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Kinematic Principles of Primate Rotational Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex II. Gravity-Dependent Modulation of Primary Eye Position

Summary: Kinematic Principles of Primate Rotational Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex
II. Gravity-Dependent Modulation of Primary Eye Position
Department of Neurology, University Hospital Zu¨rich, CH-8091 Zurich, Switzerland; and Department of Surgery
(Otolaryngology), University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson Mississippi 39216
Hess, Bernhard J. M. and Dora E. Angelaki. Kinematic principles tory degrees of freedom of the eyes. When the head is upright
of primate rotational vestibulo-ocular reflex. II. Gravity-dependent and stationary, all accessible eye positions have rotation axes
modulation of primary eye position. J. Neurophysiol. 78: 2203­ relative to a common reference that are confined to a single
2216, 1997. The kinematic constraints of three-dimensional eye posi- head-fixed plane (von Helmholtz 1867). Listing's law holds
tions were investigated in rhesus monkeys during passive head and
true not only for steady fixations of distant targets but also forbody rotations relative to gravity. We studied fast and slow phase
smooth pursuit eye movements and for saccade trajectoriescomponents of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) elicited by con-
independently of whether they are fixed-axis rotations or notstant-velocity yaw rotations and sinusoidal oscillations about an earth-
(Ferman et al. 1987a,b; Haslwanter et al. 1991; Minken ethorizontal axis. We found that the spatial orientation of both fast and
slow phase eye positions could be described locally by a planar al. 1993; Tweed and Vilis 1990; Tweed et al. 1992; Van
surface with torsional variation of ő2.0 { 0.4 (displacement planes) Opstal et al. 1991).
that systematically rotated and/or shifted relative to Listing's plane. Most of the previous work on Listing's law has focused
In supine/prone positions, displacement planes pitched forward/ on oculomotor paradigms with the head stationary and up-
backward; in left/right ear-down positions, displacement planes were
right. Only recently have investigators begun to look at someparallel shifted along the positive/negative torsional axis. Dynami-


Source: Angelaki, Dora - Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University in St. Louis


Collections: Biology and Medicine