, which led to advances in the synthesis and characterization of 0D, 1D, 2D, and 3D metal chalcogenide nanostructures, including morphology-dependent crystal structures in the SnS system.

  20. Nonlinear dissipation of circularly polarized Alfven waves due to the beam-induced obliquely propagating waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nariyuki, Y.; Hada, T.; Tsubouchi, K.

    2012-08-15

    In the present study, the dissipation processes of circularly polarized Alfven waves in solar wind plasmas including beam components are numerically discussed by using a 2-D hybrid simulation code. Numerical results suggest that the parent Alfven waves are rapidly dissipated due to the presence of the beam-induced obliquely propagating waves, such as kinetic Alfven waves. The nonlinear wave-wave coupling is directly evaluated by using the induction equation for the parent wave. It is also observed both in the 1-D and 2-D simulations that the presence of large amplitude Alfven waves strongly suppresses the beam instabilities.