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he importance of rivers and streams for fresh water, food, and recreation is well
 

Summary: 636
T
he importance of rivers and streams for
fresh water, food, and recreation is well
known, yet there is increasing evidence
that degradation of running waters is at an all-
time high (1). More than one-third of the
rivers in the United States are listed as
impaired or polluted (2), and freshwater
withdrawals in some regions are so extreme
that some major rivers no longer flow to the
sea year round (3). Extinction rates of fresh-
water fauna are five times that for terrestrial
biota (4, 5). Fortunately, stream and river
restoration can lead to species recovery,
improved inland and coastal water quality,
and new areas for wildlife habitat and recre-
ational activities (611).
River restoration has become a highly
profitable business (12, 13) and will play an

  

Source: Allan, David - School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan
Palmer, Margaret A. - Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, Center for Environmental Science, University of Maryland

 

Collections: Environmental Sciences and Ecology