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Z .The Science of the Total Environment 262 2000 263 286 Assessing the consequences of global change for forest
 

Summary: Z .The Science of the Total Environment 262 2000 263 286
Assessing the consequences of global change for forest
disturbance from herbivores and pathogens
Matthew P. AyresU
, Maria J. LombarderoŽ
Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanošer, NH 03755-3576, USA
Received 22 November 1999; accepted 4 March 2000
Abstract
Herbivores and pathogens impact the species composition, ecosystem function, and socioeconomic value of forests.
Herbivores and pathogens are an integral part of forests, but sometimes produce undesirable effects and a
degradation of forest resources. In the United States, a few species of forest pests routinely have significant impacts
on up to 20 million ha of forest with economic costs that probably exceed $1 billionryear. Climatic change could
Z .alter patterns of disturbance from herbivores and pathogens through: 1 direct effects on the development and
Z . Z .survival of herbivores and pathogens; 2 physiological changes in tree defenses; and 3 indirect effects from changes
Z . Zin the abundance of natural enemies e.g. parasitoids of insect herbivores , mutualists e.g. insect vectors of tree
.pathogens , and competitors. Because of their short life cycles, mobility, reproductive potential, and physiological
sensitivity to temperature, even modest climate change will have rapid impacts on the distribution and abundance of
many forest insects and pathogens. We identify 32 syndromes of biotic disturbance in North American forests that
should be carefully evaluated for their responses to climate change: 15 insect herbivores, browsing mammals; 12
pathogens; 1 plant parasite; and 3 undiagnosed patterns of forest decline. It is probable that climatic effects on some

  

Source: Ayres, Matthew.P. - Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College

 

Collections: Environmental Sciences and Ecology