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ABRAMS.doc 7/6/2010 3:08 PM Native Americans, Smokey Bear and the
 

Summary: ABRAMS.doc 7/6/2010 3:08 PM
141
Native Americans, Smokey Bear and the
Rise and Fall of Eastern Oak Forests
Marc Abrams*
Vegetation change is brought about by natural and anthropogenic
processes, as well as an interaction of the two. Natural processes that
impact vegetation include climate change, ecological disturbances
(lightning fire), insect and disease outbreaks, extreme weather events,
geologic phenomenon, and plant succession. Anthropogenic impacts
include land-use history (e.g., fire, land clearing), and human-induced
climate change. Climate change during the Holocene epoch has been
attributed to natural variation as well as anthropogenic causes (e.g., fire,
agriculture and greenhouse gases).1
Studies of long-term forest
dynamics have shown that oak (Quercus spp.) and pine (Pinus spp.)
dominated much of the eastern United States forest biome during the
Holocene epoch.2
Their increased importance was associated with a
warmer and drier climate and elevated fire frequency after glacial

  

Source: Abrams, Marc David - School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania State University

 

Collections: Environmental Sciences and Ecology