Summary: On the Interplay of Voltage/Frequency Scaling
and Device Power Management for
Vinay Devadas and Hakan Aydin, Member, IEEE
Abstract--Voltage/Frequency Scaling (VFS) and Device Power Management (DPM) are two popular techniques commonly employed
to save energy in real-time embedded systems. VFS policies aim at reducing the CPU energy, while DPM-based solutions involve
putting the system components (e.g., memory or I/O devices) to low-power/sleep states at runtime, when sufficiently long idle intervals
can be predicted. Despite numerous research papers that tackled the energy minimization problem using VFS or DPM separately, the
interactions of these two popular techniques are not yet well understood. In this paper, we undertake an exact analysis of the problem
for a real-time embedded application running on a VFS-enabled CPU and using multiple devices. Specifically, by adopting a
generalized system-level energy model, we characterize the variations in different components of the system energy as a function of
the CPU processing frequency. Then, we propose a provably optimal and efficient algorithm to determine the optimal CPU frequency
as well as device state transition decisions to minimize the system-level energy. We also extend our solution to deal with workload
variability. The experimental evaluations confirm that substantial energy savings can be obtained through our solution that combines
VFS and DPM optimally under the given task and energy models.
Index Terms--Real-time systems, energy management, voltage/frequency scaling, device power management.
MANY embedded devices are battery operated and hence,