Summary: Surface Science 450 (2000) 5163
Kinetic lattice Monte Carlo simulation of facet growth rate
Zhiyong Wang a,*, Youhong Li b, James B. Adams a,b
a Science and Engineering of Materials Program, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1704, USA
b Department of Chemical, Bio and Materials Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6006, USA
Received 7 May 1999; accepted for publication 7 October 1999
We present a kinetic lattice Monte Carlo simulation model that describes deposition, surface self-diffusion (including
single adatom, dimer and ledge adatom diffusion), nucleation and film growth on fcc metal substrates. The activation
energies for diffusion are calculated using the embedded-atom method. Using this model, we determine the relative
growth rates of (100), (110) and (111) facets as a function of substrate temperature, deposition rate and facet size.
The effects of relative growth rates on the microstructural evolution of Cu films are discussed. © 2000 Elsevier Science
B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Adatoms; Copper; Diffusion and migration; Growth; Metallic films; Models of surface kinetics; Monte Carlo simulations;
1. Introduction oriented grains are frequently observed [2,3].
Experiments by Ryu et al. have shown that the
electromigration lifetime of (111)-textured CuAs devices are scaled down to submicrometer
dimensions, switching speed and power consump- films is about four times longer than that of (100)-