Summary: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SPEECH AND AUDIO PROCESSING, VOL. 9, NO. 6, SEPTEMBER 2001 697
Reproduction of a Plane-Wave Sound Field Using
an Array of Loudspeakers
Darren B. Ward, Member, IEEE, and Thushara D. Abhayapala, Student Member, IEEE
Abstract--Reproduction of a sound field is a fundamental
problem in acoustic signal processing. In this paper, we use a
spherical harmonics analysis to derive performance bounds on
how well an array of loudspeakers can recreate a three-dimen-
sional (3-D) plane-wave sound field within a spherical region of
space. Specifically, we develop a relationship between the number
of loudspeakers, the size of the reproduction sphere, the frequency
range, and the desired accuracy. We also provide analogous results
for the special case of reproduction of a two-dimensional (2-D)
sound field. Results are verified through computer simulations.
Index Terms--Acoustic signal processing, loudspeaker arrays,
sound field reproduction, spherical harmonics, 3-D audio.
AFUNDAMENTAL signal processing problem in acoustics
is to control the sound field within a given region of space.
Reproducing a particular sound field using an array of loud-