Summary: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
104 (2003) 7591
0001-8686/03/$ - see front matter 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Nanobubbles and the hydrophobic attraction
Australian Research Council, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095, Australia
The evidence for nanobubbles as the origin of the long-ranged attractions measured
between hydrophobic surfaces immersed in water is reviewed by focusing upon several
unique features of the force curves. Also covered is the morphology of nanobubbles as
revealed by direct imaging with tapping mode atomic force microscopy. A discussion of the
origin, thermodynamic stability and practical implications of nanobubbles is given.
2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Nanobubble; Hydrophobic attraction; Surface force; Force measurement
The famous DLVO theory--named for Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey and Over-
beek--describes the stability of a colloid dispersion as a balance between the
electric double layer repulsion and the van der Waals attraction. The range of the
former may be 1100 nm, scaling inversely with the square root of the ionic