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IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 46, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2011 1
A Broadband mm-Wave and Terahertz
Traveling-Wave Frequency Multiplier
Omeed Momeni, Student Member, IEEE, and Ehsan Afshari, Member, IEEE
Abstract--A wideband frequency multiplier that effectively gen-
erates and combines the even harmonics from multiple transistors
is proposed. It takes advantage of standing-wave formation and
loss cancellation in a distributed structure to generate high ampli-
tude signals resulting in high harmonic power. Wide bandwidth
operation and odd harmonic cancellation around the center fre-
quency are the inherent properties of this frequency multiplier.
Using this methodology, we implemented a frequency doubler that
operates from 220 GHz to 275 GHz in a standard 65 nm CMOS
process. Output power of 6.6 dBm (0.22 mW) and conversion
loss of 11.4 dB are measured at 244 GHz.
Index Terms--CMOS, frequency doubler, frequency multiplier,
harmonic generation, high power source, loss cancellation, mil-
limeter-wave, negative impedance, nonlinearity, standing wave,