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Cognitive Development 22 (2007) 142148 The executive demands of strategic reasoning are

Summary: Cognitive Development 22 (2007) 142148
The executive demands of strategic reasoning are
modified by the way in which children are prompted to
think about the task: Evidence from 3- to 4-year-olds
Daniel J. Carrolla,, Ian A. Apperlya, Kevin J. Riggsb
a School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT, UK
b London Metropolitan University, UK
We investigated a test of strategic reasoning (the Windows task) that in different studies has yielded
contrasting pictures of young children's executive abilities [Russell, J., Mauthner, N., Sharpe, S., & Tidswell,
Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 331349; Samuels, M. C., Brooks, P. J., & Frye, D. (1996). Strategic
game playing through the windows task. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14, 159172]. An
experiment with 52 three- to four-year-olds showed robust effects of different wordings for the prompts
used to ask children to respond, and found that a single exposure to the facilitating wording led to improved
performance on subsequent trials where the standard wording was used. This suggests that the effect of the
wording was to help children infer an appropriate basis for responding, and not to reduce the trial-by-trial
working memory or inhibitory demands of the task.
2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Executive function; Theory of mind; Metacognition; Inhibition; Strategic reasoning


Source: Apperly, Ian - School of Psychology, University of Birmingham


Collections: Biology and Medicine