Richard P. Paul, Craig P. Sayers, Julie A. Adams
General Robotics and Active Sensory Perception Laboratory
The University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA 19104, U.S.A.
A distinguishing feature of teleoperation is that,
given time, tasks are generally successfully completed.
Robotic systems are now being developed that achieve
the same level of reliability by keeping the operator
\in the loop" at an appropriate level of interaction
during task execution. While the operator may start
out at the highest level in specifying a task, he or she
may soon nd it necessary to interact at much lower
levels. The operator moves between levels as appro-
priate. We might call these robots \operabots" and
the system which allows an operator to successfully
complete every task that is attempted \operabotics."
This paper introduces the \operabotics" paradigm
and provides a brief overview of two speci c imple-
mentations. In developingthese systems the emphasis