Summary: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 64 (2002) 481488
Acceleration of solar energetic particles:
the case of solar ares
Institute for Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, 15236 Penteli, Athens, Greece
Solar energetic particles are believed to originate from two di erent sources, solar ares and coronal mass ejections. These
two sources are the most energetic particle accelerators in the heliosphere, as they can accelerate electrons from 10 keV to a
few MeV and protons from a few MeV to a few GeV. In this contribution, we restrict our presentation to the case of solar ares,
by reviewing the key observations of solar energetic particles, as well as the theoretical acceleration models, such as wave
particle acceleration, DC electric ˙elds, and shock acceleration. Finally, we present a new theoretical approach connecting
the acceleration with the energy release during solar ares, which might lead to a global modeling of solar are energetics.
c 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Sun ares; Particle acceleration; MHD; Shock waves; Cellular automata
Solar energetic particles (SEP) play a major role in our
e orts to study fundamental processes in space plasmas.
As these particles often propagate to the near Earth space
they carry information, in their energy spectra and elemental