Summary: Journal of Advertising, vol. 37, no. 3 (Fall 2008), pp. 6994.
© 2008 American Academy of Advertising. All rights reserved.
ISSN 0091-3367 / 2008 $9.50 + 0.00.
Academic accountability is at an all-time high. Public uni-
versities have descended from "state supported" to "state
assisted" with commensurate operational funding dropping
from over 50% to as little as 20% in some cases (Mason
1995). With increased competition for funding from ever-
diminishing resources, universities must not only justify the
need for funding; they must also provide concrete evidence
of how the funds have been used to improve the academic
performance of their faculties and raise their institutional im-
age (Hult, Neese, and Bashaw 1997). More than ever before,
faculty members are being judged by their research output
(Siemens et al. 2005). As a result, objective benchmarks for
performance are vital for purposes of academic accountability
to a wide range of stakeholders (Chen, Gupta, and Hoshower
2006; Hult, Neese, and Bashaw 1997; Mason 1995; Sheth
and Sisodia 2002; Siemens et al. 2005).