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Supporting Information 1. Deriving analytical approximations for single-species modifier models.

Summary: Supporting Information 1. Deriving analytical approximations for single-species
modifier models.
Diploid, two-locus model
As described in the main text, the A locus affects fitness and M locus affects an
organisms investment into sexual versus asexual reproduction. There are two alleles at
each locus resulting in four haplotypes MA, Ma, mA, and ma. Representing M and A
alleles by 1 and m and a alleles by 0, these four haplotypes are denoted as {1,1}, {1,0},
{0,1}, and {0,0} respectively. A diploid genotype is the combination of two haplotypes.
For example, the genotype MA/ma is {{1,1}, {0,0}}. The assignment of haplotype order
is arbitrary, i.e., an individual consisting of one MA haplotype and one ma haplotype
could be classified as either MA/ma or ma/MA. If an individual is classified as ma/MA
then ma is considered its first haplotype and MA its second haplotype. An individual is
described by the tensor that contains all relevant genetic information for determining
its fitness, i.e., the individual's own genotype and its mother's genotype. represents the
"extended genotype": an individual's own genotype as well the genotypes of any others
that affect its fitness, which, in this case, is just the mother. Element i,j,k gives the allelic
state of the individual at the kth
locus (k {1,2} for M and A, respectively) on the jth
haplotype (j {1,2} for the first and second haplotypes, respectively, that comprise the
diploid) of the ith


Source: Agrawal, Aneil F. - Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto


Collections: Environmental Sciences and Ecology