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Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 33 (2003) 11551164 www.elsevier.com/locate/ibmb

Summary: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 33 (2003) 11551164
Proventriculus (cardia) plays a crucial role in immunity in tsetse
fly (Diptera: Glossinidiae)
Zhengrong Hao, Irene Kasumba, Serap Aksoy
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Section of Vector Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510 USA
Received 6 March 2003; accepted 24 July 2003
Fat body and hemocytes play a central role in cellular and humoral responses for systemic infections in invertebrates, similar to
the mammalian liver and blood cells. Epithelial surfaces, in particular the midgut, participate in the initial local immune responses
in order to aid in the generation of the terminal cytotoxic molecules that mediate non-self recognition. Here, we describe for the
first time the immune responses of a cluster of cells at the foregut/midgut junction--known as proventriculus (cardia) in the medically
and agriculturally important insect, tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae). We provide evidence for the transcriptional induction of the
antimicrobial peptides attacin and defensin as well as for the reactive nitrogen intermediate (RNI) nitric oxide synthase (NOS) upon
microbial challenge by either microinjection or feeding. Proventriculus from immune challenged flies also has higher NOS and
nitric oxide (NO) activities as well as increased levels of the reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In
several vector pathogen systems, including tsetse flies and African trypanosomes, stimulation of systemic responses prior to pathogen
acquisition has been shown to reduce disease transmission. Furthermore, the induction of systemic immune responses has been
documented while pathogens are still differentiating within the midgut environment. While evidence for a close molecular communi-
cation between the local and systemic responses is accumulating, the molecular signals that mediate these interactions are at present


Source: Aksoy, Serap - School of Public Health, Yale University


Collections: Biology and Medicine