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T. Akin, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
 

Summary: T. Akin, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering,
Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
Abstract
This chapter presents various CMOS-based thermal sensors, including thermal ra-
diation sensors, thermal converters, and thermal flow sensors. Two thermal radia-
tion sensor approaches are described in detail: thermopiles and microbolometers.
Thermopile-based uncooled infrared imaging arrays are relatively simple to imple-
ment and are low cost; however, their performances are limited. They typically
have small responsivity (5­15 V/W), moderate noise equivalent temperature differ-
ence (NETD) values (*500 mK), large pixel sizes (pixel pitch of 100­400 lm),
and small array sizes (typically 16´16 and 32´32). Microbolometer type uncooled
infrared detectors have shown impressive developments in recent years. They are
more expensive than thermopiles, however, much cheaper than cooled photon de-
tectors, while approaching to their performances. Currently, there are microbol-
ometer infrared cameras in the market with array sizes of 320´240, pixel sizes of
25 lm´25 lm, and NETD values smaller than 30 mK. There are also 640´480
format microbolometer array demonstrations with NETD values smaller than
50 mK. Efforts are continuing to reduce the prices of uncooled infrared detectors
to widen their use in many commercial applications. CMOS-based thermal con-
verters are used for true root mean square (RMS) voltage and ac signal measure-

  

Source: Akin, Tayfun - Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Middle East Technical University

 

Collections: Engineering