2University of Southampton | Acknowledging knowledge. Anacademicguidetoreferencing
In this guide, we shall work through the processes and rulings that comprise the Modern Humanities
Research Association (MHRA) citation rules. As a result, you will be able to write correct in-text
citations and create corresponding references for bibliographies, relating to a wide range of
resources, including print, multi-media and electronic resources.
Please note that MHRA is only one type of referencing system. There are many others in use, and
different books and journals you read may use these instead. If you are in doubt of which system to
use, check with your supervisor.
1 What are references and bibliographies? 4
1.1 Why are they needed? 4
1.2 When should you include references? 4
1.3 What information is needed for citation and referencing? 4
1.4 Where is the information found? 4
2 Using the MHRA citation rules 5