GEOTHERMAL TECHNOLOGIES LEGACY COLLECTION - Bibliographic Citation


Bibliographic Citation


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Title: Waste heat rejection from geothermal power stations
Creator/Author: Robertson, R C
Publication Date:1979 Jan 01
OSTI Identifier:OSTI 6031269
Report Number(s):CONF-790808-16
DOE Contract Number:W-7405-ENG-26
Document Type:Conference
Specific Type:Technical Report
Coverage:
Resource Relation:Conference: 18. ASME national heat transfer conference, San Diego, CA, USA, Aug 1979
Other Number(s):
Research Org:Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)
Sponsoring Org:Not Available; USDOE
Subject:15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANTS; COOLING TOWERS; WASTE HEAT; 2-METHYLPROPANE; AMMONIA; CONDENSERS; CORROSION; FLASHED STEAM SYSTEMS; FREONS; MECHANICAL DRAFT COOLING TOWERS; PENTANE; PERFORMANCE; REINJECTION; THERMAL EFFICIENCY; TITANIUM; WORKING FLUIDS; ALKANES; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; EFFICIENCY; ELEMENTS; ENERGY; ENERGY SOURCES; FLUIDS; HALOGENATED ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS; HEAT; HYDRIDES; HYDROCARBONS; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; METALS; NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; NITROGEN HYDRIDES; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC HALOGEN COMPOUNDS; POWER PLANTS; REFRIGERANTS; THERMAL POWER PLANTS; TRANSITION ELEMENTS; WASTES
Keywords:
Description/Abstract:Waste heat rejection systems for geothermal power stations have a significantly greater influence on plant operating performances and costs than do corresponding systems in fossil- and nuclear-fueled stations. With thermal efficiencies of only about 10%, geothermal power cycles can reject four times as much heat per kilowatt of output. Geothermal sites in the United States tend to be in water-short areas that could require use of more expensive wet/dry or dry-type cooling towers. With relatively low-temperature heat sources, the cycle economics are more sensitive to diurnal and seasonal variations in sink temperatures. Factors such as the necessity for hydrogen sulfide scrubbers in off-gas systems or the need to treat cooling tower blowdown before reinjection can add to the cost and complexity of goethermal waste heat rejection systems. Working fluids most commonly considered for geothermal cycles are water, ammonia, Freon-22, isobutane, and isopentane. Both low-level and barometric-leg direct-contact condensers are used, and reinforced concrete has been proposed for condenser vessels. Multipass surface condensers also have wide application. Corrosion problems at some locations have led to increased interest in titanium tubing. Studies at ORNL indicate that fluted vertical tubes can enhance condensing film coefficients by factors of 4 to 7.
Publisher:
Country of Publication:US
Language:English
Size/Format:Medium: ED; Size: Pages: 70
Rights:
Availability:Dep. NTIS, PC A04/MF A01.
System Entry Date:2013 Sep 05
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