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Received 5 February 2002 Accepted 19 February 2002

Summary: Received 5 February 2002
Accepted 19 February 2002
Published online 7 May 2002
Age-speci c survival and reproductive
probabilities: evidence for senescence in male
fallow deer (Dama dama)
Alan G. McElligott1*
, Res Altwegg1
and Thomas J. Hayden2
Zoological Institute, University of Zu¨rich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zu¨rich, Switzerland
Mammal Research Group, Department of Zoology, University College Dublin, Bel eld, Dublin 4, Republic of Ireland
Survival and reproduction are key features in the evolution of life-history strategies. In this study, we use
capture­mark­resighting and multi-state models to examine survival senescence and reproductive sen-
escence in six successive cohorts of fallow bucks that were studied for 16 years. We found that the overall
age-speci c survival probabilities of males were highly variable and the best- tting model revealed that
fallow bucks have four life-history stages: yearling, pre-reproductive, prime-age and senescent. Pre-
reproductive males (2 and 3 years old) had the highest survival. Survival declined sharply after the age
of 9 years, indicating that senescence had begun. When we considered reproducing and non-reproducing


Source: Altwegg, Res - Avian Demography Unit, Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Cape Town
Nottingham, University of - School of Biology, Behaviour and Ecology Group


Collections: Biology and Medicine; Environmental Sciences and Ecology