Preparation of this article was supported by grant BCS99-75037 from the National Science Foundation.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to F. Gregory Ashby, Department of Psychology,
University of California, Santa Barbara, 93106, USA. Email: email@example.com.
In J. Wixted & H. Pashler (Eds.), Stevens' handbook of experimental psychology: Vol. 4 Methodology in
experimental psychology (3rd
ed., pp. 655-691). New York: Wiley.
Single versus Multiple Systems
of Learning and Memory
F. GREGORY ASHBY1
AND SHAWN W. ELL
One of the most hotly debated current issues
in psychology and neuroscience is whether
human learning and memory is mediated by a
single processing system or by multiple
qualitatively distinct systems. Although it is
nowgenerally accepted that therearemultiple
memory systems (Cohen & Squire, 1980;
Corkin, 1965; Gaffan, 1974; Hirsh, 1974;