Summary: Electrode Models under Shape Deformation in
Electrical Impedance Tomography
Alistair Boyle and Andy Adler
Systems and Computer Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada
E-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) applies current and measures the
resulting voltage on the surface of a target. In biomedical applications, this current is applied,
and voltage is measured through electrodes attached to the surface. Electrode models represent
these connections in the reconstruction, but changes in the contact impedance or boundary
relative to the electrode area can introduce artifacts. Using difference imaging, the effects of
boundary deformation and contact impedance variation were investigated.
The Complete Electrode Model (CEM) was found to be affected by conformal deformations.
Contact impedance variability was found to be a significant source of artifacts in some cases.
In the context of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT), the effect of shape deformation on
electrode models is considered and it is shown that under certain conditions significant artifacts
can occur. The initial proofs of solution existence and uniqueness used a Continuum Model for
the electrodes, implying complete knowledge of all boundary data.[1, 2] More recently, models
allowing for regular gaps in the boundary data (Gap Model), or more physically realistic models
such as the Shunt Electrode Model (SEM) and Complete Electrode Model (CEM) have also
been utilized. The CEM adds a complex impedance for each electrode which models the metal