Summary: Sand dune dynamics and climate change: A modeling
and H. Tsoar2
Received 19 August 2008; revised 3 November 2008; accepted 12 December 2008; published 24 February 2009.
 We provide several examples for the coexistence of active and fixed sand dunes under
similar climatic conditions, namely, with respect to wind power and precipitation rate. A
model is developed for dune vegetation cover that includes wind power, precipitation
rate, and anthropogenic effects, such as grazing and wood gathering. The model
reproduces the observed dune's bistability and shows that under intense human pressure
and prolonged droughts the fixed dunes may turn active. Moreover, the model shows that
the dune reactivation process is almost irreversible, as a fixed dune will become active
only under the action of very strong winds and can then return to the fixed state only when
wind power decreases far below the levels under which the initial dune maintained its
stability. Similar hysteretic behavior of dune mobility is predicted by the model with
respect to changing precipitation and human pressure parameters.
Citation: Yizhaq, H., Y. Ashkenazy, and H. Tsoar (2009), Sand dune dynamics and climate change: A modeling approach,
J. Geophys. Res., 114, F01023, doi:10.1029/2008JF001138.