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ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, 2000, 60, 145164 doi:10.1006/anbe.2000.1446, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on

Summary: ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, 2000, 60, 145­164
doi:10.1006/anbe.2000.1446, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on
The evolution of polyandry: multiple mating and female fitness in
Animal Ecology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, University of Umea°
(Received 25 November 1999; initial acceptance 12 January 2000;
final acceptance 29 February 2000; MS. number: RV-16)
Theory suggests that male fitness generally increases steadily with mating rate, while one or a few matings
are sufficient for females to maximize their reproductive success. Contrary to these predictions, however,
females of the majority of insects mate multiply. We performed a meta-analysis of 122 experimental
studies addressing the direct effects of multiple mating on female fitness in insects. Our results clearly
show that females gain directly from multiple matings in terms of increased lifetime offspring produc-
tion. Despite a negative effect of remating on female longevity in species without nuptial feeding, the
positive effects (increased egg production rate and fertility) more than outweigh this negative effect for
moderate mating rates. The average direct net fitness gain of multiple mating was as high as 30­70%.
Therefore, the evolutionary maintenance of polyandry in insects can be understood solely in terms of
direct effects. However, our results also strongly support the existence of an intermediate optimal female
mating rate, beyond which a further elevated mating rate is deleterious. The existence of such optima


Source: Arnqvist, Göran - Department of Animal Ecology, Uppsala Universitet


Collections: Environmental Sciences and Ecology