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Fast, accurate categorization is fundamental to survival (Ashby & Maddox, 1998). Whenever we define an object
 

Summary: Fast, accurate categorization is fundamental to survival
(Ashby & Maddox, 1998). Whenever we define an object
as a "kind" of thing, we are categorizing. In keeping with its
important role in perception and cognition, several power-
ful theories have been proposed and model-based instan-
tiations developed to predict categorization performance.
These include, among others, prototype (Anderson, 1991;
Homa, Dunbar, & Nohre, 1991; Reed, 1972), exemplar
(see Estes, 1994, and Nosofsky, 1992, for reviews), and
decision bound models (e.g., Ashby, 1992a; Ashby &
Maddox, 1993, 1998; Maddox, 1995; Maddox & Ashby,
1993). Nearly all these models focus exclusively on cate-
gorization accuracy as the dependent variable.
Although categorization accuracy provides important
information about the process of categorization, the ob-
server's response time (RT) often provides a richer source
of information. For example, an observer might respond
with the same accuracy level for two category exemplars,
but with different RT distributions (e.g., Laming, 1968;
Luce, 1986; Welford, 1968). To date, few rigorous theories

  

Source: Ashby, F. Gregory - Department of Psychology, University of California at Santa Barbara

 

Collections: Biology and Medicine; Computer Technologies and Information Sciences