Summary: Interaction between multiple tunnels in soft ground
D.K. Koungelis & C.E. Augarde
School of Engineering, University of Durham, UK
The need for tunnel design and construction in urban
areas, mainly for transportation purposes, has in-
creased markedly in recent years, especially in
Europe. New tunnels are often required in close
proximity to existing tunnels and construction must
be carried out without damage either to the buildings
above the excavation or to subsurface infrastructure.
During the design stage it is therefore necessary to
predict possible interaction effects.
The surface settlements, S above a single tunnel
constructed in soft ground are usually assumed to
follow an inverted Gaussian curve, i.e.
max 2exp ixSS -= (1)
where Smax is the maximum settlement (over the tun-
nel axis), x is the orthogonal distance from the tunnel