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J. theor. Biol. (1999) 196, 163167 Article No. jtbi.1998.0828, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on

Summary: J. theor. Biol. (1999) 196, 163­167
Article No. jtbi.1998.0828, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on
0022­5193/99/002163 + 05 $30.00/0 7 1999 Academic Press
Arms Races, Conflict Costs and Evolutionary Dynamics
Dept of Theoretical Ecology, Ecology Building, University of Lund, S-223 62 Lund,
(Received on 22 June 1998, Accepted in revised form on 7 September 1998)
In conflicts and fights, the winner is often determined by the difference in resource-holding
potential, e.g. size, weaponry, strength (RHP). I model the evolution of RHP in a symmetric
game with continuous strategies. I show that there is a convergence stable ESS level of RHP
if the cost of the trait increases faster than linearly, and that this is the only solution if the
cost increases fast enough with RHP. Otherwise with slowly increasing cost, the solution is
a cyclically fluctuating level of RHP. It is also shown that if the cost increases linearly with
RHP, the only solution to the game is neutrally stable cycles, the amplitude determined by
the initial conditions. The cycles come about because in a population drawn into an arms
race of RHP, individuals after a while suffer costs so high that mutants with the lowest
possible armament level may invade.
7 1999 Aademic Press
Competition and fights are important determi-


Source: Agrell, Jep - Department of Ecology, Lunds Universitet


Collections: Environmental Sciences and Ecology