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REVIEW ARTICLE Control of eye orientation: where does the brain's role end
 

Summary: REVIEW ARTICLE
Control of eye orientation: where does the brain's role end
and the muscle's begin?
Dora E. Angelaki1
and Bernhard J. M. Hess2
1
Department of Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
2
Department of Neurology, University Hospital Zurich, CH-8091 Zurich, Switzerland
Keywords: computation, eye movement, kinematics, modelling, motor control, pursuit, saccades, torsion, vestibuloocular re¯ex
Abstract
Our understanding of how the brain controls eye movements has bene®ted enormously from the comparison of neuronal activity with eye
movementsandthequanti®cationoftheserelationshipswithmathematicalmodels.Althoughtheseearlystudiesfocusedonhorizontaland
vertical eye movements, recent behavioural and modelling studies have illustrated the importance, but also the complexity, of extending
previousconclusionstotheproblemsofcontrollingeyeandheadorientationinthreedimensions(3-D).Animportantfacetinunderstanding
3-D eye orientation and movement has been the discovery of mobile, soft-tissue sheaths or `pulleys' in the orbit which might in¯uence the
pulling direction of extraocular muscles. Appropriately placed pulleys could generate the eye-position-dependent tilt of the ocular rotation
axes which are characteristic for eye movements which follow Listing's law. Based on such pulley models of the oculomotor plant it has
recentlybeenproposedthatasimpletwo-dimensional(2-D)neuralcontrollerwouldbesuf®cienttogeneratecorrect3-Deyeorientationand
movement. Incontrasttothis apparentsimpli®cation inoculomotorcontrol,multiple behaviouralobservations suggestthatthevisuo-motor

  

Source: Angelaki, Dora - Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University in St. Louis

 

Collections: Biology and Medicine