 
Summary: SUMMATION
How should we compute a sum
S = a1 + a2 + · · · + an
with a sequence of machine numbers {a1, ..., an}. Should
we add from largest to small, should we add from
smallest to largest, or should we just add the numbers
based on their original given order? In other words,
does it matter how we calculate the sum?
Recall the relationship between a number x and its
machine approximation fl(x):
fl(x) = (1 + ) x
For bounds on for a binary floating point represen
tation with N binary digits in the mantissa, we have
2N 2N, rounding
2N+1 0, chopping
We use these results as tools for analyzing the error
in computing the sum S.
We create the sum S by a sequence simple additions.
Define
S2 = fl (a1 + a2) = (1 + 2) (a1 + a2)
