H. Yoon, K. Y. Lee, and M. T. Liu, ``Performance Analyis of Multibuffered Packet Switching Networks
in Multiprocessor Systems'', IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 319 327, March
 B. Zhou and M. Atiquzzaman, ``Performance of Output Multibuffered Multistage Interconnection
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406, Jan. Feb. 1994.
The simulations have demonstrated that multistage blocking networks have the
unfortunate property that a sufficient concentration of references to one particular output (a
hotspot) can degrade the response of the network to all references, and not just those to the
hotspot link. The potential degradation is sufficient enough to cripple system performance.
Due to the increase in the contention at the hot link with an increase in the hotspot
probability, normalized cell delay increases significantly with an increase in the buffer size. A
significant linear increase in cell delay caused by an increase of buffer size can degrade the
performance of the MIN and hence override any potential throughput gain. Higher hot request
probability also contributes to a faster increase rate of cell delay.