Summary: Appendix by A. Agashe and W. Stein.
In this appendix, we apply a result of J. Sturm* to obtain a bound on the number of
Hecke operators needed to generate the Hecke algebra as an abelian group. This bound
was suggested to the authors of this appendix by LoĻic Merel and Ken Ribet.
Theorem. The ring T of Hecke operators acting on the space of cusp forms of weight k
and level N is generated as an abelian group by the Hecke operators Tn with
Proof. For any ring R, let Sk(N; R) = Sk(N; Z) R, where Sk(N; Z) is the subgroup of
cusp forms with integer Fourier expansion at the cusp , and let TR = T Z R. There is
a perfect pairing Sk(N; R) R TR R given by f, T a1(T(f)).
Let M be the submodule of T generated by T1, T2, . . . , Tr, where r is the largest