Summary: "Smoking Cessation Interventions and Program Availability for Drug and Alcohol
Addicted Low Income Populations in Substance Abuse Treatment"
The prevalence of smoking among individuals seeking treatment for a co-
occurring substance abuse condition is very high, between 70%-95% (Burling &
Ziff, 1988; Fiore et al., 2000; Kozlowski et al., 1986; McCarthy et al., 2002).
However, many drug treatment facilities do not encourage smoking cessation
during treatment, even though patients often show interest in quitting smoking.
Research finds that not only are low income people more likely to smoke, but the
resources for smoking cessation may not be as accessible as those who have a
higher income (Novotny & Giovino, 1998; MMRW, November 9, 2007; Barbeau et
al., 2004; Honjo et al., 2006). Therefore, substance abuse treatment is a context
where evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for smoking might have the best chance
of reaching low-income smokers. Treating patient smoking concurrent with other
drugs is important since research demonstrates that addiction to nicotine may
cause changes in brain chemistry and structure which could trigger drug and
alcohol cravings, decreasing the chance of prolonged sobriety (Britt & McGehee,
2008; Yeh et al., 2007). The proposed project pursues two objectives related to
understanding the adoption, implementation, and sustainability (or conversely
discontinuation ) of EBTs for smoking in substance abuse treatment contexts. The
first aim examines longitudinally the availability of EBTs for smoking among those