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From Reactive to Proactive and Selective Control: Developing a Richer Model for Stopping

Summary: REVIEW
From Reactive to Proactive and Selective Control:
Developing a Richer Model for Stopping
Inappropriate Responses
Adam R. Aron
A better understanding of the neural systems underlying impulse control is important for psychiatry. Although most impulses are
motivational or emotional rather than motoric per se, it is research into the neural architecture of motor response control that has made the
focused on reactive control--that is, how subjects stop a response outright when instructed by a signal. It is argued that reactive paradigms
are limited as models of control relevant to psychiatry. Instead, a set of paradigms is advocated that begins to model proactive inhibitory
control--that is, how a subject prepares to stop an upcoming response tendency. Proactive inhibitory control is generated according to the
goals of the subject rather than by an external signal, and it can be selectively targeted at a particular response tendency. This may have
wider validity than reactive control as an experimental model for stopping inappropriate responses.
Key Words: Basal ganglia, cognitive control, executive function,
impulse control, prefrontal cortex, response inhibition, working
any psychiatric disorders involve problems with control-
ling urges. These problems include urges for movement
(as in Tourette syndrome and some forms of attention-


Source: Aron, Adam - Department of Psychology, University of California at San Diego


Collections: Biology and Medicine