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SPECIAL FEATURE: REVIEW Popul Ecol (2000) 42:211223 The Society of Population Ecology and Springer-Verlag Tokyo 2000

Popul Ecol (2000) 42:211­223 © The Society of Population Ecology and Springer-Verlag Tokyo 2000
Kai Ruohomäki · Miia Tanhuanpää · Matthew P. Ayres
Pekka Kaitaniemi · Toomas Tammaru · Erkki Haukioja
Causes of cyclicity of Epirrita autumnata (Lepidoptera, Geometridae):
grandiose theory and tedious practice
Received: April 6, 1999 / Accepted: April 18, 2000
Abstract Creating multiyear cycles in population density
demands, in traditional models, causal factors that operate
on local populations in a density-dependent way with time
lags. However, cycles of the geometrid Epirrita autumnata
in northern Europe may be regional, not local; i.e., succes-
sive outbreaks occur in different localities. We review pos-
sible causes of cycles of E. autumnata under both local and
regional scenarios, including large-scale synchrony. Assum-
ing cyclicity is a local phenomenon, individual populations
of E. autumnata display peaks but populations all over the
outbreak range fluctuate in synchrony. This concept as-
sumes that the peaks at most localities are so low that they
do not lead to visible defoliation and easily remain unno-


Source: Ayres, Matthew.P. - Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College


Collections: Environmental Sciences and Ecology