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ynapses conduct signals between neurons in an ever-changing manner. The effect of a signal
 

Summary: S
ynapses conduct signals between neurons in an
ever-changing manner. The effect of a signal
transmitted synaptically from one neuron to
another can vary enormously, depending on the
recenthistoryofactivityateitherorbothsidesof
the synapse, and such variations can last from milliseconds
to months. Activity-dependent changes in synaptic trans-
mission arise from a large number of mechanisms known
collectively as synaptic plasticity. Synaptic plasticity can be
divided into three broad categories: (1) long-term plasticity,
involving changes that last for hours or longer, is thought to
underpinlearningandmemory13
;(2)homeostaticplasticity
ofbothsynapsesandneuronsallowsneuralcircuitstomain-
tain appropriate levels of excitability and connectivity
despite changes brought about by protein turnover and
experience-dependentplasticity46
;(3)short-termplasticity,
which is the main focus of this review, occurs over

  

Source: Abbott, Laurence - Center for Neurobiology and Behavior & Department of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, Columbia University

 

Collections: Biology and Medicine