Summary: Gynandromorphs as Indicators
of Modularity and Evolvability
ANDREW S. YANG1Ã AND EHAB ABOUHEIF2
The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Gynandromorphs, individuals that display a mosaic of male and female tissues or cell populations,
have been extensively documented in solitary and social insects for over 100 years. Yet the
evolutionary significance of gynandromorphs has remained obscure. Here we describe our
discovery of a gynandromorph in the hyperdiverse ant genus Pheidole whose pattern of bilateral
head mosaicism occurs repeatedly across a wide range of ant species. Based on our findings, we
propose that gynandromorphs and other mosaic forms may provide new insights into the
modularity and evolvability of morphological traits. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 314B, 2011.
& 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
How to cite this article: Yang AS, Abouheif E. 2011. Gynandromorphs as indicators of
modularity and evolvability in ants. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 314B:[page range].
One of the oldest debates in evolutionary biology concerns the
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