 
Summary: 12.7 Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates
In 2dimensions, we learnt polar coordinates which gave an easier
description of some curves.
Here, we introduce two coordinate systems in 3dimensions,
known as cylindrical coordinate system and spherical coordinate
system which give easier description of some surfaces.
In 2space, every point can be represented by two ways: one is in
rectangular coordinate system and other is in polar coordinate system. In
3space each point can be represented by three ways:
(i) rectangular coordinates
(ii) cylindrical coordinates and
(iii) spherical coordinates.
1
What are cylindrical coordinates?
2
A point P in 3space represented by
coordinates( Restriction:
0r and
0 2 <
), ,r z , where r,
