Summary: RICHARD J. ANDERSON, RUTH ANDERSON,
TAMMY VANDEGRIFT, STEVEN WOLFMAN, KEN YASUHARA
PROMOTING INTERACTION IN LARGE CLASSES
WITH COMPUTER-MEDIATED FEEDBACK
Abstract. Eliciting student participation in large college classes is difficult yet critical to learning. This
paper describes a design experiment with the Classroom Feedback System (CFS), a computer-mediated
feedback system for promoting class interaction. We delineate challenges to interaction based on successive
background and pilot studies. CFS addresses these challenges by enabling students to post annotations (e.g.,
MORE EXPLANATION) directly on lecture slides. The instructor sees the annotations in real time. Evidence
from a large lecture study shows that CFS enhances interaction by addressing challenges to interaction.
Student-instructor interaction is vital to student learning, but soliciting student feed-
back in large, university-level lecture classes is challenging. As universities serve
more students and face tighter resource constraints, these large lectures are likely to
persist, necessitating innovative approaches to large class challenges.
We designed the Classroom Feedback System (CFS) to address this problem.
Following design experiment methodology (Brown, 1992), we studied large classes
through observations. Based on these observations and existing literature, we identi-
fied key challenges to interaction. Next, we studied three successive pen-and-paper
and electronic prototypes of CFS in large classes, refining CFS's design and our list