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Our analysis offers insights into the selec-tive forces that shape coloration. Unlike open-

Summary: Our analysis offers insights into the selec-
tive forces that shape coloration. Unlike open-
nesting birds, in which the incubating females
need to be inconspicuous to avoid preda-
tion, females of hollow-nesting species usual-
ly have similar colors to males. The sharing of
parental duties and similar exposure to preda-
tion (during incubation and foraging) suggest
that natural selection affects color similarly
in both sexes in most species (22, 23). In
contrast, the colors of male and female E.
roratus appear to be under independent se-
lection. Whereas females are more conspic-
uous than males against leaves, they also
have the nest hollow nearby as a refuge
against predators. However, foraging males
cannot retreat to a nest hollow whenever a
predator approaches, and consequently their
colors need to be less conspicuous against
the leafy background. Ready access to a ref-


Source: Andrzejak, Ralph Gregor - Departament de Tecnologia, Universitat Pompeu Fabra


Collections: Computer Technologies and Information Sciences